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PTRT 2323- Natural Gas Production

Chapter 1:
Introduction to Natural Gas

What is Production?
Gaining
Access

Exploration

Transportation

Appraisal

Storage

Development

Processing

Production

Extraction

Once a well has been drilled and the presence of commercially viable quantities of
fossil fuel has been verified, the next step is actually lifting the natural gas out of
the ground and processing it for transportation.

What is Natural Gas?


Natural gas is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, with a minor amount of
inorganic compounds. It is an essential resource. It is invisible and odorless.
Natural gas, as it exists underground, is not exactly the same as the natural gas
that comes through the pipelines to our homes and businesses. Natural gas, as
we use it, is almost entirely methane. However, when we find natural gas
underground, it comes associated with a variety of other trace compounds and
gases, as well as oil and water, which must be removed. Natural gas transported
through pipelines must meet purity specifications to be allowed in, so most
natural gas processing occurs near the well.

General Properties of Natural Gas


The base of natural gas is methane (CH4), the simplest hydrocarbon (organic
compound consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms). Normally, it also
includes heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butane
(C4H10), and some non-hydrocarbon admixtures.
Natural gas can exist in the form of gas fields in formations of some rocks, as
gas caps (above crude oil), and in dissolved or crystalline forms.
Typical unpleasant smell is added to natural gas deliberately and is called
odorization. Sulfur compounds are usually used as odorants, i.e. substances
with unpleasant smells. Gas leaks can be easily identified exactly due to the
odorization.
The heating value of natural gas usually varies from 700 Btu/scf to 1,600
Btu/scf

Typical Composition of Natural Gas


Compound

Formula

Mole Fraction

Methane

CH4

0.8407

Ethane

C2H6

0.0586

Propane

C3H8

0.0220

i-Butane

C4H10

0.0035

n-Butane

C4H10

0.0058

i-Pentane

C5H12

0.0027

n-Pentane

C5H12

0.0025

Hexane

C6H14

0.0028

Heptanes and Heavier

>C6

0.0076

Carbon Dioxide

CO2

0.0130

Hydrogen Sulfide

H2S

0.0063

Nitrogen

N2

0.0345

Natural Gas Classification


The natural gases can be classified as conventional natural gas, gas in tight
sands, gas in tight shales, coal-bed methane, gas in geopressured reservoirs,
and gas in gas hydrates.

Conventional Natural Gas


Conventional natural gas is associated or non-associated gas or condensates

Unconventional Natural Gas


Gases in tight sands are found in many areas that contain formations generally
having permeability of 0.001 to 1 millidarcy (md). The largest portion of the gas
resource is found in the Green River Basin of Wyoming, the Piceance Basin of
Colorado, and the Unita Basin of Utah
Gases in tight shales are found in the eastern United States (Kentucky, Ohio,
Virginia, and West Virginia). Of these, eastern Kentucky and western West
Virginia are considered the most important.

Coal-bed methane is the methane gas in minable coal beds with depths
less than 3,000 ft. Although the estimated size of the resource base seems
significant, the recovery of this type of gas may be limited owing to practical
constraints
Geopressured reservoirs are found in many parts of the world trapped fluid
under clays the pressure and temperature of which exceed those normally
anticipated at reservoir. located predominantly both onshore and offshore in a
band along the Gulf of Mexico; In length, the band extends from Florida to Texas;
in width, it extends from about 100 miles inland to the edge of the continental
shelf
Gas hydrates, discovered in 1810, are snow-like solids in which each water
molecule forms hydrogen bonds with the four nearest water molecules to build
a crystalline lattice structure that traps gas molecules in its cavities. Gas hydrate
is a highly concentrated form of natural gas

Types of Wells and Natural Gas

Types of Wells

Types of Wells
Natural gas accumulations in geological traps can be classified as reservoir,
field, or pool.
A field is an area that consists of one or more reservoirs all related to the
same structural feature.
A pool contains one or more reservoirs in isolated structures.
Wells in the same field can be classified as gas wells, condensate wells, and
oil wells.
- Gas wells: producing gas-oil-ratio (GOR) > 100,000 scf/stb;
- Condensate wells: 5,000 < producing GOR < 100,000 scf/stb;
- Oil wells: producing GOR < 5,000 scf/stb

Well
OilOil
Wells

Condensate Well
5,000

Gas Wells
100,000

Types of Natural Gas


Natural gas is petroleum in a gaseous state, so it is always accompanied by
liquid petroleum. There are four types of conventional natural gases:
Non associated gas from gas wells (reservoirs with minimal oil)
Associated gas - (sometimes called gas-cap gas) is free gas in contact with the
crude oil gas dissolved in oil under natural conditions in oil reservoir
Dissolved gas - the portion of the gas dissolved in the crude oil; associated or
dissolved gas is found with crude oil; it is also called solution gas
Gas condensate - gas with high content of liquid hydrocarbon at reduced
pressures and temperatures; although they occur as gases in underground
reservoirs, they have a high content of hydrocarbon liquids. On production,
they may yield considerable quantities of hydrocarbon liquids
Gas condensate can be used to make both fuel and plastic. The main thing
is to stabilize it by removing unnecessary admixtures.
White oil is a transparent fluid, but color can change from straw to almond
due to oil admixtures depending on the depth from which it was
extracted. Gas condensate is sometimes called white oil and can be
used as fuel.

Uses of Natural Gas


Energy
Natural gas is one of the major fossil energy
sources.
1 standard cubic feet (scf) of natural gas
generates 700 Btu to 1,600 Btu of heat,
depending upon gas composition.
Provided close to 24 % of U.S. energy
sources over the three-year period 2000-02.

Reserves
Two terms are frequently used to express reserves:
Proved reserves: quantities that have been found by the drill. They can be
proved by known reservoir characteristics such as production data, pressure
relationships, and other data, so that volumes of gas can be determined with
reasonable accuracy.
Potential resources: quantities that are believed to exist in various rocks of
the Earth's crust but have not yet been found by the drill. They are future
supplies beyond the proved reserves.

World Crude Oil Reserves

According to current estimates, more than 81% of the world's proven oil reserves are
located in OPEC Member Countries, with the bulk of OPEC oil reserves in the Middle
East, amounting to 66% of the OPEC total.

US Natural Gas Reserves

Shale Gas Reserves

Reserves versus Production

US Gas Wells

US Natural Gas Wells


600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
0
1988

1993

1998

2003

2008

2013

Oil to Gas Ratio

http://aleklett.wordpress.com/2013/01/20/u-s-rig-count-for-oil-and-gas-and-future-economic-growth/

Heating Value of Gas


1 standard cubic feet (scf) of natural gas generates 700 Btu to 1,600 Btu of heat,
depending upon gas composition.
Power generated = efficiency x power produced
PG P

Gas flow rate, q (scf/h)

PG
q

H H

Gas flow rate, q (scf/d)

24 PG
q
H

H = heating value (Btu/scf)

Example Problem 1.1


Natural gas from the Schleicher County, Texas, Straw Reef has a heating value of
1,598 Btu/scf. If this gas is combusted to generate power of 1,000 kW, what is the
required gas flow rate in Mscf/day? Assume that the overall efficiency is 50
percent (1 kW = 3412 Btu/h)
.

Gas flow rate (scf/d)

24 PG
q
H

(3412 )(1000 )(24)


q
102 .49 Mscf / day
0.5(1598 )
.

Class Assignment 1
1-1 Natural gas from the Morgan County, Colorado, D-Sand, has a heating
value of 1,228 Btu/scf. If this gas is combusted to drive a gas turbine for a gas
compressor of 1,000 hp, what is the required gas flow rate in MMscf/day?
Assume that the overall efficiency is 30% (1 hp = 2,544 Btu/h).
1-2 Natural gas from the William County, North Dakota, Red River formation,
has a heating value of 1,032 Btu/scf. If this gas is used to generate electricity at
a rate of 1 MMscf/day, how many watts of electricity would the generator
produce if the overall efficiency is 50% (1 kW = 3412 Btu/h)?

1-3 Natural gas with a heating value of 1,400 Btu/scf is used to generate
2000 kW of electricity at a rate of 0.292 MMscf/day. What is the overall
efficiency (1 kW = 3412 Btu/h)?

PTRT 2323- Natural Gas Production

Chapter 2:
Properties of Natural Gas
Gas-specific gravity
Pseudocritical pressure and temperature
Viscosity
Compressibility factor
Gas density
Gas compressibility

Gas-Specific Gravity
Gas-specific gravity (gg) is defined as the ratio of the apparent molecular
weight (MW) of a natural gas to that of air, itself a mixture of gases.
The molecular weight of air (79% N2 and 21% O2) = 28.97

Therefore the gas gravity is

M
g g 28.97
For natural gas
N

M yiM i
i 1

Critical Properties
In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and
condensed matter physics, a critical point, also known as a
critical state, occurs under conditions (such as specific values
of temperature, pressure or composition) at which no phase
boundaries exist.
Above the critical temperature, a liquid cannot be formed by an
increase in pressure, even though a solid may be formed under
sufficient pressure. The critical pressure is the vapor pressure at
the critical temperature.

Pseudocritical Properties
Gases can be converted to liquids
by compressing the gas at a
suitable temperature.
Gases become more difficult to
liquefy as the temperature
increases because the kinetic
energies of the particles that make
up the gas also increase.
A critical point, also known as a
critical state, occurs under
conditions at which no phase
boundaries exist.
The critical temperature of a substance is the temperature at and above which
vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied, no matter how much pressure is
applied. Every substance has a critical temperature. The critical pressure of a
substance is the pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature.

Pseudocritical Properties
N

Mixing rule:

P yiPi
i 1

Ppc 709 .604 58.718gg


Tpc 170 .491 307 .344gg

Pseudocritical pressure

Pseudocritical temperature

with corrections for impurities:

Sutton (1985) based on 264 gas samples:

Ppc 756 .8 131 .07gg 3.6g g2


Tpc 169 .2 349 .5gg 74.0g g2

Pseudocritical Properties
Pseudoreduced properties:

p
p pr
p pc

T
Tpr
Tpc

Example Problem 2.1


For the gas composition given in the following text,
determine apparent molecular weight,
pseudocritical pressure, and pseudocritical
temperature of the gas.
Atomic weights
H
C
N
O
S

1.008
12.011
14.0065
15.9995
32.064

C1
C2
C3
i-C4
n-C4
i-C5
n-C5
C6
C7+
N2
CO2
H2S

0.775
0.083
0.021
0.006
0.002
0.003
0.008
0.001
0.001
0.050
0.030
0.020

Pseudocritical Properties
Compound
C1
C2
C3
i-C4
n-C4
i-C5
n-C5
C6
C7+
N2
CO2
H2S

yi

MWi

0.775
0.083
0.021
0.006
0.002
0.003
0.008
0.001
0.001
0.050
0.030
0.020

16.04
30.07
44.10
58.12
58.12
72.15
72.15
86.18
114.23
28.02
44.01
34.08

1.000

yiMWi pci (psia) yipci (psia) Tci, (oR)

yiTci (oR)

12.43
2.50
0.93
0.35
0.12
0.22
0.58
0.09
0.11
1.40
1.32
0.68

266.60
45.65
13.99
4.40
1.53
2.49
6.78
0.92
1.02
24.60
16.44
26.12

MWa = 20.71
gg = 0.71

673
709
618
530
551
482
485
434
361
227
1073
672
ppc =

521.58
58.85
12.98
3.18
1.10
1.45
3.88
0.43
0.36
11.35
32.19
13.45
661

344
550
666
733
766
830
847
915
1024
492
548
1306
Tpc =

411

Assignment 2:
For the gas composition given in the following text, determine apparent
molecular weight, gas specific gravity, pseudocritical pressure, and
pseudocritical temperature of the gas using the mixing rule.

C1
C2
C3
i-C4
n-C4
i-C5
n-C5
C6
C7
C8
N2
CO2
H2S

yi
85.00%
5.40%
1.60%
0.60%
0.20%
0.30%
0.50%
0.10%
0.10%
0.10%
3.50%
1.80%
0.80%

Tci, (oF)
pci (psia)
-116.67
666.4
89.92
706.5
206.06
616
274.46
527.9
305.62
550.6
369.1
490.4
385.8
488.6
453.6
436.9
512.7
396.8
564.2
360.7
-232.51
493.1
87.91
1071
212.45
1300

oR

= oF + 459.67

Atomic weights
H
C
N
O
S

1.008
12.011
14.0065
15.9995
32.064

Viscosity
Gas viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow exerted by the gas.
Kinematic viscosity () is related to the dynamic viscosity () through density ()

Dynamic viscosity () in centipoises (cp) is usually used in the natural gas


engineering. Kinematic viscosity is not normally used in natural gas engineering

Mixing rule for dynamic viscosity:

( y

(y

i i
i

Mi )
Mi )

Gas viscosity is very often estimated with charts or correlations developed


based on the charts

Viscosity
Gas

Symbol

Temperature (Deg. C)
0
100
250
500

Fluid

cP(Centipoise)

Viscosity Pa s ( Actual x 106 )

Oxygen
Helium
Air
Nitrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Hydrogen
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Butane
Pentane

O2
He
N2
CO2
H2
CH4
C2H6
C3H8
C4H10
C5H12

19
18
17
16.5
13.7
85
13.8
8,5
7.7
8
2.2

24
22
21
21
18
10,5

30
28
27
265
24
12,5

39
37
35
35
34
16,5

11,5
10
10,5

15,5
13,2
14,2

22,5
18
20

Dynamic
viscosity

Carbon Dioxide

0,014

Chlorine
Ethylene
Helium
Hydrogen

0,0129
0,0097
0,0186
0,00835

Hydrogen Chloride

0,0138

Hydrogen Sulphide
Methane
Oxygen

0,0117
0,0103
0,0192

Example value Air (0 deg C) dynamic viscosity = 17 X 10 -6 Pa.s = 0.017 cPoise

Viscosity
Example Problem
Calculate the dynamic viscosity of the following gas mixture at 0 C
C1
C2
C3
i-C4
n-C4
He
N2
CO2
H2S

yi
85.00%
5.80%
1.60%
0.60%
0.20%
0.40%
3.80%
1.80%
0.80%

Pentane
Heptane
Iso-octane
Hexane

At 20 C
Viscosity (cP)
0.23 (.002296)
0.42
0.50
0.31

Viscosity
At elevated temperature (Dempsey 1965):

Tpr

1 = viscosity at atmospheric pressure

1 1HC 1CO 1H S 1N
2

r a0 a1Ppr a2 Ppr2 a3 Ppr3 ...

Viscosity

Assignment 3a:
Estimate the viscosity of the gas of Assignment 2 at 1000 psia and
70 F using the mixing rule and Carr-Kobayashi-Burrows template.

Compressibility Factor
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is transported in containers at high
pressures. CNG is used in some countries as alternative fuel to
conventional gasoline or diesel.
compressibility factor, z
Ideal Gas
Real Gas

pV = nRT
pV = nzRT

At constant T,

p1V1
z
p2V2

Vreal
z
Videal

pV
z
nRT
Z-factor is usually estimated from charts

The calculated value of the compressibility factor can be used to size natural gas
pipelines

Compressibility Factor

Z-factor is usually estimated from charts

Compressibility Factor

Compressibility Factor

Compressibility Factor

Compressibility Factor
Brill and Beggs correlation

Dranchuk-Abou-Kassem correlation

Gas Density
Real Gas

pV = nzRT

density,

m
M
n

m pM

V zRT

2.7

pg g
zT

lbm/ft3

p = Pressure in psia
T = Temperature in oR
gg = Gas specific gravity
z = Compressibility factor

Gas Formation Volume Factor


It is used in mathematical modeling of gas well inflow performance
relationship (IPR). It is the ratio of the volume of gas at reservoir
condition to the volume at standard condition

ps zT
Vr nzRT ps
Bg

Vs
p nzs RTs
pTs
When Ps = 1 atm and Ts = 60oF
ft3/scf

m3/sm3

zT
Bg 0.0283
p

zT
Bg 0.3507
p

1
Gas Expansion Factor, E E
Bg

b/scf

zT
Bg 0.00504
p

Isothermal Gas Compressibility


It is used to determine compressible properties of reservoir
aka bulk modulus of elasticity

1 V
c g
V p

For real gas

1 1 z
cg
p z p T

For ideal gas

1
cg
p

z is constant = 1

Gas Pseudopressure
It is used in mathematical modeling of gas well inflow performance
relationship (IPR).
Real gas pseudopressure m(p)
p

2p
m( p) dp
z
pb
Real gas normalized pressure n(p)

n( p )

pr

pr
dpr
z

pb = base pressure
usually 1 atm

Gas Pseudopressure

Problems

Assignment 3b:
Complete the information on the spreadsheet of Assignment 2.