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LoCation Services (LCS)

LoCation Services (LCS)

LoCation Services (LCS)

LoCation Services (LCS)

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The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

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LoCation Services (LCS)

Table of contents

1 Cell ID-based location methods (usable with any 2G and 3G handset) 4

5

3 Cell ID and Timing Advance with Network Measurement Results (Cell ID + TA +NMR)

2 Cell ID and Timing Advance (Cell ID + TA) location method

location

method

7

4 Support of LCS solutions with Alcatel-Lucent BSS

8

4.1 Support of Cell ID + TA location service

8

4.2 Support of Cell ID + TA + NMR location service

8

5 Conclusions

9

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TA + NMR location service 8 5 Conclusions 9 Page 3 All rights reserved. Passing on

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LoCation Services (LCS)

1 Cell ID-based location methods (usable with any 2G and 3G handset)

The Cell Identification method is the simplest method for determining the location of a handset. It relies on the fact that the network knows in what cell users are and also on the hypothesis that the geographical coverage of a cell corresponds to the one predicted by radio coverage studies. Therefore reliable positioning requires accurate maps of the base station coverage areas, which are obtained by using cellular planning information. Alcatel-Lucent NPO/RNP tools have the ability to accurately determine the geometric contours of cells by using polygons (referred to as ‘Voronoi’ polygons), as shown in the figure below.

to as ‘Voronoi’ polygons), as shown in the figure below. Fig.1: Cell modelling using Voronoi polygons

Fig.1: Cell modelling using Voronoi polygons (Alcatel-Lucent NPO/RNP)

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LoCation Services (LCS)

2 Cell ID and Timing Advance (Cell ID + TA) location method

This enhancing technique improves significantly the accuracy of the Cell Identification method. The TA measure corresponds to the time at which the handset must anticipate the emission of the burst, due to the time propagation, in order to allow the base station to receive the burst in the expected slot of time. Thanks to this time measure the system can calculate the distance between the handset and the base station.

The next figure shows the improvement in accuracy of enhanced cell-ID methods (users are inside the green strip)

enhanced cell-ID methods (users are inside the green strip) Fig. 2: Sectored cell In order to

Fig. 2: Sectored cell

In order to perform calculation using the Cell ID + TA method, the SMLC server uses following data:

- Static information / data for every cell (site data) :

— BTS position in WGS 84 format (latitude, longitude)

— antenna direction orientation for each cell (0° … 3 59°); not relevant for Omni- directional antennas

— half power beam width (HALFPWR_BEAM_WIDTH) of the cell antenna.

— Cell Range: Normal cell, Outer cell, or Inner cell.

- Dynamic information / data:

— For every positioning request: — TA Value (range 0-123)

Note: An antenna orientation set to 0° refers to absolute north and is counted clockwise as in RNP tools.

The results of the calculation are grouped and transmitted through MSC towards GMLC. The message sent to GMLC contains the parameters of an ellipsoid arc (where the MS is located) with the quantized parameters:

- Point(0).latitude : origine point latitude

- Point(0).longitude : origine point longitude

- Θ: orientation of the ellipsoid arc in degrees

- β : width of uncertainty sector in degrees

- r_inner : inner radius in meter

- r_uncert : size of radial uncertainty in meters (nonlinear quantized)

- confidence : percentage value between 0 100

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LoCation Services (LCS)

LoCation Services (LCS) Fig.3: Ellipsoid arc reported by Cell ID + TA method The TA is

Fig.3: Ellipsoid arc reported by Cell ID + TA method

The TA is quantized to the GSM symbol period. The delay of one symbol is equivalent to distance passed by the signal during one GSM symbol period (one way: BTS to MS). The value of TA in range of 0-63 is usual for a normal cell, with a maximum range of 33-35 km.

When the TA range is 0-123, for extended cell up to 70km the accuracy is around 550 meters as distance from site origin point.

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LoCation Services (LCS)

3 Cell ID and Timing Advance with Network Measurement Results (Cell ID + TA +NMR) location method

To enhance the location estimate, radio measurements reported by the MS to the BSS (also called NMR) may also be provided to the SMLC. The NMR method measures the power of the signal received by the handset from the adjacent cell, and calculates the approximate situation inside its own cell.

Different algorithms possible

— Distance Calculation Method (Triangulation);

— Field Strength Mapping (Usage of RNP tools for comparison of predicted field strength and measured power levels);

— Others;

Accuracy does not enable high accuracy services due to spreading conditions.

SSeerrvviinngg CCeellll--IIDD

Serving Base Station TTAA SSiiggnnaall ssttrreennggtthh Neighbour Base Station
Serving
Base Station
TTAA
SSiiggnnaall
ssttrreennggtthh
Neighbour
Base Station

Neighbour

Base Station

Fig. 4: Cell ID, Timing Advance and NMR method

It is considered that the accuracy of the Cell ID + TA + NMR method can vary from 200m up to

500m.

The accuracy of the method has a strong dependence on:

- Algorithm used for localization;

- Number of Base Station signals measured by MS;

- Relative distance to different Base Stations;

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LoCation Services (LCS)

4 Support of LCS solutions with Alcatel-Lucent BSS

4.1 Support of Cell ID + TA location service

The figure below represents the logical architecture of the standard LCS solution.

2G Iub SRNCSRNCSRNCSRNC Iups HLRHLRHLRHLR Uu SGSN NodeNodeNodeNode BBBB Iucs 3G MSC Lg Lh Le
2G
Iub
SRNCSRNCSRNCSRNC
Iups
HLRHLRHLRHLR
Uu
SGSN
NodeNodeNodeNode BBBB
Iucs
3G MSC
Lg
Lh
Le
External
Lg
GMLCGMLCGMLCGMLC
Lb
LCS client
SMLCSMLCSMLCSMLC
SMLCSMLCSMLCSMLC
Lg

MSMSMSMS

MSMSMSMS

Gb MFSMFSMFSMFS Lb 2G Lg SGSN ---- 2G MSC Abis BSCBSCBSCBSC A Ater TCTCTCTC
Gb
MFSMFSMFSMFS Lb
2G
Lg
SGSN
----
2G MSC
Abis
BSCBSCBSCBSC
A
Ater
TCTCTCTC

externalexternalexternalexternal orororor InternalInternalInternalInternal interfaceinterfaceinterfaceinterface

BTSBTSBTSBTS Uu
BTSBTSBTSBTS
Uu

Fig.5: Standard LCS solution

The main role of the SMLC is to receive the request for MS location, to choose the positioning method according to the requested QoS information and to respond to the initial request (providing the calculated MS position estimate). In the Alcatel-Lucent’s integrated implementation of SMLC for 2G systems, the SMLC is located in the MFS equipment (or GPRS box). In this way, operators save in transport because the traffic between the BSCs and the SMLC is carried together with the data traffic. In addition some space is saved since part of the equipment is shared between the two functions. The Alcatel-Lucent’s architecture will integrate enhanced Cell-ID + Timing Advance localisation services.

4.2 Support of Cell ID + TA + NMR location service

Due to different location algorithms and different accuracies provided by each methods and field conditions, Alcatel-Lucent will provide the possibility to use the Cell ID + TA + NMR location method by mean of connecting the BSS to an external SMLC server supporting the method. Such connection is possible by activation of Lb interface over SIGTRAN in the BSC. Lb over SIGTRAN (SCCP/M3UA/SCTP/IP) has been introduced in 3GPP Rel-7. As a consequence, the Lb interface will be supported in native over IP. Using a standardized Lb interface, the operator will be free to connect any external SMLC server supporting the Cell ID + TA + NMR location method to the existing BSS. The interconnection between the SMLC server and the BSS via Lb interface is presented in the picture below:

SMLC BSC SCCP M3UA M3UA SCCP Lb Eth. Eth. IP Page 8
SMLC
BSC
SCCP
M3UA
M3UA
SCCP
Lb
Eth.
Eth.
IP
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LoCation Services (LCS)

5

Conclusions

Alcatel-Lucent has a complete end-to-end Location-Based Services solution for mobile market. LBS solution offered is able to retrieve location information for residential as well as enterprise users under mobile coverage. Positioning a common location server at the heart of the converged solution enables operators to re-use supporting service platform capabilities (such as user profile/privacy lookup, rating, open interfaces supported by the GMLC towards third party location based applications, etc.) and supply combined location offers across access network types, opening possibility for new business cases as location/cell-load based charging option, available using Alcatel-Lucent 8614 Instant Zone product.

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