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Hydromechanics of Special Ship Types

Second Assignment
Yueming Sang
Ratnakar Gadi
September 20, 2016

1 Characterisctics of Non-linear System

2 Differences between linear and non-linear behaviour

3 Irregular Sea State response analysis

4 Operability in Sea

5 Operability in experiments

6 Behaviour of Fast Ship in calm water

7 Classical calm water resistance and Savitsky Method

8 Delft Systematic Deadrise Series

9 Non-Linear Behaviour of Fast Ships in head seas

10 Methods to reduce the non-linearities

11 Broaching in Following Waves


Characterisctics of Non-linear System

In linear theory,response to a complex input is a linear superposition of the

response to simple inputs.This is no longer valid with the non-linear systems.To
explain in detail,its implications,we need to understand what happens with the
linear system.When,we have a sea state,it is safe to assume that it is a linear
superposition of many regular waves.To find the response of the vessel to such a
sea state,we can find the individual responses of the vessel to each such regular
system and sum them up.This is true because in linear theory,the response of
a system to summed complex input is the same as the summation of responses
to each component of the summed complex input.

Once we determine the transfer function for the system(defined in the figure
above),we can find the response of the system to any input by just multiplying the system with the transfer function.Then,we can sum up the responses as
mentioned above.
But,when the system is non-linear,the linear superposition is no longer valid
and also the definition of transfer function is not valid.

Differences between linear and non-linear behaviour

In non linear theory,the response,the velocities and the accelerations are
no longer proportional to the wave height.This implies that as explained in
previous section,there is no transfer function.Thus,the equations of motion
are to be solved in time domain and this requires a huge computational
There is a large change in reference position.This has to do with the balancing of the weight and buoyancy(as lift is produced at high speeds).The
response is particularly sensitive to the reference position.
Hydrodynamic lift is produced at speeds.When,finding the froude krylov
force(obtained by the integration of pressure over the wetted hull sur1

face),we can no longer assume the linearized pressure distribution(large

motions).Thus,a non-linear froude krylov force is produced on the hull.
A large variations are produced in the dimensions(wetted length and wetted beam,etc) of the hull.This would produce large differences in many
physical parameters(added mass for varying wetted beam).

Irregular Sea State response analysis

We will explain the procedure for how the response of the vessel is evaluated
using the linear theory.An irregular sea state can be considered as the superposition of large number of regular waves.We define a transfer function as the
output produced by a system for a unit input.This transfer function is an constant for an amplitude and changes with frequency.We provide a sample plot of
transfer functions(Response Amplitude Operator) below:

Now,at each frequency respectively,the encounter wave spectral density(if the

ship is translating) or the wave spectral density(if the ship is stationary) is
multiplied with the square of the Response amplitude operator to find the response spectral density at that frequency.Thus,carrying out the operation for
each frequency,we get the response spectrum,from which we can determine the
statistical parameters.The whole analysis is done in frequency domain and using
the spectrum.
When,we have non linearities,though still the irregular sea state is a linear superposition of many regular sea states,the response to a complex input is no
longer the same as the linear superposition of response to each component of
the complex input.Thus,the spectral approach is no longer valid.The whole nonlinear equations of motion have to be solved in the time-domain,making it more
computationally expensive.
In non-linear theory,the wave time trace is constructed from the wave spec-

trum.This is done by dividing the wave spectrum into bins of discrete frequency.Then using the central frequency,the spectral density associated is calculated by equating the energies.From the spectral density,the amplitude can
be computed.To get the wave number associated with the frequency,use of the
dispersion relation is used.Mathematically,we get:
(x, t) =


i cos(i t + kxi + i )





Wave elevation as function of x,t
wave amplitude predicted from equating energies
central frequency of associated bin
wave number predicted from dispersion relation
phase angle from the random phase generator

Then,this input may be incorporated into time domain mathematical model to

find the motion of the vessel to the irregular sea state.The sinkage and trim
effects associated with the motion are incorporated with expressions(motions
are sensitive to reference locations).

Operability in Sea

In accessing the operability of high speed crafts,one is interested in predicting

the extreme response rather than extrapolation of response predicted from linear
theory(the peak value is assumed to be twice the significant value).This implies
that the large relative motions of the craft with respect to the water surface
elevation have to be taken into account.The wave environment present can be
obtained from the scatter diagram which provides the relation between wave
height,wave period and the number of occurences of the combination.For,each
of the wave period and wave height,using the PM spectrum formulation,an wave
spectrum can be generated.
In the linear theory,we use the standard spectral approach to find the transfer
function and then from the transfer function,find the resulting response.Once,the
response is predicted,the significant value is calculated from the response spectrum.The maximum response is assumed to be twice the significant value(wave
heights are rayleigh distributed) and the criteria is checked for each and every
combination of the scatter diagram.Then,the total number of times the criterion
is met can be expressed as a percentage.
In non-linear theory,spectral approach cannot be used.The wave spectrum is
decomposed into its components whose amplitude is calculated by dividing the
spectrum into frequency bins and then equating energies of the discrete frequency to the frequency with the associated bin.Once,the amplitude is predicted,the dispersion relation is used to find the wave number and thus the
distribution of wave elevation and the wave number along the length of the vessel.Then,the response is calculated by using the non-linear time domain mathematical model where the simulation run should have atleast 600-700 wave encounters to predict the response peaks with some statistical reliability.Then a

distribution of the response amplitudes(vertical acceleration for example) has

to be made in order to calculate the percentage of exceedance for given criterion

Operability in experiments

The operability behaviour as explained in the previous section can be tested in

towing tank by carrying out tests in two irregular wave conditions at full scale
design speed of the craft:
Hs = 1.26m, Tp = 5.3s, a condition frequently encountered in North Sea
Hs = 2.95m, Tp = 8.4m, a condition exceeded only 5% of the time in
North Sea
The values have been taken from paper Further design and seakeeping investigations inot Enlarged Ship Concept by Jacob Pinkster and J.A.Kuening,Report
1090-P,March 1997 presented at Fourth International Conference on Fast Sea
Transportation FAST97.The minimum wave runs are expected to be greater
than 500 for statistical reliability. We need to check whether the design is well
made so that the vertical accelerations are lower than the standards for conditions mostly experienced in sea state and the whether the operability is high or
not(ensured by checking the second condition).

Behaviour of Fast Ship in calm water

The Resistance,Trim and Sinkage of Fast ship should all be treated as a function
of deadrise with the increasing speed as shown below.

Classical calm water resistance and Savitsky


In ship hydro-mechanics,the total calm water resistance is the summation of

frictional resistance(Rf ) and residuary resistance(Rr ):
R = Rf + Rr


The frictional resistance is calculated using the following formula:

Rf =

SV 2 Cf




density of sea water

wetted surface area of the ship
velocity of the ship
frictional resistance co-efficient calculated using 1957 ITTC line

The ITTC friction line is used to calculate Cf :

Cf =

(log(Rn ) 2)2


where Rn is the reynolds number.The main components of residuary resistance

are wave making resistance,spray drag,wave breaking resistance.They are many
empirical relations that can be used to calculate these quantities.
In Savitskys method for resistance estimation of the planing hull,the total resistance is the summation of the frictional resistance as predicted from the formula
stated in (3) and the hydrodynamic lift component.

2 SV Cf

cos cos

+ tan


where is the deadrise angle, is the weight of the craft and is the trim angle
of the craft.
As we can see,the two methods differ in the components used to sum up in the
resistance.The Savitskys method misses the residuary component.Thus,the savistsky method cannot be applied in the pre-planning regime,where the residuary
resistance is not negligible.

Delft Systematic Deadrise Series

In the delft systematic deadrise series,models with deadrise angles 25 and 30

were tested.The dependence of the resistance on the deadrise was represented
in these tests.The rise of the center of gravity and trim were also considered
The parent model was that of similar to the clement and bount.To keep the
design as same as possible,the following parameters were kept the same:
The length of the chine

maximum breadth over the chine and the vertical projection of the chine
the keel line
transom slope
length of prismatic part of the hull
various models were made from the parent model for a deadrise with different
Lp /Bp ratio.The models were made of GRP,had spray strips and enabled hull
photography.The pivoting point of the carriage was at the intersection of the
shaft line and the cross section at LCG.A strain guage dynamometer was used
for measuring the resistance along with 2 wire over potentiometers for measuring
the heave and pitch motion.
For every Lp /Bp ,Ap /2/3 and LCG,the following were listed as function of
forward speed:
total resistance of the model(Rt m)
wetted length over keel(Lk )
wetted length over chine(Lc )
trim angle()
rise of center of gravity
Polynomial expressions were formulated to approximate the total resistance,rise
of center of gravity and trim angle.These expressions are dependent on Lp /Bp ,the
loading co-efficient(Ap /2/3 ) and the longitudinal center of gravity(LCG) and
fitted to seperate datasets for every dearise and F n combination.The reason
why the resistance formulations were not divided into components is because
that would have effected the accuracy of resistance prediction.The polynomials
have the following form:
Rt/, , RCG/1/3 = a0 + a1
+ a6

Lp 3
Lp 2
Ap 2
+ a2
+ a3
+ a4 2/3 + a5 2/3

Ap 3
Lp Ap
+ a7 LCG + a8 LCG2 + a9 LCG3 + a10 LCG 2/3 + a11
Bp 2/3

+ a12 LCG

Non-Linear Behaviour of Fast Ships in head


The pressure distribution around the hull changes with respect to hydrostatic
pressure with the forward speed of the hull.In case of normal ship,upto Fn of 0.3
to 0.4,the water beneath the hull is pushed faster than the water far away from
the hull,thus causing low pressure below the hull making the centre of gravity to
move down(sinkage),not significant at low speeds.But,with the increase in the
speed,the lift is produced on the hull,thus causing rise in centre of gravity along

with bow up(high pressure at the bow).This cannot be considered as insignificant,in particular with hard chined hulls.The stationary heave and pitch motion
are neglected in the linear wave theory(ship is always placed at zero speed reference position independent of forward speed).The existence of dynamic lift force
and moment can no longer be neglected but have to be incorporated in the
equations of motion.Clement and Bount have performed tests to establish the
effect of the sinkage(static heave) and trim(static pitch) over the speed range as
shown below:

As we can see that at volumetric froude number,F n = 3,only 40% of the weight
was being carried by the buoyancy and 60% was being carried by the dynamic
lift.The dynamic lift(static heave) and moment(static pitch) along with deadrise
and wave steepness(This was demonstrated by Fridsma and Van Boosch) are
responsible for non-linear behaviour of the fast ships in head waves.The plot of
non dimensional pitch motion with running trim angle included is shown below
with the ship length/wavelength ratio.

It maybe concluded that the proper implementation of effects of forward speed,dynamic

lift,change in reference position,irregularities of the wave and the dependence
of exciting and reacting forces on the large relative motions effect the relative
vertical motion which shows a highly non-linear character.


Methods to reduce the non-linearities

Some of the methods to reduce the non-linearities are:

Deadrise angle has a lot of influence on the non-linear behaviour(especially

relative motions).We provide the relative vertical accelerations at the bow

for two deadrise angle models.

Mod 84 corresponds to deadrise angle of 12.5deg and Mod 85 corresponds

to deadrise angle of 25deg.So,it can be seen that the lower deadrise angles produce a large non-linear behaviour corresponding to the higher
deadrise angle.So,increasing the deadrise can reduce significantly the nonlinearities,though this will have a penalty on the calm water resistance.
The froude number can be reduced if some non-linearities/peaks are produced.


Broaching in Following Waves

Broaching in a non-oscillatory instability caused by coupled yaw-roll motions.It

can be interpreted as the condition where the vessel is statically overpowered by
wave yaw moment which cannot be counteracted by rudder,even when placed
at rudder angle which produces the maximum lift.Broaching results from directional loss of stability.It is induced by the waves or sometimes by the inadvertent
motion of the rudder.It is an event in which craft is suddenly and unintentionally
turned broadside to the wave.It generally occurs in the following and stern quartering seas,when waves which are sufficiently steep,when the craft runs down the
bow of the wave and buries its bow in the next wave crest.This reduces the speed
of the craft and an overtaking wave lifts the stern high,further burying the bow
and thus causing the stern to break,thus overtaking the fore-body.This leads to
dangerous outward heel when the hull is turning around on the down slope of
the wave.
This may cause the hull to capsize.If explained in detail,they are three phases
associated and not every vessel reaches the state of broaching.If the wave is
not really steep,at following seas,the vessel reaches to the state of surf-riding(it
typifies the entrapment of the craft in the trough of the large wave and prolonged operation at close to zero encounter frequency).This causes the boat to
change in heading and after a heading angle reaches a state of periodic surge
motion.But,if the waves become steeper and steeper,the state of periodic motion is lost and after surf-riding upto a particular heading angle,the broaching
phenomenon occurs.This is explained in detail in Dynamic Instability in Quartering Seas: The Behaviour of a ship during broaching,by K.J.Spyrou,Journal
of Ship Research,Vol. 40,No. 1,March 1996,pp. 46-59.