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from early documents in Gen. and Sam. to a possibly The name much exercised the old interpreters. 'Grace of
late. passage of Micah (76)and the late book of Ruth. God, 'Grace of God's people' (or 'of circumcision'), are the
explanations given in O S 162 25 (cp 186zo), and the former appears
The cognate Ass. word dmu (emu)also means ' father- as a note on the name in @emg. of u. 7. We should probably
in-law ' ; ,Winckler's definition, ' the head of a family read ~ ~ ? U g = ~' God
~ ' ?is~pity.'
, HANNIEL [p.v.] occurs twice.
from which a man gets a wife,' illustrates the anticipative Gray's remark (HPN, 307, n. 2) goes too far. The support of
use of the term in two of the letters of DuSratta to the versions could only prove the comparative antiquity of the
Amen-hotep 111. ( A m . Tu6. 173, 182). Like similar reading 5Nnjn. 13 is very frequently miswritten for 33.
words (e.g., inn), its precise usage varied in different T. K . C.
Semitic languages. Thus in biblical Hebrew it seems HANAN ,!;I( § 50, an abbreviated name ; cp EL-
to denote a woman's, in Ass. a man's father-in-law. HANAN, H ANANIAH ; ANAN [BRAL]).
W e cannot be certain, however, that even in ancient I . A name occurring twice@. 23 and u. 38 avvav [L1=944)ina

Hebrew it was never used in a wider sense,, as e.g., it genealogy of BENJAMIN (q.u., $ g, ii. 8) in Ch. 8.
2. b. MAACAH (q.u., ii. g), one of David's heroes ( I Ch. 1143,
sometimes is in Arabic, and as nN and ny certainly are avuav [XI).
in Hebrew. Thus perhaps all the men of a group 3. The b'ne Hanan a post-exilic family of the NETHINIM
might be called a& by the husband and &am by the in the great post-exilic list [see E ZRA ii., 8 91, Ezra 246=Neh.
749 (in latter, yavav [N])=I Esd. 530, ANAN,2.
wife, or vice versa, and so Hamu-el might be practically 4. A Levite, present at the reading of the Law under Ezra
synonymous with Ahi-el, or, for that matter, with Abi-el (Neh. 8 7 om. BA = I Esd. 948 awias [Bl avavias [AL]
(see ABI, N AMES WITH). H. W. H. ANANIAS, 5) ;probablythesignatory to the coveAant(see E ZRA i.:
$ 7) Neh. 1010 [II] (om. B, avav,[N".&mp.Al,avam [L]).
HAMUEL, RV Rammuel ($NDn, 46, om. B, 5. l h e name borne by two slgnatories to the covenant (see
AMOYHA [AL]), a Simeonite ( I Ch. 426). The form E ZRA i., 8 7), Neh. 1022 [23] avaw [Ll, 1026 [27] awav [BA],
awa [~'id.], evav [Ll).
with double m (MT and RV) was explained 'zestus 6. b. Zaccur, a keeper of the storehouses, appointed by
Dei ' by Ges., but should no doubt be read, as in AV Nehemiah, Neh. 1313 (aavav [N] avaviou [Ll).
and @, Hamue12 (5iynG) as in the case of HAMUL(see 7. The sons of Hanan b. I G D A ~ (q.u.),
~IAH were a fapily wh:cb
below). The meaning will then be, ' T h e head of my
had a chamber in the temple (Jer. 354 .. . uiOv wvav VLOU
avav'ov [BA ] avuav vi. avvavLov [N, auav. Nc.a, but fi omits
kindred is God.' See HAMU,N AMES IN. ;io) yosoAiov1.l
RANANEEL, AV, RV Hananel($&13?), in ' Tower
RAMUL ( h ? - i . e . , $,nnor -5)D!l, possibly a
of Hananeel,' Neh. 3 I 1239 Jer. 31 38 Zech. 1410;
corruption-of 5vsDI'J ; see above, HAMLJEL ; but the See JERUSALEM, 24.
name n*5Dn* has been found on an Israelite seal, In Neh both times the tower of Hananeel is coupled with
which makes Gesenius's interpretation ' clementiam A H When we consider that HAMMEAH
that of H ~ M M E (q.d.). is
probably a corruption of dayZZnad 'the old (city) ' it seems
expertus,' just possible [cp GAMLJL] ; see also We. De very possible that the name of the 'tower of the old ?city)' was
Gent. 22 ; and cp Ki. on I Ch. 25 : more probably, Hananeel. Observe in this connection th? in Neh. 1239 @ B
however, like M AHOL , the name is a corruption of does not recognise 'the town of Hammeah. T. K. C .
J ERAHMEEL [p.u. 3 41: Hezron, Hamul's brother, HANANI ('>!ti, 52, shortened from .IiV,'PG, see
appears in I Ch. 29 as Jerahmeel's father), a grandson H ANANIAH ; ANAN[€][ [BRAL]).
of Judah3 (Gen. 4612,r e p o u ~ X [ADL], I-:\ I. Father of the prophet J E H U [p.v., 21, I K.16 I (in u. 7 avas
[Ba mg.1, avama [A]), 2 Ch. 16 7 (avapeL [B] 19 2 20 34).
I \- ; NU. 2621,
Ch. 25, repouqA [BA], up.[L] 2. A temple musician, a son of Heman ( I Ch. 25 4 [om. Bl 25
avamas [B] ;L has avavcqh in both verses which points to a form
capouv [B], tupou$, [AFL], \awhence ), arises %?a$.
the patronymic Hamulite ($vmr$, Nu. Z.C. ;tupouver 3. One of the b'ne I MMEE (q.v., ii. I) among the sons of the
priests in the list of those with foreign wives (see EZRA i., $ 5 end),
[B], rupouqAr [AL], c ~ , u .[F]).
~ Ezra 10 20 (auavLa [A] -s [L])= I Esd. 9 21 ANANIAS [2] (auavrac

RAMUTAL (5QV2n Kt. $Q+nq, ' m y husband's [ B s J k e of the 'brethren ' of NEHEMIAH (Neh. 1 2 , avau [L],
father is the dew ' [see N AMES , § 461 ; but the second auavew [ K ;? avav &s as in Ll, 7 2, avavia [BNALI).
element in the name is very suspicious [see ABITAL] ; 5. A priest in the procession at the dedication of the wall (see
read rather HAMUTLJB, ' t h e head of my kindred ( = E ZRA ii., $ 13&, Neh. 1236 (avautas [L], avavi Nc.amg. inf.1, om.'
my God) is goodness' ; AMITAA [ALQ]), the mother BN"A).
of Jehoahaz and Zedekiah, 2 K. 2331 (AMBITAI [B]), RANANIAH (a:?>?, Vl:Wn-i.e., ' Yahwl: is
2 4 1 8 (MITAT [Bl, A M l T A e [-4]), Jer. 521 (AM[E]ITAAh gracious,' 2.8, 52, 84 ;, A N A N I A ( C ) [BKAQIK 871).
[BRA]) and in @BAL of 2 Ch. 362a (ABEITAA [B]). I. One of Daniel's companions, also called Shadrach (Dan. 16
T. K. C. etc). See DANIEL, $5 14.
2. Son of Azzur; a prophet who opposed Jeremiah (Jer.
HANAMEEL, or (RV) Hanamel (hjP3l, ' G o d is 28 18).
kind' ? [see below] ; ANAMEHA [BKAQ]), b. Shallum, a 3. Ancestor of thecaptain of the guard who arrested Jeremiah
(Jer. 37 13).
cousiuof Jeremiah, fromwhom, in the first part of thesiege 4. A son of Zerubbabel (I Ch. 3 19 21).
of Jerusalem, Jeremiah purchased, for seventeenshekels, a 5. b. Shashak in a genealogy of BENJAMIN (q.'u. $ 9, ii. p),
property at Anathoth, thus demonstrating his faith, vic- I Ch. 8 24.
torious over doubts, in the ultimate restoration of Israel 6. One of the fourteen ' sons of Heman ' (I Ch. 25 4 23).
7. One of the Bene Bebai in the list of those with foreign
(Jer. 32, [d 391 7-12, cp ~ 4 ) . The account is evidently wives (see E ZRA i., $ 5 end) ; Ezra 10 28 (viava [B], avaa [K*],
authentic, though it received its present shape only after avaveca [Kamg.])= I Esd. 9 29, ANANIAS,, 3.
the fall of Jerusalem (see Giesebrecht). The details of 8. An apothecary in list of wall-builders (see NEHEMIAH
the purchase are interesting. The deed of purchase was $ 13E ZRA ii. 88.16 [I], 154, Neb.38. Perhaps the samd
person is inten$ed In Neh. 3 30 (same list).
subscribed and sealed (with clay; see C LAY ), and 9. Neh. 3 30. See no. 8.
together with a second unsealed copy was deposited in IO. Governor of the castle, under Nehemiah, who describes
an earthen vessel, which may have been like the earthen him as ' a faithful man.' and one 'who feared God above many
jars which contain the Babylonian contract-tablets, (Neh. 72). Cp nos. I; 13.
11. Signatory to thb covenant (see E z R A ~ 8 . , 7); Neh.
10 23 [24] evav [L] ; perhaps the same as no. IO.
12. HeHd of a priestly house in the days of Joiakim (see E ZRA
1 Muss-Arnolt connects it with a root emli [=ann], 'to pro-
tect, surround,' inferred from a proper name. ii., $8 6 8 II), Jeshua's successor (Neh. 12 12; BN* om.).
2 The altered form may be a mistake under the influence of 13. A &est in the procession at the dedication of the wall
Ammiel; or an intentional alteration. (Neh. 1241 [om. BN*A]); perhaps the same as no. IO.
3 Names common to Judah and %meon occur not un.
RAND (12,~ 6 1 ~ )Many
. of the uses of the hand in
graphy; KaL L ~ ~ o uis ~forA KaL epovqh. [Jos. (An%.ii.74) has Hebrew phraseology are too plain to need special ex-
apovpos, ako the form iapoupor (see Niese).] planation. There are some, however, which are nbt
'949 i950
devoid of strangeness, and some of the passages in means to bestow the office of priest,' which is near the
which 1 3 ' hand ' occurs, need brief consideration from xiginal sense. KalCvy has pointed out ( R E J , 0ct.-
the point of view of textual criticism. Not that mere Dec. 1890,p. 209)that it is exactly parallel to an Assyrian
critical puzzles are worth mentioning here, but when phrase for the transmission of authority ; Delitzsch
exegesis is distinctly affected by textual criticism, it ;Ass. H W 5 4 0 9 6 ) gives this as k d t d mu118, ' to fill the
would seem to be a fault of method not to refertothis. band ' = ' to invest with an office.' There is therefore
Yrirt,i*, the hand sometimes with reference solely to the wrist no need to suppose either that the objects with which
(Gen. 2422, etc.) or'finger, sometimes including even the arm the hand was filled were pieces of a sacrificial offering
(zZrh?, yiyr), is to be kept distinct from Rajh, 13,1 the palm of ' D i . , Baudissin), or that a sum of money was placed in
the hand (or the sole of the foot, paw, etc., cp Lev. 1127). The ;t (Vatke, Wellh. ) ; it is the office itself which is given.
hollowed hand is the ZZZ, 5yij ( I K. 20 IO, etc.), or &hen, Nor can we say, with most scholars, that Ezek. 43 16, where
, p h (Prov. 304, etc.). For parts of the hand the Hebrew terms :he phrase seems to he applied to the reconsecration of the altar,
are e+'&, n y > y ~ ,finger2 (Ex. 31 IS, etc.), ddhen,. Ti,thumb
1 . shows how completely the consciousness of its original meaning
(Judg. 16, etc.), &&a, in?, little finger ( I K. 12 IO), andsippdren, >asfaded away. For i-v 1 ~ 5 (Kr., ~ 1 6)seems to be a corrup-
.ly$r, nail.3 The span of the hand is &%a&, nsb (Ex. 25 25, :ion of O ' t Y y qb?, words which appear in MT (but with
etc., n g ~ ,I K. 7 2 % used as a unit of measurement (cp the I\,* for I\,) at the head of D . 27, but are lacking in @. Obvi-
similar use of 'finger' in Jer. 5221); see WEIGHTS A N D ,usly there are two rival readings, and 1?1*1 ~ h isr the worse
MEASURES. I t should he noted that the full phrase for right if the two. Cp, however Nowack IYA 2 IZOJ ; Addis, Doc.
hand is yad yrimin v y 19 (e.g., Ps. 7325); ydmin, rp is Hex. 2263 n.; Dr.-White,'SBOT, Lev. Eng., 71.
T. I<. C.
properly 'right side.' "Left-handed' is expressed by 'itt2r bud
yrimin] []'iYl'] le?, Judg. 3 15 2016. HANDBREADTH (nDii), Ex. 3712 2 Ch. 4 5 Ps.
a. I n two important passages ( I S. 1512 Is. 5 6 5 ) 395 [ 6 ] . See WEIGHTS A N D MEASURES.
RV"g. records the fact that where English idiom HANDICRAFTS, T o attempt a complete account
-requires ' monument,' or ' memorial,' the Hebrew has >f all the handicrafts practised by the Hebrews, in the
'hand ' (1;). 'Saul came to Carmel, and, behold, he ight of the Talmud and the evidences of the monu-
.set him u p a monument' ; this trophy of Saul the nents, would mean a history of their civilisation and
Hebrew text calls a ' hand.' The reading, however, is :ulture, and would lie far outside the limits of this
not free from doubt.4 At any rate, this use of ' hand' uticle. I t must suffice, therefore, here to give a brief
is certainly found in z S. 18 18 (Absalom's ' monument ') summary of the various occupations to which reference
a n d in Is. 5 6 5 (the ' memorial ' promised to God-fearing s made in the Bible, and to indicate any additional
eunuchs). On many Phcenician votive steles an out- 'eatures which seem to be of general interest.
stretched hand is represented, probably to symbolize I. Leaving on one side all workers in metal, whether
the action which accompanied the vow.5 The monu- 2oppersmiths( I K. 7 14 2 Tim. 4 14), ironsmiths (Is. 44 I,),
ments referred to in the OT passages may be regarded :old- or silversmiths (Judg. 1 7 4 Is. 40 19 Mal. 323 ) , l we
.as votive steles. may start with two allied crafts-vu. those of workers
b. Similarly Abram, when he makes a vow, lifts up in wood and workers in stone.
his hand (Gen. 1 4 1 4 ; c p Dt. 3240 z K. 1015 Ezek. The common term is W?Q, hrirrii (for harrEZ; @ usually
1 7 1 8 ; and especially, according to the usual interpreta- T ~ K T W V ) ,I/to cut, used generally of an artisan (e.&'. 2 K. 22 6 24 14
tion, Ex. 1 7 1 6 , Prov. 1121). Jer. 24 I 20 2) or more definitely of a carpenter
Ex. 17 16 forms part of an account of the defeat of the Amale- 1. Terms. (Jer. l o 3 Is. 41 7): or metal-worker! (Hos. 13 2) ; in
kites, when Yahwk declared that he would utterly blot out the I S. 13 19( T ~ K T O U uaS4pov [RAL]) the reference is,
Amalekites. The Hebrew has, 'And he said, That a hand to as the context shows, to armourers. Usually, however, the term
the throne (?) of Jah, war ,hath Yahwk against Amalek from is qualified by addition of the material-viz. (I) ja? 'n, worker
eneration to generation (7). Forth: first part of this RV gives, in stone, 2 S. 5 T I (7. A ~ w v ) ,I Ch. 22 15 ( o ~ K o ~ ~ ~ o s A ~haT6pos,
FAnd he said The Lord hath sworn. Those who are less tied
t o the MT &an the Revisers were, will admit that the text is h i h v ) , Ex. 28 I I ( A L R o v ~ ~ L K~~d ~x vsq s ) , ( 2 ) yy 'n, worker in
hardly translateable, and needs emendation (see JEHOVAH-NISSI). wood, 2 S. 5 11 2 K. 12 II [12] I Ch. 22 15 ( T . [&VI (Jhwv), (3)
Prov. 11 21 is alsocommonly said to refer to the custom of lifting n@n,'n, worker in bronze, I K. 7 14, (T. X U ~ K O . ~ ~2) Ch. , 24 12
u p the hand for an oath. As an alternative to the faulty render-
ing of AH we find in RVmg. ' My hand upon it I Heb., Hand (,yah;aPq XahKoG), (4) $12 'n, worker in iron, 2 Ch. 24 12 Cyah-
t o hand. There IS, howe;er, no parallel for a proverb con- K ~ ur&jpou).
S From the same root comes "in, &rirGdh,
structed as RVw. supposes Prov. 1121 to be and we should
almost certainly read, not, ' My hand upon i; ; the evil man
' work '(naturally more specific than n m k , mZZri'k%),defined,
shall not go scot free,' but, 'The malignant witness6 shall not go as above, by the addition of. ;1 or f'y (Ex. 31 5).
scot free.' Words used to express the idea of carving, cutting, or hewinz
No doubts need be raised against that well-known are : >sn(to hew out of the living rock), I Ch. 22 15 ( T C X V ~ T ~ S ) ,
passage, Ps. 1448, ' Their right hand is a right hand of 2 Ch. 2 18 [17](with 152,hadpos), to he kept distinct from >Dn

falsehood' ; yunzin in Arabic has the double meaning ('to cut or gather- wood'), Dt.195 2911[10], etc.; and ppn
of 'right hand' and 'oath.' C p 2 K. 1 0 1 5 (:e: (stone), Is. 22 16, as opposed to (wood), I K. 6 35. Common
JONADAB, 3) ; Gal. 29, ' the right hands of fellowshp to both crafts are nij,Dt. 19 5 I 8.5 6 [20] Is. 14 s(wood), Mesha
inscr. Z. 25 (stone), and y?>, Gen. 22 3 (wood), Hos. 13 z Ps.
c. Clasping hands was the sign of a completed 78 15 Job 28 I O Eccles. 10 g (stone). ~ p(toj judge from the use
bargain ; see Job 1 7 3 Prov. 61. of nxpj in Siloam inscr. 1. I ) is used only of stone ; on the
RV, however, goes too far when it gives in Is. 26, 'and they other hand, of wood (Is. 10 34, cp I$, chap. 1 7 6 24 13).
strike hands [in hargains] with the children of strangers.' The
present Hebrew text is hardly translateable, and no suggested 2. T h e work of the carpenter belongs to the earliest
rendering is thoroughly suitable to the context. Most probably efforts of man to provide himself with the ordinary con-
we should read, 'And with the secret arts of the Harranians 2. workers veniences and simple comforts of life.
they practise enchantments ' (see HARAN i.).7
d. In Ex. 2841 299, Lev. 2110 (all P), we find the His work ranges from the fashioning of
in wood. the rude tent furniture to veneering, in-
strange idiom, ' to fill the hand ' (1; ~ $ 1 3 )for ' t o con-
laying, and carvings in wood (mi&Zi'6th,nryipn, e:$. of
secrate as priest.'B I n Judg. 175, however, it simply
cedar, I K. 6 18 ; olive, 22. 32 i fir, i d . v. 34f. ; $hY?&?n,
1 In Bihl. Aram. OF, Dan. 5 5 ; see Bevan, Dan. 100, n., @m?, I IC 629) ; see B ED , EBONY, I VORY . Cp also
Dr. on 2 S. 13 18. SHIP.
2 With &y=toes, 2 S. 2120.
3 With nay='to pare the nails,' Dt. 21 12 t. On the custom The implements used would be primarily of the
here referred to, see WRS, Kin. 178. Bihl. Aram. mu* Dan. simplest description. (The modern Bedouin for example
4 30 [331. fashions a hammer by taking a fragment of hard red
4 Cp Schwally L e l e n nach dem Tode, 58. granite and bringing it into the required shape by
6 See SAUL, big. ,
6 $ $ h p ly (cp Prov. 19 ZS), represented in MT byy7 19$1 '. chipping it with another stone. ) The precise meaning
of some of the terms is uncertain, and the mention of
7 m@a;nm; *&p.
8 Note the Syr. cognate SmEyE ordination. 1 See METALS, and cp CorPEn, GOLD, IRON, etc.
r9.S 1952
&?red (sword) in Ex. 2025 to denote an implement is ( 2 K. 1212 [13]) or v? i?! 'd-17( 2 S. 511). Houses were
significant. Naturally growth of culture went side by made of bricks or clay; but hewn-stone was not un-
side with the invention of more elaborate and delicate common (cp below, 6), especially in the case of houses of
tools. As we should expect from the analogies of folk- the better class and such buildings as the ].&a, ihp-iu,;
lore, implements of stone or wood were long preferred mix, etc., which (like the names they bear) were of
for certain purposes to those of iron (cp Ex. 2025) ; but
the tradition that in the building of Solomon's temple
foreign introduction. Joisting is referred to in 2 Ch. -
34 11 (nmp?). Naturally some knowledge of measuring
no ' tool of iron ' was heard ( I K. 6 7) is hardly genuine _- and the drawing of plans (cp nv;m, I Ch. 2811f., etc.)
(see I RON , $ 2 ) .
The tools comprised various kinds of AXE, H AMMER , S AW, was required.
measuringline (lp, Is. 44 13), chisel or carving-tool (ne?rp?,pl. 6. Here mention may be made of the plasterers
Is. 44 13, EV 'planes'), the stylus or graver (llp, see PENCIL), (ovg, ?@Em, Ezek. 1311,seeMORTAR, 3 ) , and the white-
and an instrument formakingcircles(so apparentlyil!lnp). Some washer ( M H i"o, cp K O V C ~ W ,Mt. 2327 Acts233) who
of these tools, of course, were used by workers in stone: carried a brush with jointed handles (Shadb. 47a).
From Is. 44 1 3 8 Wisd. 13I O 8 we gain interesting For thetermsused toexpress the'cutting'ofstoneseeabove(5 I);
particulars regarding some of the details of carpentry. the 'quarrying'is called p'pc (I K. 5 18[311 Eccles. 109). Stones
T h e artificer takes care to choose a sound tree, one that which have been thus treated are styled (I) X%?g'>?E, 2 K. 12.
will not rot, avoiding the crooked and knotted pieces, IZ [13] 22 6 (hitlor Aaropqroi), 2 Ch. 34 IS (A. r ~ r p d m B o r ) , (2)
or, may be, 'planteth an ash tree' for the purpose. nw, I K. 5 17 [31] (A. & T & K ~ T O U S ) , I Ch. 2 2 2 (A. ~ u u r o d s ) ,I K.
Having made his choice he saws, hews, or cuts it into 7 9 I I 6 36 &&pov Q T ~ L ~ K ~ T U WAm. ), 5 IT ( . $ P U T O ~ S , or .$uurotk) ;
beams.1 The wood is then ready to he shaped into a used for altars, Ezek. 40 42 (AL9wac AsAa&up&ar) ; cp the pro-
slab (pli), board (~5:)~ hibition Ex. 20 25 (rpqrol); also in buildings, Is. 9 IO [91. (3)
plank stave (la),etc.
3. The art of working in stone goes back to the
used in building, Ezra58 64, the same word in Palm. is
used of an inscriptional stele.
earliest ages. In its rudest forms it is exemplified in Special tools which would be needed in addition to those men-
3. Workers the primitive rock-cut altars, aqueducts, tioned above are the plumb-line (?@$Am.77), or plummet-
in stone. wine-vats, cisterns, and conduits still to
be seen in Palestine. Of a less primitive
weight (n$p$p, Is. 28 17 2 K. 21 13), and the measuring-reed (n,lJi!
or nina njp, E+k. 40 3). For the mechanical methods employed
character are the rough-hewn stones, varying ih work- by the Egyptians, see especially F. Petrie, Pyramids and
manship, used as landmarks (Jer. 31ZI), gravestones Temples of Gieeh, 173 ziz$
( z K. 23 17), inscriptional steles,2 etc. Finally, the art 7. On the art of setting and engraving jewels (Ex.
in its most cultivated and advanced form is seen in the 2 8 9 8 , etc.). see P RECIOUS STONES).
manufacture of stone vases, etc. (see A LABASTER ) ; 8. Workers in clay and earth. Their trade ranged
sculpture, on the other hand, does not seem to have from the building of houses to the manufacture of house-
been practised by the Hebrews, although the prohibition *.
Ocher hold utensils, and pottery of the finest
in Ex. 204 is sufficiently wide to indicate that this par- trades. construction (see B RICK , $ z ; H OUSE ;
ticular branch of art was not unknown. POTTERY). G LASS Cp.u.1 was known to
4. One of the most interesting features connected the Hebrews ; but the glazier is first mentioned in the
with the craft of stone-cutting in general is the faculty Mishna ( JJI).
which the ancients possessed of dealing with huge masses 9. For t h e - tanning and preparation of skins see
of stone (in the form of foundation-blocks, obelisks, BOTTLE, $ I ; L EATHER.
or statues). T h e hugest of the stones of Stonehenge I O . For the various kinds of cloths, wearing apparel,
is quite put in the shade by such specimens of etc., see DKESSand the related articles, and for their
Egyptian workmanship as Cleopatra's Needle (186 tons), manufacture, see E MBROIDERY, L INEN , T ENT , W EAV -'
and the obelisk of Hatshepsu at Karnak (circa374 tons), ING, W OOL . In connection with this trade mention
and-to go beyond Egypt-by the largest of the stones must be made of the FULLER and the dyer (Mish. yax ;
in the outer wall of the Temple Hill at Jerusalem (some see generally COLOURS).
of which measure 25 x 12 x 8 ft.), or by some of the 11. Considerable attention was paid to the body.
stones in the ruins of Baalbek, three of which are about T h e use of perfumes and perfumed unguents necessi-
13 ft. in height, probably as much in thickness, and no less tated the apothecaries ' and ' confectibnaries ' (in AV) ;'
than from 62 to 64 ft. in length. ' T h e greatest marvel see I NCENSE , O IL , SPICES. Barbers were an indis-
is that they have been raised to the top of a substruction pensable class (see BEARD, H AIR ). The bath-man
already 23 ft. high.' One is enabled to see from ( M H ih),and the i i j (Phcen.), ~ who scraped the skin
the extant quarries of red granite at Syene the way with a strigil, first appear at a late date.
in which the stone was cut away from the mother-rock 12. Finally must be enumerated the most domestic
before removal. Thence it was conveyed upon sledges of all arts--that of cooking; see B AKING , B READ ,'
and rollers o r upon rafts and floats, which were drawn by C OOKING , FISH, FOOD.
men orcattle(sometimes both) tothe required spot. Brute Among dwellers in the desert whose wants are few,
strength-with a total disregard of human life-aided and who derive food and clothing from their herds, a
by such simple mechanical expedients as levers was the 5. General knowledge of handicrafts cannot be expected
sole motive power employed.4 remarks. to flourish. The women do more than their
5. Turning now to the builders (o'?h, o ~ K o ~ ~ ~we o L ) , share of the work, and owing to inter-tribal
note that in the construction of walls both wood and co-operation outside aid is rarely needed. Doughty,
stone were used (Ezra 5 8 6 3 ; cp Herod. 1179, Rawl. ad however, speaks of a tribe of nomads who travelled as
Zoc. ). T h e specialised term for wall-builders is ~ ' - 1 1 3 cheese-sellers ( A r . Des. Z z o S f . ) , and in the case of metal-
workers it is not improbable that there were nomad
CP niip !mn, 2 K. 6 5. craftsmen, the ancestors of the siny and soZu66y of
The specific term (at all events for the stele maker) is &a, to-day.l
found at the end of several Nabatrean inscriptions. In some
cases there are two ( C I S 2 nos. 206 209 221) or even three (3. It is among a settled population living in towns and
no. 208) workmen. One bears the (possibly appropriate) name villages that need for special craftsmen arises. Outside
nnm (cp nn?, nm? ; see ENGRAVE). help was needed by Solomon in the building of the
3 Baed. PaL(3)375. Even these are exceeded in size by a temple ( I K. 5 6 [zo], see G EBAL i. ), and the intercourse
prodigious block in the quarries to the SE., measuring 71 X 14x 13. thus established (not necessarily for the first time) was
ft. and probably weighing about 1500tons (0). cit. 376). Though
h&n out it has not yet been separated from the rock.
4 SeeWilk. Anc. Eg.2 3028, and for theinterestingdescription 1 That the Kenites weresuch aguild (Sayce, RacesofOT, 118)
upon the bas-relief in the Deir el-Bahri temple, see F. L. Gristh rests upon the slenderest of bases ; see AMALEK, B 7 n., and cp
in Eg. ExjC. Fwnd Repovt for '95-'96, p. 6 8 METALS.
1953 1954
not without its influence on the religious history of Israel HANDS, LAYING ON OF, The same English
(.Neh. 13 16 2.3, c p H ORSE , 5 3 ) . phrase ‘ t o lay hands upon’ is used in the AV to render two
With the increase of trade special places for the trans- distinct Greek phrases-viz. xcipas ;rrr@a‘hhe~vto lay hands on
with violence, and xeipas ; m d E I v a L , to lay hahds on to convey
action of business sprang up. The ’ shop ’ (niin) is first some gift. With the latter phrase corresponds the d?riOetrrs
mentioned in M H (on the text of Jer. 3716 see C ELLS ) ; XapOv of Heb. 6 2 I Tim. 4 14 z Tim. 16. From it again
.the Gk. [~3150a5(TUVTOTWXLU) occurs onlyin a Palmyrene must be distinguished the verb X E L P O T O V C ~ V (Acts 14 z i ) , whicd
inscription. The usual custom, no doubt, was to carry properly signifies simply ‘to appoint,’ so, e.g., in the Diducht
chap. 15 ‘Appoint for yourselves ( X ~ L P O T O ~ ~ U 2awois)
~TF hishop;
on business out of doors, in the streets (nirrn, see especially and deaions’ : though at a later period X F L P O T O V ~ is~ regularly
I K. 2034), and, as is still so frequently the case, special used as a synonym of x ~ ~ p 0 0 e u i a .
localities would be set apart for certain trades. Hawkers In the O T we find ‘ laying on of hands ’ practised ( a )
and pedlars, however, were not unknown. B i b & Bathra by privileged individuals, of their own free will, and ( a )
zzu mentions the itinerant vendors of perfumes who by religious officers as a legal act. In the N T we find
visited cities to sell toilet requisites to women, and the (c) Jesus and the apostles using it at their pleasure
Tadmor fiscal inscription of 137 A. D. imposes a tax on in acts of healing or in benedictions ; we also find it ( d )
all peripatetic dealers in old clothes ( p a >T ~vnin* ... as an ecclesiastical rite. In all cases we must suppose
twin>, 11 Gk. ipunorrijhai perupbhor ~ w h [ o 1 7 v ] ~ ePvs $ the laying on of hands to be accompanied by words.
Tbh€l). If the words partake of the nature of a spell, the laying
In Alexandria there were streets reserved for the goldsmiths on of hands must also be said to have a magical char-
silversmiths, coppersmiths, etc. (Succah, 5 1 4 , similarly in Damas: acter ; our juclgment on the one act conditions our
cus (cp Baed. PaLPJ 348 ; see also J ERUSALEM). On the ‘valley
of craftsmen or sorcerers’ ( I Ch. 4 14), see GE-HARASHIM. judgment on the other (see BLESSINGS AN D C URSINGS ).
The classification by trade and the formation of guilds For an instance of ( a ) see Gen. 48 1 7 8 ; for instances
doubtless arose at a n early date (cp EPHESUS, col. 1305, of ( 6 ) Ex. 2910 15 Lev. 14 32 44 813J 22 1524 29 33
n. I). Guilds of goldsmiths and perfumers are mentioned 1621 (see A ZAZEL, § I ) 2414 Nu. 810 12 2718 20 Dt. 139
in Neh. 3 8 , l possibly also temple-masons in POCHERETH- 177 ; cp also Ecclus. 5020. See SACRIFICE.
The later Jewish stmmikhd is the lineal descendant of this OT
rite; but by the fifth century A.D., the symbolic act of imposi-
If so the family was a hereditary guild similar to the later tion of hands had entirely disappeared from the Jewish ordina-
families of Garmu and Abtinas who tenahously retained the tion of religious teachers. (See Schiirer’s note G]l/(SJ 2 199
secret of baking the shew-bread and preparing the holy incense LGIVPJ 2 152 ET 3 1771 ; andarticle ‘Ordinirung’inHamburger,
in their respective families (I‘8m83 11). Guilds of potters and RE,Aht. 88nzfi).
weavers seem to he referred to in I Ch. 4 21. A n ~ j 3 nn*>of For instances of ( c ) see Lk. 440 (the parallels in Mt.
the coppersmiths is mentioned in Shal.6. I J and a N ’ I ~ 3 1 Nnjn
(smiths’ guild) in a Palmyrene inscription ’of the t h i z century and Mk. are silent), Mk. 823 E16181 1016 (blessing
A.D. It was possibly as a sign of membership that each artisan children) Acts 9 17 288. The several passsages in Acts,
used to wear something distinctive of his calling ; the scribe, a however, need separate consideration. In Acts 8 16f:
pen in his ear; the wool-carder, a woollen thread; the tailor
(awn), a needle in front of his dress etc. we rkad that Peter and John, after prayer, laid their
No encroachment of trade wa; allowed (Mass. 24a) and hands on those who had been baptized by Philip in
to avoid competition two butchers would agree together Lot to Samaria, and they (for the first time) received the Holy
kill on the same day (Bd66 Batha, ga; see i6. 8 a) Each Spirit. That the action was in no degree magical is
baker adopted a particular shape of loaf to distinguis8 h:ls work-
manship from that of others. shown by the incident related in Acts 1044. Similarly
All labour was looked upon as honourable. Ex- in Acts 196 Paul lays his hands on disciples of John the
ceptions were few. The sailor, herdsman, driver of Baptist (see J OHN , DISCIPLES O F ).
asses or camels, and barber were regarded with dis- Instances of ( d ) occur in Acts 66 (imposition of hands
favour. T h e tanner was obliged to carry on his evil- on the Seven), 133 (Barnabas and Saul), I Tim. 414
smelling craft outside the precincts of the city (Bdbd 522 z Tim. 16. It is everywhere apparent that only
Balhru z j a , incidentally confirmed by Acts l O 3 2 ) , and certain privileged persons are able so to perform the rite
the low esteem in which his calling was held was only of imposition of hands that the ~ d p t u p aof office may
exceeded by that of the skinner of carcases (Phdch. be communicated, and it is this communication of a
113a). The trades closed to the high priest were those Xcipiupu which constitutes investiture of office.
of the weaver, fuller, perfumer, barber, tanner, leech, Once more the non-magical character of the rite is
and bath-man. Apart from this the practice of some manifest. In I Tim. 414 the imposition of the hands
trade or other was recommended to all. ‘ Great is work, of the presbytery is in close connection with prophetic
for it honours the worker ’ (Niu‘dr. 46b). To neglect to utterances (cp I Tim. 118). In z Tim. 16 the description
teach one’s son some handicraft was tantamount to is condensed into ‘ t h e gift (xcip.) of God which is in
bringing him up to robbery (@id. z9a). Not all trades, thee through the laying on of my (Paul’s)hands.’
as we have seen, were estimated alike. BZrikh. ( 6 3 a ) The meaning of I Tim. 5 22 is not quite plain. ‘ Lay hands
suddenly (or, hastily) on no man’ might refer to the appointment
advises every man to teach his son a clean and light of church officers ’ hut the following words, ‘and he not partaker
employment, such as, for example, tailoring, because with other men’s’sins,’ hardly seems favonrahle to this. The
the stitches form neat, straight lines like the furrows of laying on of hands was afterwards employed in the reception of
catechumens and in the restoration of offenders. The ealtleurs
the field. Many Rabbins, renowned in their day, were x a p i v of Heh. 6 z is closely connected with ‘baptisms ;1 but we
not ashamed to earn their living by the labour of their are unable to define the precise meaning. See SPIRITUAL
hands; R. Johanan as a sandal-maker, Hillel as a GI*TS.
wcod-cutter, R. Jehudah as a baker, R. Simon as an
embroiderer - and many other instances could be
given.2 It is quite exceptional, therefore, when Ben-Sira HANES (D>Q; on the versions see n. z ) , a place in
elevates the literary profession far above all trades, and Egypt (Is. 304 to which v. 5 belongs). M T is generally
refuses to concede the possibility of the artisan’s acquir-
rendered thus : ‘ For though 2 his princes are in Zoan,
ing wisdom (Ecclus. 3828J). See EDUCATION.
S. A. C. 1 Barnyp0-i 2nlfiuls T E x a p i v corresponds to bvn’uraurc
velpo” Ka‘ K p L p a OLOY‘OV.
HANDKERCHIEF ( C O Y A A ~ I O N )Acts 19x2. See 2 If MT of v. 41: is correct, ???,*J milst be taken as con-
N APKIN . yessive (‘for though .. .’). His princes cannot mean
Judah’s princes for Pharaoh has just been spoken of (see Di.
HAND MIRROR (I\$), IS. 323 RV, AV GLASS. Jes.0 ed. Kittei). @ differs in several points from MT. It
See LOOKING-GLASS. presupposes n w , n d m , for iw, i 4 n ; also i y am ~
1 The idiom n3aym- 3 etc., may perhaps he the source of the ( p d ~ q v~ o r ~ a ’ u o u u r[BUAOQ])
v for lY’3’ Din; and W N m 53 is
B TOG T C K T ~ V O S ut& (h!t.)1355; contrast Mk. 63). See JOSEPH unrepresented. So far as Din for m n is concerned, we cannot
(H USBAND OF MARY). pronounce BBNAOQ’s text an improvement. See, however no. 3.
2 e.g. Paul ; cp CILICIA, 0 3 (end), TENT, $ 3. Jerome keeps Hanes, hut guesses badly at ‘ ultimam’ juxta
I955 1956
and his messengers go as far as Hanes, none wins aught represents the destruction of mankind as having begun
but disappointment,' etc. (so SBOT, 'Isaiah')-ie., here.l Politically, the city took the highest rank under
however far the rule of the Pharaoh may extend, none the ninth and tenth dynasties (Heracleopolitan), and
who has anything to ask of him fails to be disappointed again we find it important in the eighth and
(Di., Duhm, Che.). If this is correct, Hanes must centuries. The Ethiopian P'an&y(commonly miscalled
have been at some distance from the royal residence, so Pianchi) mentions the ruler (nomarch) of Heracleopolis,
that the Pharaoh communicated with it by messengers as the chief adversary of the powerful prince of Sais
or envoys. Our first object will be to illustrate by (EGYPT, 6 5 ) . The Assyrian king Ah-bHni-pal speaks
Egyptology what the critics pronounce the most prob- of a ruler of @ininSi (=Heracleopolis?) whom h e
able view of the Hebrew text ; we therefore disregard called X a @ i (but see above). Herodotus (2 137) knows,
a t present the different interpretation of EV. something of a blind king Anysis (!) R-ho in the
I. W e may well be cautious in seeking to identify island-city "Avuuis (=A&-&) held out against t h e
Hanes, considering the failure of 6 to recognise any Ethiopian invasion for fifty years (a confusion of some
Egyptian name resembling it. But we may at any rate
reject the view put forward by Dumichen, who identifies
both Hanes and the Assyrian @z'nin(!)Si with
- historical and mythological facts). W.M. M. ,
3. But is the text on which recent critics have worked
correct? I t is very difficult to think so. Gratz (Emen-
datz'anes, '92) and Cheyne (JQR July '98) have inde-
n @'
the capital of a district E53 with a sanctuary Ht- pendently suggested omsnn as an emendation of D I ;, ~
T ' Zoan ' and ' Tahpanhes ' are very naturally combined.
knmtt ( ' house of the nurser?). Dumichen held this D J at
~ any rate is wrong, thinks the latter ; D J ~ Nwould he
city to be Daphnze, and Daphnz to be HeracZeopolis possible (cp the Coptic name Ehnes); but the appearance of 7'71-
4 and 5, both in MT and in @, suggests that more than o n e
pama, but without any other reason than the an- letter may have fallen out of the text. w " j 3 5 2 also appears
alogy of this alleged ' g e n e s ' to the southern Hnes to him wrong. There is a &E w'?h (see Ginshurg) ; hut this is
(wrongly read &'enensuten by Diimichen). Unfortu- artificial. Krochmal, Gratz, and Cheyne read qg &J-
nately, the reading genes is a guess of the highest ' they all bring presents.' p ? ~n*j&
, (so B ) for vi$*,y&
improbability. Naville ( A h n a s el-Medineh, 4) admits removes all the ground for dispute between EV and the recent
it to be doubtful, and prefers to emphasise the fact that critics ; Cheyne's 315 for 3'c may also be right, unless the cor:
in ASm-bki-pal's account of his war with Tarku ruption is more deeply seated. Verses 5 and 6 thus become
(Tirhakah) HininSi occurs among the names of cities parallel, and within v. 5 itself the parallelism between ' Zoan t
and ' Tahpanhes is as perfect as it could he (see TAHPANHES):
all of which belong to the Delta. I t is clear, however, Cp Ruben, JQR 11448 ['gg].
that this circumstance will not justify us in accepting W. M. M. ( I , 2)- T. K. C . (3).
Dumichen's identification. It can only suggest that
ASur-bhi-pal's HininSu was probably a city in the HANGING. T h e Hebrew terms employed to denote
Delta, which is, in fact, all that Naville contends for. deaths of this or of a like nature require to be carefully
2. W e have next to consider the view prevalent among
I. I n the cases of Ahithophel (z S. 1723) and Judas
scholars from Vitringa's time-a view that is at any
rate in harmony with the generally accepted interpreta- Iscariot (Mt. 275) death by strangulation (pin, @ana#;
drdyXeuOai) is a mode of suicide. Another reference
tion of Is. 504. This identifies Hanes with Heracleopolis
has been found in Job 715, where, after describing
(magna), a city of Middle Egypt, W. of the Nile,
some of his distressing symptoms, Job says, according
near the place where the Bahr Yfisuf branches off into
the Faiyiim. The spot is now called Henassfye -or to RV,
So that my soul chooseth strangling,
Henassiyet-el-Medineb, 12 mm. W. of Beni Suef; on And death rather than (these) my bones.
the unproductive excavations there see Naville, Ahnas
It is very improbable, however, that a righteous man
el Medineh (11th Memoir of EEF, '94). Earlier
like Job should be thus represented, and either t h e
Arab writers called it A h n i s ; l the Copts HnZs (or
' strangling ' must be one of the well-known symptoms'
Ehnes) ; the ancient hieroglyphic name was g a t
of leprosy, or, much more probably, the word rendered
(;.e., 'house,' cp n-s), Henen-suten (or seten?) ( i . e . ; ' strangling ' (pin3 ; so Aq. &yx6v7)v) is corrupt. It is
' abode of the royal youth ' ). This name seems to have at any rate certain that there is a reference to suicide
been shortened to Hne(n)s(e)in the vulgar pronunciation by strangling in Tob. 310, and to a violent death
(cp Ass. @ininSi?). caused thus in Tob. 23, also in Jos. Ant. xvi. 117 (two
The city was the capital of the twentieth nome (or sons of Herod U T ~ U ~ V~ ~~ s~[ vVo v ~ u i ) .
county) of Upper Egypt, which formed an island In later times, according to the Talmud, this form of death-
surrounded by the main Nile and the present Bahr was the ordinary mode of execution (Sanh. 11 I ; cp 7 3); some
Yiisnf (? Ptol. 125, Strabo, 789, 809, ~ I Z ) , or at least form of the garrotte such as is still used in executiorx in Spain
and elsewhere, is intended hy the expression.
by a similar branch of the Nile (called Menhi in Coptic
2. The word rendered ' hanging' in EV (& tdih,
writers). The chief god was HarSaf(y), 'Apuaq%js-i,e.,
'Horus the valiant' (cp Plut. De Zs. 37), whence the ~ $ 5 ,tiZi' ; Kpefikreiv, ~ p ~ f i l iKpepavvdvai,
v, in Esth. 79
Greek name of the city (the ram-headed Hnumu being UTUIJ~OGV; suspendere [appendere, affigere] in patibulo
identified with Heracles), or according to an earlier [ligno, cruce], or super stipites, or super trabem, or
etymology ' the one on his lake ' (vocalize&+SeiJ) ; but cruci) seems invariably to mean some form of impale-
most likely the name (Hr-Fy) meant originally only ment or crucifixion.
'the ram-headed.' The sacred animal was the ich- ( a ) I t has been doubted whether the references i n
neumon. The city and its chief temple played a great Esther (y$p a)? 514 6 4 7gf: 8 7 9 1 3 3 25) refer t d
part in Egyptian theology, and deep cosmogonic sym- impalement or ta crucifixion (after death). I t is true,
bolism was found in the ceremonies of the great local impalement (dvauKoXorileiv, Herod. 1128) would have
festivals of 'hoeing the ground,' of ' lifting the heaven,' been the correct punishment to specify,s the scene of
etc. The story which in Egyptian mythology takes the story being laid in Persia (cp Schr. KAT(2)378,
the place of the Deluge-story (see D ELUGE, § IS)
1 Inscription I. 19(Naville TSBA 8 415).
Bthiopas et Blemmyes Egypti civitatem.' Saad. renders 2 The whole) verse seems tb need careful restoration. See
l ; his rendering of Lehabim in Gen. 1013 ( p n j ) .
~ b i i l ~cp Che. Ex$. T., May '99, 381 6.
But this is Eg. Pemse Pemdje Greek IICrq or ' O ~ u v p u y ~ o s .
1 The orthography'Akhnas,'found in some books, has no
3 Both bvasrohoq"w and bvaosavpoiiv mean either
or to crucify. In Herod. 3125 buausadpoosv is used of the
to impale
authority. punishment inflicted by Orcetes the Persian on Polycrates, and
here there can Be no doubt that impalement is intended.

Lucian, however (De F'emp-. Morfe, II), speaks of rbv 6v .li
l l a h a i u r i v n avao~ohorrio8(vra,-i.s., Jesus Christ (quoted b y
6 Brandt, Evangel. Gesch. 180). Diodorus (532) says of the
I957 1958
6 ~ 5 )but
; we must not expect minute accuracy (see &OD). Bearing in mind, however, the parallel abstract
ESTHER, I $ ). Further, the description in 5 14 seems term b p a p ~ t uin 2 Cor. 521 ( ' made him to be sin for
inconsistent with impalement. Both here, and in the us,' 3 d p ~ P & Vd p ~ p ~ hwe ) , cannot help supposing
other passages referred to, EV has ' gallows,' but in 2 2 3 that there is another more important reason for the
'hanged on a tree ' as elsewhere. At any rate, the choice of the term K U T ~ ~ U .' Christ was not personally
impalement of the living body seems to be meant in accursed, but only came to stand in the place of such
Ezra 611, RV 'let a beam (yx) be pulled out from his an one before God, inasmuch as he suffered the
house, and let him be Zifled up ( ?I) and fastened accursed death as a vicarious expiatory sacrifice '
(xnnn?) thereon' (@B* LSpOwpQvos T?&~+UETUL [ ~ u y ? j - (Pfleiderer, PuuZz'nism, 199). H e was therefore a
QETUL, A], 6s' UbTOF, bL 6pf?WO+UETUL KUL TUy?)UETUL). ' curse,' but not ' cursed' in the same sense as any
We may compare the Ass. phrase ina zakiji aza&if: zakipu justly condemned criminal would have been. Paul's
i s the ordinary word for 'pale, cross ' ; cp Aram. \&O! ' cross' object being to overthrow the legal religion by terms
(same verb in Heb. in Ps. 145 14 146 8). derived from the law, we cannot hold that this minute
(6) Beyond all doubt it is the impalement or gibbeting distinction is a mere quibble. H e deliberately avoids
of the offender (or part of the offender) after death, for 6 ' s expression as liable to misinterpretation. Cp Holtz-
propitiation to God or warning to man, that is meant mann, Neutest. Theol. 2 1 0 5 8 See also Lightfoot's
in Dt. 2 1 z z A 1 (see below), Josh. 8 2 9 (king of Ai) 1 o z 6 f . note, GuZatiansP), 1 5 0 8
(the five kings), and 2 S. 412 (Rechab, and Baanah's
hands and feet ; so Klo.). Probably also in Gen. HANGING. For ( I ) 7CQ mEsEAh, Ex. 2636, RV
401922 4 1 1 3 (cp Ebers, Bgypten, 334, and EGYPT, 5 ' screen.' AV sometimes covering,' ' curtain ' ; and for ( 2 )
28). Similarly Nicanor's head and ,shoulder (2 Macc. P'y)?, &eZri'im, E x . 2 7 9 etc., see T ADERNACLE . For (3)
15 35), Holofernes' head (Judith 11 I), and the princes D'FII, bdt(t)2)im, z K. 23 7, RVmg. 'tents, Heb. houses [for the
hanged up by their [enemies' ?] hand (Lam. 5 12). Asherahl' ; see ASHERAH, I DOLATRY , $ 4 , also DRESS, B 8.
3. Closely allied to the usage of (6) is that which HANIEL ($8 : q, 1 c h . 739 AV, RV HAHNIEL,2.
apparently underlies another word (ypv), which is taken
by EV (after Syrnrn. and Pesh.) to mean hanging. HANNAH (il?n, 'graciousness,' 5 51 ; A N N &
I t occurs in MT only in Nu. 25 (where @ has rrapa8rty- [BAL]: Vg. A N N A ) , wife of Elkanah and mother of
p a r l u a i ) and in z S. 2 1 6 9 xg(where has l.$'qA~d{eiv,GL in v. 6
d.$'rAauiip@Oa; Vg. cruci figere; cp ZI. 14 @BA jAra&rv, Vg.
the prophet Samuel ( I S. 1). On the probable date
affigere). Probably however the same verb ought to be read of Hannah's prayer or song (I S. 2 1-10), see S AMUEL ,
also in I S. 31 I O (so,' after La;. Prov. p. iv, Dr., Bu., L6hr). ii. J 7.
T h e etymology is difficult. WRS, R e l Sem(4 419, HANNATHON (OQn ; & M a e [Bl, €"&ewe
thought of precipitation, and reminds us of the many
&NA. [L]), a city on the N. border of Zebulun (Josh.
cases in which precipitation from a rock was a mode of
1 9 14). Perhaps for Anathon =Beth-anath 'i @ L ' s read-
execution ; but this hardly suits the context. Dillmann ing (cp bLavuOwu, I Ch. 7 8, for Anathoth) favours this
on Nu. 2 5 4 takes the meaning to be to expose with view. There was a Beth-Anath in Zebulun, and not
dislocated limbs. This seems to have been the mean-
far off a !(art-'Anat or Kirjath-Anath (WMM As. u.
ingattached by @ (cp ruptz&qpud& in Heb. 6 6 ) . I n
Bur. 195). In Ani. Tab. 1 1 1 7 1 9 6 3 2 we find a city
all cases the reference is to a solemn presentation of
called Hin(n)atiini in Kinahhi; but h in Assyrian
the dead body with piacular intent-in the sun (Nu.
sometimes represents y, e.g., Qazitu='Azzah (Gaza).
2 5 4 ) . before Yahwi: (z S. 2 1 6 Nu. 2 5 4 2 S. 2lg)-0n
T. K. e.
the 'mountain' of Gibeon or the walls of Bethshan,
until the falling rain showed that the divine wrath had HANNIEL (\KWl, 'favour of God,' 1111 21, 28; __
been appeased. & N [ E ] I H ~[BAFLI):
4. In spite of the fact that crucifixion was not a I. A Manassite prince Nu. 3423 (P).

Jewish punishment, we find Paul in Gal. 3 1 3 expressly

2. AV H ANIEL , in a ienealogy of ASHER (I 4 ii.), I Ch. 7 39.
asserting that the death of Christ made him ' a curse' HANOCH (*3Q, 735 ; F N W X [BADEFL]).
o n the ground that 'every one who hangs on a stake I . Third son of MIDIAN[ p . ~ . ] ;Gen. 25 4 ; also I Ch.
.(EV a tree, .$liXov, up) is cursed' (Dt. 2123, quoted 1 3 3 [AV HENOCH]. See E NOCH, 3. Perhaps the mod.
freely from 6).I n Acts 5 3 0 1 0 3 9 (cp I Pet. 2 2 4 ) is- Handkiya, three days' journey N. from Medina (so
foiind the very same Hebraistic phrase for crucifixion, Knobel). See Doughty, A?: Des. 2x83.
together with the ascription of the responsibility of the 2. Eldest son of R EUBEN [ p . ~ . ] , Gen. 46 9 Ex. 6 14

act to the Jews. Evidently those who wrote thus con- Nu. 26 5 (Gentilic, Ranochite, '?iF ; o EVWX [BAFL]),
sidered crucifixion to have a piacular character, and the I Ch. 5 3. Perhaps the clan thus designated was of
only wonder is that Paul could have represented an Midianitish. origin.
innocent person as attracting to himself the divine HANUN ()U?#'pitied [by Gad],' J 56 ; A N N W N
punishment by an act which was a judicial error. I t [B], A[N]WN [A] i n z S . ; A N A N [BHA], but also
shoiild be observed, however, that Paul qualifies the A N N A N [K in 1 C h . ; ANNAN [L] in both places; cp
term ElrrKardparos by the preceding expression yevbpevos Hanunu, the name of a king of Gaza mentioned by
d d p $p&v K U T ~ ~ U' being , made a curse for us.' I t is Tiglath-pileser, KA TP)257= C O T 1249).
true, K U T ~ ~ 'Ucurse ' may have been suggested by the I . Son of Nahash, king of Ammon, who went to
Heb. a))?, which corresponds to B T L K U T ~ ~ U T O Sin Paul's war with David, after insulting his ambassadors (z S.
free quotation from Dt. (@ has Krwrqpupdvos d r b TOF 1 0 1 8 I Ch. 191 8 ) . I n z S. 10 I Wellhausen and
Budde (see SBOT) omit the name ' Hanun ' ; but see
Gauls robs KLV(OUPVO+S dvauKoAorri{0vuL rois &ais, and Strabo H. P. Smith. See A MMONITES , J 4 ; NAHASHii., z ;
(1g8), speaking of the Druids, says KLIIL BAAa 82 bvflpwrroOvut&v ISRAEL, 19.
,ZSq-A&yma& * KO.; y i p Karevi.$'ev6v n v a s K a i dvemadpouv du TO% 2. In list of (see N EHEMIAH , $ xJ, E ZRA ii.,
1 Jos. B/ iv. I, z [$ 3171, referring to this law, has dveurauDw. 58 16 [I], 15 4, Neh. 3 13 ( a v o w [I" ; om. L]), 30 (avoup
p&vous. [BNI, avwp [AI, avwv [Ll).
2 Cp also Ar. waka'a 'to fall,' and note the statement 'they
fell seven together" (2's. 219). The words 'before Yahwi:' HAPHARAIM, AV Haphraim (D!T@? ; possibly
(v. g), however, hardly hvour this view. The word seems to 'place of a 'well or moat' ; on form of name see
be a religious synonym for n h ; for ?bJ in z S. 21 g read N AMES , § 107; areiN [Bl, A ~ ~ P A ~[AI, I M AM-
(with Klo., Che.) hg;!, 'and they remained hanging there' ~ A P A I M[L]), in Issachar (Josh. 19 19).
(a" ~ K E Z ) . ' Hanging' with a piacular intent is what is meant ; Mar Miiller(As. ZL. Bur. 170) compares the Eg. Ha-pu-ru-m-$
before Yahwi:' and 'before the sun' (Nu. 254) are synonymous. AFcording to Eusebius and Jerome (OSW 223 61 94 28) Haph-
When the divine wrath had been ap eased, the bones of ' those raim (aic$paLp) lay 6 R. m. N. of Legio. Perhaps the site is
who were hanged' were collected a n i buried (a S. 21 13). eL-P'arriyeh,N W . of Lejjim (Conder);
I959 1960
RAPPIZZEZ, AV APHSES(p$@?; AC$ECH [B], TCH The site was first explored by a party detached from
[A], -CCEI [L]), the name of the eighteenth priestly the Euphrates expedition,*and the disinterment of a
course (I Ch. 24 rg), corrupted probably from PASHHUR fragment of an Assyrian lion a t Harriin preceded the
[u. I. discoveries of Layard in Assyria proper, N o inscrip-
i(i)nwn became, by accidental transposition of letters, $))w3n, tions have yet been brought from HarrHn itself; but
and this became yran,'] and y, n and 7 being confounded. The the Assyrian and Babylonian texts throw some light on
corruption of nD3n into liBD [see DANCE, 5 4 (+)I is partly its history. The ' country of HarrRn ' is mentioned in
analogous. T. K. C. the Prism inscription of Tiglath-pileser I. (KB 139),
and in another inscription believed to be of not later
RARA (K??), mentioned with Halah and Habor as date (3 R 41 I 19f:). In 5 R 64 Nabana'id, the most
a place where Israelitish exiles were settled by Tiglath- scrupulously religious of the later kings of Babylon,
pileser (I Ch. 6 2 6 ; om. @E* ; appAN-i.e., p y [L]). relates that he rebuilt the temple of Sin (the moon-god)
From a comparison of z K. 176 it is clear that ~ 1 is 2a at HarrLn on the foundation-stone of Ah-bHni-pal,
mutilated form of some longer phrase. Most critics who discovered the foundation-stone of Shalmaneser
think that it represents the 3 2 '?J? ~ ( ' cities of Media ') ( I I . ) , son of A&r-na+ir-pal. T h e cultus of this deity
or perhaps rather y p q? ( ' mountains of Media '), or had its chief home and perhaps its origin a t g a r r a n ;
y y ('river of Media').l I t is possible, however, %*sibbarrLni ('inhabiter of HarrBn') is a title of Sin
under Ah--biini-pal (1 R 8, no. 2, Z. 13), and Nab@-
that the original document had some name of a place
na'id tells us that Sin had had his dwelling-place a t
such as Barbar, a city and region on the border of
HarrLn from remote days (PSBA, 1883,p. 7).
Media, near Ellip, conquered by Sargon, and colonised Hence it has been fancifullyconjecturedthat Terah may haye
Sy him with captivesfrom other countries (KB 2 61). halted at €Jarran because the moon-god had attracted his special
It is noteworthy that among the families of Nethinim reverence at Ur (Uru). $0 Tomkins (Lve of Abraltam),
mentioned in the great list in Ezra2 Neh. 7 and I Esd. 5 , Hommel ( A N T73).
occur the b'ne Harhur (Harhar). Out of *lni ~ lnlnxr? y 'and Sargon 11. also mentions HarrBn. H e states that he
in Harhar a city of Media "all the various readings of M r and
@ ma+ hive arisen. (@&A, in z K . 176, has K ~ OPT L yqSwv,
restored its privileges (as well as those of AHur) ' which
where opq is not='>?, but is corrupt. @L ev O ~ L O L [F = O P C Q L ; had long been forgotten' ( K B 2 53, cp 41); it would
see Mal. 131 p q b v , which is a conjectural correction.) seem therefore that HarrLn had taken part in the
T.K. C. rebellion of.ASur in the year of the great solar eclipse
EARADAH ("12Q ; XapaAaO [BAF], -ah [Ll), a 763. Ah-bHni-pal, who had been crowned in
stage in the wandering in the wilderness (Nu. 33 2 4 j ) . HarrHn with the crown of Sin', was not less friendly
See W ANDERINGS , 5 113 to this sacred city. He rebuilt its temple (see above),
and raised his younger brother to the rank of ,high
HARAN (175 ; x b p p [BADEQaL]),~ ~ or, as we shall priest of Sin. During the invasion of the Ummanmanaa
here call it, for distinction from the Haran properly (i.e., here, the Medes ; see CYRUS,5 z) much damage
so-called, HARRAN(CHARRAW,Acts724 AV), is, in was done to HarrLn and its temple.
P, the place where Terah and his family halted in their An inscription of Nabii-na'id discovered by Scheil gives a
migration from Ur Casdim and where Terah died (Gen. second account of that king's restoration of the temple of Sin
fifty-fouryears after its destruction (see Messerschmidt, MVG
113 1 3 12 46 5 ) ; whilst J represents it as the birthplace 1896, and cp the cylinder inscription described at length b;
of Abraham (Gen. 12 I 2447 ; cp 2743 28 IO 29 4, xappas Del. Calzuer Bi6. Lex. (21, S.W. ' Haran ').
[E]), and gives it the name of the ' city of Nahor' (Gen. The conquest of Harriin mentioned in 2 K. 1912
2410). J also describes it as the home of LABAN evidently stands in connection with the restoration of
(q.v.), and introduces it as such into the story of Isaac privileges spoken of by Sargon 11. When the rebellion
and Jacob ; he places it in A RAM - NAHARAIM . There of ASur and &miin was suppressed, these places were
are, however, great difficulties in this view, and it is doubtless deprived of their ancient rights.'
not improbable that ]in in Gen. is miswritten for pin, It only remains to be mentioned that at Carrhae (=Hatran)
Hauran ; not Harran, but the chief city of Hauran was Crassus was defeated and slain by the Parthians (53 s.: ) and
the emperor Caracalla murdered at the instigation of Macrinus
the home of the Laban clan (see NAHOR). At any ($17 A.D.). The place long continued to be a centre of idolatry,
rate there is no doubt that Harran is mentioned in and especially pf moon-worship. Its principal temple remained
zK.1912 (see below); reference is made (11 Is.3712, in the hands of the heathen Harranians till the eleventh century
A.D., and was finally destroyed by the Mongols in the thirteenth.
~ a p a v[K"]) there to its conquest by the Assyrians, and
in Ezek. 27 23 (xappa [BQ]) to its commercial intercourse The commercial importance of HarrLn in the sixth
with Tyre. Nor can any one fail to see the certainty of the century B . C . is attested not only by Ezek. 27 23, but also
restoration Q * J ; ~ for o y x j in Is. 26 which (if we adopt later by Pliny, who enumerates among its specialities a
certain odoriferous gum ( H N 12.40). Josephus (Ant.
also two other appropriate corrections) produces this xx. 22), too, speaks of its plentiful production of
complete picture, aniomum. (There are also in it, he adds, the remains
For they are full of diviners from the east, of Noah's ark. )
And of soothsayers like the Philistines See Mez Gesclt. derStadt Haw&, '92; Wi. GBA and A O R
And with the secret arts of the Hirranians they practise 1 7 5 8 ; Sichau,Reis#, 2 1 7 8 ; Ainsworth,PSBA,I8~r,p.3878
enchantments. (on the ruins of various dates). Chwolsohn,
Harran, Ar. garrrin, is situated about nine hours' Literature. Die Ssa6ier undderSsisa6ismus, dk. i. (a history
journey from Edessa, on the small stream called JullZb, of HarrZn and the Harranians); HalCvy, MdZ.
7 2 3 , Rev. Sdm. 1894 (HarrBn, in Syria, seven days' journey to
a t the point where the road from Damascus joined the the N. of Mt. Gilead). Noldeke 'Harrln,'ZA 11 ropiog ('96),
great highway from Nineveh to Carchemish and Arpad. questions the importahce assigned by Winckler and Hilprecht
The commercial and strategical importance of its position to the primitive Barran. T. K. C.
may account for its name (Ass. &arrcinu,' road ').4
HARAN (]2?; [AL in I Ch.]). I. Brother of
1 At any rate the phrase, whatever it may have been, was Abraham, and ( P adds) father of Lot (Gen. 1 1 2 8f .
first omitted and then restored in the wrong place. [J] ; , 2 6 3 31 [PI ; appa [A], - N [ADEL]). According
2 This is the ground of identifications such as that of Beke to M T (v.29) his daughters were MILCAW ( I ) and ISCAH.
(/. ofR. Geoz. SOC.32), who thinks of H a h n el-'AwEmid, 16 m. Wellhausen thinks that Haran was originally I;IarrBn.
E. of Damascus where there is a so-called well of Abraham, and
morerecent theAries of HalCvy (see Literature, and cp ARAM- (PYOZ.., ET, 313),and YLkiit, the Arabian geographer,
NAHARAIM ). Several places bore the name HarrEn ; but on the mentions the opinion that flarvrin was named after
above theory we need none of them.
3 '&3? for '15'3 (see Ex. 7 11) ; ?P@j for lp'eb'. The 1 These privileges were probably connected with the reverence'
latter is due to Krochmal. Cp HAND. paid to the ancient sanctuaries. One of them probably was that
4 Winckler, however, questions the connection between the of immediate dependence on the king; we never hear of a ,
words. governor of qarrgn (Wi. AOF 194). '
1961 1962
Haran, Abraham’s brother (2231, ap. WIez, garrun, Loubtful ; the M T P ~ 8 m Y n - p 5uvy can scarcely be
24). If Milcah=Salecah (of which M T s Iscah must lefended (in spite of Be.-Rys.), and after the analogy
b e another corruption) all becomes plain. The city of ,f pnpia-jz n’31n (26. ) we should read simply o’mi8-p ‘y.
Salecah might equally well be called the wife and the The origin of the intrusive nvnn may perhaps he explained.
daughter of Hauran. J, doubtless, reconciled these ts close similarity to the equally unnecessary ?inn in v. 20
Statements (which lay before him in a corrupt form) BNAL om.) suggests that vv. 8 20 originally stood opposite one
b y inventing a Haran.): :1( That P understood the mother in parallel columns, and that a marginal note has found
ts way.into both passages, suffering corruption in the process.
Terahites to have sojourned in Harran on their way rhe note in question was a> ;: (‘to the mount’), a gloss upon
from ‘ Ur-kasdim ’ (?) to Canaan, is, of course, not to !4??? (the turning of the wall) in v. 196.1 It still survives in
b e questioned. 5 L ; where ELF ~b 6poq is inserted bodily between bniuw and a h 0 0
2. h. Shimei, a Levite ( I Ch. 239 ; a d a v [B*], lid Abv (sic) = i + l n v.
~ zoa) and has been transplanted, hut not yet cor-
WI). T. K. C. .upted, in the $g. readjng of v. 20 (‘post eum in monte Zdifi-
lln; :wit’). A somewhat similar fate (according to We. TBS 151)
HARAN (I?? ; cp Sab. pr. n. D H M Epig. ias befallen another marginal note in z S. 166 17a (cp We.,
Denk. 56), the name of a Calebite family, I Ch. 2 4 6 Dr. ad roc.) ; see Ex$. T. 10280 (Mar. ’99). S. A. C.
(AppAN [BAI, W P W N [L]). HARHAS (DflTn), ancestor of SHALLUM(z).,2 K.
HARARITE, THE (’717Il, BDB Lex., doubtfully 2214 (apaac [B*], a p A [Bb
~ certe], apac [AI, abpa
4 mountain-dweller ’ ; 0 apax[~]l [L]), an unknown IL])=zCh. 3422 H ASRAH ( g . ~ . ) .
ethnic applied to certain of David‘s heroes.
1. Shamniah h. Agee, 2 S. 23 11 (‘27 b,apouxaros [BA]);
HARHUR (l%ll?, 3 74, ‘fever’ [?I, or, rather, a
dace-name [see HARA] ; apoyp [BA], apoyap [LI),
more rohahly an ARCHITE ( ~ J . v .see
) ; SHAMMAH, 3.
gmily of N ETHINIM in the great post-exilic list (see
2. ghammah, 2 S. 23 33a (6 apoS6m)s [BAl)= I Ch. 1134
(6 a p a p [B*bl, apap[cl~[BabNAl, apopc [Ll), properly the same E ZRA ii., § 9, Ezra251)=Neh. 753 ( ~ P O Y M [BK])
as ( I ) above, see SHAMMAH (4). = I Esd. 531 AssUR, RV ASUR(acoyp [BA]).
3. Ahiam h. Sharar, 2 S 23 33b (‘72%: [Ba. for common ’t$]; HARIM (Pl?, ‘ inviolable ’ ? cp Nab. and Sin. mln
R V ARARITE ;uapaovpswqc [BI, apap. [AI apcpLpa [LI) where and Ar. and Sab. name kara‘m ; or = HARUMAPH ? see
we may read with Marq. (Ru~d. 21) Ah& b. S H A R A ~
the ‘Aradite’ (? ’ :?:) or ‘Adorite’(‘?lQ; cp A ~ A D . N AMES , 66; HPAM [BRA] HIPAM [L]).
I. One of the twenty-four (post-exilic) priestly courses ; I Ch.
HARBONA (R!i?n ; eappa KAI BC&ZH [BRLP, 248 (yapqg [B], -qp [AI, Xerpap [Ll), whose head in the days of
om. La], oape Bwa [A]), or as in Esth. 7 9 Harbonah Joiakim (see EZRA II., IS 6 6 TI) was Adna; Neh. 1% 15 (opcp
( a $ ~ p ; BoyrAOAN [BALB], -ea [K*l -razaN [K“~”], -uc.amg.inf.] peoup [Ll, BN*A om.). I t is mentioned in the
ireat post-ehc list (see E ZRA ii., 5 g), Ezra239 (om. B, q p ~ p
ayaOar [La]), a chamberlain of Ahasuerus (Esth. 1IO). rapip [L]) = Neh. 74a (qpa [N] capeLp [LI) = I Esd. 5 25
In Jos. Ant. xi. 6 I I the name appears as ua@ovXa8as, uagou- [k?ppq [BA], ?pap [L]); and in the ’list of those with foreign
Cavqs, and the latter stands for I;aflou<ivqr (so for pmpa<q above, wives (EZRA I. 5 5 end), Ezra 1021=1 Esd. 921 (@BA om.
rend pa@o<q)-i.e., NIi?>in, a name on the analogy of ptt’po- name); and wks represented aniong the signatories to the
@ov<aqs, etc. ; see SHETHAR-BOZNAI. So Marq. ( R u d . 71). covenant (see E ZRA i., 5 7), Neh. 105 [6] ([elipap [BNA]),,
2. A lay family in the great post-exilic list (see E ZRA II I 9)
8 ; Aacyrroyc [BAFL] [vv. 5 and 6 in I Esd. 5 16, EV AROM (apop [BA] ; but see also HASHUM);’mis-
g apparently changed places]), Lev. 11 6 placed (from between m. 16 and 17) among names of towns (so
Dt. 14,f. The hare is included amongst the unclean Bertheau) in @I.and in the 11 Ezra232 ( ~ q p p p[Ll)=Neh. 735 ;
mentioned also in the list of those with foreign wives (see EZRA
animals, on the ground that it chews the cud and does i. 5 5 end) Ezra1031 (pepapei [L]) and in that of wall-builders
not part the hoof; cp C LEAN A N D UNCLEAN, 8. T h e (s’ee NEHEMIAH, IJ, E ZRA ii., si16 [ I ] 15d) Neh. 3 II (qppa
idea that it chews the cud is an error, probably to be [A]), as also among the signatories to the coveiant (see E ZRA i.,
accounted for by the peculiar and constant twitching of s 7), Neh. 10 27 [zS] (qpap [BNvid.], peoup [A], aeipap [Ll).
the hare’s upper lip when feeding, which, to a superficial HARIPH (qPl??, 5 57). ’The B’ne Hariph, a post-
observer, has somewhat the appearance of the motion exilic family, Neh. 7 24 (apei+ [BN], -eip [A], mpqe [Ll)= Ezra
of the jaws when the cud is being chewed by ruminants. 2 18 J O R A H [q.7!.1 (oupa [BI, LOP. [A] i w p q ~[L])=I Esd. 5 16,
Five species of hare (Leyus) have been described by AZ~PHURITH RV ARSIPHURITH (apu&uparB [B] apw+povpsLB
Tristram from Palestine, where, he states, they are [A], opar [I,!), on which see J O R A H ; representid among the
sienatories to the covenant (see EZRA i.. S ,I. Neh. 10 IO~. 1201
highly esteemed by the Arabs a s food. The rabbit, ~

(ai[6]c+ [BHA], apq+ [L]); cp the gentiiic Hariphite (‘Dln,

L. cuniculus, is not found in the Holy Land. Cp
Kr. ’?’a [so Ki., Kau.1; xapai+ci [BN], apou+i [AI, Xap4,r
[L]) I Ch. 12 5, a designation of Shephatiah (4), and the Caleb-
- . HAREL ($&l)l), Ezek. 4315 EVmg. See A RIEL , 2, ite k A R E P H . 3
n. 6, and A LTAR , 4. HARLOT (?I@, z h i h , ~ O P N H; ildl?, kTdZFa‘h,
HAREPH (915,‘sharp’ ; 5 57, cp H ARIPH ), a ‘one consecrated’ [cp CLEAN, 5 I], kp66ovhos, cp Ass. kadGtzi;
a 6 p q LGen. Dt.], ~ e r s h e r p & a i[Hos.], ‘those initiated,’ cp the
.Calebite, was the father of BETH- GADER [g.v.] (I Ch. masc. form “e, AV ‘sodomite,’ n o p v s h v [Dt.], Bv8iqAAayp6vos
251 ape1 [AI. -EIM P I , A ~ H MP I ) . [I? 2246 (47) A], TehsTai ‘sacred rites or mysteries’ [=+??,
HARETH (RV Hereth), THE FOREST OF (1YJ mzkdci; I K. 1512 @I- u ~ ~ h a cKa8qUdp l [B] Ka8qU[€]iV [AL]
[z K.23’73, ~ ~ p d l \ O [hB4A L I K.’16 281, cp &alia [Judg. 1121).
n?iJ), apparently the place to which David went after
T h e difference between the Grzeco-Roman and the
leaving Mizpeh of Moab, I S. 22s ( e ~rrohsi early Israelitish (and indeed Semitic) conceptions of
.CAPBIK [BIB . capix [LIB EN TH IT. aplae [AI,
,CAPIN [Jos. Ant. vi. 1241). Conder (PBFQ, 1876,
marriage must be borne in mind when we consider the
prevalence of harlotry attested by the OT documents.
p. 44) adopts y y , ‘city,’ instead of i y * , ‘forest,’ and T h e Semitic conception is closely bound up with the idea
.finds Hareth (Hereth?) in the hill-village of KhFirFis, that a dead man who has no children will miss some-
near the valley of Elah. W e should most probably read
thing in ShGl through not receiving that kind of worship
[oily] nyp (from n y ) - i . e . , i y ’ and nln are two frag- which ancestors in early times appear to have received
ments of niya. Adullam was David‘s refuge. See (cp Stade, GVH2),3908). Theobject of marriage thus
HORESH. T. K. C. regarded is not the obtaining of legitimate heirs ; a son
HARHAIAH (?:?ln, so the best edd., others read of a afinuh, like Jephthah, is brought up in his father’s
‘?l;r3n?n(?l:illp), Wll?j,see Baer, Ginsb., ad Zuc.; BRA 1 So Be.-Rys., who, however, do not notice its connection
,[ed. Sw.] om., apaxloy [Tisch. ; cp H-PI, Bbp. [L], with vain.
L+ &a[Pesh.], ARAIA [Vg.]), the name given to the 9 A connection u-ith Talm. lhlp, ‘coulter,‘ Ass. &av&arrc,
'bucket'(?), does not help us.
father of U ZZIEL , 6 (Neh. 38). Its genuineness is 3 Hariphite and son of Hareph may be synonyms.

1963 1964
house with the legitimate children (Judg. 11z), and can ‘RE]0 [‘84], 186) to show that Ass. kaaXfu (ZLs’lP) can mean
even under certain circumstances succeed to the throne :he legitimate wife, and that Herodotns (1 19; ‘misunderstood
(Judg. 918; cp KINSHIP, 5 6). Social and religious and misrepresented a perfectly innocent matrimonial custom,
progress (cp ESCHATOLOGY, 5 sf: ) necessarily led to the ias not met with acceptance.
See further HOSEA, 0 6, MARRIAGE. T. K. C.
rise of a higher conception of marriage (cp Gen. 2 2 4 ) ;
but in countries where the reproductive forces of nature HAR-MAGEDON (ApMArahmN), Rev. 1 6 1 6 RV,
were deified-in short, where the worship of the Baby- AV A RMAGEDDON (4.v. ).
lonian goddess IStar had been introduced-harlotry HARMON. I n Am. 4 3 RV has and ye shall cast
became so deeply rooted that it taxed all the energy of ~yourselves]into Harmon,’ where-AV has ‘ and ye shall
the Hebrew prophets of the eighth century and their
adherents to overcome or at least to restrain it. For cast [them] into the palace,’ for n$D???J 34&1$??).
there is sufficient evidence that the worship of IStar was The text is undoubtedly corrupt. Probably we should
‘ saturated ’ with this shocking practice (see Jeremias, read nidltg ;l?\h$nl, ’ and ye shall be ravished among
Izdubar-Nimrod, 5 9 3 ; Jastrow, ReZ. Bab. and Ass. the temple-prostitutes ’-i. e . , ye shall be devoted as spoil
485), and at the local shrines of N. Israel (see Hos. of war to the goddess Istar (see Crit. Bib.). Cp
4 14) the worship of Yahw& was deeply affected by HARLOT.
Canaauitish practices derived ultimately from Babylonia. @’s als ~b Bpos ~b poppav aB1; peppau [AQ*l) supposes
Even in Judah the consecrated harlotry of both sexes an unlikely reference to Rimmon ; Tg.’s ‘beyond the’mountains
was not unknown (see I K. 1512 22461[47]) ; but we of Armenia ’ (cp Sym.)postulates too early an acquaintazke with
Armenia. Theodot. has rb Bpos. Heilprin (Hisforical
must not be too prompt to draw historical inferences Poetry of the Hebrews, 2 75 [‘So]) and Kijnig (Lehrged. 2 459,
from I K. 1 4 2 4 (uliv8eupos [BAL]), vv. 21-24 being a n. 5) suggest a reference to Mt. Hermon ; cp C’5 1Qmg.I apwwva.
redactional insertion, nor must we infer from passages Hitzig and Steiner see a reference to the heathen sanctuary of
Hadad-rimmon. Zech. 12 T I however is most obscure and
like Ezek. 16 15-34 23 5 3 , that licentious religious rites HADAD-RIMMON [q.v.] is its’elf corrupi. So much, at ’least
were universally prevalent in the closing years of the these critics have seen more clearly than most, that somi
Southern king don^.^ I n the original text of Am.43 extremely pointed expressions must have closed the prophecy.
‘there was probably a distinct reference to the temple”- T. K. C.
prostitutes in Assyria (see HARMON). possibly of Egyptian origin,
This religious. prostitution was prohibited in the Marquartl; c p ia1ii&in an old
Deuteronomic code (Dt. 23 17 [18] f: ), and the Levitical 5 , and for compounds of Horus
legislation (Lev. 20 23) represents Canaanitish abomina- [with ;lnot n] cp, with caution, Aram. iiyin, ‘ Horus helps ’and
tions as the chief reason why the Canaanites were
$>m?,‘Horus is a confidence ’ [see Cook, Aramaic Glos)sary,
s.v. in]. avap+ap [Bl apva+ap [AI, apra+fp [Ll) a name in a
.exterminated. Lev. 21 7 (.old?) forbids a priest to take genealoiy of ASHER(&., I 4 ii.), I Ch. 7 36.t C$AHIRA,HUR,
a harlot to wife, 1,ev. 2 1 9 directs that the daughter of and note the connection between Egypt and ASHER[q.v., 5 I].
any priest who ’ profanes herself by playing the harlot-’ S. A. C.
-shall be burned. HARNESS, equally with ‘armour’ (see I K. 102s
In the Wisdom Literature there is no trustworthy z K. lo,;), is given by AV for ?$I (see WEAPONS). In I K. 22 34
reference to the religious prostitutes. 11 2 Ch. 18 33, ‘the joints of the harness’ is a vague paraphrase
In Job 8614, where RV gives, ‘And their life (perisheth) of a difficult phrase (cp A V w and RVmg., and see BREAST.
among the unclean’ (mg. ‘sodomites’), the usual explanation is PLATE i., col. 606).
so far-fetched, and affords so poor a parallelism, that emendation
of the text is indispensahle.3 HAROD, THE WELL OF (?ID ]‘u, ‘the fountain
Ordinary harlots are, however, referred to, and Of trembling’ [?I, CP v. 8 ; T r H r H N ApAh [Bls T H N
comparatively high ground is taken in the Prologue r H N lA€p[Al, T H N H N Apmh [L]), Judg.71, andper-
to the Book of Proverbs 4 (Prov. 2 16-19 5-7) haps originally I S. 2 8 7 29 I I K. 2030. The fountain
in dealing with their immorality. Harlotry had ‘ above ’ which Jerubbaal encamped.
‘become a social evil of a new sort, and had to be I . Judg. 7 I.-If Moore is right inreferring this passage
encountered by new arguments. Paul, as might be to^ a different stratum of tradition from 6 3 3 (which makes
expected, reaches the highest point of Christian insight the Midianites encamp in the vale of Jezreel), we shall
( I Cor. 6 13-19), and our first Gospel contains the have to conjecture that ‘En HkrBd is the name of some
interesting notice (Mt. 21 31f:’) that the harlots, equally fountain near Shechem. Certainly the two other pas-
with the publicans, listened to John the Baptist whilst sages in which MOREH [q.v.] is mentioned, localise the
the hierarchical leaders turned a deaf ear t b his call. name near Shechem, and Ophrah, the home of Gideon,
This circumstance is not indeed referred to in the was probably not far from that town ; hut ( a ) the word
accounts of John the Baptist’s ministry ; but it is possible Moreh = ‘ soothsayer ’ was, of course, not confined to
that the ‘ publicans ’ are mentioned there as representa- Shechem, and (6) Moore’s view of the origin of Judg.
tives of the most degraded classes. 7 1 is not quite satisfactory. I t is safest to hold with
On the singular term ‘ dog,’ Dt. 23 18 [19] see DOG, fa 3 fend), Budde that 7 I is the continuation of 6 33 (cp MOREH.
IDOLATRY, B 6, and cp Ur. Dmt. 264. ’. HalCvy’s attempt H ILL O F ), so that the Well of Harod must be sought
in the vale of Jezreel; and since there are only three
1 The ‘ harlots ’ intended in I K. 22 38 (see RV) may perhaps wells or fountains which can come into consideration-
though zanbtlz is the word used, be religious prostitutes (sd viz., the ‘Ain el-Meiyiteh, which is at the foot of the hill
Kittel). The clause however is a very late insertion. of Jezreel, the ‘Ain Tuba‘iin, which is out upon the
2 The diflicult pdsage, Eiek. 20 z9, is commonly misunder.
stood. Neither of the explanations cited by Dav. will stand: plain, and the ‘Ain JHliid, close under Gilh’oa-and since
’ ~ N J is’plainly
? corrupt, and this throws suspicion on the whole a position by the first or second of these would have
passage. Read probably, ‘what are the loves (O*?$.V?) which exposed Gideon to the attack of the Midianites, G. A.
ye pursue (O’?qen) there? So the name of the land was called Smith (HG397f.)appears to be right in assenting to
Ahzbim (i.e. “1oves”)unto this day.’ The meaning is, Unto this the plausible traditional view that the third is the foun-
day the laid is given to idolatry. Cp the symbolic names tain referred to. Its waters well out at the NE. end of
AHOLAH, AHOLIBAH. Mt. Gilboa from under a sort of cavern in the wall of
3 I n v. 14a for lyl>, ‘in youth,’ read >ti>! ‘by famine’(cp conglomerate rock, and spread out into a limpid pool
Pesh. in 6), and in 6 for p w ~ J, p ‘among the &&?iZm,’ read or lakelet 40 or 50 ft. in diameter ( B R 3 1 6 8 ) . From
n‘?$m, ‘by pestilence.’ this pool and from the ‘Ain Tuba‘on (the Tubania of
4 On the exceptional use of ?;?l; (EV ‘ a stranger ‘) for a mediaeval writers), which is some little way off, the
‘harlot ’ in Prov. 2 16 5 20 6 24 7 5 23 27 see Toy on Prov. 2 16 : Nahr JHlfid flows down past Bethshan into the Jordan.
Bertholet, StelZung, 195. The dissolute women spoken of were With its uansually deep bed and its soft -banks it formed
probably often non-Israelites ; hut the wise men had thrown OR a natural ditch in front of the position which both
a narrow nationalismto such an extent that the origin or birth.
place of an adulteress or a harlot is of no moment to them. Gideon and Saul appear to have taken up on the plateau
’ 1955 1g66
of Gilboa, and rendered it possible for those encamped reading w y for ?(y ? n are often confounded).
on the plateau to hold the lakelet below against an Shammab then becomes a man of A RAD (9.. ., I ). So,
enemy on the plain. See G ILBOA , 3 (6). in the main, Marquart (Fund. IS), who identifies this
It is true, Budde (who denies that ‘En HHrBd is ‘Ain Jaliid]
objects that the Nabi Dahi (with which the ‘hill of Moreh Shammah with one of David‘s brothers. Cp D AVID ,
Judg. 7 I [MTI, is generally identified) is too imposing an 5 I, n. 2. T. K. C.
eminence to be called a ‘ hill,’ny2, ; but (I) loftier heights than
the Nabi Dabi (e.g., probably the Tell el-Fiil, is., Gibeah of HAROEH (n$lq). Shobal I the father of Kirjath-
Benjamin) can be called nu>], and (2) the text of Judg. 7 I is jearim ’ had sons : ‘ Haroeh, half of the Menuhoth ’;
evidently in disorder. I t may, in fact, he regarded as certain 1 Ch. 252 (nin3n;I v n miil ; a i w eueipa p w v a i w [B], apaa
that originally ZI.16 harmonised with v. 86 ; there must also (as EUEL appavie [A, om. L]). For we should read
Budde allows) be some omission in v. la. The omitted words
probably are ‘and passed on to Mt. Gilboa’l (which were after- ~’N’I. See R EAIAH , I ; cp also M ANAHETHITES .
wards transferred with an alteration to ZI. 3) ; and the description
of the position of the Midianitish camp in v. 16 should most RARORITE (’*lc), so I Ch. 1127 for H ARODITE
probably run thus ‘and the cam of Midian was to the N. of [q.v.]. See SHAMMAH, 5.
them, beneath d. Gilboa, in t l e vale.’a CPGILBDA5 3
MOREHHILL OF. We can thus dispense with the hypdthesii RAROSHETH OF THE GENTILES (alisn nghn ;
of Schdarz and Grove that ‘Gilead ’ ( v , 3, MT) was the name
of the NW. part of Gilboa, and that there is a trace of this in aP€lCC& [ T U N & N U N ] [Bl, AC€lpUt% Ap€lCW%
the name ‘Ain Jilod. A p y ~ o y[T.S.] [AI, A C H p U e , A p l C & L A p y ~ o y
2. IS.391.-It has usually been held (e.g., by [T.B.] [L]), the place of residence of Sisera, a powerful
Robinson, Stanley, and W. Miller) that ‘ the fountain king (see Cooke, Hist. and Song of Deb. 4). whose
which is in Jezreel ’ (so MT), beside which Saul’s army oppression roused six Israelitish tribes to common
encamped, is the ‘Kin Jaliid. T h e expression, however, hostile action ,against him (Judg. 42 13 16t). I t has
will hardly bear this interpretation. ‘ The fountain in been identified by Thomson (with the assent of Conder.
Jezreel,’ pur exceZZence, can only be the fountain below G. A. Smith, G. A. Cooke, Socin, Buh1)l with mod.
Zer‘in now called ‘Ain el-Meyiteh ( ‘ the dead fountain ’). el-Harithiyeh, on the right bank of the lower Kishon,
This shows the necessity of basing biblical geography NW. of Megiddo. This is ‘an enormous double mound,’
on’ a revised Hebrew text. A word must have fallen situated just below the point where the Kishon in one
out of the text, and this word must be ii5. For MT’s of its turns beats against the rocky base of Carmel,
leaving no room even for a footpath. A castle there
liy? we must therefore read ?in py3. This view is effectually commands the pass up the vale of the
supported by bB Pv a e h v and @* Pv aevc?wp--i.e., Kishon into Esdraelon, and such a castle there was
i i n p 3 (Klo.). T h e ‘Ain Jaliid (=‘En Hsrrdd) is, in on this immense double teZZ of Harothieh [HHrithiyeh].
fact, little more than a mile from the E. of’ the foot of I t is still covered with the remains of old walls and
the hill of Jezreel, and could therefore fairly be described buildings’ (Thomson, LB 437). The situation is well
as being ‘in [the district of] Jezreel.’ ‘It was on the adapted for an oppressive chieftain, and is not to b e
plateau above this that Saul’s army was posted, unless rejected on the ground of the remoteness of Jabin’s
M T is very far wrong indeed (see S AUL ). city of Hazor, for Sisera was no mere ‘captain of t h e
3. I S. 287.-Did Saul really go 7 or 8 m. to visit host.’ The place-name, however, does not occur in the
the so-called ‘ witch of Endor ’ ? I t is shown elsewhere Amarna tablets, and textual criticism favours the view
(ENDOR),with as near an approach to certainty as is (first suggested by the names Shamgar and Sisera) that
possible, that Endor is an error for ‘En Hared. T h e Sisera was a Hittite king. If this is correct, his place
wise woman lived at only ten minutes’ distance from of residence must have been Kadesh on the Orontes ; in
the Israelite camp. See ENUOR (a), bnt cp S AUL. fact, recent textual criticism of Judg. 5 reveals to us the
4. I K. 2030.-Did Benhadad attempt to hide him- Kadeshites and Hadrachites fighting against Israel
self < in an inner chamber ’ ? Does iin2 i i n really mean under Sisera. More precisely, the Hittite city K ADESH
this? Perhaps we should read ‘ b y the fountain in [q.v., 21 bears a fuller name in the true text of the Song
Harod.’ See G ILBOA , 3 (6). T. K. C. of Deborah-viz., Kadshon or Kidshon.
Now, looking at n&n, we notice that two of its letters recur
HARODITE (’i10, p o y h a i o c [Bl, a p o y h a t o c in p i p , for 7 and resemble each other so closely in all the
[A], aA~pl [L], z S. 23zSn), a designation applied alphabets as to be often hardly distinguishable. Moreover n, 1,
to Shammah, one of David‘s heroes; in v. 256 Elika and p are sometimes confounded through phonetic similarity,
is also called a Harodite; but v. q b is probably an while the corruption of 21 (the final forms of letters but slowly
interpolation (see E LIKA ). The situation of Sham- established themselves) into n is easy.
m a h s native place depends somewhat on that of the The conclusion we reach is that the otherwise un-
home of his fellow on the list, for the names are given known ‘ Harosheth of the nations’ should rather be
in couples. If we omit Elika, the companion of Sham- ‘ Kidshon of the nations.’ I t was so called to dis-
mah is Helez the Paltite. B ETH - PALET [q.v.] was in tinquish it from places of the same name in Canaan.
the far south of Judah, which forbids us to connect This view is substantially that of Marquart (Fund. 3).
‘Harodite’ with En-harod ( H . P. Sm.), and suggests and Ruben (JQR10554); but these scholars did not
remark the existence of the termination -on appended
1 YtS>?? l r s f lLy!!. For attempts to explain 8. 3 with the to the fundamental element Kudsh. Whether t h e
minimum of change in the text, or even with no change at all, corrupt name T AHTIM -H ODSHI [q.v.] may be com-
see Moore’s commentary and the article ‘ Gilead Mt.’ in Has- pared, is doubtful. T. K. C.
tings, O B 2 176a (Dr.). To the present writer icseems useless
to ‘ heal the hurt’ of the text ‘lightly.’ The view maintained HARP (ljS?, Ps. 332 etc.; Din’?, Dan. 35 8).
by him is that an editor transferred the words to v. 3 to form
part of the address to the ‘fearful and trembling,’ but with an See M USIC , § 7 3
alteration. The text now stands l$)e? l?P %!!I; but 1% HARROW. For Job 39 IO (Vlb)see A GRICULTURE ,
(‘to plait ’) cannot mean ‘ to turn aside ’ (Ges.-Buhl) ; there has $ 3 beg. and § 4. For z S. 1 2 3 1 ~ 1Ch. 203 (iiim:, .sin) see
been both corruption and editorial manipulation. An earlier AGRICULTURE, § 8, n.
reading was almost certainly 1;tn l’iY!, ‘and let him
pass on from Mt. Gilboa.’ What the editor did was to alter HARSHA (K@?n, ‘deaf,’§66, cp also TEL-HARSHA),
id! into l?n, to adapt the words which he transferred to afamilyof Nethinim in the great post-exilic list(see EZRA ii., § g),
their new position. The emendation ‘ Gilboa ’ for ‘ Gilead ’ is Ezra 252 (apyua [BA], apaua [Ll)=Neh. 754 (a8auau [BNA],
adopted from Clericus(1708) by Hitzig, Bertheau, Gratz, Reuss, a8aua [L])=I Esd. 532 EV CHAREA (Xapsa [A], om. B, @cam
Driver, etc. ; but it is not sufficient alone. [L?]).
2 For minn nyxes, ‘from the hill of the soothsayer,’ read
y35m i n s nnnn, ‘beneath Mt. Gilboa.’ pV23n is composed of 1 J. S. Black, however, in 1892 and (at greater length) Moore
thefirst two letters of nnnn and three of the letters of y>s~n. in 1895,expressed themselves d&btfully. See their respective
~n mnn comes from nn, and mi from ins. commentaries.
1967 1968
HARSITH,in ‘ T h e gate Harsith’ (Kr. n”p7np RASENUAH (np?p?),I Ch. 9 7 AV, RV HAS-
but Kt. n l b l n i l ’V), Jer. 192 RV, AV ‘THEEAsr SENUAH. See H ASSENAAH .
G ATE ’ (as if from ~7.n. ‘ sun,’ cp mg.), RVmS the gate
of potsherds.’ HASHABIAH (9ilJq@Q, in I Ch. 2 5 3 2 6 3 0 2 Ch.
Although B’s xapu(e)d favours Kre, this may be merely due iliq@n; ‘ Yahwi: has taken account of,’
3 5 9 ; elsewhere
to an early corruptlon or conjecture. Harsith cannot easily he see N AMES , 5 3 2 ; ~ C A B I A ( C ) [BKAL]), a name so
explained. Most scholars (see BDB) render as RVmg. but the
ending -iih constitutes a difficulty; Hitzig renders Sherhen- common in post-exilic times that the identity or differ-
fhzmz, KSnig (2 205 [a]) Scher6enei, but improbably. Read entiation of the individuals bearing it is sometimes
perhaps niew! ‘I;the Dung-gate seems to be meant. See uncertain. On Nos. I , 2, 4,7, cp G ENEALOGIES i.. § 7
HINNOM, VALLEY OF, 5 4 (z), JERUSALEM, 5 24, col. 2423. [ii. d].
T.K. C. I. A Merarite Levite ( I Ch. 645 [30] U U ~ ~ [[BA]).
2. b. Bunni, a Merarite Levite in list of inhabitants of
HART, HIND (PK, n$:g ; shaaoc [BKAQRTFL]). Jerusalem (see E ZRA ii., $5 5 [d], 15 [I] a), I Ch. 914 Feh. 1115
T h e animal intended is probably the fallow-deer (Cervus (aua@ov [Nc.amg. SUP.] om. BN*A).
damn, L.), which is still to be found in the neighbour- 3. One who with his brethren ‘men of valour,’ 1700 in number
hood of Sidon (Tristram) ; see R OE , 4. As the name was overseer in Israel ‘beyond Jordan westward’ (I Ch. 2 8
30) ; see H EBRON ii. I .
Aijalon shows, the ayyd must have been found in very --+ A musician, a ’son of Jeduthun’ (I Ch. 253 and 19 apra
ancient times far to the S. of this, and Dt. 1 2 1 5 2 2 1522 WJ).
proves that it was quite common game. I t was regu- 5. A Levite, son of Kemuel (;.e., Kadmiel? I Ch. 27r7), per-
larly supplied to Solomon’s table, according to I K. haps the same as 3.
6. A Levite according to the Chronicler of the time of Josiah
4 2 3 [ 5 3 ] . In Dt. 1 4 5 it is enumerated among the clean (2 Ch. 359). i n I Esd. 1 9 his name appeirs as ASSABIAS,RV
animals. Hebrew poets delight to refer to it. Its SABIAS(uaptas [BA]).
slender but powerful build, the swiftness and sureness 7. A Levite in Ezra’s caravan (see EZRA i. $ 2 ii. 5 15 [I] d),
Ezra 819 (ausp[rlra [BA] auua/3ra [L]) I Esd. S i 8 AsEnIA, RV
of its motions, suggested a pleasing comparison for ASEBIAS(om. B auepLa; [A]). cp Ezia 824 ( u a p r a [Av’d.l)=r
warriors or for the victorious people of Israel ( 2 S. 2 2 3 4 Esd. 854 ASSAN~AS, RV AssAini~s(auuaprav [B], alra. [AI.
=Ps. 1 8 3 3 [34] Hab. 3 1 9 , BLS UUPTPXELW [BKAQ]), and auapiav [L]), see Kosters, Hersf. 44, n. 2 ; signatory to the
in Gen. 4921 (UTQXEXOS [BADFL]), if M T is correct, covenant (see E ZRA i., 5 7) Neh. 1011 [IO] (om. BN*, euspras
Naphtali is likened to a nimble hind, with reference [Wamg. AI) ; 1122, auapsra [HI (see Herstel, 105 ). The name
to the swiftness of its heroes (see, however, below.). also appears among the Levites in Zerubbabel’s L n d (see E ZRA
The horns (a figure for rays of the rising sun?) of the ii., $5 6 6 11) Neh. 1224 ( a p r a [BH*]).
8. ‘Rder of half the district of Keilah ’ mentioned in list of
ayyZi1 have been thought (wrongly) to be referred to in the wa!l-b_uilders (see NEHEMIAH, $ I A, EZR; ii., $8 16 [I], ~ s d ) ,
title of Ps. 22 (see RVmg.) ; but cp A IJELETH - SHAHAR . N en. 3 17.
Its languishing condition when deprived of pasture is 9. Head of the houseof Hilkiah EZRA ii., $8 66, TI), Neh.
referred to in Lam. 1 6 ( K ~ L O[BKAQ]);
~ its disregard 12n1 (Wamg.inf., om. BN*A).
of its young under these circumstances in Jer. 1 4 8 ; its
eager panting for water in Ps. 421 [.I.’ An image HASHABNAH (il??W?, 5 32, probably to be read
of feminine grace and affectionateness IS derived from il;9@’tJ-z’.e . , Hashabni-jah : see H ASHABNIAH ), sig-
the elegance and the gentle gaze of the hind (Prov. natory to the covenant (see E ZRA i., 5 7) Neh. 1025 [261
5 1 9 : cp Cant. 2 7 3 5 [dv ( T U ~ S )iu~6aeucv TOG (i-ypoG (€CABANA [BKA]. acB. [Ll).
(BAKC in both verses)]) ; and a lover may be likened
to a young hart, Cant. 2 1 7 8 1 4 (n+;ttt i@). HASHABNIAH, RV Hashabneiah (ilJ:&, or
Two passages remain which have to be taken together Job perhaps, if the text is right, as suggested in 32,
39 1-4 and Ps. 299. In the former passage the ease with dhich il:J?Yn-i.e., HBshabni-iah, ‘ Yahwi: has taken thought
the hinds bring forth appears as one of the wonders of creation : of m e ’ ) , a Levite; Neh. 9s (BRA om., C A B ~ N I ~ Cor
in the latter, a phrase used in Job 39 I of the travailing of the
hinds is employed, but with a causative sense, of the effect of UEXEVLUS[L, the order of the names is different]) ; the
thunderclaps in hastening the parturition of hinds. It must be name also of the father of HATTUSH( 2 ) ; Neh. 310
admitted, however, that the reference to the accelerated pangs (MBANAM [B”], -NEAM [Bab(vid.)l. - B N ~ A M [W
of the hinds is not quite what we should expect in this grand
storm-piece, nor does it suit the parallel line. n l i y , ‘forests,’ -ANI& [A], CABANIOY [L]). T h e I, however, seems
seems to require ns to point n h , ‘terebinths’ (so Lowth, due to a scribe who thought of rp12w. Names of the
Gratz, Thrupp, Che.); the suspicious-looking $sin?should rather type Hashabniah ’ are generally corrupt. Probably
Hashabiah is right. T. K. C.
be !’&e;, ‘shakes’ (Che.P)). On the analogy of the former
emendation some (Bochart, Lo;vth,’Ew., Olsh., Di., etc.), would
point n\w, ‘terebinths,’ in Gen. 49 21 instead of h!, ‘hind.’ HASHBADANA, RV Hashbaddanah (il?@n,
See NAPHTALI. probably, if original [see below], a corruption of il’J2Vnn
Hashabni-jah : 5 32). one of those (probably Levites: so
HARUM (a??, cp Sab. Din, ilDTl [DHM, Ep. Kosters, Herstel, 88) present’ at the reading of the law
De&. 591, Ar. &w also HORAM) father of Aharhel, a name under Ezra ; Neh. 8 4 (om. B, ACABAANA m ~ dextr.
. 1,
in an obscure part of’the genealogy’of Judah ; I Ch. 4 8 ( l a p a p
[BA] :,om. L, see AHARHPL). -BAAMA [A], A B A A N ~ C [L])= I Esd. 9 4 4 (L OTHASUBUS
HARUMAPH (IDiln, prob. = 78 Daln, ‘with
: AwebcoyBoc NABAp[€]l&C [BAI,
LICCOM K M ~ ~ A A A N A [Ll).
C Their number is
pierced nose,’ # 66), father of Jedaiah in list of wall-builders (see doubtful.
NEHEMIAH, 8 IX; E ZRA ii., $5 66, 16 [I] 15d), Neh. 31ot
According to L (in both Neh. and I Esd.) there were seven
(epFpopa0 [Bl, -$ [ALI, aimpa0 [HI). standing on each side of Ezra ; according to Neh. MT, 6 on his
HARUPHITE (’Pllil Kt.), I Ch. 125. See HARIPH. right, and 7 on his left; according to Neh. HA, 6 and 7 [Nc.aAl re-
spectively : Neh. B, 6and 4 : I Esd. BAand RV, 7 and 6 ; I Esd.
HARUZ (ySla,‘eager’? ‘gold’? 566, apoyc [BAL]), AV, 7 and 5.
of Jotbah, father of Meshullemeth, king Amon’s mother The MT seems to have suffered somewhat from the 11th
name onwards ; the last two names lack the connective ‘and,’
( 2 K. 2119). and the preceding name is surely corrupt. Hashbaddanah may
in fact have arisen, the first half (>en) from a repetition of the
HARVEST (?’up,
Gen. 822 etc. : eepicMoc, Mt. preceding Hashum (own), and the second (n112) from a repetition
937 etc.). See AGRICULTURE,55 I 7 ; Y EAR , 5 4. of the following ?&). The corruption has taken another
course in I Esd., xwni becoming 3wnj(’7), Lothasubus, and
HASADIAH (ilJ?Pn, ‘ Yahwi: is gracious,’ 5 28),one ~ * T J ?becoming n+y~], Nabarias. We thus lose no doubt the
of the’ children of Zerubbabel ;I Ch. 320 (acabla two heptads desiderated by Kosters (Hersfel,&3 ; so also’Be.-
P A ] , -BIA [Ll). Ryss., Guthe), hut we get twelve names, corresponding to the
tribes. See HASHUM. S. A. C.
1 Read with Olsh., Che., We., Du., n$fi (MT $ 1 ~ ; n
follows). 1 Neh. 8 46 may be due to the Chronicler (Kosters, HersteZ, 8SL
r969 1970
HASHEM, THE .SONS OF, the Gizonite (I Ch. may have described such as 'children of the slighted
1134, 0 . v ~'27; Bevvaras b Zqpohoysvvouvarv [B], utor Auap' d wife ' (;r?slD= n9ip ' hated,' ' slighted ' ; see Dt. 2 1 IS$,
r r w u v r [A], Bwveas b Bopoyevuouviv [N], d o i Auop 708 Zevv Is. 6015).
.[L w. 341, Ebpauab b rovvr [L w. 331 ; but see JASHEN). This theory is ingenious, and might provisionally
HASHMONAH (@@n ; C ~ A M W N P~L I , acsA- serve us. But it has perhaps a family likeness to the
N A [AF]), a stage in the wandering in the wilderness ; explanations one finds in the Midrash, and to the
Nu. 3329,ff. See W ANDERINGS , I I J , and cp M AC - edifying vocalisations of names in the Chronicler. Is
CABEES i., § 2. not ' Praise-Yahw6, the son of the slighted' an un-
natural combination ?
HASHUB (>$Bjn), I Ch. 914AV; R V H A S S H U B ( ~ . V . ) . The key to the mystery must be sought elsewhere.
HASHUBAH (n@I; cp HASHUB),one of the I t is to be found in the problematical term M~SHNIIH
children of Zerubbabel ; I Ch. 320 (acoyBe [B], AC&A 2. New theory. [q.".], the current explanation of which
IS purely hvpothetical. An examination
CAI, hACABae [L]).
of the passages in ;hick this word occurs with reference
HASHUM (a??, vocalisation doubtful; cp a'sread- to Jerusalem suggests that underneath it lies the term
ings and Meyer, Entst. 144, who suggests @!; cp the name ' the old city '-Le., the city which existed before
D't@n; a[u]uop [BAL]), a family in the great post-exilic list (see Hezekiah built ' the other wall without' (2 Ch. 325 ;
E Z R A ii., $5 g, 8 c), Ezra2 19 ( a m p [Bl, a m u p [A], amwp [Ll)= see J ERUSALEM , 23). Hassenaah (ny;m) or Has-
Neh. 722 (quap[cl [BNAI)=I Esd. 5 16 ARontl (apop [BAj), senuah ( y m ) and Senaah ( n p ) are probably corrup-
represented among the signatories to the'covenant (see E ZRA I.,
$ 7), Neh. !Or8 [191 (qua@[BNAI). Various members of it are tions of n;hc, ' the old city '-the city which is referred
mentioned in the list of those with foreign wives (see E ZRA i., 5 5 to under that title in three or rather four passages in
end) Ezra 1033 (qu[rlap [BN] auIu1qp [AL1)=1Esd. 933,Aso~. which M T gives ;riwn (RV, conjecturally, ' the second
Thehame is borne apparentl; by an individual in list of Ezra's quarter'). T h e 3000, or more, people mentioned in
supporters (see E ZRA ii., $ 13 V.1; cp i. $ 8, ii. 5 16 [5], ii.
$ 15 [I] C), Neh. 84 (om. BK", wrap [Nc.amg.dextr.Al)=~Esd. Ezra 235 Neh. 738 at the end of the list of town popu-
944, LOTHASUBUS (AwOduoupos [BA]). See HASHBADANA. lations are the 'sons ' or people of the ' old city,' or
quarter, of Jerusalem. Now we understand the relative
largeness of the number. T. K. C.
HASMAAH (ngP@;l), I Ch. 1 2 3 AVmg., E V HASSHUB (>st&, ' thought of [by God]' ; ACOYB
SHEMAAH (q.~.). [BKAL] ; but [BA] in Ch. ; coy5 [K*] in Neh.
HASMONXANS. See M ACCABEES i., 2. 323 ; ACOY? [BK]. in Neh. 10 23 [%$I).
I. A Merarite Levite (I Ch. 914 Neh. 11;s [AV HASHUB]).
HASRAH (n?qn), ancestor of S HALLUM (2),2 Ch. 2. AV HASHUB, b. Pahath-moab, one of the repairers of the
3422 (XEAAHC P I . ECCGPH [A], acsp [L]). z K. wall (Neh. 3 11).
2214 has H A R H A S - ( ~ . V . ) . 3. AV HASHUBanother of the repairers of the wall (Neh. 3 23).
4. AV HASH$, signatory to the covenant (see E ZRA i., $ 7 ) ;
HASSENAAH (Neh. 3 3 ) , or SENAAH (Ezra 235 Neh. 1023 [24]. I

Neh. 738), or$[? Esd. 5231 RV S ANAAS , AV ANNAAS, HASSOPHERETH (nagba, I scribe' ? OT=ZARE-

nF!pO, n@D; CENNAA [AL]). PHATH?auo+ppEO [L]). The B'ne Hassophereth agroupof 'Solo-
I n Neh. 738 uavavar [B'], uavav2 y'(the y'is n;merical)[Ba.], mon's servants' (see NETHINIM) in the great post-exilic list (see
uavava [HA]; inEzra umva [El ; in Neh. 738. auav[B], auavaa EZRAii., 3 g), Ezra 2 55 (am+qpae[Bl, -+opaO[Al)=Neh. 757with
[HI, auava [AI ; in I Esd. uapa [B], uavaas [A]. article omitted, Bne SOPHERETH (nlBD; ra+apaO [EA], -Or [N],
(a)The name, which only occurs with the prefix q, auo+epsO [L])=I Esd. 533 AV AZAPHION,RV ASSAPHIOTH
(auua+eiwO [E], aoa++i. [A]). It is plausible to read n m i
* sons of.' was formerlv regarded as the name of a citv. ,, ' men Of ZAREPHATH' (q.W.). T. K. C.
1. Current the ikhagitants of which returned in HASUPHA (RDjVn, in Neh. ; acoy~$a[AL],
explanatione. large numbers (3930in Neh. 738 ; 3630
in Ezra 235 ; 3330 [A] or 3301 [B] in family of NETHINIM in the great post-exilic list (see E ZRA II., 5 g),
Ezra243(auou+e [Bl, auou+a~[Ll)=Neh.746 (au+a[Bl, auci+a
I Esd. 523) with Zerubbabel, and rebuilt the fish-
[NA], AV HASHUPHA)=I Esd. 5 29 (T?uet+a [Bl, atrsiQa[A], EV
gate at Jerusalem (Neh. 33). This is the first stage in ASIPHA). Corrupted to GISPA( q . ~ . )in Neh. 1121.
the quest of the true meaning of the phrase b'ni hasse%ddh HAT. For( I)K$?l? (Aram.), kar6lZd, Dan. 321 AV
or 6'ni slnddh. But where is there a city with a name like (4Vmg. 'turban,' RV 'mantle') see T URBAN 2 . and for (2)
Senaah? The Magdalsenna of Eusebius and Jerome vwauos, z Macc. 412(RV [Greek] cap '), see k ~ i .
(OS 2928150zz), 8 or 7 R. m. N. of Jericho, is surely
not what is meant. (6) Schlatter (Zur Topoav.21. HATACH, RVHATHACH($?? ; AXpA@AlOC[BRLp],
Gesch. Pal. ) and Siegfr. -%a. therefore suspect that &os [A], om. La ; in Jos. A& xi. 6 7 axpaOeos), one of the
a Benjamite family (cp I Ch. 97) may be meant. eunuchs of Ahasuerus (Esth. 4 5 f : [om. BNAL in w. 61, v. g [b]
No such name, however, occurs in the list in Neh. apXOaOaros [N*A] ; v. IO). Marq. (Fund.7) makes this the 0.
1 0 14-27. (c) Hence a third view : Senaah, or rather Pers. Lu-~arfu*, 'well-made. C5 also inserts the name in 412
Hassenaah (with the art.), may be wrongly vocalised. (apxaOaias [A]), 13 (aXOpOaiov [Nl, om. A).
I n I Ch. 97 Neh. 1 1 9 we meet with a 'son of HATCHET (Y@, ~ ~ A ~ K[BKR], Y C securis), Ps.
Hassenuah' (in Ch. aava [B], auavoua [A], uaava [L] ; 746t. See A XE , 3.
nsana [Vg.]; in Neh. AV S E N U A H ;auava [BRA],
auevva [L], serilna [Vg.]) ; cp H ODAVIAH , 2. That
HATHACH(TilJ, Esth. 45 R V ; A V H A T A C H ( ~ . V , . ) .
I Ch. 97-9 contains material derived from a post-exilic HATHATH (nnn; A e A e [BA], -& [L]), a Keniz-
list, has long been recognised.2 Ed. Meyer, t h e r e f ~ r e , ~ zite, I Ch. 4 q t . Probably the word is a fragment of
does not hesitate to regard Hassennah (misread Has- bnnin (see M ANAHATH ), a variant to 'n~ryo(seeMEONO-
senaah) as a post-exilic designation, and to explain it THAI). The clan called 'nnin was Calebite ( I Ch. 2 54).
from post -exilic circumstances. Among those who T. K. C.
returned with Zerubbabel, or, perhaps rather,4 who HATIPHA (K?'grJ [Aram.], 'snatched ' ; ~ T [ ~ ] I @ A
after Ezra's arrival formed the KdhdZ or ' congregation '
[RNA] aTouc+a[L], see NAMES, 5 63) afamilyof Nethinimin the
of true or genuine Israelites, there must have been many great ;ost-exilic list (see E ZRA ii., $ g), Ezra254 (asou+a [B])=
who had no landed possessions. The popular wit Neh. 7 5 6 ; I Esd. 5 3 2 (are+a [BA]), EV ATIPHA,
1 But see also HARIM (21 HATITA (R@'pn, ' pointed ' ?); ,a-r[s]i~a [BA],
a See Herzfeld, Gesc?z.'Tzgg ('47). .<&<a[L]), a family of doorkeepers in the great post-exilic list (see
3 Enst. 150, 154,156. J. D. Michaelis partlyanticipated him. E z R A ~$g),Ezra242(aT?~a[Bl).=Neh.745;
~., IES~.~Z~,TETA,
4 Meyer, however, takes the former view. RV ATETA(aq.ra [A], B om.).
1971 1972
- HATTIL ($+On, A T ~ ~ [L]).
A The B n e Hattil, except Gen. 2 1 1 HEFZLATN), a son of Cush, Gen. lo7
a group of ‘Solomon’s servants’ (see NETHINIILI) in the (P), I Ch. 1g ; of Joktan, Gen. 10 zg (J), I Ch. 1 2 3
great post-exilic list (see E ZRA ii., 5 9); Ezra257 ( a w m [B], (EYI [A]). The same name is given to a region
arrrh[Al)=Neh. 759 (cy+ [BN], w~qh[A])=~Esd. 534, HAGIA, bordered by the river Pishon (Gen. 211 J) ; but where
RV AGIA after @EA ayra. the Pishon was, interpreters are by no means agreed
HATTUSH (EhDn, ATTOYC [AL] ; in Ch. XATTOYC (see P AKADISE ). Twice again (if not thrice, for
[Bl, XETT. [Alp AT. [GI). Cornill restores the name in Ezelc. 2722, ‘ Havilah,
I. A descendant of Davld and son 1 of SHECANIAH [T.v.] ; he Sheba, and Raamah’), we find mention of Havilah.
went up with Ezra (see EZRA i. 5 z, ii. 5 15 (I) d),Ezra 8 z (TOUP In Gen. 25 18 [J] the limits of the Ishniaelites are ‘ from
[B])=r Esd. 829, LETTUS,~ RV ATTUS(E om.), cp I Ch. 322.
Havilah unto Shur,’ and a similar phrase describes the
. to the covenant (see E ZRA i... R- 7):
-priestly. sirnatorv
- .
. _ .(Neh.’
10 4 [5l, TOUS [BN*], amus [Ncq); also appears among the ‘priests region within which the Amalekites were defeated, I S.
and Levites, who went up with Zerubbabel [see EZRA ii., 1 5 7 (but here the text is disputed ; see TELEM). ?’he
5 6 dl (Neh. 122 [Wa(“‘g.),,om. BN*Al). combination of all the data is difficult, and many critics
2. b. HASHABNEIAH rq.v.1 inlist ofwall-builders(see NEHEMIAH, have been led to distinguish several Havilahs. It would
0 IJ,EZRA ii., 0s 16 [I], 15 d), Neh. 310 (a7ove [BN], auTous seem, however, that only absolute necessity would justify
[AI). this, and it is perhaps safest to hold that Havilah is
(Inn ; a y p a ~ [ e l i ~ i[BAQI;
c in n. 18 always the same region-of which sometimes one part,
sometimes another, is specially referred to. Del. (Par.
UPANITIC [AI, AWPANEITIC [Bl), a region mentioned
in connection with the ideal eastern border of Canaan 1 2 8 j78), E. Meyer (Gesch. J. AZt. 1224), identify
in Ezek. 47 16 18f. Of Hazar-enan (see HAZAR-IIATTI- with the NE. part of the Syrian desert ; Glaser (SRizze,
CON) we learn that it was on the border of Hauran (n.16), 2 3 2 3 5 ) , with Central and NE. Arabia. See G OLD ,
and more particularly that it was on the border between ONYX, TOPAZ.
the territories of Hauran and Damascus (n. 18 ; see Co.’s Attempts to find an African Havilah ( ‘ A ~ ~ ~ \ ; etc.)
T u L are
therefore unnecessary, especially since the onlyother son ofCush
text of Ezekiel). Furrer ( Z D P V S 2 7 8 ; cp Grove, in Gen. 107 who can be probably identified points t o Arabia
Smith’s DB) places Hauran far away in the N. at (viz. Raamiih). I t appears that P regarded all (non-Ishmaelite)
yaww,drin, between Sadad and Karyatin (Baed.(3)40j); Arabian tribes as connected with Africa. F. B.
but it is a false assumption of his that Hauran is de- HAVVOTH-JAIR, AV, less correctly, H AVOTH - J AIR
scribed as N. of Damascus; it is the s. region that
(T9KI nsn, errayheic iasip [BAFLI ; in Ch. KWMN
%iekiel mentions first (cp v. 16$, first Damascus, then
-Hamath). casip [B”l, K. iaeip [Ba.blpK. i ~ p e i p[AI, a y w e iasip
Nor is it safe to work upon an incorrect text. Verse 18 should [L]; Auothiuir, Jer. [OS(2),S914]). This was the name
be emended with Cornill so as torun thus ‘And the east side ; of certain towns (which arose out of tent-villages l) on
from Hazar-enan which lies on the borderbetween Hauran and the E. side of Gilead. An early tradition respecting
Damascus, the Jordan forms the border between Gilead and the them is given by J E in Nu. 323g4rf: (n. 40 is an inter-
landyf Israel as far as the east sea, unto Tamar ; that is, the east
side. polation) ; v. 41 47raliX~isravp [A]).
Bu. thinks that this passage originally stood after Josh. 17 14-
If we adopt Cornill‘s emendation it becomes clear 18 (Xi.Sa.87) ; hut surely the colonisation described in it belongs
that Hauran is the district which still bears this name, to a later period (see Judg. lO3fi). Ageographicaldifficulty is
with the addition of G OLAN (4.n.) which (the) HaurHn caused by Dt. 3 14 (avo0 L a e q [BAFL]) and JQsh. 13 30 ( K i p a L
~ a [ e ] i p[BAL]) which localise the Havvoth-jair in Bashan instead
adjoins. The name is also found in the Assyrian in- of in Gilead Apparently the writers identify them with
scriptions (Hamranu = Havranu, K B 2 8 4 ; Havrina, the sixty fortresses (Dt. 3 4 I K. 4 13) in the former region --a
KB 2 2 1 6 ) ~and in the Mishna (Rtsh hashanah, 2 4). mistake into which only late writers could have fallen. ‘ (Even)
Elsewhere it has been suggested that J and presumably also Bashan’ (l@:-fl$) in Dt. 3 13 isevidently a redactional interpo-
E misunderstood the stories respecting ‘the patriarchs which lation, and the reference to Havvoth-jair(EV ‘the towns of Jair’)
hy, written, before them, and misread ‘Haran’ and (in Gen. in 1K. 413 (om. BL., avo0 L a p p [Al)has been interpolated from
34 IO) ‘ Nahor ’ for ‘ Hauran.’ The ‘ city of Nahor,’ or rather Nu.32 41. I n the post-exilic passage I Ch. 223 (om. Pesh.)
of Hauran,’ will be some importqnt place (Ashtaroth?) in the Geshur and Aram are said to have taken sixty cities (including
district between Damascus and Gilead called Hauran. Possibly twenty-three belonging to Jair). Such is the account generally
too ‘Aram-naharaim‘ (EV ‘Mesopotamia’) in Gen. 2410 was given of the matter ; but a closer inspection of the text of various
misread by J for Aram-Hauran. See HARAN, NAHOR. passages referring to Gilead (where ‘ Gilead ’ should probably be
On the Auranitis of Roman times, see Schurer, GJV ‘ Salhad ’) leads to a more favourable view of the writers who
1354 ; on the modern HaurSn see PALESTINE. localise the Havvoth-jair in Bashan, and to a comprehension
T. K. C. of the otherwise dark passage, I Ch. 223, respecting the conquest
of the Havvotb-jair by Geshur and Aram. See J A I R KENATH.
HAVEN represents, in EV, ( I ) q h , ?zZph, G e n 4913 See Kue. Hex. 47 ; Di. Deul., and Bertholet, Diu>.,ad Zuc. ;
etc. (TQIl, ‘ to enclose ’). Moore,]wdges, 274f:: GASm., HG 551 n. 9.
2. nnn, m,d&tz,Ps. 1 0 7 3 0 , t primarily ‘ a large city’ HAWK (y!, n?:, iepaf [BKAFL]; ACCIPITER), men-
(for Assyrian and Syriac usage see BDB, and cp Lex%.
tioned only in Lev. 1116 (om. A), Dt. 1415 (AF in ZI.
of Delitzsch and Payne Smith), but in a special context
14), as one of the unclean birds, and in Job3926 (see
possibly ‘haven ’ (see, however, below).
. 3. Xip?fv Acts 27 8 12. By the hawk no well-defined zoological species is meant ; the
I t is doubtful, in view of the clearness of the Assyrian usage, term may be used of any of the smaller diurnal birds of prey.
. whether ,inn can really mean ‘haven‘ ;improbable too that this These are common in Palestine the commonest being perhaps
articular word would have been used in Ps.107. Cheyne
? Ps.(’4), on these grounds, emends the text of v. 30 reading
the kestrel (TinnuncuZus aZuud&iks) and the lesser kestrel ( T .
cenclzris). Both were protected in Egypt as sacred birds. The
0’:: vnt, ‘for a beach of ships ’ (cp Gen. 49 13) ;Dn was written hawk (in Eg. &k) was especially the sacred bird of Horns
(the sun god) and it is the characteristic feature of solar deities
twice over, and the first qn corrupted into inn. In Is. 23 IO in Egypt that they are hawk-headed. The association of the
Duhm and Cheyue read I@ for n1D; but we are not obliged to hawk with the sun is found outside Egypt. The Neo- Platonists
render inn ‘haven.’ connect the two, and in O!. 15525 the hawk is called ‘the
On the harbours of Palestine, see M EDITERRANEAN , swift messenger of Phebus. Such was their sanctity among
and on the terms of the Blessing of Zehulnn (Gen. 49 13) the Egyptians that they were kept in sacred groves in various
places along the Nile, and when dead their bodies were em.
see ZEBULUN. balmed.
._:perhaps explained by the Hebrews
HAVILAR (35VI, I n Job 39 26 the nZ7 is described as stretching out its
wings and flying to the south. This applies to the
*sand-land’;cp $\I7 ; s y ( e ) l A ~ ([BADEL]
~) ;H E m A migratory habits of many of the smaller kinds, such as
1 Emending MT in accordance with U I Esd. 829 (see Be-
the lesser kestrel, which migrates to central and
Rys. nd &.). southern Africa for the winter (cp Thomson, LB 326).
2 ATTUS(AV LETTUS)is from a reading +arrauc, a scribe’s . A . E. S.-S. A. C.
error which could have easily arisen in an uncial MS for a r r o w .
8 ‘ The black land ’ (so Wetzstein, see Del. Hiod, 597), with 1 Havvoth occurs only in this compound name. It is a legacy
reference to the basalt formation. from the nomadic stage of Hebrew life (see GOVERNMENT>5 4).
I973 1974
HAWK, NIGHT (DQPn),Lev. 11 16. See NIGHT- Yelek), and so to the torrent of MiSrim (the WLdy el-
HAWK. ‘AriS). Thus the frontier line went southward from
‘Ain Kadis as far, perhaps, as the edge of the Tih
HAY. ( I ) 7’??, @isit-; Prov. 2725 (RV mg.
plateau, and then made a circuit to the Jerahmeelite
‘grass’), Is.156 (RV ‘grass’), see G RASS , I ; (2) xip.ror,
I Cor. 3 12. settlement near the sacred fountain (see BEER-LAHAI-
R OI , J ERAHMEEL ), and to el-‘Anjeh (E N - RIMMON ),
HAZAEL ($K!Q, 2 K. 88, etc., or $&3!n, z K. 89, where Palmer noticed strongly-embanked terraces which
etc., ‘ God sees,’ 5 32 ; ~ Z A H A[BAQL] ; A?s. @azu’z’Zu). must once have been planted with fruit-trees, and thence
Successor of BENHADADI. (4.v.)as king of Syria. by the WHdy el-Abyad into the WHdy el-‘AriS. A less
Two great prophetic biographies referred to him. I n probable view is learnedly set forth by Wetzstein in Del.
I K. 19 15 Elijah is sent from Horeb to Damascus to ’ Gen.P), 586-590.
anoint Hazael king over Syria; in v. 17f: Hazael’s The two texts can hardly both be correct : some corruption
victories over Israel are represented as the divine venge- must be assumed. One emendation is suggested above. Azmon
ance upon Baal-worshippers. I n 2 K. 87-15, however, we ( p y ) should probably he En-rimmon (jbT]’?)1’;became 1;
read that ‘ EZz’sha came to Damascus,’ that he described and fell out. It reniains to read 9 ~ n n - pfor i i u and for
the cruelties which Hazael would practise on the ypipn <the latter occurs in Josh. 15 3). ( i i represents
~ 5~1.
Israelites, and that when Hazael shrank in affected ypip:, IS more nearly complete; it comes from ixoni by ordin-
ary corruption and transposition.) T. K. C.
humility from the prospect (see DOG, § 31,he answered,
‘YahwB has showed me that thou shalt be king over HAZAR-ENAN (Q’g Tyn, ‘village (enclosure) of
Syria.’ I t would seem that two different accounts were springs’- -the second element is not Hebrew but
current, and that the redactor combined portions of Aramaic ; in Ezek. ~ ~ A TOY H c &IN&( N) [BAQ], in Nu.
each. Historically, it is not important to determine A p C € N A € l M [B 40. 91, - N [B 71. 101, -C€pN. [BaTbV. 91,
whether either or neither of these accounts is correct. a c a p ~ a [ s ] [AFL
~ ~ v.g, and Barb v. IO]), is the ex-
What is important is the light which 2 K. 87-15 throws treme E. point of the ideal N. boundary of Canaan in
on the road which Hazael took to the throne. There Ezek. 4 7 1 7 (where it is p 1 9 ~ is?, Hazar-Enon), 4 8 1
is no reason to doubt the accuracy of this narrative as
far as Hazael is concerned, and the natural impression (AYAHC T O Y NAAM [Bl, a. T. AINAM [QI). and also
in Nu.349 (cp v. IO), a passage which belongs to the
of the reader is that it was not the sick king, but priestly narrative and depends on Ezekiel. Probably
Hazael who I took the coverlet (RV), and dipped it in Hazar-enon ought also to be substituted for HAZAR-
water, and spread it on his face, so that he died.’ T h e HATTICON (4.v.)in Ezek. 47 16. Its position is un-
opposite view is no doubt reconcilable with the letter of known; but, from the passages in Ezekiel where the
the n a r r a t i ~ e . ~Probably the redactor has produced territory of Damascus seems to be placed on the N.
this indistinctness by the omission of some words, to side of the border and excluded from Canaan, the
make it more difficult to accuse Elisha of complicity in conjectures which place it at KaryatEn or some other
the deed. W h o Hazael was, we are not told ; but the point N. of Damascus appear to be illegitimate.
expressions used by him in v. 13 seem to preclude the Identifications must he precarious, whatever view be taken
idea that he was the legitimate heir of Ben-hadad. H e of the ideal northern frontier. Van Kasteren (Rm.bib., 30f:
met the allied forces of Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah [’95]) thinks of eZ-H&, to the E. of Biniris, near the road to
of Judah a t R AMOTH -G ILEAD ( z I(. 828f:; 914s). Damascus. As Buhl points out, however (Geog-. 67 240)~ the
name would be still more appropriate for BZniZs itself (BZni@s
and gained important successes against Jehu which are not being the ancient Baal-gad). This may he only a plausihle
referred to elsewhere (D AMASCUS , 8 8). So great conjectnre; but it acquires importance from its complete ccn-
indeed was the stress of the affliction of Israel that it sistency with the description of the E. border in Nu.3410-12;
cp Ezek. 47 18and HAURAN. W. R. S.-T. K. C.
was not till the reign of Joash b. Jehoahaz, that the
losses inflicted upon Israel by the Syrians were repaired. HAZAR-GADDAH (a13 >YQs 1 0 5 ; C E P ~ I[B?],
I n the time of Amos the barbarities of Hazael were still a c s p r a h h a [A], a c a p . [L]), a place on the Edomite
fresh in the minds of men (Am. l3f:). Hazael also border of Jndah (Josh. 1527). Eusebins and Jerome ( O S
came into conflict with SHALMANESER 11. (4.v.). 24535 ; 12728) identify ‘ Gadda’ with a village in the
Twice (842 and 839 B.c.) the Assyrian king says that extreme parts of the Daroma, overhanging the Dead Sea.
he marched against him and defeated him. Shalman- More than one site agrees with this description (see Ruhl,
eser does not, however, appear to have gained any Geog. 185) ; but most probably Eusebius and Jerome
permanent advantage, and he troubled Aram of are mistaken, and the village Hazar-gaddah lies nearer
Damascus no more. Thus Hazael was at liberty to to Beer-sheba than to the Dead Sea. Cp the name
extend his dominion, and this accounts for the notices Migdal-gad, and see H AZOR , I (end). T. K. C.
in 2 K. 1032 1 2 1 8 [17] 1322 of his successesagainst Jehu
and Jehoahaz of Israel and Jehoash of Judah. Cp HAZAR-HATTICON, RV H AZER - HATTICON (ly?
GATH, and (on @’s insertion in 2 K. 1322) A PHEK , fiYg?-i.e., ‘the middlevillage’ ; AYAH TOY C A Y N ~ N
3 (a), K INGS , § 3 (2). Hazael’s successor was probably [B], EYNAN hi T O Y ~ Y N A N [AI, 0”. AYAH
byhal TOY e l X W N [Qmg.]),
on the ideal N. frontier
Mari (see B EN - HADAD 11.). T. K. C.
of Canaan (Ezek. 47 16).
HAZAIAH (;133Q, Yahwe sees ’ : oz[s]ia [BKA], It is probable, both on external grounds and on the evidence
o<mu [L]), in list of Judahite inhabitants of Jerusalem (see of @, that we should read Hazar-enon (p’y for p-,) (so Sm.,
E ZRA ii., S 5 [b] $5 15 [I] a), Neh. 115. Co.). Van Kasteren’s attempted identification (Em. Bib!., ’95,
HAZAR-ADDAR(T78 TYno EITAYAIC a p a h [BAL]), p. 30) is therefore needless. See HAZAR-ENAN.
a place on the S. border of Judah, Nu. 344.T In the /I HAZARMAVETH(nlgyn,I 105 ; Sab. ncvmun ;
passage, Josh. 153, it is called m ~Addar
, (AV A DAR ); in Gen. a c a p M w e [A’], C a p M a e [A”], UahPJv [E],
but probably the HEZRONr4.v. i.] which occurs close A C A p A M w e [L] ; in Ch, b p A M a e [Alp om. B,
by is a corruption of yxn (so Ges.-Buhl). Probably, A c s p M u e [L]); the eponym of an Arabian clan, called
too, adopting necessary emendations, the geographical son of J OKTAN (4.v.) ; Gen. 1026, I Ch. lzo?. The
statement in both passages is that the S. border of name (which cccurs in Sabaean, see above) represents
Judah went round by the S. of K ADESH -B ARNEA (‘Ain the mod. Hadramaut (or Hadramfit), the name of a
Kadis) and up to Hazar-jerahmeel (near ‘Ain Muwaileh), broad valley running for 100 m. or more parallel to the
and then passed along Azmon (Jebel Hela1 and Jebel coast, by which the valleys of the high Arabian table-
land discharge their not abundant snpply of water into
Read p m i nmi (CP @I, a h CP KINGS,B 3. the sea at Saihut.’ A similar name occurs in Asia
2 Read 1BlP (see BED, 5 3, n. 6). Minor (A DRAMYTTIUM ) ; the final syllable was probably
3 Cp Wi. AZttest. Unfers.64-66. 1 Bent, Soufhern Aradia, 71 [I~w].
‘975 1976
-moth or -muth (cp AZMAVETH). T h e modern district proper Heb. term for ' almond' is T?$. See Low,
is less extensive than the ancient. The kings of Hadra- no. 319 ; Celsius, 1253J:
maut have left inscriptions which Glaser has larely dis-
covered. HAZELELPONI, RV Hazzelelponi (+3a$i$!g;
According to Strabo (xvi. 42), the xa7papwr;ra~wereone of the ECHAEBBWN CB1, E C H A A E A ~ W N [AI, & C ~ A ~ @ U N E I
four chief tribes dwelling in southern Arabia (their capital was [L]), sister of JEZREEL,I SHMA , and IDBASH
Salma or Sabata- (the S ABTAH of 2,. 7). See Glaser, Shizze, (I Ch.43).
2 20, 4 q f l ; Hommel, A H T , 77$, 80 etc., and cp BDB. Oiie of the oddest names in Chronicles mentioned in con-
Here dwelt the people who in v. 7 are called SABTAH nection with (the Judahite) Jezreel Etain'and (probably) Hur
b. Judah'(r Ch.43). Olshausen tLehyb: d. heby Spy. fj18)
IC v.I. explains, Give shade, thou who lookest upon me Curtis (in .
HAZAR-SHUAL ($d YWJ, § ' o s ) , a city, on the Hastings, D B 2 128 a) 'the Zelelponites.' Neither) view com-
mends itself. *JIB (poni)is a duplication of i j (pentd)
,extremesouthern border of Judah, assigned to Simon : Josh. 15 ~ in 5 ~ 1 3 3
(Penuel) which follows : 5533 is miswritten for S,&n, Halasel,
2 3 (phaucwha [ B L ] , awapaouha [A]); Josh. 1 9 3 (apawha [B],
the true original of 5 ~ 5 BEZALEEL
uipoouha [A], a[ua]pwoha [ L ] ) ; I Ch. 428 (Eqpfouha,8 [Bl, ~ 2 [ q ' . ~ . ] . Possibly Halqel
is the full name of
.euepaouah 1-41, auepaao0 (Ll) ; Neh. 1127 (om. BN*A, eaepaoaA Halusa (better known to ~ S ~ S Z I K L A G ) .
[ K C . a"'g.1 arJspaoah [Ll). The name would correspond to Jerahrneel (see REHOBOTH,
It is vbry probably identical with the h k y , ASAREEL J ERAHMEEL). T. K. C.
.of I Ch. 416, and SUEXWV, the drother of ' Ir-nahash' RAZERHATTICON, or ' the middle Hazer ' (7yiJ
(Beer-sheba), 6 I Ch. 4 x 2 . Conder identifies with'the ]\>+vq),Ezek. 47 16 RV, AV H AZAR - HATTICON [ q . ~ . ] .
ruin Sa'weh, on a hill E. of Beersheba But the name
-is almost certainly a Hebraised form of Ar. siydl, a HAZERIM (n'??in.acHhwe[B], a c H p w e [AFL]),
kind of acacia tree, which grows in Arabia (see Doughty, AV's mistake, derived from 6, for ' villages ' (so RV
.Ar. Des. 291). C p SHITTAH-TREE. T. K. C. Dt.223). See AYVIM.
RAZAR-SUSAH (nPlD TYQ), Josh. 1 9 d ' ; c a p - HAZEROTH (n'[UlYn; a c H p w e [BAFL] ; in Dt.
C O Y C E l N [B], AC€pCOyClM [AI, A[CA] PCOYCIN EL])) 1 1 translated &YAWN [BAFL]), an unknown locality
.also called H AZAR -S USIM (a
in Josh. ; and MT. mentioned in Nu. 1135 12x6 3317 J: Dt. 11. See
I Ch. 431t, P'DlD 'TI ; HMICYCECOPAM' [B"], W ANDERING, 9 7.
H M I C Y C W C O ~ A M[Bab19 H M I C Y ~ W C I M[A H M I C Y HAZEZON-TAMAR (l@ (Wp) Gen. 147 'AV,
points to a reading w~]),a c s p c o y c i [L], where a RV H AZAZON -T AMAR .
Simeonite village. T h e name apparently means 'station
of a mare.' But this is an early editor's guess, not a HAZIEL (Y&Vfl, 5 32 prob. =J AHAZIEL [p.v.], ' El
Tecord of Solomon's importation of horses (cp MARCA- [B], A Z I H A [AL]), a Gershonite Levite,
sees'; e i e ! ~ A
DOTH). Possibly a corruption of ivy i~;, HaSer 'aziz. temp. David (I Ch. 289).
'strong enclosure.' Kephar 'Aziz was a place in the HAZO (iQ, a z a y [ADL]), Nahor's fifth son (Gen.
province of I d u m z a where R. Ishmael, a contemporary 2222). T h e name resembles Ass. HazE (=?rn),which
.of R. 'Akiba, resided (Neub. Ghgr. 117). T. K. C. was a mountain region of volcanic conical hills (so Fr.
RAZAZON-TAMAR, RV, AV H AZEZON - T AMAR Del.) in N. Arabia (KB 2 131). See Buz.
(ypc fyyn [in Ch. ]wn], § 103; AChCdrN BAMap HAZOR (YiUiJ; acwp[BAFL]; A S O R ) , like H EZRON
[BAL], in Ch. &CAM 6 A M a p e PIP A N b C A N ,%MAP (q.v.), is a name corresponding, probably, not to the
[A] ; ASASOATHAMAR), mentioned as inhabited by Ar. &sur ( ' f o r t ' ) but to &n?iru ('sheep-fold,' cp
Amorites, and as conquered by Chedorlaomer, together C ATTLE , 5 6 n. jj), an enclosure of thorny branches or of
with the region of the Amalekites, after he had come stone. The name Hazor or Hazar occurs frequently
to Kadesh, Gen. 147. In z Ch. 202 it is identified as a place-name in the pastoral Negeb. the region of
with En-gedi, which was prqbably suggested by the the ' Hezronites '-nomads who dwelt within such en-
meaning of Tamar (date- palm), En-gedi having been closures (cp H EZRON ). T h e phrase ' the kingdoms of
fanions for its palms. But the situation of En-gedi
does not suit. Hence Knobel thought of the important
Hazor ' (Jer. 49 28 30 33 ; adh4 [BKAQ]) is a collec-
tive term for the region of the settled Arabs in the S.
.site called Thamaro or Thamara, and identified by or E. of Palestine (cp Jer. 2 5 3 4 Is. 4211) ; cp the Ar.
some with Kurnkb, NE. of 'Ain Icadis (see T AMAR ) ; /id$iir used (in the plur.) of the settled Arabs living in
b u t palms, we may be sure, have never grown at towns and villages as contrasted with the purely nomad
Kurnub. There must be a corruption in the text, Arabs (cp Rob. AR 1305 and Doughty, Ar. Des. 1274).
which in so ill-preserved a narrative need not surprise I. The Hazor of king JABIN (4.v.) lay near the
us. Probably we should read for ' (the Amorites that
dwelt) in Hazazon-tamar' ' (the fmorites that dwelt)
waters of Merom, not far from Kedesh (Jos. 11 and [an
auop, 6" auuwp] 1219 Judg. 42 17 I S.129; uuwp, -pas
i n the land of Miyim,' own y Jos. Ant. v. 5 I xiii. 5 6 3 ) . Its identification is doubt-
In truth it is difficult to L
;e how the N. Arabian land of ful. Wilson and Gu6rin think of the TeN Hurreh,
M q r i (see)M*zRAiM, 5 26) could have been passed over. The SE. of Kedesh, where there are extensive ruins. Conder
neighbourhood of Kadesh and Jerahmeel are probably thought
of. In I Ch. 202 the note 'that is, En-gedi' may fairly be and others prefer Jebel Hadireh (.' Mt. of the sheep-fold ' ;
taken as a gloss, and 'Hazazon-tamar' be explaiued as a con- cp the plain Merj-Hagireh), a little to the W. of DEshiin,
ventional expression for the country s. of Judza, derived from about three quarters of an hour S. from Kedesh (cp
,Gen. 147 in its already corrupt form. T. K. C.
Baed., 262). On the whole, Robinson's identification
HAZEL (195, Gen. Q037'f). This very interesting tree- with the Tell Khureibeh, 1680 ft. above sea-level,
name (ZUB) is wrongly rendered. 24 m. S. from Kedesh, seems the most suitable; but
Note ( I) that the scene of the narrative in Gen. 3031-43 is laid no ruins have as yet been discovered there.
i n Haran, whereas the hazel-tree is said not to grow in this As htrgava j - y y ) it seems to he mentioned on the old
region, and (2) that this tree is also not known in S. Palestine, Egyptian lis& of Thotmes and the p?pyrus Anastasi (WMM
to which the author of the narrative (J) belongs. As. u. Eav. 173)~and its importance in the foi:rteenth century
The fact that in Syr. and Ar. the cognate word means is perhaps revealed by the Amarna Tablets, where the king of
almond-tree,' strongly favours R V s rendering A LMOND Hasilra or Harura is mentioned several times ; it had smaller
dependent towns and its king is mentioned with the king of
(g,v.),which is also given by Vg. (amyp.daSnas) and Sidon (fromwhici Petrie infers that a Hazor 1 1 m. SE. of Tyre
is not hconsistent with the K U ~ U I V T V of &iABL, ~dpvov is meant).l
being a general term. 795 may be a foreign word ; the In Jos. 1936 ( P ) Hazor appears as a 'fenced' city
and is allotted to Naphtali. Its inhabitants were
1 QllDD9Sn: a simple transposition. carried off by Tiglath-pileser ( 2 K. 1529). I t is
2 p~became yn3 ; p'irn was corrupted into inn>r (nJ=
03). For an analogous corruption see Ps. 1204 (Che. Ps.P)). 1 Syvia and Egyfit, 94 173.

64 = 977 I978
mentioned in I Macc. 1 1 6 7 (AV N ASOR , vauwp [VA], choice hut to emend in:?? ‘his body’ into in$& ’his skull,’
auwp [K]) and is the ASER, RV ASHER,of Tob. 1 2 in spite of the fact that, according to usage it ‘wai not merely
(aol)p P A 1 auflllp [KI). the skull, but the whole head of an enemy, :hat was the victor’s
Whether the Hazor fortified by Solomon was really trophy.
the northern one seems doubtful ( I K. 9 15 om. BL, euap A critical translation of Chronicles would therefore
[A] ; in 1 0 2 3 , auuoup [B], -6 [L], om. A ; XESER [Vg.]). have to render, in 1Ch. 10 IO, ’ and they stuck up his skull
Althoughfollowed by Megiddo its mentionwith Gezer and in the house of Dagon.’ Why the head was chosen as a
localitiesin theneighbourhood of Jerusalemdoesnotinspire trophy (Judg. 7 2 5 I S. 17 54 57 31 9 2 S. 4 7 20 21f. z I<.
confidence, and both Jer. and Eus. ( O S 2 ) 97 IO, assure; 1 0 6 8 ) may at first seem to need no investigation;
2 2 7 3 4 auuoup) actually locate it in Judah. This position was not the severed head a convincing proof of death?
seems more natural, and in @’s addition to I K. 2 (35 i I t may have become no more than this when the grim
auuoup [BA], auou6 [L]) Hazor and the other places are narrative in 2 K. 10 6 8 was written. When, however,
followed immediately by Beth-horon and Baalath. we read of the Australians that one of the trophies
Which Hazor is meant, however, is uncertain. Jer. which they carry home after killing an enemy is the
and Eus. speak of a J u d z a n Aser ( O S 2 )9219 2 2 0 9 3 ) kidney fat, and that this is kept by the assassin to lubricate
between Ashkelon and Ashdod ; and an Asor on the himself, because he thinks that thus he acquires the
borders of the former is by them (erroneously?) identi- strength of his victim,l we begin to suspect that there is
fied with H AZOR - HADATTAH . Perhaps Solomon’s something more than we at first supposed in the custom
Hazor is the same as no. 3 below. Megiddo seems to of decapitating a dead enemy. What is it, then? I t
be a corruption of M IGDAL - GAD [ g . ~ . ] , unless for is the idea that the head is a special seat of life (which
‘ Hazor, Megiddo,’ we should read H AZAR - GADDAH accounts for the phrase ‘ t o swear by the head,’ Mt.
[g. v.l.2 5 36). Hence among the Iranians the head of a victim
2. A locality in Benjamin mentioned between Ana- was dedicated to Haoma, in order that the life,
niah (Beit Hanina?) and Ramah ( Neh. 1133 K c.a nLg. L, represented by the head, might return to its divine giver.
om. BIY*A). One might plausibly identify it with the That was not indeed the usage of the Egyptians or
ruins of Hazziir near Beit Hanina (PERMiii. 8 114). of the Hebrews. Yet both peoples had a reverence
The mention of Zeboim, however, between Hadid and for the head. ‘There are twenty-two vessels in the
Neballat (v. 34) makes it possible that Hazor may head which draw the spirits into it, and send them
mean B AAL - HAZOR (iiq5 p 2 S. 1 3 2 3 ,8arhauwp [B], thence to all parts of the body,’ is the assertion of the
Ebers Papyrus (Maspero, Dawn of Civ. zr6), and shows
pehh? [A], pauehh. [L]), which in its turn is defined what the feeling of the Egyptians was.
as being ‘ beside E PHRAIM ’ [q.v., ii.]. This is Te2Z It is true Herodotns (2 39, quoted Py,WKS, ReL Sen& (2) 379)
‘ASzir-a hill I hour NE. from Bethel (which place is states that the head of a sacrificial victim was not offered on the
mentioned in Neh. Il3r)-and lies ENE. of Jifni ( L e . altar hut sold to Greek traders, or thrown into the Nile; hut
OPHNI); cp Bnhl, Pal. 177. See ESORA. this is opposed t o the clear evidence of the Egyptian monu-
3. A town in the Negeb of Judah mentioned between
The Hebrews, too, doubtless offered the head, among
Kedesh and Ithnan (Josh. 15 23 auop [iwvuw] [B], auwp
the other chief parts of the body, upon the altar, and
[L.], om. A) ; Bnhl(2.c. 182)identifies with HuGZre, E.
there is considerable improbability (see DOVE’S DUNG,
from Hebron and NE. from Ma‘in. Cp below.
col. 1130) in the statement in the M T of z K. 6 2 5 that
4. Another Hazor, alternatively called fil:! n i 3 y
heads of asses were eaten during a great famine in
(K ERIOTH - HEZRON , R V ; AV read as two) is enumerated Samaria,-first, because ass’s flesh was forbidden food,
in the same group (Josh. 1525 ~ ~ X E auapwvL S [R], s b X ~ s and next, because the dried head of any animal being
- p [A], ~ 6 X e i seupwp [L]) and is identified by Buhl with used by the Semites as an amulet, it was not natural
mod. KaryatZn S. of Ma‘in, the place whence Judas per- fol‘ them to eat the head.3 (The eating of the head of
haps derived his designation ‘ Iscariot ’ (but see J UDAS ). the paschal lamb was an exception.) It is also probable
The modern form of Hazor survives in the Negeb in the forms that there is a sense of the sacredness of the head in the
Hadira amount S. of Kurnuh, and a well, el-HuderE, inet-Tih
(cp Rob: BR 1223). See HAZOR-HADATTAH. s. A. c. statement of I S. 1 7 5 4 and I Ch. 1010 respecting the
head of Goliath and the skull of Saul respectively. In the
HAZOR-HADATTAH ( S O RV ; np?? -kq,--i.e. former passage the M T tells us that David took the head
LAram.1 ‘New Hazer,' acwp TH N K A I N H N [ L ; of the Philistine and brought it to Jerusalem (ohii,),
om. BA], ASOR N O VA [Vg.]), a place on the Edomite but this anachronism is probably an error of the scribes
bqrder of Judah (Josh. 1525). (Che. Eq5.T. IOs22 [‘99]); the true reading is to
An Aramaic adjective, however, in this region is so strange ‘ S a u l ’ (h~$)). Saul who had not stirred from his
that the reading must be questioned ’ (Di.). nnin is probahly a
miswritten form of which follows ’ Hadattah should he place could not regard the head of Goliath as a trophy ;
omitted. AV gives ‘And Hazor Hadittah. Eus. and Jer. but he may have valued it greatly as a supernatural
(OS 21731 908jplack this Hazor tdo far N., viz., on the borders guardian or amulet. And so in I Ch. 1010 even the
of Ashkelon, towards the E. See HAZOR, I. T. K. C . Chronicler feels that the skull (representing the head)
RAZZELELPONI ($&Fa), I Ch. 4 3 RV. AV of Saul may well have been affixed as a sacred object
to the wall of a Philistine temple. Possibly we may
connect his statement with the view certainly held in
HEAD is the equivalent in OT of dK7, rJ& and in Talmudic times that a mummified human head
Aram. parts of Dan. of VK?, rZi& and in N T of (tlri$him) or even a human skull (’54,could give
KE@AAH. I n I Ch. 1010 EV also gives I head’ for the knowledge of the future.4
n)>si, gu&keth. This passage furnishes a good starting- Among the various idioms in which the head finds a place a
few may he mentioned.
point for our survey of some of the ideas connected by ( I ) To ‘lift up the head ’ when spoken of another, most
the Hebrews with the head. n h h (guZg&th) does not naturally means ‘ t o raise to honour’ (see e.g. Gen. 40 13 2 K.2j
really mean ‘ head.’ The Chronicler misunderstood 27). In Gen. 40 19, however, it meaus ‘ t o take off the head
as a punishment. It is one of those plays on words in which
I S. 31 IO.
Hebrew writers delight.
The first part of the verse, relative to Saul’s armour, is a (2) Yahwk ‘will take away thy master from thy head ’(2 K. 2 3 5
parenthesis, and probably a gloss, but seemed to the Chronicler EV) alludes to the customaryposition of pupils at the feet of their
to he the beginning of a statement respecting the trophies carried teacher (cp Acts 22 3).
offby the Philistines. If .this view was correct there was no
1 WRS Ral. Sew. (2) 380.
1 In I K. 9 15(lO 23) the readings are payaw [A], pasrav [Bl (cp 2 See Rawlinson Hevodotes, 2 71.
medam, OSW 140 34), payr6Sw [Ll ; in 2 35 payaw [Bl, -6w [AL]. 3 WRS Rel. Se& (21, 381.
2 A possible connection with MAKKEDAH may also be 4 For the references see Buxtorf, Lex. Talmud. z6Gofi;
suggested. Selden, De Dis Syris, 59; Levy, NHWB, S.V.
‘979 1980
(3) ‘They shoot out the lip, they shake the head ’ (Ps.22 7 181) important passage is shown by Ezek. 11~ g f . 18 31 36 2 6 f . ,
may strike us as a strange combination of phrases. With the where ‘ a new heart,’ or ‘ a heart of flesh,’ is the organ
Hebrews, however, shaking the head is a sign of mockery (cp
Ps. 4414 [Is], z K. 19 21), though it may also be a gesture of of that new life which Israel is to lead in the ideal age.
sympathy (Job 164). A ‘clean heart’ is therefore ‘ a pure conscience and
(4) ‘ Thou shalt heap coa? of fire on his head ’ (Prov. 25 z z ) character.’ The consciousness of being free from guilt
would most naturally mean, Thou shalt take vengeance upon
him by destroying him’l (Gen. 19 24, Ps. 11 6 171). Of course, had often been possessed by the early Israelites tem-
this does not suit the c:ntext nor can 2niq mean anything but porarily as a consequence of the due performance of
‘fetch,’ or carry away. H e k e the text must be out of order. ritual forms; but the future Israelites would possess
Read, ‘for (so) thou wilt quench coals of fire’z (i.e. evil passions, it permanently, because they would have a moral organ
Ecclus. 8 re). Certainly the reference to the head can be well
spared; the ethical gain is considerable. which would guard them against displeasing their
In a Zend sdripture we read, after an exhortation to charity righteous and holy God.
on the ground that the Law begs for charity in the person of h c h a ‘clean heart’ is otherwise described as a ‘steadfast
thy brethren who beg for bread ‘Ever will that bread be spirit’ (RVmg.; cp Ps. 788 37, EV ‘aright spirit’) by which the
burning coal upon, thy head’ (Gistasp Yast, 36, in ~ O x f o ~ d l Psalmist must mean L asteady impulse towards all that is g.ood.’
Zendavesta, part II., by Darmesteter, ,338). The burning For the sense of ‘ conscience’ see also Job 27 6, EV ‘ my-heart
coal on the head ’ seems to be a figurative expression for the doth not reproach me ’ (?),and especially I K. 8 8 where EV’s
vengeance imprecated on him who refuses the bread of alms. rendering, ‘every man the plague of his own Ieart,‘ should
If so it suggests what the MT of Prov. 25 z z a ought to mean. rather be ‘every man a stroke in (lit. of) his own conscience.’
On 6 e phrase ‘to cover the head,’ etc. (in mourning), see The idea is that God not only strikes the body or the possessions
MOURNING. T. K. C. of a sinner, but forcibly touches his heart, or conscience, with
conviction of sin (see Klo., Ki.).
HEADBAND. For ( I ) P’?$?, kiffgrim, Is. 320 AV
In the hooks admitted into the Heb. canon (for the
(RV ‘sashes’) ; see GIRDLE, 4 ; and for (2) ??!$ i#h&-, I K. Apocrypha cp Wisd. 7 T I Ecclus. 4 2 1 8 [ K ] ) d has the
20 38 4 1 RV (AV ‘ ashes ’), see TURBAN, 2. proper Greek term for conscience, cuvefIBquLs,only once
HEADTIRE. I. RV for 8;?9?2, mighi‘Eh9 the -viz. in Eccles. 1020, where the Hebrew text has the
priestly ‘bonnet’ of AV (Ex. 2S40 etc.). See MITRE, I. 2. RV late word yin.‘ It is, however, common in N T , though
for lK?,pi~?r, in Is.Szo(AV ‘bonnet’), Ezek. 2417 (AV tire’). it occurs only once in the Gospels (Jn. 89 in a disputed
See TURBAN, 2. 3. EV for KlSapLs, I Esd. 3 6 ; see CROWN. section). For the sense of ‘ character,’ see also Jer. 1 2 3 ,
HEART (35or 2;>, on the distribution of which re- ’ Thou hast tried my heart ’ ; Ps. 79 [IO] I Thess. 24.
Here we find ourselves on the line of progress to N T
spectively in O T writings see Briggs, Kohut Memoria(
religion. The Pauline epistles give the heart a centra1
Stzldies, 94-105 (’97); ~ a p A l & ) .There ~ are some
interesting varieties in the biblical use of the term ‘ heart.’ position in the moral nature of man. I t has the power
Primarily the heart is the seat and principle of vitality, of immediate perception of the spiritual truths revealed
for ‘ the life of the flesh is in the blood’ (Lev. 17 II), and by G o d s spirit. God, we are told, has shone in the
the receptacle of the blood is the heart. hearts of Christians to give the light of the knowledge
Hence the expressions, ‘let your heart live ’ (Ps. 22 26 [:7]): of the divine glory ( z Cor. 46) ; we even meet with the
it reaches to thy heart (Jer. 4 18 ; cp z). IO ‘ to the soul ’) ; the strange expression ‘ the eyes of your heart ’ (Eph. 1x8).
whole heart is faint’ (Is. 15). Here the ‘ heart ’ is in fact almost a Hebraistic synonym
‘ Heart’ and ‘ flesh’ ( l ~ t @ )combined designate the for that ‘ reason ’ or ‘ understanding’ ( v o k or G ~ d v o r a )
whole inner and outer man ‘(as in Ass. S ~ Y Uand l‘i64u); which is the responsive element in man to the divine
see Ps. 169 73 26 (cp ESCHATOLOGY) ; and for ‘heart ’ spirit (cp G NOSIS , 5). The germ of this representa-
in the sense of ‘ inner man ’ note the phrase so frequent tion, however, is to be found in the teaching of Jesus.
in Dt. (e.g., 42g), ‘ with a l l the heart and with all the ‘ Happy are the pure in heart, for they will see God’
soul. (Mt. 58). Indeed, theentire Sermon on the Mount im-
More special meanings are the following :- presses the necessity of keeping the ‘ heart ’ pure and in
(a)The seat of the appetites, emotions, and passions ; see, constant contact with God and with heavenly things as
e g . , Ps. 10415 Dt. 1 9 6 I K. 838 Is. 3029. the condition of pure morality. This again is but the
(6) Mind, intellect, qnrpose, metnory; so ‘men of heart’= clearer expression of the O T view that it is affinity
‘men of understanding, Job 34 IO 34 ; ‘ all the wickedness which
thine heart (=thy mind) is privy to; I K. 2 44 EV ; ‘ wisdom and of character that brings a man near to God ; and that
understanding exceeding much and largeness of heart ’ I K. 4 29 the moral and spiritual life which produces character is
EV ; ‘it is in his heart (Le. pdrpose) to destroy,’ 1s; YO 7 ; ‘ the seated in the innermost part of man-Le., in his
heart (purpose) of Pharaoh was changed,’ Ex. 145 ; David laid
up these words in his heart,’ i.e. in his memory, I S. 21 12 (cp ‘heart.‘ T. K. C.
Lk. 2 1951). So Ps. 31 12 1131. ‘a dead man out of heart’ would
mean ‘ a dead man, forgotten,’ if the Hebrew text were correct.
(c) Consciousness, conscience, character. .So Prov, 14 I O (a
HEARTH. For (I) tie, ‘64 ( ~ c x ~ ;paar u b ) , Jer.
fine passage even in EV; but ‘ intermeddleth with its joy’ strikes 3 6 2 2 3 ; (z)li’?,h&wir, Zech. 126 RV ‘pan (of fire)’ (6ahds,
a false note, for even a stranger feels some sympathy with simple cuminum) ; (3) Y,?iD, ma&d, Ps. 102 3 141 (+p4ytov, cremiunz,
human joys) where read- ie., dry wood), RV ‘firebrand’; plur. +i,yin, ?a8&d#, Is.
A hkart that feels its deep vexation 33 14, EV ‘ burnings,’ see COAL,$ 3.
Cannot intermingle with the joy of a stranger.4 Lev. 6 9 [ z ] is $fficult (see below); RV ‘on thehearth,’RVmg.
Hitzig would give the sense of ‘consciousness’ to the word ‘on its firewood ; neither is right. The small 13 proceeds from
‘heart’ in the well-known phrase ‘a clean heart,’ Ps. 51 IO LIZ]. an ancient corrector (cp the small j in Is. 44 14) and (as in Is.
He supports this bya reference to Prov. 22 11a;aclear conscious- Lc.) is conjectural. Read i&y, ‘on the fire’ (see 4); the
ness-&. ,a joyous temper-would then be the boon sought for by
the speaker. But the reference is not tenable, for in the passage letters lip.? were accldently misarranged as mp?, and a
referred to @ enables us to ,?tore an all-important word which corrector changed 9 into 13 (suggested by SS).
has been lost-viz ‘ Yahwk. A human king may he partial to 4. lJp2, y&&zid, Is. 3014t (@BN*Qr om., uL [see Field]
joyous-hearted su4ects, butYahw&loves those whose conscience, Ka6uTpa, incendi?mt). ‘the fire burning on the hearth.’
or moral character, is spotless ; dya?rp^ xlipros buias K U P ~ ~ U S . On the ‘hearth of hod,’ Is. 29 I (RVmg.), see ALTAR, ARIEL ;
As to Ps. 51 IO [I.], the true sense of this religiously on the ‘cakes upon the hearth’ of Gen. 166 see BREAD, $ z ( a ) ;
1 Toy (Prow. 468) still adheres to the traditional view that the
on the ‘hearthstones’ of Ezek. 4043 (AVmg.) see HOOK, 7.
pang of contrition is meant. But what unsophisticated Jewish
reader could so have interpreted the words? HEATH, RVmg. ‘tamarisk’ (‘uY‘&, ?$YIl ; 2 drrpio-
2 ‘nq?n z i y Wt&y t?. MYPIKH, Jer. 1 7 6 486f). T h e Heh. word may he con-
3 Lazarus (Ethik d.Judenthums 1,981, 231) notes that Talm. nected with &iy, signifying nakedness, and so point to
tC15 has a narrower reference than the biblical 25, and desig- the stunted appearance of the plant (see below).
nates the inward disposition as distinguished from external acts.
4 In b read, with Chajes, 27yil; Ei$ li iInnk+. Deep sorrow 1 y y , however, in Eccles., Z.C., is probably corrupt ; Perles
incapacitates a man for sympathy with the joys of others. reads $p;Q?, ‘.on thy couch.’
Frankenberg reads (@ Bpp~s) for 1 ; but the result is not
: 2 Thefiame formoccursasanadj.=‘naked’inPs. 10217 [18];
simple enough for a proverb. but cp Che. Ps.Pi
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