Sunteți pe pagina 1din 25

MODULE I: LESSON 1: WHO IS TRAINER AND OR ASSESSOR

Session Objectives
At the end of the session, you should be able to:

Distinguish a trainer from an assessor

Determine roles of trainer and/or assessor in assuring quality technical-vocational courses

Introduction
Plan Training Session is one of the six competencies to be mastered in Trainers Methodology I (TM I). But
before we focus on planning, let us have an overview of the whole training program. In this lesson, you will
learn the role as trainer or assessor. As a trainer or assessor, you need to know what and how to teach, and how
to work effectively with others. We look forward to see you competent enough as you study this course.
Trainees Entry Requirements
It is expected that you will be a Trainer and/or Assessor as you finish this course, Trainers Methodology I (TM
I).
What is a TVET Trainer?
TVET Trainer is a professional who enables a learner or a group of learners to develop competencies to
performing a particular trade or technical work. Towards this end, a TVET Trainer may assume various roles
such as training facilitator, competency assessor, training designer, developer or training supervisor 1.
What is a Trainer / Assessor?
From the Training Regulation, a Trainer is a person who enables group of learners to develop competencies
toward performing a particular trade or technical work while an Assessor is an individual accredited and
authorized to evaluate or assess competencies of a candidate applying for certification or any one of the purpose
of assessment.
Trainer/Assessor is at least NC II holder and who has achieved all the required units of competency identified
in the Trainers Methodology Level I (TM Level I) under the PTTQF. He is also a holder of National TVET
Trainer Certificate Level I (NTTC I) 2. A Trainer is an Assessor; an Assessor is a Trainer 3.
To qualify for this course, a candidate or trainee must satisfy the following requirements:

Graduate of baccalaureate degree or equivalent in training or experience along the field of Technical
Vocational Education and Training

Certified at the same or higher NC Level in the qualification that will be handled (for technical trainers)

Able to communicate orally and in writing

Physically fit and mentally healthy

Proficient in quantitative and qualitative analysis

Proficient in verbal reasoning

MODULE I: LESSON II: COMPETENCIES OF A TRAINER AND/OR ASSESSOR


Session Objectives
At the end of the session, you should be able to:

Determine the skills and knowledge that a trainer or assessor should have

Explain required skills as a trainer and or assessor

Introduction
As you progress through this lesson, you should keep in mind the skills and knowledge required to
become a competent trainer. Remember that awareness of your skills and capabilities will help you
make informed choices.
Basic and Core Competencies
Listed are the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required of Trainers Methodology (TM) Level I 1:
Basic Competencies (or skills and knowledge that everyone needs for work):

Lead workplace Communication


Apply math and science principles in technical training
Apply environmental principles and advocate conservation
Utilize IT applications in technical training
Lead small teams
Apply work ethics, values and quality principles
Work effectively in vocational education and training
Foster and promote a learning culture
Ensure a healthy and safe learning environment
Maintain and enhance professional practice
Develop and promote appreciation for cost-benefits of technical training
Develop and promote global understanding of labor market

Core Competencies (or specific skills and knowledge needed in TM1):


Plan training sessions
Facilitate learning sessions
Supervise work-based learning
Conduct competency assessment
Maintain training facilities
Utilize electronic media in facilitating training

MODULE I: LESSON III Competency-Based Training

Session Objectives
At the end of the session, you should be able to:
Define commonly used Competency-Based Training terminologies
Explain ten principles of Competency-Based Training
Differentiate traditional education with Competency-Based Training
Introduction

Getting the idea on structure and principles embedded in training is important before designing a session
plan. Do you know how to teach a Technical-Vocational Education and Training (TVET) program? That
will be the focus of todays lesson.

The framework in teaching skill-based lesson is called Competency Based Training (or CBT). It
focuses on skills development that is why its approach differs from the traditional education.

In traditional education, the teacher controls the environment (or called teacher-centered approach);
while in CBT, the learners control and manipulate the tools and equipments with the guide of a teacher
(also known as student-centered approach).

In addition to that, learners are not compared among each other, instead their skills are compared against
the norms or standard set by the industry. The training is also self-paced; an example of this is when the
trainer allows the students to study the materials & practice the skill on their own. Lastly, the focus of
CBT is on the outcome or the end product.

CBT Terminologies
The need to understand commonly used terminologies is important before starting this courseware.
Comprehending these terminologies will empower you to understand easily the next lessons.

Knowledge is the cognitive representation of ideas, events, activities or tasks derived from practical or
professional experience as well as from formal instruction or study, e.g. memory, understanding,
analysis 1.

Skill refers to the acquired and practiced ability to carry out a task or job 2.

I.

Competency, as used in TESDA, is


a) the application of knowledge, skills and attitude required to complete a work activities to the standard
expected in the workplace 3; or
b) the possession and application of knowledge, skills and attitudes to the standard of performance
required in the workplace 4.
The 4 dimensions of competency that describes aspect of work performance are 5:
Task Skills undertaking a specific workplace task
II. Task Management Skills managing a number of different tasks to complete the entire work
activity
III. Contingency Management Skills responding to problems, irregularities and breakdown in
routine when undertaking the work activity
IV. Job/Role Environment Skills dealing with the responsibilities and expectations of the work
environment when undertaking a work activity

Competency Standard are industry-determined specification of competencies required for effective


work performance. They are expressed as outcomes and they focus on work place activity rather than
training or personal attributes, and capture the ability to apply skills in new situations and changing
work organization 6.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is the acknowledgement of an individuals skills, knowledge and
attitudes gained from life and work experiences outside registered training programs 7.

Qualification is cluster of units of competency that meets job roles and is significant in the workplace.
It is also a certification awarded to a person on successful completion of a course and/or in recognition
of having demonstrated competencies relevant to an industry 7.
It has three components:
o Basic Competency skills and knowledge that everyone needs for work

o Common Competency skills and knowledge needed by people working in a particular


industry
o Core Competency specific skills and knowledge needed in a particular area of work-industry
sector/occupation/job role
2

Competency-Based Training (CBT) is a system by which the student is trained on the basis of
demonstrated ability rather than on that of elapsed time 7.
CBT includes:
o Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) is the specification for a course or subject (module)
which describes all the learning experience a student or learner undergoes. It specifies outcomes
which are consistent with the requirements of the workplace as agreed through industry or
community consultations.8
o Competency-Based Learning Material (CBLM) refers to the print and non-print instructional
media used as guide in learning workplace activities.

Delivery of Competency-Based Training (CBT)


The flow of CBT differs from the traditional education approach. To see the big picture is important before
planning a session plan. Below is the CBT delivery framework:
1. Trainee enters the program. Trainer conducts pre-training assessment to identify learners training needs.
Orientation of CBT program on Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and roles of trainer & trainee
follows.
2. Trainee selects competency from the identified training needs and receives instruction from the trainer.
The trainer administers learning contract or agreement between him and his trainees, then provides
CBLM materials and introduces the use of progress and achievement chart.
3. With the selected competency, the trainee studies the module by doing the following learning activities
(in any order): review learning package, view multimedia materials, use manuals, observe
demonstration, practice skills in workshop, and receive assistance and advice.
4. While the trainee practices the skill, the trainer observes and records the performance on the Progress
Chart. Student will attempt the task until he masters the skill with the help of trainers immediate and
constructive feedback.
5. Once the trainee determines by himself that he is competent to do the skill, he will call the attention of
trainer. The trainer will observe and rate the performance based on the Performance Criteria Checklist
and will record the result on the Achievement Chart. If the skill is satisfactorily performed, he will then
select another unit of competency. If the skill is not satisfactorily performed, the trainee will study again
the module.
6. To exit the training program, trainee must satisfactorily perform the skill and must have enough units of
competencies (or has completed all the modules). If the trainee doesnt have enough units of

competencies, he will then select another unit of competency, and repeat the competency-based training
process.

Ten (10) Principles of CBT


Competency-Based Training delivery anchors in its principles. These ten (10) principles of CBT serves as
ground rules for trainers and trainees. Memorize, apply and promulgate the listed principles below:

Principle One: The training is based on curriculum (CBC) developed from the competency standards
(CS).

Principle Two: Learning is competency based or modular in structure.

Principle Three: Training delivery is individualized and self-paced.

Principle Four: Training is based on work that must be performed.

Principle Five: Training materials are directly related to the competency standards and the curriculum
modules.

Principle Six: Assessment is based in the collection of evidences of the performance of work to the
industry required standard.

Principle Seven: Training is based both on and off the job components.

Principle Eight: The system allows Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and or current competencies.

Principle Nine: Training allows multiple entry and exit in the training program.

Principle Ten: Approved training programs are nationally accredited. Programs of each institution or
training center are registered with UTPRAS (Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation
System).

Now it is your turn to refresh memory on how your teacher taught you and compare it on how CompetencyBased Training works. How will you teach skill-based session? Does it have any difference? Will you make that
change for the better? Get a paper and take down notes on its differences.

MODULE II : LESSON I: Determining Trainees Characteristics


Session Objectives
At the end of the session, you should be able to:

Identify learners characteristics and learning styles for trainees profile

Determine adult learners characteristics

Introduction
Competency-Based Training without planning and without determining trainees characteristics will lead
to an unsuccessful session plan.
It is a must for us teachers to know our students their characteristics as adult learners, their educational
background, and their culture - not only because we need data for filing purposes, but for us to use these
data to analyze and determine their training needs.
Who are our learners? What are the characteristics we need to include in their profile? What type of
learners are they? Those are our some highlight questions you might encounter as you proceed in this
lesson.

Understanding Adult Learners


Before we determine trainees characteristics, we first need to understand our trainees as adult learners. Our
training is learner-centered; hence, it is essential to know them first.
Our training enables adult learners attain skills for them to land a job. Teaching them requires different teaching
approaches and methodologies; thus, understanding them will surely help in preparing an effective session plan.
Understanding how adults learn will also enable the trainer to think of teaching strategies that focused on adults.
This is based on the theory called Andragogy (Knowles), also known as adult education. The study came up
with the characteristics of adult learner, and they are the following:

Adults are autonomous & self-directed.

Adults bring life experiences & knowledge to learning experiences.

Adults are goal-oriented.

Adults are relevancy-oriented.

Adults are practical.

Adults like to be respected.

Here is a best scenario on how to apply this theory: The trainer enters a class consisting of adult learners. They
are all different in terms of age, educational background, gender etc., but they all have one thing in common they are all adult learners. A trainer, on his conscious state, will then use strategies to meet the needs of adult
learners.
A best example of strategy especially in developing working with teams is the use of Situated Learning
Experience (SLE). It would be a very good application of adult learning principles since they are given specific
instruction to achieve and explore solution and course of actions to attain it.
An example is the creation of a tallest tower using limited supply of materials. In this SLE, the goal is to make
the highest tower. The devising of strategies and trying it outgives adult learners autonomy and direct their
own learning, and it also allows the students to bring in their previous experiences and knowledge. When
participants are asked to give their insights on their SLE experience, this allows learners to give respect to their
classmates, as the application of insights becomes practical and self-motivating.
Note that the methods and strategies we construct, consciously and unconsciously, should meet the needs of our
adult learners, and will surely make an effective transfer of learning.

Establishing Trainees Characteristics


In completing the trainees profile, we need to know the characteristics essential in individualizing the session
plan. Below are the essential trainees characteristics the trainer needs to gather:
Characteristic of
Learners
Language, literacy and
numeracy (LLN) level

What does it mean to the plan?


These greatly affect the training method you can use, as well as
activities and task suitable for each session. You should be prepared
for different LLN levels and must have different resources.

How Learners Learn?


A trainer is about to teach a group of students. Then he has collected data for trainees characteristics but the
problem is he hasnt assessed the students learning style to complete the trainees profile.
What is learning style? Learning style is ones own way of learning new information and ideas. It will give us
an idea on how a person receive and transfer information.
Suggested learning styles are VARK Learning Style Model and PART Learning Styles. Feel free to choose
between the two in determining trainees learning style/s.

Visual, Auditory, Read/Write and Kinesthetic (VARK) Learning Style Model


Everyone learn differently since we all have preferred way to absorb, comprehend and retain new
information.

VARK Learning styles, as proposed by Fleming and Mills (1992), is a model that describes how a
person takes-in and gives-out information while learning. These learning styles are visual (learns best by
seeing graphs, charts, and other symbols), auditory (learns best by listening), read/write (learns best by
reading text-based information) and kinesthetic (learns best by doing).

PART Learning Styles


Another model is PART Learning Styles. It is developed by Honey & Mumford but the idea originated
from Kolbs Learning Style Model.
The four learning styles are:
o Pragmatists putting theory into practice or needs to know how to apply the information in real
world Pragmatist tends to integrate or put together theory and practice as they perceive
information abstractly and process it actively. They always think problems and opportunities as
challenges.
o Activists having an experience or needs to do Activists put together experience and
application as they perceive information concretely and process it actively. They would likely
tackle problems by brainstorming. Activists learn by trial and error, & by self-discovery method.
o Reflectors reflecting on it or needs time to think over information Reflectors integrate or put
together experience within oneself as they perceive information concretely and process it
reflectively. They learn by listening and sharing ideas.
o Theorists drawing out own conclusion or needs to know theory behind information Theorists
put together observations into complex but logically sound theory as they perceive information
abstractly and process it reflectively. They learn by thinking through ideas.

MODULE II: LESSON II: PRE-TRAINING AND ANALYSIS


Session Objectives
At the end of the session, you should be able to:

Describe pre-training assessment and training needs analysis

Realize the importance of having pre-training assessment before starting the session

Disengage current competency from the skills required to determine training gap

Introduction
In differentiated classroom, teachers begin where students are, not the front of a curriculum guide. Carol
Ann Tomlinson, 1999. As quoted by Tomlinson, we start our session based on our pre-assessment, not in
Competency Based Curriculum. Pre-assessment evaluates trainees knowledge, skills, strengths and weaknesses
prior to teaching.

Pre-Training Assessment
Pre-Training Assessment is conducted to recognize current competency (RCC) and recognition of prior learning
(RPL). This assessment is done before the training starts. Listed are reasons why it is needed:

It allows us to see their mastered competencies.

It serves as point of reference in assessing our trainees.

It gives student quick look of future lesson.

Pre-Training Assessment can be done either of the following:

Learners assess themselves using the self-assessment guide

Trainer assesses learners previous experience through portfolio assessment

Trainer assesses learners skills and knowledge through pre-test or diagnostic test

Self-Assessment Guide is a pre-assessment tool to help the candidate and assessor determine what evidence is
available, when gaps exist, including readiness for assessment 1.
Portfolio Assessment refers to the process of determining whether an applicant is competent through evaluation
of his or her records of achievement 2.
You can confirm authenticity of evidence of competency by:

Calling or asking personally the signatories and confirm the information listed in certificate of
award/employment.

Calling or visiting the workplace where projects are done.

Pre-Test or Diagnostic Test is a type of formative assessment that involves collecting evidence to diagnose or
identify a training need or performance problem. (NVSC Handbook) Prepare the pre-test/diagnostic test
according to the guidelines written in the lesson Preparing Assessment Instruments.
An assessor can use the portfolio assessment and pre-test results as source of evidences and a tool in verifying
learners current competency and prior learning. Pre-training assessment and analysis is done prior to actual
training program.

Determining Training Gap


Determining Training Gap through Training Needs Analysis (TNA)
Under the CBT approach, each learner is assessed to find the gap between the skills they need (as described in
the Training Package) and the skills they already have. The difference between the two is called the training
gap.

Skills Required* Current Skills** = Training Gap = Training Needs


Skills Required refers to the competencies listed in the competency standards and specified by the industry;
On the other hand, Current Skills referred to as validated competencies gathered in the pre-training
assessment.
A training program is then developed to help the learner acquire the skill deficiency. Therefore, Self-Assessment
Guide (SAG) with Training Needs Analysis (TNA) Tool is an important tool to use in determining training gap.
Self Assessment Guide

Self-Assessment Guide (SAG) a pre-assessment tool to help the candidate and the assessor determine what
evidence is available, where gaps exist, including readiness for assessment. This document can
identify the candidates skills and knowledge;
highlight gaps in the candidates skills and knowledge;
provide critical guidance to the assessor n the evidence that needs to be presented;
provide guidance to the candidate on the evidence that needs to be presented; and
assist the candidate to identify key areas in which practice is needed or additional information or skills
should be gained prior to the assessment.

MODULE III: LESSON I Understanding the Training Regulation


Session Objectives
At the end of the session, you should be able to:

Describe the sections of Training Regulations

Describe components of Competency Standards

Explain importance of Competency Standard in planning a training session

Introduction
Now that you have established the training gap of the learner, you are now ready to prepare the session plan. In
preparing session plan, it is essential to understand the structure of Training Regulation.
Training Regulations contains the prescribed minimum program standards. It is developed by experts and
practitioners from public or private sector (or called as Experts Panel) and is promulgated by the TESDA Board
after national validation1.

Training Regulation
Training Regulation (TR) is a TESDA promulgated document that serves as basis for which the competencybased curriculum, instructional materials and competency assessment tools are developed. This document
represents specific qualification. How the competencies in this qualification can be gained, assessed and be
given recognition is detailed in this promulgated document 1.

All training institution who wants to offer TVET program are required to register under Unified TVET Program
Registration and Accreditation System (UTPRAS) either With Training Regulation (WTR) or No Training
Regulation (NTR) to adhere in competency-based training requirements.
With Training Regulation (WTR) is described as programs that have appropriate promulgated Training
Regulations; examples of WTR program are Computer System Servicing, Food and Beverage Service to name
some. No Training Regulations (NTR) refers to the programs that include skills which are not covered yet by
any promulgated Training Regulations; example of NTR program is those of interior designing 2.
It has four sections:

Section 1 Definition of Qualification refers to the group of competencies that describes the different
functions of the qualification. It enumerates the job titles of workers who are qualified.

Section 2 - Competency Standards (CS) gives the specifications of competencies required for effective
work performance.

Section 3 - Training Standard (TS) contains information and requirements in designing training
program for certain Qualification. In includes curriculum design, training delivery; trainee entry
requirements; tools equipment and materials; training facilities; trainers qualification and institutional
assessment.

Section 4 National Assessment & Certification Arrangement describes the policies governing
assessment and certification procedure.

Download #4:
Training Regulations
Training Regulations
Training Regulations (TR) a TESDA-promulgated document that serves as basis for which the competencybased curriculum and instructional materials and competency assessment tools are developed. This
document represents a specific qualification. It defines the competency standards for a national
qualification and how such qualification can be gained, assessed and be given recognition.

Competency Standards
Competency Standard (CS), as used in TESDA, is industry-determined specification of competencies
required for effective work performance. They are expressed as outcomes and they focus on work place
activity rather than training or personal attributes and capture the ability to apply skills in new situations and
changing work organization1. Refer to Section 2 of Training Regulations.

Defined below are the components of CS:


Unit of Competency (or Unit Title) is a component of the competency standards stating a specific key
function or role in a particular job or occupation; it is the smallest component of achievement that can be
assessed and certified under the PTQF.
Unit Descriptor outlines what is done in the workplace. It clarifies scope and intent of unit.

o
o
o
o

Elements are the building blocks of a unit of competency. They describe, in outcome terms, the
functions that a person performs in the workplace.
Performance Criteria are evaluative statements that specify what is to be assessed and the required
level of performance.
Required Knowledge (formerly known as Underpinning Knowledge) refers to the competency that
involves in applying knowledge to perform work activities. It includes specific knowledge that is essential to
the performance of the competency.
Required Skills (formerly known as Underpinning Skills) refers to the list of the skills needed to
achieve the elements and performance criteria in the unit of competency. It includes generic and industry
specific skills.
Range of Variables describes the circumstances or context in which the work is to be performed.
Evidence Guide is a component of the unit of competency that defines or identifies the evidences
required to determine the competence of the individual. It provides information on:
Critical Aspects of Competency refers to the evidence that is essential for successful performance of the
unit of competency.
Resource Implications refers to the resources needed for the successful performance of the work activity
described in the unit of competency. It includes work environment and conditions, materials, tools and
equipment.
Assessment Method refers to the ways of collecting evidence and when evidence should be collected.
Context of Assessment refers to the place where assessment is to be conducted or carried out.

MODULE III: LESSON II: Understanding Competency-Based Curriculum


Session Objectives
At the end of the session, you should be able to:

Determine elements of Course Design and Module of Instruction

Analyze importance of Module of Instruction in constructing session plan


Introduction

What is Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC)?

A competency-based curriculum is a framework or guide for the subsequent detailed development of


competencies, associated methodologies, training and assessment resources.

The CBC specifies the outcomes which are consistent with the requirements of the workplace as agreed
through the industry or community consultations.

CBC can be developed immediately when competency standards exist.

When competency standards do not exist, curriculum developers need to clearly define the learning outcomes
to be attained. The standard of performance required must be appropriate to industry and occupational needs
through the industry/enterprise or specified client group consultations1.
Understanding the Course Design

Competency-Based Curriculum consists of Course Design and Module of Instruction. Course Design
serves as the blueprint and sets the structure in delivering the training program, while Module of Instruction
serves as the course outline, and is derived from the course design, and contains detailed information on what
and how to teach each unit of competency.
Course Design is based on competency standards set by the industry or recognized industry sector. Learning
system is driven by competencies written to the industry standards1.
The first page includes the following:

Course Title refers to the name of the program to be offered. It is usually derived from the qualification title
of the training regulations or it takes the qualification title of the training regulations if the program is
designed to cover the entire qualification2.

Nominal Duration refers to the estimated training period usually expressed in hours wherein the learner is
expected to complete the whole training program.
Course Description refers to the brief statement of scope, coverage and delimitation of the course.
Entry Requirements refers to the minimum and must qualifications of a trainee to a training program that
will ensure effective and efficient training.
Course Structure is a course matrix, and includes details on module title, learning outcomes and nominal
hours per unit of competency.
Unit of Competency is a component of the competency standard stating a specific key function or role in a
particular job or occupation serving as a basis for training an individual to gain specific knowledge, skills
and attitude needed to satisfy the special demands or requirements of a particular situation1.
Module Title is the name of the module derived from the unit of competency.
Learning Outcomes are the set of knowledge, skills and/or competencies an individual has acquired and/or
is able to demonstrate after completion of a learning process either formal, non-formal or informal 3.
Nominal Hours refers to the estimated training period usually expressed in hours wherein the learner is
expected to complete a particular training module of program 2.

Resource is the part where recommended tools, equipment and materials to be used are listed.
Assessment Methods refers to the ways of collecting evidence and when evidence should be collected1.
Course Delivery refers to the classroom teaching methodologies that can be applied for the entire module
instruction.
Trainers Qualification refers to the identified minimum experience and competencies the trainer for the
course must possess.
READING # 1:
Competency-Based Curriculum
Sample: Competency Based Curriculum

Module III: LESSON II UNDERSTANDING CBC


Module of Instruction
Module of Instruction is the description of training requirements for every unit of competency. A unit of
competency can make one or more modules of training. This part of the CBC is used as point of reference
in preparing session plan.
The document consists of the following:
Unit Title is a learning outcome statement which describes the area of competency related to the content
of work. (e.g. Maintain Computer Systems)

Module Title describes the outcome of unit of competency. Gerund is used as subject. (e.g. Maintaining
Computer Systems)
Module Descriptor refers to the brief statement of scope, coverage and delimitation of the module.
Nominal Duration refers to the estimated training period wherein the learner is expected to complete a
particular training module of program 1. (Procedures Manual on Program Registration)
Summary of Learning Outcomes refers to the consolidated statements of desired end result to be
attained after each session.
The succeeding pages of Module of Instruction are the following:
Assessment Criteria is the standards used to guide learning and to assess learner achievement and/or to
evaluate and certify competence 2.
Contents are the topics and activities which make up what is learned by an individual or group of
learners during a learning process 3.
Condition outlines situation and context under which learners will be assessed.
Methodologies refer to the list of methods to be used in a particular session.
Assessment Method refers to the technique/s used to gather different types of evidences.

MODULE III: LESSON III: THE SESSION PLAN


Session Objectives
At the end of the session, you should be able to:

Identify parts of a session plan

Derive learning outcomes using Competency Standard (CS) and Module of Instruction (MOI)

Determine guidelines in organizing learning content

Distinguish training method and approaches according to learning activities, purpose, learning style, and
practice-based learning

Organize learning activities using Present-Practice-Feedback and Nine Events of Instruction

Identify formative and summative assessment methods or tools

Enumerate steps in preparing session plan

Prepare an effective session plan

Introduction
An organized training session is the key to meaningful learning; thus, a prepared session plan is needed to make
every lesson a success. Each session plan is derived on Competency-Based Curriculum, and anchored on
Competency Standard to ensure that the training provided is world-class, high-quality skills education.
Listed below are the guide questions that we need to address at the end of the lesson:

What are the elements or parts of a session plan?

How to derive learning outcomes from MOI & CS?

How to organize learning content?

How to select appropriate training method according to learning activities? Purpose? Learning styles?
Practice-Based Learning?

How do we transfer knowledge and skills?

What learning activities are recommended in skills acquisition?

What evidences will we use in assessment?

Grab your pen as we study the most important module in this competency. We assure that it will empower you
to prepare an effective session plan that efficiently addresses training gap.

MODULE II: LESSON III: THE SESSION PLAN


ELEMENTS OF A LESSON PLAN
Session Plan, same as Training Plan or Lesson Plan, is a written document prepared by the trainer that shows
logical order of activities that he wants to happen in a training session.
It gives trainer and his learners an overview on where they are and where they are going. It serves as record of
training sessions and as a starting point for additional training. It is also extremely helpful for a trainer who
takes over another session.
1. Industry Sector identifies the industry where the job is classified (e.g. Information and Communication
Technology).
2. Qualification Title and Level
a. Qualification Title refers to the name of the formal certification or recognition.
b. Qualification Level refers to the category of skills and knowledge required to do a job1.
3. Unit of Competency is a component of the competency standards stating a specific key function or role
in a particular job or occupation; it is the smallest component of achievement that can be assessed and
certified under the PTQF1.
4. Module Title describes the outcome of unit of competency. Gerund is used as subject. (e.g. Maintaining
Computer Systems)
5. Learning Outcomes are the set of knowledge, skills and/or competencies an individual has acquired
and/or is able to demonstrate after completion of a learning process formal, non-formal or informal 2.
Each learning outcomes has its own set of learning activities.
6. Introduction contains information meant to motivate, and orient the student on the objective and what
will be expected of them. It also includes the correlation of the current lesson to the previous session,
and its relevance to the training program.

7. Learning Activities is used to support learning. It conveys content, create meaning, and support
development and transfer of skills/knowledge through practice and experience 3.
o Learning Content refers to the topics and activities which make up what is learned by an
individual or group of learners during a learning process 4.
o Teaching Methodology refers to the list of methods to be used in a particular learning content.
o Presentation shows instructional materials and or methods to be used in introducing the content.
o Practice shows instruction sheets and self-check test to be used by the learner in applying and
concretizing learning.
o Feedback includes evaluation of performance and reference to the answer key.
o Resources includes list of tools, materials and equipment to be used per learning content.
o Time refers to the estimated minimum training period usually expressed in hours wherein the
learner is expected to complete a particular learning activity.
2

Assessment Plan is the overall planning document for the assessment process and includes a
range of information to guide trainer on the method of assessment to use and its
scope.3

Teachers Reflection is the part where the trainer documents or records what has occurred
during training and includes notes on sufficiency of learning content, training
method,
instructional material and evaluation methodology to improve
session plan. It may also
consist of observed skills performed outstandingly,
learners feedback while using
Competency-Based Learning Materials
(CBLM), and teachers feedback regarding
results of evaluation.
Download #5:
Sample Session Plan

Derive Learning Outcome


Learning Outcome is the set of knowledge, skills and/or competencies an individual has acquire and/or
is able to demonstrate after completion of a learning process, either formal, non-formal or informal 1.
Where do we get these learning outcomes? The learning outcomes are lifted from the Module of
Instruction, derived from the Course Design, which are all anchored from the Competency Standards.
As a whole, we could infer that each unit of competency has numerous learning outcomes, and every
outcome has its own learning activities.

Determine and Organize Learning Content


Learning Content refers to the topics and activities which make up what is learned by an individual or
group of learners during a learning process 1.

Listed are guidelines in determining and organizing Course Content:


Review Competency-Based Curriculum and determine essential topics and activities.
Review required knowledge or skills and range of variables from the Competency Standards.
List the content or topics gathered from CBC and CS. Include additional topics if necessary.
Organize the content. This will help learners store information in their long-term memory.

Sort content or topics according to:


o simple to complex task
o known to unknown
o whole to part and back to whole
o concrete to abstract
o particular to general
o observations to reasoning
o point to point in logical order (or in sequential order)
Sorting the content will help learners store information in their long-term memory. It needs to be in manageable
chunks to let the learner process new information easily. It also needs to be progressive leading down to a
learning pathway. It is also important to link information so that learners could understand the big picture
together with its specific parts 2.

Identify Appropriate Training Methodology and Techniques


It is essential to identify appropriate training methodology after determining the learning outcome and content.
Training Methodology refers to how subject matter is going to be dealt with in a broad sense (e.g. lecture,
group discussion, role play, demonstration, etc.), while Techniques are the variation of the method (e.g. under
Small Group Discussion (SGDs), the methods could be fish bowl, brainstorming, plenary, etc.)1
To select appropriate teaching method, a trainer should consider the following:

learning outcomes is the primary basis for selection

nature of the subject and types of performance specified

needs, interests, abilities and level of maturity of the learner

available time and resources

capacity of the trainer

A trainer knows well that a single method will not be sufficient to make each adult learning session successful.
A skilful teacher must use various methods and techniques necessary to hold the attention of adult learners to
improve their learning efficiency.
Listed below are training methods according to learning activities, purpose, learning styles, and practice-based
learning:
According to Learning Activities
Learning Activities

Methods & Techniques

Individual

self-assessment, hands-on experience, self-paced hand-out or modules

Group Activities

simulation, role play, games, small group discussion (no more than 7
participants), brainstorming, buzz group (2-3 participants), debate, group
dynamics, group reporting, focus group discussion

Either Individual or Group


Activities

case study, projects, demonstration, laboratory work, direct observation


According to Purpose:

Purpose

Methods & Techniques

To give information and knowledge lectures, readings, written and oral instruction
To give examples, To show task &
attitudes

demonstrations, slides, pictures, video, film, case study, discussion

To enhance skills, To provide


practice

role play, return demonstration, supervised practice, writeshop


According to Learning Styles:

Learning Style

Methods & Techniques

Visual Learns by seeing the big


picture

picture pages, film viewing, lecture packed with flowcharts, diagrams, pictures or
graphs

Auditory Learns by listening

read notes aloud, discussion pairs or groups, question and answer, recorded lectures
and stories

Read/Write Learns by seeing


words and lists

lecture packed with list, glossaries and its definitions, learning activity that requires
transcribing diagrams or pictures into writing

lecture, analogies, statistics, stories


group activities, hands-on experience, note taking, write shop
Learns by doing
Pragmatist Putting theory into
practice

laboratory work, case study, field work, problem solving

Activist Having an experience

assimilation, role playing, small group discussion, problem solving, brainstorming,


puzzle competition

Reflector Reflecting on it

time out, observing activities, paired discussion, feedback from others, coaching,
interviews

Theorist Drawing out own


conclusion

lecture, analogies, statistics, stories


According to Practice-Based Learning:

Practice-Based Learning

Methods & Techniques

On-the Job Training

job instruction training, job rotation, apprenticeship, coaching, internship

Off-the Job Training

active lecture, laboratory training, role playing, case study, simulation

Recommendation in choosing appropriate training method:


Listed are methods in teaching CBT skills and competencies:2
Most useful for acquisition of declarative knowledge
o reading
o lecture/talks
o modelling
Most effective in enhancing procedural skills
o enactive learning like role-play, self-experiential work
o modelling
o reflective practice
Helpful in improving reflective capability and interpersonal skills
o self-experiential work
o reflective practice

Rules of Evidence
It is not good enough to just collect any evidence. Just as the way we collect evidence is guided by the
principles of assessment, the way we collect evidence is guided by the rules of evidence.
Rule
Valid

Current

Evidence must...
- Address the elements and performance criteria
- Reflect the skills, knowledge and context described in the competency standard
- Demonstrate the skills and knowledge are applied in real or simulated workplace situations
- Demonstrate the candidate's current skills and knowledge
- Comply with current standards

- Demonstrate competence over a period of time


- Demonstrate competence that is able to be repeated
Sufficient - Comply with language, literacy and numeracy levels which match
- those required by the work task (not beyond)
Authentic

- Be the work of the candidate


- Be able to be verified as genuine
DOWNLOADS

5S is a system for instilling order and cleanliness in the workplace. The Ss stand
for:
1. Seiri or sort
2. Seiton or straighten

3. Seiso or shine
4. Seiketsu or standardize
5. Shitsuke or sustain
As translated, the Japanese terms mean the following:
1. Seiri Put things in order (Remove what is not needed and keep what is needed)
2. Seiton Proper arrangement (Place things in such a way that they can be easily reached whenever they
are needed)
3. Seiso Clean (Keep things clean and polished; no trash or dirt in the workplace)
4. Seiketsu Purity (Maintain cleanliness after cleaning perpetual cleaning)
5. Shitsuke Commitment (A typical teaching and attitude toward any undertaking to inspire pride and
adherence to standards)
An alternative translation and meaning of these terms may be found in The Improvement Book by Tomo
Sugiyama:
1. Sorting Good and bad, useable and non-useable
2. Systematic arrangement Once sorted, keep systematically to have traceability
3. Spic and span Keep arranged things always ready-to-use, dirt-free and tidy
4. Standardize Make a process for the above three stages, create measures and review them
5. Self-discipline Individual commitment

TVET-technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)


SKILL- Ask or group of tasks performed to a specific level of competency or
proficiency which often use motor function and typically require the manipulation of
instruments & equipments
competency a skill performed to a specific standard under specific condition
TM 1 --training program for TVET Trainers in using the COMPETENCY BASED
TRAINING DELIVERY APPROACH for training assessment/
Dimensions of competency
Task skills- requires performance of a task to the required standard as described
by the unit of competency and expected in the workplace
Task management skills captures skills used as people plan
contingency management skills REQUIREMENT TO RESPOND to
irregularities and breakdown in routines
job/role environment skills- requirement to deal with the responsibilities and
expectations of the works environment

UTPRAS- UNIFIED TVET TRAINING PROGRAM REGISTRATION SYSTEM


Ra 7796- establishment and administration of the National Trade skills Standards
TESDA

Qualification refers to the group of competencies that describes the different functions of the qualification

Competency standards- gives the specifications of the competencies required for effective work performance

Training standards- contains information and requirements in designing training program for certain
Qualification\

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Curriculum design
Training delivery
Trainee entry requirements
Tools & equipment & materials
Training facilities
Trainers qualification
Institutional assesment

Training design- a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs in a
consistent and reliable fashion.
Instructional design or instructional Systems design

Types of Test

Time to finish a
question

True-False

15-30 seconds

Multiple Choice (recall questions that are brief)

30-60 seconds

More complex multiple choice

60-90 seconds

Multiple Choice problems with calculations

2-5 minutes

Short answer (one word)

30-60 seconds

Short answer (longer than one word)

1-4 minutes

Matching (5 premises, 6 responses

2-4 minutes

Short essays

15-20 minutes

Data analysis / graphing

15-25 minutes

Drawing models / labeling

20-30 minutes

Extended essays

35-50 minutes

MEASURABLE ACTION WORDS:

EXPLAIN
EVALUIATE
DIFFENTIATE
IDENTIFY
ANALYZE
DESCRIBE
FORMULATE
NAME
DEFINE
DISCUSS
ASSESS
LIST

ROBERT GAGNE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

GAIN ATTENTION
INFORM LEARNER OBJECTIVES
STIMULATE RECALL OF PRIOR LEARNING
PRESENT STIMULUS MATERIAL
PROVIDE LEARNER GUIDANCE
ELICIT PERFORMANCE
PROVIDE FEEDBACK
ASSESS PERFORMANCE
ENHANCE RETENTION AND TRANSFER