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12.12 DETERMINATION OF BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT OF COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FROM FIELD TESTS

457

12.12 DETERMINATION OF BEARING CAPACITY

AND SETTLEMENT OF COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FROM FIELD TESTS

We are going to consider the SPT and CPT results in estimating the bearing capacity and settlement of shallow foundations. You need to be extra careful in selecting the N or q c values to use in the empiri- cal equations given below. You should inspect the results and then eliminate excessively high values of either N or q c that appear to be spurious. These high values may be due to an obstruction such as from a boulder. A continuous set of low values of N or q c may indicate a weak soil layer. Depending on the location of this layer, for example, within a depth B below the foundation, it may control the perfor- mance of the foundation.

12.12.1 Standard Penetration Test (SPT)

of the foundation. 12.12.1 Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Computer Program Utility Access

Computer Program Utility

Access www.wiley.com/college/budhu, click on Chapter 12, and then click on bc.xls for a spread- sheet to estimate bearing capacity and settlement from SPT data.

It is dif cult to obtain undisturbed samples of coarse-grained soils for testing in the laboratory. Consequently, the allowable bearing capacity and settlement of footings on coarse-grained soils are often based on empirical methods using test data from eld tests. One popular method utilizes results from the standard penetration test (SPT). It is customary to correct the N values for overburden pressure. Various correction factors have been suggested by a number of investigators. Energy and other correc- tions were considered in Chapter 3. Two suggestions for correcting N values for overburden pressure are included in this text. These are

c N 5a 95.8 sr zo

b 1/2

;

C N # 2

c N 5 0.77 log 10 a 1916 b; sr zo

1 Liao and Whitman, 19852

 

(12.44)

C N # 2;

sr zo . 24 kPa

1 Peck et al., 1974 2

(12.45)

where c N is a correction factor for overburden pressures, and s9 zo is the effective overburden pressure in kPa. A further correction factor is imposed on N values if the groundwater level is within a depth B below the base of the footing. The groundwater correction factor is

c W 5

1

2 1

z

21D f

1 B2

(12.46)

where z is the depth to the groundwater table, D f is the footing depth, and B is the footing width. If the depth of the groundwater level is beyond B from the bottom of the footing base, c w 5 1. The corrected N value is

(12.47)

N 1 5 c N c W N

The ultimate bearing capacity for a shallow footing under vertical loads is

(12.48)

where B is the width in m. In practice, each value of N in a soil layer up to a depth 1.5 B below the footing base is corrected, and an average value of N 1 is used in Equation (12.48).

q ult 5 32 N 1 B 1 kPa2

458 CHAPTER 12

BEARING CAPACITY OF SOILS AND SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

Meyerhof (1965) proposed that no correction should be applied to N values for the effects of groundwater, as these are already incorporated in the measurement. Furthermore, he suggested that q ult calculated from Equation (12.45) using N 1 5 c N N be increased by 50%. In using Equation (12.48), the settlement is assumed to be less than 25 mm. Burland and Burbidge (1985) did a statistical analysis of settlement records from 200 footings located in quartzitic sand and gravel. They proposed the following equation for the settlement of a footing in a normally consolidated sand at the end of construction:

r 5 f s f 1 s a B 0.7 I c (12.49) where r
r 5 f s f 1 s a B 0.7 I c
(12.49)
where r is the settlement (mm),
1.25 L
/
B
f s 5 Shape factor 5 a
(12.50)
L
/
B
1 0.25 b 2
f 1 5 (H o /z 1 )(2 2 H o /z 1 ) is a correction factor if the thickness (H o ) of the sand stratum below the footing
base is less than an in uence depth z 1 , s a is the vertical stress applied by the footing or allowable bearing
capacity (kPa), B and L are the width and length of the footing (m), respectively,
I c 5 Compressibility index 5 1.71
(12.51)
1.4
N
and N is the uncorrected N value. However, for very ne sand and silty sand, Burland and Burbidge recom-
mended using a corrected N9 5 15 1 0.5 (N 2 15) in Equation (12.51). Further, if the soil is gravel or sandy
gravel, use N9 5 1.25N in Equation (12.51). The in uence depth is the depth below the footing that will
in uence the settlement and bearing capacity. If N increases with depth or N is approximately constant, the
in uence depth is taken as z 1 5 B 0.763 . If N tends to decrease with depth, the in uence depth is z 1 5 2B.
If the sand is overconsolidated,
r
5 f 1 f s as a 2 2
sr zc b B 0.7 I c ,
if s a . sr zc
(12.52)
3
r
,
if s a , sr zc
(12.53)
5 f 1 f s q a B 0.7 I c
3

Burland and Burbidge also recommended a time factor to account for time-dependent settlement. You can check the original reference for this factor. The procedure for the Burland–Burbidge method is as follows:

1. Determine the in uence depth z 1 .

2. Find the average N value within the depth z 1 below the footing.

3. Calculate I c from Equation (12.51).

4. Determine r from the appropriate equation [Equation (12.49) or (12.52) or (12.53)] or, if r is speci ed, you can determine s a .

EXAMPLE 12.13

Allowable Bearing Capacity Using SPT Data

The SPT results at various depths in a soil are shown in Table E12.13a.

TABLE E12.13a

Depth (m)

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.5

2.1

2.7

3

3.3

4.2

N (blows/ft)

25

28

33

29

28

29

31

35

41

12.12 DETERMINATION OF BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT OF COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FROM FIELD TESTS

459

Determine the allowable bearing capacity for a square footing 2 m wide located at 0.6 m below the surface. The tolerable settlement is 25 mm. The groundwater level is deep and its effects can be neglected.

Strategy The question that arises is what value of N to use. We will estimate the thickness of the soil (.2B) below the footing that will be stressed signi cantly (.10% of applied stress) and take an average value of N within that layer. The unit weight is not given, so we have to estimate this based on the description and the N values (see Chapter 10, Table 10.4).

Solution 12.13

the N values (see Chapter 10, Table 10.4). Solution 12.13 Computer Program Utility Access

Computer Program Utility

Access www.wiley.com/college/budhu, click on Chapter 12, and then click on bc.xls for a spread- sheet to estimate bearing capacity and settlement from SPT data.

Step 1:

Determine N 1 .

Calculate s9 zo and the correction factor c N using either Equation (12.44) or (12.45). Use a spreadsheet to do the calculation, as shown in Table E12.13b.

TABLE E12.13b

Bearing capacity from SPT

q a Width of footing Depth of footing Groundwater FS

1033

kPa

2

m

0.9

m

5

m

3

Vertical

Depth

Unit weight (kN/m 3 )

effective stress

C n

C n

(m)

(kPa)

calc.

use

N

N 1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.6

18.5

11.1

2.9

2.0

25

50

0.9

19

16.8

2.4

2.0

28

56

1.2

20

22.8

2.0

2.0

33

66

1.5

19

28.5

1.8

1.8

29

53

2.1

19

39.9

1.5

1.5

28

43

2.7

19

51.3

1.4

1.4

29

40

3

20

57.3

1.3

1.3

31

40

3.3

20.5

63.45

1.2

1.2

35

43

4.2

20.5

81.9

1.1

1.1

41

44

 

Avg

31

48

Step 2:

Calculate q a .

Equation (12.48):

q ult 5 32N 1 B 5 32 3 48 3 2 5 3072 kPa

q a 5

q ult

5 3072

FS

3

5 1024 kPa

The spreadsheet gives q a 5 1033 kPa because it uses more signi cant gures in doing the calculations.

460 CHAPTER 12

BEARING CAPACITY OF SOILS AND SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

EXAMPLE 12.14

Allowable Bearing Capacity and Settlement Using SPT

Redo using the Burland–Burbidge method for a footing 3 m 3 4 m.

Strategy You have to determine whether the sand is normally consolidated or overconsolidated. No direct evidence is provided to allow you to make a decision as to the consolidation state of the sand. One way around this problem is to use Table 10.4 to make an estimate of the consolidation state.

Solution 12.14

Step 1:

Determine the consolidation state and nd z 1 .

Within a depth equal to B (3 m), the average N value is 29. From Table 10.4, the sand can be classi ed as medium (N in the range 10–30). A reasonable estimate of the consolidation state is normally consoli- dated.

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

z 1 5 B 0.763

5 3 0.763

5 2.3 m

Find an average N for a depth 2.3 m below the base.

Average N value over a depth of 2.3 m below the base is 29. (Note: 2.3 m below the base is equivalent to a depth of 2.9 m, so use the N values up to 3 m.)

Calculate I c .

Calculate q a .

I c 5 1.71

1.4

N

5 1.71 1.4 5 0.015

29

L

5 4 5 1.33;

3

f s 5a

1.25L

1 0.25 b 2 5a 1.33 3 0.25 b 2

/

B

1.25 3 1.33

B

f 1 5 1 1 thickness of sand stratum greater than 2.3 m 2

B

L

/

5 1.11

q a 5 s a 5

r

5

f s f 1 B 0.7 I c

25

1.11 3 1 3

3 0.7 3 0.015 5 696 kPa

12.12.2 Cone Penetration Test (CPT)

5 6 9 6 k P a 12.12.2 Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Computer Program Utility Access

Computer Program Utility

Access www.wiley.com/college/budhu, click on Chapter 12, and then click on bc.xls for a spread- sheet to estimate bearing capacity and settlement from CPT data.

Schmertmann (1970) and Schmertmann et al. (1978) proposed a methodology to determine settle- ment from the quasi-static cone test data for sands. They assumed that the sand is a linearly elastic material, and only stress changes within depths of 2B for axisymmetric conditions and 4B for plane strain conditions in uence the settlement. Settlement is calculated by integrating the vertical strains; that is,

r

5 3 ε z dz

(12.54)

12.12 DETERMINATION OF BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT OF COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FROM FIELD TESTS

461

The equation proposed for settlement (mm) by Schmertmann et al. is

where

r 5 c D c t

b

n

q net a

i51

1I co 2 i 1q c 2 i

Dz i

c D 5 Depth factor 5 1 2 0.5 sr zo

q

net

$ 0.5

c t 5 Creep factor 5 1.0 1 A log 10 ` 0.1 `

t

(12.55)

(12.56)

(12.57)

b is cone factor [b 5 2.5 for square footing (axisymmetric condition), b 5 3.5 for strip footing (plane strain

condition L

. 10)], q net is the net footing pressure in kPa (applied stress minus soil pressure above the

base of footing), s9 zo is the original vertical effective stress in kPa at the depth of the footing, t is time in year (t $ 0.1), A is an empirical factor taken as 0.2, Dz i is the thickness of the ith layer, and (I co ) i is the in uence factor of the ith layer given as:

B

Axisymmetric:

L 5 B

z

I co 5 0.1 1 21 I cp 2 0.12 B

I co 5I cp c1 2 2

3

a

z

B

2

1

2 b

d

for

for

z

B #

2 $

1

2

z

B

.

1

2

(12.58)

(12.59)

Plane strain:

L . 10B

z

I co 5 0.2 1 1 I cp 2 0.22 B

I co 5I cp c1 2

1

3 a

z

B

2 1b d

for

for

z

B # 1

4 $

z

B

. 1

(12.60)

(12.61)

where I cp 5 0.5 1 0.1 Å

effective stress at the depth where I cp occurs, which is B

2

strain; and n is the number of sublayers. The unit of B is meters.

q net

sr zp

; (q c ) i is the cone tip resistance for the ith layer; s9 zp is the original vertical

for axisymmetric condition and B for plane

The procedure to determine the settlement from cone data is as follows:

1. Divide the soil below the footing into a number of sublayers. For square footings, the total depth of the sublayers is 2B and a reasonable number of sublayers is four. For strip footing, the total depth is 4B and a reasonable number of sublayers is eight.

2. Determine the average value of (q c ) i for each sublayer from the eld data of q c versus depth.

3. Find I co at the center of each sublayer.

4. Estimate r using Equation (12.54).

The bearing capacity from the CPT test is estimated by taking a weighted average of the cone resistance over a depth of 2B for axisymmetric condition and 4B for plane strain condition below the bottom of the footing base.

462 CHAPTER 12

BEARING CAPACITY OF SOILS AND SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

EXAMPLE 12.15

Allowable Bearing Capacity and Settlement Using CPT Data

A representative set of cone data at a site is shown in Figure E12.15a. A square footing 3 m wide imposing an applied stress of 217 kPa is to be located 1 m below ground level at this site. Determine (1) the bearing capacity and

FIGURE E12.15a

q c (MPa)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0 5
10
15
20
25
30
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Depth (m)

(2) the settlement of the footing one year after construction. The bulk unit weight of the sand is 17 kN/m 3 . Ground- water level is 8 m below the ground surface.

Strategy For a square footing, the in uence depth is 2B. You need to divide this depth into soil layers and then use Equation (12.54).

Solution 12.15

Step 1:

Determine the in uence depth below base of footing.

Step 2:

Influence depth 5 2B 5 6 m

Inspect q c values over the in uence depth below the bottom of the base of the footing. Ignore excessively large q c values and sketch a composite distribution, as shown in Figure E12.15b. Find the average value of q c , I co , and r over the in uence depth.

FIGURE E12.15b

q c (MPa)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 Bottom of footing 2
0 2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0
Bottom of footing
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Depth (m)
0 Bottom of footing 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Depth (m) Use a

Use a spreadsheet program (www.wiley.com/college/budhu_bc.xls; see Table E12.15).

Since this is an axisymmetric case, the depth at which I cp occurs is B/2.

q ap 5 applied pressure, D 5 depth of footing from original surface, D f 5 depth of footing from nished surface.

q net 5 q ap 2 gD f 5 217 2 1 3 17 5 200 kPa

sr zp 5 ga B

2

1 D f b 5 17 3 a 2 1 1b 5 42.5 kPa;

3

I cp 5 0.5 1 0.1 Å 42.5 5 0.72

200

12.12 DETERMINATION OF BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT OF COARSE-GRAINED SOILS FROM FIELD TESTS

TABLE E12.15

Muni Budhu “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 2007 Bearing capacity and
Muni Budhu “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 2007
Bearing capacity and settlement of shallow footings using CPT data
Condition
1
Axisymmetric
HELP
Influence factor, l co
Settlement
24
mm
Bearing capacity
6.7
MPa
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0
0.5
q
217
kPa
c
0.96
D
1
D
1
m
1.20
f
D
1
m
1.5
γ
17
kN/m 3
2
B
3
m
2.5
Axisymmetric
L
3
m
3
Plane strain
σ' zp
42.5
kPa
3.5
σ' zo
17
kPa
4
200
kPa
σ net or q net
4.5
l
0.72
cp
t
1
yr
Layer
z
∆z
z/B
l
co
q c
(l co /q c )
q c ∆z
m
m
m
MPa
MPa.m
0
1 0.51
1.00
1.00
0.33
8.80
0.058
8.8
2 0.64
2.00
1.00
0.67
6.30
0.101
6.3
3 0.32
4.00
2.00
1.33
6.30
0.101
12.6
4 0.00
6.00
2.00
2.00
6.30
0.000
12.6
Sum
6.00
Sum
0.260
40.3
z/B

463

sr zo 5 gD 5 1 3 17 5 17 kPa;

c D 5 1 2 0.5 3

200 17 5 0.96

c t 5 1 1 0.2 log 10 ` 0.1 ` 5 1.2

1

Step 3:

Calculate the bearing capacity.

Step 4:

Calculate the settlement

q ult 5 Sq c Dz 5 40.3

SDz

6

5 6.7 MPa

r 5 c D c t

b

n

q net a

i51

1I co 2 i

1q c 2 i

Dz i 5 0.96 3 1.2

2.5

3 200 3 0.26 5 24 mm

12.12.3 Plate Load Test (PLT)

Tests on full-sized footings are desirable but expensive. The alternative is to carry out plate load tests (Figure 12.18) to simulate the load settlement behavior of a real footing. The plates are made from steel, with sizes varying from 150 to 760 mm. Two common plate sizes are used in practice. One is a square plate of width 300 mm and the other is a circular plate of diameter 300 mm. The test is carried out in a pit of depth of at least 1.5 m. Loads are applied in increments of 10% to 20% of the estimated allowable

FIGURE 12.18

Plate load test.

P B p
P
B p

Stress or load

Settlement
Settlement