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1 (de) vizualizări12 paginiFast ship Non linear theory

Sep 28, 2016

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Fast ship Non linear theory

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Fast ship Non linear theory

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Second Assignment

Yueming Sang

Ratnakar Gadi

September 20, 2016

Contents

1 Characterisctics of Non-linear System

4 Operability in Sea

5 Operability in experiments

10

response to simple inputs.This is no longer valid with the non-linear systems.To

explain in detail,its implications,we need to understand what happens with the

linear system.When,we have a sea state,it is safe to assume that it is a linear

superposition of many regular waves.To find the response of the vessel to such a

sea state,we can find the individual responses of the vessel to each such regular

system and sum them up.This is true because in linear theory,the response of

a system to summed complex input is the same as the summation of responses

to each component of the summed complex input.

Once we determine the transfer function for the system(defined in the figure

above),we can find the response of the system to any input by just multiplying the system with the transfer function.Then,we can sum up the responses as

mentioned above.

But,when the system is non-linear,the linear superposition is no longer valid

and also the definition of transfer function is not valid.

In non linear theory,the response,the velocities and the accelerations are

no longer proportional to the wave height.This implies that as explained in

previous section,there is no transfer function.Thus,the equations of motion

are to be solved in time domain and this requires a huge computational

effort.

There is a large change in reference position.This has to do with the balancing of the weight and buoyancy(as lift is produced at high speeds).The

response is particularly sensitive to the reference position.

Hydrodynamic lift is produced at speeds.When,finding the froude krylov

force(obtained by the integration of pressure over the wetted hull sur1

motions).Thus,a non-linear froude krylov force is produced on the hull.

A large variations are produced in the dimensions(wetted length and wetted beam,etc) of the hull.This would produce large differences in many

physical parameters(added mass for varying wetted beam).

We will explain the procedure for how the response of the vessel is evaluated

using the linear theory.An irregular sea state can be considered as the superposition of large number of regular waves.We define a transfer function as the

output produced by a system for a unit input.This transfer function is an constant for an amplitude and changes with frequency.We provide a sample plot of

transfer functions(Response Amplitude Operator) below:

ship is translating) or the wave spectral density(if the ship is stationary) is

multiplied with the square of the Response amplitude operator to find the response spectral density at that frequency.Thus,carrying out the operation for

each frequency,we get the response spectrum,from which we can determine the

statistical parameters.The whole analysis is done in frequency domain and using

the spectrum.

When,we have non linearities,though still the irregular sea state is a linear superposition of many regular sea states,the response to a complex input is no

longer the same as the linear superposition of response to each component of

the complex input.Thus,the spectral approach is no longer valid.The whole nonlinear equations of motion have to be solved in the time-domain,making it more

computationally expensive.

In non-linear theory,the wave time trace is constructed from the wave spec-

trum.This is done by dividing the wave spectrum into bins of discrete frequency.Then using the central frequency,the spectral density associated is calculated by equating the energies.From the spectral density,the amplitude can

be computed.To get the wave number associated with the frequency,use of the

dispersion relation is used.Mathematically,we get:

(x, t) =

N

X

i cos(i t + kxi + i )

(1)

i=1

where

Variable

i

i

k

i

Meaning

Wave elevation as function of x,t

wave amplitude predicted from equating energies

central frequency of associated bin

wave number predicted from dispersion relation

phase angle from the random phase generator

find the motion of the vessel to the irregular sea state.The sinkage and trim

effects associated with the motion are incorporated with expressions(motions

are sensitive to reference locations).

Operability in Sea

the extreme response rather than extrapolation of response predicted from linear

theory(the peak value is assumed to be twice the significant value).This implies

that the large relative motions of the craft with respect to the water surface

elevation have to be taken into account.The wave environment present can be

obtained from the scatter diagram which provides the relation between wave

height,wave period and the number of occurences of the combination.For,each

of the wave period and wave height,using the PM spectrum formulation,an wave

spectrum can be generated.

In the linear theory,we use the standard spectral approach to find the transfer

function and then from the transfer function,find the resulting response.Once,the

response is predicted,the significant value is calculated from the response spectrum.The maximum response is assumed to be twice the significant value(wave

heights are rayleigh distributed) and the criteria is checked for each and every

combination of the scatter diagram.Then,the total number of times the criterion

is met can be expressed as a percentage.

In non-linear theory,spectral approach cannot be used.The wave spectrum is

decomposed into its components whose amplitude is calculated by dividing the

spectrum into frequency bins and then equating energies of the discrete frequency to the frequency with the associated bin.Once,the amplitude is predicted,the dispersion relation is used to find the wave number and thus the

distribution of wave elevation and the wave number along the length of the vessel.Then,the response is calculated by using the non-linear time domain mathematical model where the simulation run should have atleast 600-700 wave encounters to predict the response peaks with some statistical reliability.Then a

3

to be made in order to calculate the percentage of exceedance for given criterion

limit.

Operability in experiments

towing tank by carrying out tests in two irregular wave conditions at full scale

design speed of the craft:

Hs = 1.26m, Tp = 5.3s, a condition frequently encountered in North Sea

Hs = 2.95m, Tp = 8.4m, a condition exceeded only 5% of the time in

North Sea

The values have been taken from paper Further design and seakeeping investigations inot Enlarged Ship Concept by Jacob Pinkster and J.A.Kuening,Report

1090-P,March 1997 presented at Fourth International Conference on Fast Sea

Transportation FAST97.The minimum wave runs are expected to be greater

than 500 for statistical reliability. We need to check whether the design is well

made so that the vertical accelerations are lower than the standards for conditions mostly experienced in sea state and the whether the operability is high or

not(ensured by checking the second condition).

The Resistance,Trim and Sinkage of Fast ship should all be treated as a function

of deadrise with the increasing speed as shown below.

Method

frictional resistance(Rf ) and residuary resistance(Rr ):

R = Rf + Rr

(2)

Rf =

1

SV 2 Cf

2

(3)

where:

S

V

Cf

wetted surface area of the ship

velocity of the ship

frictional resistance co-efficient calculated using 1957 ITTC line

Cf =

0.075

(log(Rn ) 2)2

(4)

are wave making resistance,spray drag,wave breaking resistance.They are many

empirical relations that can be used to calculate these quantities.

In Savitskys method for resistance estimation of the planing hull,the total resistance is the summation of the frictional resistance as predicted from the formula

stated in (3) and the hydrodynamic lift component.

R=

1

2

2 SV Cf

cos cos

+ tan

(5)

where is the deadrise angle, is the weight of the craft and is the trim angle

of the craft.

As we can see,the two methods differ in the components used to sum up in the

resistance.The Savitskys method misses the residuary component.Thus,the savistsky method cannot be applied in the pre-planning regime,where the residuary

resistance is not negligible.

were tested.The dependence of the resistance on the deadrise was represented

in these tests.The rise of the center of gravity and trim were also considered

important.

The parent model was that of similar to the clement and bount.To keep the

design as same as possible,the following parameters were kept the same:

The length of the chine

5

maximum breadth over the chine and the vertical projection of the chine

the keel line

transom slope

length of prismatic part of the hull

various models were made from the parent model for a deadrise with different

Lp /Bp ratio.The models were made of GRP,had spray strips and enabled hull

photography.The pivoting point of the carriage was at the intersection of the

shaft line and the cross section at LCG.A strain guage dynamometer was used

for measuring the resistance along with 2 wire over potentiometers for measuring

the heave and pitch motion.

For every Lp /Bp ,Ap /2/3 and LCG,the following were listed as function of

forward speed:

total resistance of the model(Rt m)

wetted length over keel(Lk )

wetted length over chine(Lc )

trim angle()

rise of center of gravity

Polynomial expressions were formulated to approximate the total resistance,rise

of center of gravity and trim angle.These expressions are dependent on Lp /Bp ,the

loading co-efficient(Ap /2/3 ) and the longitudinal center of gravity(LCG) and

fitted to seperate datasets for every dearise and F n combination.The reason

why the resistance formulations were not divided into components is because

that would have effected the accuracy of resistance prediction.The polynomials

have the following form:

Rt/, , RCG/1/3 = a0 + a1

+ a6

Lp 3

Ap

Lp 2

Ap 2

Lp

+ a2

+ a3

+ a4 2/3 + a5 2/3

Bp

Bp

Bp

Ap 3

Ap

Lp Ap

+ a7 LCG + a8 LCG2 + a9 LCG3 + a10 LCG 2/3 + a11

Bp 2/3

2/3

Lp

+ a12 LCG

(6)

Bp

seas

The pressure distribution around the hull changes with respect to hydrostatic

pressure with the forward speed of the hull.In case of normal ship,upto Fn of 0.3

to 0.4,the water beneath the hull is pushed faster than the water far away from

the hull,thus causing low pressure below the hull making the centre of gravity to

move down(sinkage),not significant at low speeds.But,with the increase in the

speed,the lift is produced on the hull,thus causing rise in centre of gravity along

with bow up(high pressure at the bow).This cannot be considered as insignificant,in particular with hard chined hulls.The stationary heave and pitch motion

are neglected in the linear wave theory(ship is always placed at zero speed reference position independent of forward speed).The existence of dynamic lift force

and moment can no longer be neglected but have to be incorporated in the

equations of motion.Clement and Bount have performed tests to establish the

effect of the sinkage(static heave) and trim(static pitch) over the speed range as

shown below:

As we can see that at volumetric froude number,F n = 3,only 40% of the weight

was being carried by the buoyancy and 60% was being carried by the dynamic

lift.The dynamic lift(static heave) and moment(static pitch) along with deadrise

and wave steepness(This was demonstrated by Fridsma and Van Boosch) are

responsible for non-linear behaviour of the fast ships in head waves.The plot of

non dimensional pitch motion with running trim angle included is shown below

with the ship length/wavelength ratio.

lift,change in reference position,irregularities of the wave and the dependence

of exciting and reacting forces on the large relative motions effect the relative

vertical motion which shows a highly non-linear character.

10

Deadrise angle has a lot of influence on the non-linear behaviour(especially

for two deadrise angle models.

to deadrise angle of 25deg.So,it can be seen that the lower deadrise angles produce a large non-linear behaviour corresponding to the higher

deadrise angle.So,increasing the deadrise can reduce significantly the nonlinearities,though this will have a penalty on the calm water resistance.

The froude number can be reduced if some non-linearities/peaks are produced.

11

can be interpreted as the condition where the vessel is statically overpowered by

wave yaw moment which cannot be counteracted by rudder,even when placed

at rudder angle which produces the maximum lift.Broaching results from directional loss of stability.It is induced by the waves or sometimes by the inadvertent

motion of the rudder.It is an event in which craft is suddenly and unintentionally

turned broadside to the wave.It generally occurs in the following and stern quartering seas,when waves which are sufficiently steep,when the craft runs down the

bow of the wave and buries its bow in the next wave crest.This reduces the speed

of the craft and an overtaking wave lifts the stern high,further burying the bow

and thus causing the stern to break,thus overtaking the fore-body.This leads to

dangerous outward heel when the hull is turning around on the down slope of

the wave.

This may cause the hull to capsize.If explained in detail,they are three phases

associated and not every vessel reaches the state of broaching.If the wave is

not really steep,at following seas,the vessel reaches to the state of surf-riding(it

typifies the entrapment of the craft in the trough of the large wave and prolonged operation at close to zero encounter frequency).This causes the boat to

change in heading and after a heading angle reaches a state of periodic surge

motion.But,if the waves become steeper and steeper,the state of periodic motion is lost and after surf-riding upto a particular heading angle,the broaching

phenomenon occurs.This is explained in detail in Dynamic Instability in Quartering Seas: The Behaviour of a ship during broaching,by K.J.Spyrou,Journal

of Ship Research,Vol. 40,No. 1,March 1996,pp. 46-59.

10

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