Sunteți pe pagina 1din 35

Technological University of the Philippines

Ayala Blvd. Ermita, Manila

College of Engineering



Submitted by:
MONTESA, Christelle Joy
ONG, Francis
ONG, Clien
PAMPOLA, Shaira E.
PINTO, Fritzi Ann J.
Submitted to:

RENEWABLE ENERGY........................................................................................................... 2
HISTORY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY.......................................................................................3
IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY.................................................................................3
TYPES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY........................................................................................... 4
BIOMASS........................................................................................................................... 4
PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY........................................................................................... 9
SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS............................................................................................. 10
WIND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY..........................................................................................13
DESALINATION................................................................................................................ 15
SOLAR ARCHITECTURE................................................................................................... 16
LOW-ENERGY HOUSE...................................................................................................... 17
CLIMATOLOGY AND METEOROLOGY................................................................................18
GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGY........................................................................................... 19
WAVE, TIDE, AND OCEAN THERMAL ENERGIES...............................................................21
HYDRO POWER............................................................................................................... 26
OCEAN ENERGY.............................................................................................................. 29
GREEN POWER................................................................................................................ 32


Renewable energy is energy that is generated from natural processes that are
continuously replenished. This includes sunlight, geothermal heat, wind, tides, water, and
various forms of biomass. This energy cannot be exhausted and is constantly renewed.
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its
various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the
earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind,
ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived
from renewable resources.
Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over
wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a
limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency,
and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy
security and economic benefits. It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air
pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and improve public health, reduce premature
mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that amount to several
hundred billion dollars annually only in the United States. Renewable energy sources, that
derive their energy from the sun, either directly or indirectly, such as hydro and wind, are
expected to be capable of supplying humanity energy for almost another 1 billion years, at
which point the predicted increase in heat from the sun is expected to make the surface of
the earth too hot for liquid water to exist.


Prior to the development of coal in the mid-19th century, nearly all energy used was
renewable. Almost without a doubt the oldest known use of renewable energy, in the form
of traditional biomass to fuel fires, dates from 790,000 years ago. Use of biomass for fire
did not become commonplace until many hundreds of thousands of years later, sometime
between 200,000 and 400,000 years ago. Probably the second oldest usage of renewable
energy is harnessing the wind in order to drive ships over water. This practice can be
traced back some 7000 years, to ships on the Nile. Moving into the time of recorded
history, the primary sources of traditional renewable energy were human labor, animal
power, water power, wind, in grain crushing windmills, and firewood, a traditional biomass.
A graph of energy use in the United States up until 1900 shows oil and natural gas with
about the same importance in 1900 as wind and solar played in 2010.
Development of solar engines continued until the outbreak of World War I. The importance
of solar energy was recognized in a 1911 Scientific American article: "in the far distant
future, natural fuels having been exhausted [solar power] will remain as the only means of
existence of the human race".
The theory of peak oil was published in 1956. In the 1970s environmentalists promoted
the development of renewable energy both as a replacement for the eventual depletion of
oil, as well as for an escape from dependence on oil, and the first electricity
generating wind turbines appeared. Solar had long been used for heating and cooling, but
solar panels were too costly to build solar farms until 1980.


Renewable energy is important because of the benefits it provides. The key benefits are:

Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a
much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies.

Energy for our children's children's children

Renewable energy will not run out. Ever. Other sources of energy are finite
and will some day be depleted.


Most renewable energy investments are spent on materials and
workmanship to build and maintain the facilities, rather than on costly energy
imports. Renewable energy investments are usually spent within the United States,
frequently in the same state, and often in the same town. This means your energy
dollars stay home to create jobs and fuel local economies, rather than going
Meanwhile, renewable energy technologies developed and built in the
United States are being sold overseas, providing a boost to the U.S. trade deficit.

After the oil supply disruptions of the early 1970s, our nation has increased
its dependence on foreign oil supplies instead of decreasing it. This increased
dependence impacts more than just our national energy policy.


1. Biomass
2. Photovoltaic Technology
3. Solar Thermal Systems
4. Wind Energy Technology
5. Desalination
6. Solar Architecture
7. Low-Energy House
8. Climatology and Meteorology
9. Geothermal Technology
10. Wave, Tide, and Ocean Thermal Energies
11. Hydro Power
12. Ocean Energy
13. Green Power

Biomass conversion is the process of generating energy by converting materials of recent
biological origin, such as wood waste, to energy. Typically, biomass conversion is used to
generate electricity for sale to the local utility. Biomass conversion can also produce
marketable products such as fly ash used in cement manufacturing.
There are many benefits to the conversion of biomass, including reducing the volume
of material that is landfilled, reducing forest fire hazards, generating renewable power,
creating jobs, and reducing GHG emissions.


As mentioned above, biomass is material of recent biological origin. Included are
materials such as forest and agricultural residues, but not materials like natural gas, oil, or
coal. The main feedstocks for biomass conversion are forest residues, agricultural waste,
and urban wood waste. Table 1 below provides an estimate of the amount each
feedstock, measured in terms of the energy content in the feedstock. As shown in Table
1, each of these biomass types is used in significant quantities. Many biomass conversion
facilities use more than one of these types of biomass as a feedstock. Some plants also
use a small amount of supplemental fossil fuel.
Biomass Type
Agricultural Waste
Forest Wood Waste
Urban Wood Waste

Energy Content (mm BTU)



Agricultural waste includes orchard prunings, nut shells, fruit pits, grain straw, and other
agricultural waste products. Forest wood waste typically includes undergrowth from
forest thinning or logging, and sawmill waste such as bark, sawdust, shavings, and
trimmings. Urban wood waste includes lumber from construction and demolition, wood,
crop residues, yard and garden clippings, prunnings and nonrecyclable pulp or
nonrecyclable paper. Biomass does not included recyclable pulp, recyclable paper or
hazardous materials such as treated wood waste as defined by the Department of Toxic
Substance Control (DTSC).


According to information from the California Biomass Collaborative, there were 22 biomass
conversion (combustion) facilities in commercial operation in California in 2011(see Table
2). However, the list is subject to frequent changes due to economic conditions. More
recent information indicates that there are currently about 30 operational facilities.
However, we do not have emissions information for these additional facilities (as shown in
Table 3 for the 2011 facilities), so we used 2011 information for this paper.
Biomass conversion facilities are located throughout the state, often near timber harvest
or agricultural operations. Most of these facilities were built in the 1980s or early 1990s,
after the federal Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 required utilities to
purchase power provided by qualifying independent power producers at relatively
attractive rates. However, Californias regulatory policies were restructured in 1996,
decreasing the financial incentives available for biomass conversion facilities.
Biomass conversion facilities generally accept waste deliveries by truck and then move
the feedstock with conveyors. In the boiler, the feedstock is burned and combustion
gases flow past water tubes where steam is produced at high pressure. The steam is used
to power a turbine-driven generator that produces electrical power that is sold to the local
utility. The boiler combustion designs include stoker type furnaces with traveling or
fixed (inclined) grates, and potentially more efficient circulating fluidized bed (CFB)
designs. As shown, six of the facilities use cogeneration (cogen) systems which improve
overall efficiency by recovering waste heat.


Facility Name
Blue Lake Power
Burney Forest Power
Collins Pine Co. Project
Delano Energy Co., Inc.
Dinuba Energy Inc.
Honey Lake Power
Madera Power LLC
Mendota Biomass Power Ltd.
Pacific Oroville Power Inc.
Pacific Ultrapower Chinese Station
Rio Bravo Fresno
Rio Bravo Rocklin

Blue Lake

Capacity (MW)
12 (cogen)

Scotia Biomass
Sierra Power Corporation
Sierra Pacific Industries (SPI) Burney
SPI Anderson
SPI Lincoln
SPI Quincy
Wheelabrator Shasta
Woodland Biomass Power Ltd.

Terra Bella

28 (cogen)
10 (cogen)
20 (cogen)
4 (cogen)
25 (cogen)

Mayhead, Gareth, UC Berkeley, May 10, 2011


According to the California Energy Commission (CEC), biomass-derived power provides
about 2% of Californias electricity demand, and about 19% of in-state produced
renewable power. As shown in Table 2, the biomass facilities operating in 2011 had a net
capacity to generate over 500 MW, with individual plants able to generate between 4 and
50 MW of electrical power. In addition to the facilities listed in Table 2, there are six idled
facilities with the potential to generate an additional 90 MW (CEC PIER draft). The idled
facilities are generally not operating because the price of electrical power received under
their contracts with utilities is insufficient to justify operation. However, some of these
plants may be brought online in the future if electricity prices for renewable power
increases due to the 33% 2020 Renewable Portfolio Standard.
The 2011 reported GHG emissions from biomass conversion are shown in Table 3. Total
GHG emissions are estimated to be 6.3 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2e)
emissions. There is some uncertainty in these estimates because these facilities
shutdown and restart relatively frequently based on economics and other factors. Of the
total emissions, nearly all (6.2 million metric tons) were biomass-based. The distinction
between biomass based (biogenic) and non-biomass based (non-biogenic) emissions is
important because only the emissions from combustion of non-biogenic material (such
fossil fuels) are counted as GHG emissions that contribute to climate change per
protocols established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).



(MT CO2e)

(MT CO2e)

(MT CO2e)

Burney Forest Power

Collins Pine Co. Project




Delano Energy Co., Inc.
Dinuba Energy Inc.




Blue Lake Power

Honey Lake Power

Madera Power LLC
Mendota Biomass Power Ltd.
Pacific Oroville Power Inc.
Pacific Ultrapower Chinese Station
Rio Bravo Fresno




Rio Bravo Rocklin

Scotia Biomass/Eel River
Sierra Power Corporation




Sierra Pacific Industries Burney

SPI Anderson




SPI Lincoln
SPI Quincy
Wheelabrator Shasta
Woodland Biomass Power Ltd.








1 ARB 2011 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Regulation.

2 ARB 2009 data used. Colmac facility is on an Indian reservation.


California biomass conversion operations result in net negative GHG emissions. While
these facilities result in direct GHG emissions (mostly as carbon dioxide) when biomass is
burned, the majority of these emissions are biogenic, and not counted as discussed
above. In addition, these facilities produce electrical power that results in avoided utility
emissions that would come mostly from the combustion of fossil fuels such as natural gas.
Finally, biomass that is not combusted in a facility may otherwise be landfilled or open
burned, resulting in more GHG and criteria pollutant emissions.
As shown in Table 4, preliminary estimates based on the facilities above indicate that
biomass conversion facilities result in net negative GHG emissions of over 1 million MT
CO2e, or -0.24 MT CO2e per ton of bone dry biomass. This is similar to a related ARB
(-0.21 MT CO2e/ton) for the recycling of dimensional lumber, assuming that it is chipped
and burned in a biomass facility. (ARB, 2011). The staff estimated emissions include the
direct CO2e non-biogenic emissions from Table 3, and credits for avoided utility emissions
using the power capacity from Table 2 and an assumed overall output of 85% of capacity.
Staff did not estimate transportation emissions associated with delivering waste to a
facility, or emissions associated with processing waste, for example chipping wood. The
estimates also did not account for avoided landfill emissions or avoided emissions from
open-burning of biomass.
(bone dry

(MT CO2e)

Total MWh

Utility Avoided
Energy Credit MT

Total Net
(MT CO2e)

Net MT







1 Uses 2009-2010 average California grid emission factor of 668 lb CO2e per MWh, and assumes facilities
produce 85% of rated power capacity per Table 2.
2 Figure from 2012 Bioenergy Action Plan


While acknowledging that most GHG emissions from biomass conversion facilities are
biogenic, there is some potential to reduce GHG emissions from existing biomass
conversion facilities, especially those that are not cogeneration facilities. When a lifecycle approach is used, net GHG emissions could be reduced by: (1) conversion to
cogeneration, where heat (steam) is utilized on site, (2) upgrades to the boiler, turbine, or
generator that could provide improvements in the efficiency resulting in more electricity
generated per ton of biomass combusted; or (3) greater utilization of ash in beneficial
uses such as construction materials where it could replace virgin materials that would be
mined or otherwise produced through processes that result in more GHG emissions.
Additional GHG reductions could come from restarting idled or non-operational biomass
facilities, the conversion of fossil fuel plants to co-fired or 100% biomass fueled plants,
or the construction of new biomass conversion facilities. Based on the emissions
estimates in Table 4, the 22 operational plants in California result in an average annual
emissions credit of 50,000 MT CO2e each. In addition, much of the biomass material
available is not utilized. According to the 2012 Bioenergy Action Plan, less than 15% of
the available biomass in California is utilized for energy. However, there are signs that
more biomass conversion facilities could be on the horizon. Six existing nonoperation
plants have recently been sold to investors, possibly driven by speculation that the
utilities will pay more for electricity as the 2020 RPS deadline approaches (California
Agriculture, Vol. 66, Number 1). Also, new designs in biomass conversion and gasification
systems sized from 0.5 to 2 megawatts are now available that can provide heat and
electricity for manufacturing or a small community. (UC, Woody Biomass Utilization).
Finally, there may be benefits to the utilization of biochar, such as reducing nitrous oxide
emissions and improving soil fertility for agricultural use.


These facilities are generally subject to local air quality district regulations and permit
requirements. For new or modified facilities, New Source Review (NSR) regulations may
require the use of best available control technology (BACT) for PM, NOx, SOx, or other
emissions. NSR may also require the use of emission reduction credits (ERCs). In
addition, federal rules that govern the permitting of new or modified facilities may apply.
The primary GHG emitted from biomass conversion plants is carbon dioxide, which is not
controlled. However, as noted above, these facilities result in net negative GHG
emissions. The plants have air pollution controls to reduce emissions of PM and NOx.
For PM control, the facilities are equipped with various control devices, including multicyclones, baghouses, and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Permitted limits range from
0.01 to 0.2 gr/dscf at 12 percent carbon dioxide. For NOx control, the facilities most
often employ selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR).

Solar energy is widely available throughout the world and can contribute to reduced
dependence on energy imports. As it entails no fuel price risk or constraints, it also
improves security of supply. Solar power enhances energy diversity and hedges against
price volatility of fossil fuels, thus stabilising costs of electricity generation in the long
Solar PV entails no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during operation and does not emit
other pollutants (such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen); additionally, it consumes no or
little water. As local air pollution and extensive use of fresh water for cooling of thermal
power plants are becoming serious concerns in hot or dry regions, these benefits of solar
PV become increasingly important.
The PV industry has experienced a sea change in only five years, with considerable
increases in manufacturing capacities, and a move of module manufacturing from
European countries and the United States to Asia, notably China and Chinese Taipei.
Market prices have been drastically reduced by factor of five for modules, and by a factor
of almost three for systems. The global rate of annual new-built capacities, which was 7
GW in 2009, was 5 times higher in 2013.
PV cells are semiconductor devices that generate direct current (DC) electricity. Silicon
cells are usually sliced from ingots or castings of highly purified silicon. The manufacturing
process creates a charge- separating junction, deposits passivation layers and an antireflective coating, and adds metal contacts. Cells are then grouped into modules, with
transparent glass for the front, a weatherproof material for the back and often a
surrounding frame. The modules are then combined to form strings, arrays and systems.
PV can be used for on-grid and off-grid applications of capacities ranging from less than 1
watt to gigawatts. Grid-connected systems require inverters to transform DC power into
alternating current (AC). The balance of system (BOS) includes inverters, transformers,
wiring and monitoring equipment, as well as structural components for installing modules,
whether on building rooftops or facades, above parking lots, or on the ground.
Installations can be fixed or track the sun on one axis (for non- or low-concentrating
systems) or two axes (for high-concentrating systems).
Alternative PV technologies, including thin films, had been expected to gain an
increasing share of the market, but instead their share shrank from 15% in 2009 to
about 10% in 2013. Thin films (TF) are based on cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-

indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS), or amorphous silicon (a-Si), plus some variants. They are
usually manufactured in highly automated processes to produce complete modules, with
no need to assemble modules from individual cells. Multi-junction cells, which are the
standard PV technology in space applications, recently entered the terrestrial market in
concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) systems with several large-scale plants (50 MW each)
in operation or under construction. Some manufacturers also sell hybrid PV-thermal
panels that deliver both heat and electricity.


The sun is the central energy producer of our solar system. It has the form of a ball and
nuclear fusion take place continuously in its centre. A small fraction of the energy
produced in the sun hits the earth and makes life possible on our planet. Solar radiation
drives all natural cycles and processes such as rain, wind, photosynthesis, ocean currents
and several others, which are important for life. The whole world energy need has been
based from the very beginning on solar energy. All fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) are converted
solar energy.
The radiation intensity of the ca 6000C solar surface corresponds to 70 000 to 80 000
kW/m2. Our planet receives only a very small portion of this energy. In spite of this, the
incoming solar radiation energy in a year is some 200 000 000 billion kWh; this is more
than 10 000 times the yearly energy need of the whole world.
The solar radiation intensity outside the atmosphere is in average 1 360 W/m 2 (solar
constant). When the solar radiation penetrates through the atmosphere some of the
radiation is lost so that on a clear sky sunny day in summer between 800 to 1 000 W/m 2
(global radiation) can be obtained on the ground.


The chlorinated pool water is pumped directly through the absorbers by a circulation
pump and no heat exchanger is needed. If a filter pump already exists it can be used for
the solar circuit, too. In this case, an adequate dimensioning of the pump is most
Flat- plate collectors can be used for heating of a swimming pool in a sensible way, if
besides the pool heating an additional consumer (e.g. domestic hot water, space heating
during the cold season) can be supplied.
The energy demand of an outdoor pool is mostly influenced by the water temperature. The
largest losses are the surface of the pools. That is the reason why the area of the solar
system is given as a proportion of the total water surface area. The area of the solar
absorber is a function of the pool surface. As a rule of thumb, this should be between 80
and 100% of the pool area for weather conditions in central Europe. Modelling programs
such as T-Sol or Polysun exist for a more precise calculation.

Figure 1. Solar heating system for a swimming pool (single circuit system)


Thermo syphon solar systems are widely used in South of Europe, Israel, Australia and North
Africa. They are usually used for domestic hot water supply and mounted on flat roofs.
These systems consist mainly only of a collector, a tank and the necessary piping.
These systems do not need a circulation pump as they take advantage of gravity
differences in their operation. The water heated in the collector rises to the top and is
replaced by cooler water from the tank (thermo syphon principle). The water in the tank
continues to be heated as long as the temperature difference between the collector and the
tank is large enough to maintain the circulation. As the buoyant forces are relatively small,
pipes with a large cross-section have to be used. In addition, the pipes should be kept as
short and straight as possible to achieve the lowest flow resistance.

Figure 2. Gravity-driven domestic hot water system


In direct systems (open circuit thermosyphon systems) the potable water from the storage
tank flows continually through the collectors. This occurs when solar radiation heats the
water in the collectors to a temperature above that of the water stored in the tank. A
natural circulation (thermosyphon) is induced by the associated density difference.
A direct thermosyphon system must only be installed in non -frost, good quality water
areas. Water with high solids content can impair the efficiency of the collector over time due
to calcification of the collector waterways. Under frost conditions, collector waterways can
freeze and rupture. Open circuit systems can be given limited freeze protection by installing
an anti-freeze valve at the bottom of the collector. An anti-freeze valve dribbles water out of
the collector when the collector temperature is below 5C.
An indirect system with a heat exchanger must be installed under either of these conditions.
The following table shows water conditions suitable for one-circuit systems. If the supply
water exceeds these guidelines then an indirect system is recommended.


Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators
for electricity. Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful,
renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation,
consumes no water, and uses little land. The net effects on the environment are far less
problematic than those of nonrenewable power sources.
Wind farms consist of many individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric
power transmission network. Onshore wind is an inexpensive source of electricity,
competitive with or in many places cheaper than coal or gas plants. Offshore wind is
steadier and stronger than on land, and offshore farms have less visual impact, but
construction and maintenance costs are considerably higher. Small onshore wind farms can
feed some energy into the grid or provide electricity to isolated off-grid locations.
Wind power gives variable power which is very consistent from year to year but which has
significant variation over shorter time scales. It is therefore used in conjunction with other
electric power sources to give a reliable supply. As the proportion of wind power in a region
increases, a need to upgrade the grid, and a lowered ability to supplant conventional
production can occur. Power management techniques such as having excess capacity,
geographically distributed turbines, dispatchable backing sources, sufficient hydroelectric
power, exporting and importing power to neighboring areas, using vehicle-to-grid strategies
or reducing demand when wind production is low, can in many cases overcome these
problems. In addition, weather forecasting permits the electricity net- work to be readied
for the predictable variations in production that occur.

Wind power has been used as long as humans have put sails into the wind. For more than
two millennia wind- powered machines have ground grain and pumped water. Wind power
was widely available and not confined to the banks of fast-flowing streams, or later, requiring
sources of fuel. Wind-powered pumps drained the polders of the Netherlands, and in arid
regions such as the American mid-west or the Australian outback, wind pumps pro- vided
water for livestock and steam engines.
The first windmill used for the production of electricity was built in Scotland in July 1887
by Prof James Blyth of Andersons College, Glasgow. Blyths 10 m high, clothsailed wind
turbine was installed in the garden of his holiday cottage at Marykirk in Kincardineshire
and was used to charge accumulators developed by the French- man Camille Alphonse
Faure, to power the lighting in the cottage, thus making it the first house in the world to
have its electricity supplied by wind power. Blyth offered the surplus electricity to the
people of Marykirk for lighting the main street, however, they turned down the offer as
they thought electricity was the work of the devil. Although he later built a wind turbine to
supply emergency power to the local Lunatic Asylum, Infirmary and Dispensary of Montrose
the invention never really caught on as the technology was not considered to be
economically viable.


A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of
electricity. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines
distributed over an extended area, but the land between the turbines may be used for
agricultural or other purposes. For example, Gansu Wind Farm, the largest wind farm in
the world, has several thousand turbines. A wind farm may also be located offshore.
Almost all large wind turbines have the same design a horizontal axis wind turbine having
an upwind rotor with three blades, attached to a nacelle on top of a tall tubular tower.
In a wind farm, individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (often 34.5
kV), power collection system and communications network. In general, a distance of 7D (7
Rotor Diameter of the Wind Turbine) is set between each turbine in a fully developed
wind farm. At a substation, this medium-voltage electric current is increased in voltage with
a transformer for connection to the high voltage electric power transmission system.


Induction generators, which were often used for wind power projects in the 1980s and
1990s, require reactive power for excitation so substations used in wind-power collection
systems include substantial capacitor banks for power factor correction. Different types of
wind turbine generators behave differently during transmission grid disturbances, so
extensive modelling of the dynamic electromechanical characteristics of a new wind farm is
required by transmission system operators to ensure predictable stable behaviour during
system faults. In particular, induction generators cannot support the system voltage during
faults, unlike steam or hydro turbine-driven synchronous generators.
Today these generators aren't used any more in modern turbines. Instead today most
turbines use variable speed generators combined with partial or full-scale power converter
between the turbine generator and the collector system, which generally have more
desirable properties for grid interconnection and have Low voltage ride through
capabilities. Modern concepts use either doubly fed machines with partial-scale converters
or squirrel-cage induction generators or synchronous generators (both permanently and
electrically excited) with full scale converters.
Transmission systems operators will supply a wind farm developer with a grid code to
specify the requirements for interconnection to the transmission grid. This will include
power factor, constancy of frequency and dynamic behaviour of the wind farm turbines
during a system fault.

Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One
by-product of de- salination is salt. Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and
submarines. Most of the modern interest in de- salination is focused on cost-effective
provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few
rainfall-independent water sources.

The traditional process used in these operations is vacuum distillationessentially boiling it
to leave impurities behind. In desalination, atmospheric pressure is reduced, thus lowering
the required temperature needed. Liquids boil when the vapor pressure equals the ambient
pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Thus, because of the reduced
temperature, low- temperature waste heat from electrical power generation or industrial
processes can be employed.
The principal competing processes use membranes to desalinate, principally applying reverse
osmosis. Membrane processes use semipermeable membranes and pressure to separate
salts from water. Reverse osmosis plant membrane systems typically use less energy than
thermal distillation. Desalination remains energy intensive, how- ever, and future costs will
continue to depend on the energy prices.
Energy consumption of seawater desalination has reached as low as 3 kWh/m3 including prefiltering and ancillaries, similar to the energy consumption of other fresh water supplies
transported over large distances, but much higher than local fresh water supplies that use
0.2 kWh/m3 or less.
A minimum energy consumption for seawater desalination of around 1 kWh/m3 has been
determined excluding prefiltering and intake/outfall pumping. Un- der 2 kWh/m3 has been
achieved with reverse osmosis membrane technology, leaving limited scope for further
energy reductions.
Supplying all US domestic water by desalination would increase energy consumption by
around 10%, about the amount of energy used by domestic refrigerators. Domestic
consumption is a relatively small fraction of the total water usage.
Diesel generators commonly provide electricity in remote areas. About 40%50% of the energy
output is low-grade heat that leaves the engine via the exhaust. Connecting a membrane
distillation system to the diesel engine exhaust repurposes this low-grade heat for

desalination. The system actively cools the diesel generator, improving its efficiency and
increasing its electricity output. This results in an energy-neutral desalination solution.

Solar architecture is the integration of passive solar, active solar or solar panel technology
with modern building techniques. The use of flexible thin-film photovoltaic modules provides
fluid integration with steel roofing pro- files, enhancing the buildings design. Orienting a
building to the sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing
properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air also constitute solar
The idea of passive solar building design first appeared in Greece around the fifth century BC.
Up until that time, the Greeks main source of fuel was charcoal, but due to a major shortage
of wood to burn they were forced to find a new way of heating their dwellings. With
necessity as their motivation, the Greeks revolutionized the design of their cities. They
began using building materials that absorbed solar energy, mostly stone, and also started
orienting the buildings so that they faced south. These revolutions, coupled with an
overhang that kept out the hot summer sun, created structures which required very little
heating and cooling. Socrates wrote, In houses that look toward the south, the sun
penetrates the portico in winter, while in summer the path of the sun is right over our heads
and above the roof so that there is shade. From this point on, most civilizations have
oriented their structures to provide shade in the summer and heating in the winter. The
Romans improved on the Greeks design by covering the southern facing windows with
different types of trans- parent materials. Another simpler example of early solar
architecture is the cave dwellings in the South-Western regions of North America. Much like
the Greek and Ro- man buildings, the cliffs in which the indigenous people of this region
built their homes were oriented towards the south with an overhang to shade them from the
midday sun during the summer months and capture as much of the solar energy during the
winter as possible
Active solar architecture involves the moving of heat and/or coolness between a
temporary heat storage medium and a building, typically in response to a thermo stats call
for heat or coolness within the building. While this principle sounds useful in theory,
significant engineering problems have thwarted almost all active solar architecture in
practice. The most common form of active solar architecture, rock bed storage with air as a
heat transfer medium, usually grew toxic mold in the rock bed which was blown into houses,
along with dust and radon in some cases.
A more complex and modern incarnation of solar architecture was introduced in 1954 with
the invention of the photovoltaic cell by Bell Labs. Early cells were extremely inefficient and
therefore not widely used, but throughout the years government and private research has
improved the efficiency to a point where it is now a viable source of energy. Universities were
some of the first buildings to embrace the idea of solar energy. In 1973, the University of
Delaware built Solar One, which was one of the worlds first solar powered houses. As

photovoltaic technologies keep advancing, solar architecture becomes easier to accomplish.

In 1998 Subhendu Guha developed photovoltaic shingles and recently a company called
Oxford Photovoltaics has developed perovskite solar cells that are thin enough to incorporate
into windows. Although the windows are not scaled to a size that can be taken advantage of
on a commercial level yet, the company believes that the outlook is very promising. In the
companys mission statement they state, Moreover, through the deployment of solar cells in
areas where solar has traditionally struggled, for example the glass faades of high-rise
commercial or residential buildings. In both cases, allowing solar energy to contribute a
much higher proportion of electricity than is possible today, and helping to position PV as a
significant factor in the global energy market
One of the first large commercial buildings to exemplify solar architecture is 4 Times Square
(also known as the Cond Nast Building in New York City. It has built- in solar panels on
the 37th through the 43rd floors and incorporated more energy efficient technology than
any other sky scraper at the time of its construction.[4] The National Stadium in Kaohsiung,
Taiwan, designed by the world-famous Japanese architect Toyo Ito, is a dragon- shaped
structure that has 8,844 solar panels on its roof. It was built in 2009 to house the 2009
world games. Constructed completely of recycled materials, it is the largest solar-powered
stadium in the world and powers the surrounding neighborhood when it is not in use.
Another example of solar architecture is the Sundial Building in China. It was built to
symbolize the need for replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. The building is
shaped like a fan and is covered in 4,600 square meters (50,000 sq ft) of solar panels. It
was named the worlds largest solar powered office building in 2009.
Although it is not yet completed, the Solar City Tower in Rio de Janeiro is another example
of what solar architecture might look like in the future. It is a power plant that generates
energy for the city during the day while also pumping water to the top of the structure. At
night, when the sun is not shining, the water will be released to run over turbines that will
continue to generate electricity.

Low-energy buildings typically use high levels of insulation, energy efficient windows, low
levels of air infiltration and heat recovery ventilation to lower heating and cooling energy.
They may also use passive solar building design techniques or active solar technologies.
These homes may use hot water heat recycling technologies to recover heat from showers
and dishwashers.
Lighting and miscellaneous energy use is alleviated with fluorescent
lighting and efficient appliances. Weatherization provides more information on increasing
building energy efficiency.
Passive solar building design and energy-efficient land-scaping support the low-energy
house in conservation and can integrate them into a neighborhood and environment.
Following passive solar building techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to
reduce their surface area, with principal windows oriented towards the equator - south in
the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere - to maximize passive solar
gain. However, the use of solar gain, especially in temperate climate regions, is secondary
to minimizing the overall house energy requirements. In climates and regions needing to
reduce excessive summer passive solar heat gain, whether from the direct or reflected
sources, can be done with a Brise soleil, trees, attached pergolas with vines, vertical
gardens, green roofs, and other techniques.

Low-energy houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some
internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures,
maintain stable winter temperatures, and pre-vent possible overheating in spring or autumn
before the higher sun angle shades mid-day wall exposure and window penetration. Exterior
wall color, when the surface al- lows choice, for reflection or absorption insolation qualities
depends on the predominant year-round ambient out- door temperature. The use of
deciduous trees and wall trellised or self-attaching vines can assist in climates not at the
temperature extremes.
To minimize the total primary energy consumption, the many passive and active
daylighting techniques are the first daytime solution to employ. For low light level days,
non-daylighted spaces, and nighttime; the use of creative-sustainable lighting design
using low-energy sources such as 'standard voltage' compact fluorescent lamps and solidstate lighting with Light-emitting diode- LED lamps, organic light-emitting diodes, and PLED
- polymer light-emitting diodes; and 'low voltage' electrical filament-Incandescent light bulbs,
and compact Metal halide, Xenon and Halogen lamps, can be used.


The exploration of environmentally friendly energy resources is one of the major challenges
facing society today. The last decade has witnessed rapid developments in renewable
energy engineering. Wind and solar power plants with increasing sizes and technological
sophistication have been built. Amid this development, meteorological modeling plays an
increasingly important role, not only in selecting the sites of wind and solar power plants but
also in assessing the environmental impacts of those plants. The permanent land-use
changes as a result of the construction of wind farms can potentially alter local climate
(Keith et al., Roy and Traiteur. The reduction of wind speed by the presence of wind turbines
could affect the preconstruction estimate of wind power potential (e.g., Adams and Keith).
Future anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are expected to induce changes in the
surface wind and cloudiness, which would affect the power production of wind and solar
power plants. To quantify these two-way relations between renewable energy production and
regional climate change, mesoscale meteorological modeling remains one of the most
efficient approaches for research and applications.
The construction of large-scale wind or solar power plants will change the physical properties
of the surface such as surface roughness, albedo, and emissivity for longwave radiation.
Wind turbines are momentum sinks for the atmospheric flow in the boundary layer. The
physical basis for incorporating these processes in an atmospheric model is clear.
Nevertheless, individual wind turbines, or even a wind farm as a whole, could be too small
for a typical weather or climate model to resolve. A parameterization scheme for the
subgrid-scale effect of wind farms on the velocity field is much needed and has been
actively developed. For example, a scheme developed by Fitch et al. has recently been
incorporated into the widely used weather research and forecasting (WRF) model
(Skamarock et al.). The scheme is formulated as an extension of the boundary layer
parameterization scheme which is already implemented in many weather and climate
models. The environmental impacts of wind farms and solar power plants can also be
treated using the schemes for modeling the effects of land-use and land-cover changes.

Such schemes have been actively developed especially in the form of urban canopy models
(e.g., Kusaka et al.) For example, if solar panels are classified as a distinctive surface type
with specific surface albedo and emissivity, their effects can be calculated by using an
existing urban parameterization scheme given the fractional area coverage of a solar power
plant over a grid box of the model. Thus, the development of the parameterization schemes
for the effects of wind and solar power plants is not an isolated activity but constitutes part
of the important trend of incorporating multiscale physical processes into the framework of
environmental prediction.
The large-scale jet streams in the global atmosphere that provide the reservoir of wind
energy are projected to change on multidecadal and longer time scales under the influence
of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., Yin ). The shifts of jet streams and the
accompanying changes in regional weather patterns (e.g., Seager et al.) can lead to an
increase or decrease of local cloud cover, thereby affecting the gain of solar power plants.
Those large-scale climate changes have been systematically projected using global climate
models with relatively coarse spatial resolutions (Taylor et al.). Extensive efforts are
underway to downscale the climate information obtained by the global model to regional
and urban scales. Nevertheless, only a few of the existing studies used the approach of
climate downscaling to project the local changes in wind or solar power potential (e.g., Ren,
Pryor and Barthelmie). Progresses in this direction will not only help refine the estimate of
global and regional wind and solar power potential but also aid the siting of wind and solar
power plants, based on the premise that an optimal site today may not be optimal in one or
two decades.
Climate modeling for renewable energy applications is an exciting emerging research topic
for both climate scientists and renewable energy engineers. We conclude by suggesting the
following four particularly promising directions for future research towards climate and
energy applications: (1) further developments of the techniques for multiscale climate
downscaling to transfer climate information from global to urban and wind-farm scales, (2)
quantification of the mechanical and thermodynamic effects of wind or solar power plants on
the microscale atmospheric environment and climate, (3) further developments of
parameterization schemes for the subgrid-scale effects of wind and solar power plants in
regional and global climate models, and (4) systematic classifications of wind farms and
solar power plants as distinctive surface types for research of the impacts of land-use and
land-cover changes on local climate.

Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is
the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's
crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of
materials (in currently uncertain but possibly roughly equal proportions). The geothermal
gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its
surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core
to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots (ge), meaning
earth, and (thermos), meaning hot.

Earth's internal heat is thermal energy generated from radioactive decay and continual heat
loss from Earth's formation. Temperatures at the core mantle boundary may reach over 4000
C (7,200 F). The high temperature and pressure in Earth's interior cause some rock to melt
and solid mantle to behave plastically, resulting in portions of mantle convicting upward
since it is lighter than the surrounding rock. Rock and water is heated in the crust,
sometimes up to 370 C (700 F).
From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and
for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity
generation. Worldwide, 11,700 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 2013. An
additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating,
space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications in 2010.
Geothermal power is cost-effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but
has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological
advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for
applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation.
Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these
emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal
power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil
The Earth's geothermal resources are theoretically more than adequate to supply humanity's
energy needs, but only a very small fraction may be profitably exploited. Drilling and
exploration for deep resources is very expensive. Forecasts for the future of geothermal
power depend on assumptions about technology, energy prices, subsidies, and interest
rates. Pilot programs like EWEB's customer opt in Green Power Program show that customers
would be willing to pay a little more for a renewable energy source like geothermal. But as a
result of government assisted research and industry experience, the cost of generating
geothermal power has decreased by 25% over the past two decades. In 2001, geothermal
energy costs between two and ten US cents per kWh.


Heat from the earth can be used as an energy source in many ways, from large and complex
power stations to small and relatively simple pumping systems. This heat energy, known as
geothermal energy, can be found almost anywhereas far away as remote deep wells in
Indonesia and as close as the dirt in our backyards.
Many regions of the world are already tapping geothermal energy as an affordable and
sustainable solution to reducing dependence on fossil fuels, and the global warming and
public health risks that result from their use. For example, as of 2013 more than 11,700
megawatts (MW) of large, utility-scale geothermal capacity was in operation globally, with
another 11,700 MW in planned capacity additions on the way. These geothermal facilities
produced approximately 68 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, enough to meet the annual
needs of more than 6 million typical U.S. households. Geothermal plants account for more
than 25 percent of the electricity produced in both Iceland and El Salvador.

With more than 3,300 megawatts in eight states, the United States is a global leader in
installed geothermal capacity. Eighty percent of this capacity is located in California, where
more than 40 geothermal plants provide nearly 7 percent of the states electricity. In
thousands of homes and buildings across the United States, geothermal heat pumps also
use the steady temperatures just underground to heat and cool buildings, cleanly and



In addition to its abundant solar, wind and geothermal resources, the Pacific Northwest is
also uniquely situated to capture the renewable energy of the ocean. Special buoys,
turbines, and other technologies can capture the power of waves and tides and convert it
into clean, pollution-free electricity. Like other renewable resources, both wave and tidal
energy are variable in nature. Waves are produced by winds blowing across the surface of
the ocean. However, because waves travel across the ocean, their arrival time at the wave
power facility may be more predictable than wind. In contrast, tidal energy, which is driven
by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun, is predictable centuries in advance.
The technologies needed to generate electricity from wave and tidal energy are at a nascent
stage, but the first commercial projects are currently under development, including some in
the Pacific Northwest. Like most emerging energy technologies, wave and tidal technologies
are currently more expensive than traditional generating resources, but with further
experience in the field, adequate R&D funding, and proactive public policy support, the costs
of wave and tidal technologies are expected to fol-low the same rapid decrease in price that
wind energy has experienced.

Worldwide potential for wave and tidal power is enormous, however, local geography greatly
influences the electricity generation potential of each technology. Wave energy resources
are best between 30 and 60 latitude in both hemispheres, and the potential tends to be
the greatest on western coasts.
The United States receives 2,100 terawatt-hours of incident wave energy along its coastlines
each year, and tapping just one quarter of this potential could produce as much energy as
the entire U.S. hydropower system. Oregon and Washington have the strongest wave energy
resource in the lower 48 states and could eventually generate several thousand megawatts
of electricity using wave resources. Several sites in Washingtons Puget Sound with excellent
tidal resources could be developed, potentially yielding several hundred megawatts of tidal
While no commercial wave or tidal projects have yet been developed in the United States,
several projects are planned for the near future, including projects in the Northwest.
AquaEnergy Group, Ltd is currently designing and permitting a one-megawatt demonstration
wave power plant at Makah Bay, Washington. Ocean Power Technologies has received a
preliminary permit to explore construction of North Americas first utility scale wave energy
facility off the coast of Reedsport, Oregon. With the support of the Oregon Department of
Energy, Oregon State University is also seeking funding to build a national wave energy
research facility near Newport, Oregon. Several tidal power projects are also being explored
in the region. Tacoma Power has secured a preliminary permit to explore a tidal power
project at the Tacoma Narrows, one of the best locations for tidal power in the country, and
Snohomish County Public Utility District has received preliminary permits for seven other
potential tidal power sites in the Puget Sound.


There are three main types of wave energy technologies. One type uses floats, buoys, or
pitching devices to generate electricity using the rise and fall of ocean swells to drive
hydraulic pumps. A second type uses oscillating water column (OWC) devices to generate
electricity at the shore using the rise and fall of water within a cylindrical shaft. The rising
water drives air out of the top of the shaft, powering an air-driven turbine. Third, a tapered
channel, or overtopping device can be located either on or offshore. They concentrate waves
and drive them into an elevated reservoir, where power is then generated using hydropower
turbines as the water is released. The vast majority of recently proposed wave energy
projects would use offshore floats, buoys or pitching devices.
The worlds first commercial offshore wave energy facility will begin operating by the end of
2007 off the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The first phase of the project, which Scottish
company, Ocean Power Delivery (OPD) developed, features three Pelamis wave energy
conversion devices and generates a combined 2.25 MW of electricity. OPD plans to expand
the facility to produce 22.5 MW in 2007.


Until recently, the common model for tidal power facilities involved erecting a tidal dam, or
barrage, with a sluice across a narrow bay or estuary. As the tide flows in or out, creating
uneven water levels on either side of the barrage, the sluice is opened and water flows
through low-head hydro turbines to generate electricity. For a tidal barrage to be feasible,
the difference between high and low tides must be at least 16 feet. La Rance Station in
France, the worlds first and still largest tidal barrage, has a rated capacity of 260 MW and
has operated since 1966. However, tidal barrages have several environmental drawbacks,
including changes to marine and shoreline ecosystems, most notably fish populations.
Several other models for tidal facilities have emerged in recent
years, including tidal lagoons, tidal fences, and underwater tidal
turbines, but none are commercially operating. Perhaps the most
promising is the underwater tidal turbine. Several tidal power
companies have developed tidal turbines, which are similar in
many ways to wind turbines. These turbines would be placed
offshore or in estuaries in strong tidal currents where the tidal flow
spins the turbines, which then generate electricity. Tidal turbines
would be deployed in underwater farms in waters 60-120 feet
deep with currents exceeding 5-6 mph. Because water is much
denser than air, tidal turbines are smaller than wind turbines and
can produce more electricity in a given area. A pilot-scale tidal turbine facility the first in
North America was installed in New Yorks East River in December 2006. The developer,
Verdant Power, hopes to eventually install a 10 MW tidal farm at the site.

Unlike fossil fueled power plants, wave and tidal energy facilities generate electricity without
producing any pollutant emissions of greenhouse gases. Since the first wave and tidal
energy facilities are currently being deployed, the full environmental impacts of wave and
tidal power remain uncertain but are projected to be small. Concerns include impacts on
marine ecosystems and fisheries. Environmental impact studies are currently underway and
several pilot and commercial projects are undergoing environmental monitoring. The East
River tidal turbine pilot project includes a $1.5 million sonar system to monitor impacts on
fish populations, for example.9 Careful siting should minimize impacts on marine
ecosystems, fishing and other coastal economic activities. Wave and tidal facilities also have
little or no visual impact, as they are either submerged or do not rise very far above the

The ocean can produce two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun's heat, and
mechanical energy from the tides and waves.

Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface, making them the world's largest solar
collectors. The sun's heat warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water,
and this temperature difference creates thermal energy. Just a small portion of the heat
trapped in the ocean could power the world.
Ocean thermal energy is used for many applications, including electricity generation. There
are three types of electricity conversion systems: closed-cycle, open-cycle, and hybrid.
Closed-cycle systems use the ocean's warm surface water to vaporize a working fluid, which
has a low-boiling point, such as ammonia. The vapor expands and turns a turbine. The
turbine then activates a generator to produce electricity. Open-cycle systems actually boil
the seawater by operating at low pressures. This produces steam that passes through a
turbine/generator. And hybrid systems combine both closed-cycle and open-cycle systems.
Ocean mechanical energy is quite different from ocean thermal energy. Even though the sun
affects all ocean activity, tides are driven primarily by the gravitational pull of the moon, and
waves are driven primarily by the winds. As a result, tides and waves are intermittent
sources of energy, while ocean thermal energy is fairly constant. Also, unlike thermal
energy, the electricity conversion of both tidal and wave energy usually involves mechanical
A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water
through turbines, activating a generator. For wave energy conversion, there are three basic
systems: channel systems that funnel the waves into reservoirs; float systems that drive
hydraulic pumps; and oscillating water column systems that use the waves to compress air
within a container. The mechanical power created from these systems either directly
activates a generator or transfers to a working fluid, water, or air, which then drives a
Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power,
or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides,
salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the worlds oceans
creates a vast store of kinetic energy, or energy in motion. This energy can be harnessed to
generate electricity to power homes, transport and industries.
The term marine energy encompasses both wave power i.e. power from surface waves, and
tidal power i.e. obtained from the kinetic energy of large bodies of moving water. Offshore
wind power is not a form of marine energy, as wind power is derived from the wind, even if
the wind turbines are placed over water.
The oceans have a tremendous amount of energy and are close to many if not most
concentrated populations. Ocean energy has the potential of providing a substantial amount
of new renewable energy around the world.


Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a process that can produce electricity by using
the temperature difference between deep cold ocean water and warm tropical surface
waters. OTEC plants pump large quantities of deep cold seawater and surface seawater to

run a power cycle and produce electricity. OTEC is firm power (24/7), a clean energy source,
environmentally sustainable and capable of providing massive levels of energy.
Recently, higher electricity costs, increased concerns for global warming, and a political
commitment to energy security have made initial OTEC commercialization economically
attractive in tropical island communities where a high percentage of electricity production is
oil based. Even within the US, this island market is very large; globally it is many times
larger. As OTEC technology matures, it should become economically attractive in the
southeast US.

The Ocean Energy Research Center (OERC) is an essential tool for the development and
testing of candidate OTEC heat exchangers. Heat Exchangers will be the single most
expensive component in a commercial offshore OTEC plant and thus optimizing their cost,
longevity and performance are critical for OTECs economic success. The operating
conditions of OTEC heat exchangers are unique, and an optimal design has yet to be
The OERC enables OTEC engineers to rapidly design, build, and test OTEC heat exchangers
on an operational land-based OTEC plant, providing the feedback that is necessary for
optimization. Makai uses a unique OTEC plant analysis software to design heat exchangers
which accounts for lifespan, performance (heat transfer and pumping efficiencies), and cost
(fabrication and effect on platform), to enable true optimization. Makai is in the process of
scaling up a design for a low-cost, compact, corrosion-resistant design that could
revolutionize OTEC heat exchangers. In addition, Makai provides objective performance

testing services to other OTEC engineering firms for multiple heat exchangers
Hydrogen is already widely produced and used, but it is now being considered for use as an
energy carrier for stationary power and transportation markets. Although hydrogen is the
most abundant element in the universe, where it appears naturally on the earths crust it is
bound with other elements such as carbon and oxygen instead of being in its molecular H2
form. Molecular hydrogen is produced for various uses, and this can be done in various
ways, as discussed below.
A growing use of hydrogen is to support emerging applications based on fuel cell technology
along with other ways to use hydrogen for electricity production or energy storage. More
than 50 types and sizes of commercial fuel cells are being sold, and the value of fuel cell
shipments reached $498 million in 2009. Approximately 9,000 stationary fuel cell systems
and 6,000 other commercial fuel cell units were shipped that year. The 15,000 total
represented 40% growth over the previous year. In addition, 9,000 small educational fuel
cells were shipped.


The invention relates to a hydro-turbine driven electrical generating unit, contained in a
Water tight bulb housing and submerged in a Water current, comprised of a combination of
turbine runner, turbine shaft, turbine shaft seal, bearings, speed-increasing transmission,
generator, and couplings, and a central terminal block for the connection of power,
measuring and control cables and tubes. The electrical energy generating unit is an
alternating current generator which supplies the alternating current to an electric converter
which transforms the alternating current into direct current and the direct current is used in
electrolyze device to separate the Water into Hydrogen (H2) and Oxygen (O2). In accordance
with the present invention there is no need for a turbine controller to stabilize the rotational
speed of the generator and also an expensive electric energy-converter producing a
constant electrical frequency and voltage can be omitted. The final product is not the
electrical energy but Hydrogen (H2) which can be used in apparatus and engines designed
for combustion of Hydrogen.

Hydrogen can be produced from most fossil fuels. The complexity of the processes varies,
and in this chapter hydrogen production from natural gas and coal is briefly discussed. Since
carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product, the CO2 should be captured to ensure a
sustainable (zero-emission) process. The feasibility of the processes will vary with respect to
a centralised or distributed production plant.


Hydrogen can currently be produced from natural gas by means of three different chemical

Steam reforming (steam methane reforming SMR).

Partial oxidation (POX).

Autothermal reforming (ATR).

Although several new production concepts have been developed, none of them is close to
Steam reforming involves the endothermic conversion of methane and water vapour into
hydrogen and carbon monoxide (2.1). The heat is often supplied from the combustion of
some of the methane feed-gas. The process typically occurs at temperatures of 700 to 850
C and pressures of 3 to 25 bar. The product gas contains approximately 12 % CO, which can
be further converted to CO2 and H2 through the water-gas shift reaction (2.2).

CH4 + H2O + heat CO + 3H2


CO + H2O CO2 + H2 + heat


Partial oxidation of natural gas is the process whereby hydrogen is produced through the
partial combustion of methane with oxygen gas to yield carbon monoxide and hydrogen
(2.3). In this process, heat is produced in an exothermic reaction, and hence a more compact
design is possible as there is no need for any external heating of the reactor. The CO
produced is further converted to H2 as described in equation (2.2).

CH4 + 1/2 O2 CO + 2H2 + heat (2.3)

Autothermal reforming is a combination of both steam reforming (2.1) and partial oxidation
(2.3). The total reaction is exothermic, and so it releases heat. The outlet temperature from
the reactor is in the range of 950 to 1100 C, and the gas pressure can be as high as 100
bar. Again, the CO produced is converted to H2 through the water-gas shift reaction (2.2).
The need to purify the output gases adds significantly to plant costs and reduces the total
Each one of the above processes has certain benefits and challenges, which are summarized
in Table 4.



Hydrogen can be produced from coal through a variety of gasification processes (e.g. fixed
bed, fluidised bed or entrained flow). In practice, high-temperature entrained flow processes
are favoured to maximise carbon conversion to gas, thus avoiding the formation of
significant amounts of char, tars and phenols. A typical reaction for the process is given in
equation (2.4), in which carbon is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

C(s) + H2O + heat CO + H2


Since this reaction is endothermic, additional heat is required, as with methane reforming.
The CO is further converted to CO2 and H2 through the water-gas shift reaction, described in
equation (2.2). Hydrogen production from coal is commercially mature, but it is more
complex than the production of hydrogen from natural gas. The cost of the resulting
hydrogen is also higher. But since coal is plentiful in many parts of the world and will
probably be used as an energy source regardless, it is worthwhile to explore the
development of clean technologies for its use.


Carbon dioxide is a major exhaust in all production of hydrogen from fossil fuels. The amount
of CO2 will vary with respect to the hydrogen content of the feedstock. To obtain a
sustainable (zero-emission) production of hydrogen, the CO2 should be captured and stored.
This process is known as de-carbonisation. There are three different options to capture CO2
in a combustion process:

Post-combustion. The CO2 can be removed from the exhaust gas of the combustion process
in a conventional steam turbine or CCGT (combined cycle gas turbine) power plant. This can
be done via the amine process, for example. The exhaust gas will contain large amounts of
nitrogen and some amounts of nitrogen oxides in addition to water vapour, CO2 and CO.

Pre-combustion. CO2 is captured when producing hydrogen through any of the processes
discussed above.
Oxyfuel-combustion. The fossil fuel is converted to heat in a combustion process in a
conventional steam turbine or CCGT power plant. This is done with pure oxygen as an
oxidiser. Mostly CO2 and water vapour are produced in the exhaust or flue gases, and CO2
can be easily separated by condensing the water vapour.
In post-combustion and oxyfuel-combustion systems, electricity is produced in nearconventional steam and CCGT power plants. The electricity produced could then be used for
water electrolysis. If the capture and storage of CO2 is applied to an energy conversion
process of relatively low efficiency, and the electricity is used to electrolyse water, then the
overall efficiency of fuel to hydrogen would not exceed 30%.
The captured CO2 can be stored in geological formations like oil and gas fields, as well as in
aquifers, 4 but the feasibility and proof of permanent CO2 storage are critical to the success
of de-carbonisation.
The choice of the transportation system for the CO2 (pipeline, ship or combined) will largely
depend on the site chosen for the production plant and the site chosen for storage.

Ocean Energy is a world leader in Innovative Renewable Energy within the wave
energy industry. WAVE TECHNOLOGY is one of the most exciting areas of untapped energy
potential and Ocean Energy have developed ground breaking technology to harness the
power of the ocean. Given fluctuating fuel prices and the impact of global warming, Ocean
Energy is now in a very strong position to commercialize the vast body of research and
development it has invested in over the past 10 years. The sea is a limitless source of power
and is a challenging environment, so in order to exploit wave energy commercially there are
a number of key components required.

The ocean can produce two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun's heat,
and mechanical energy from the tides and waves.
Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface, making them the world's largest solar
collectors. The sun's heat warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water,

and this temperature difference creates thermal

energy. Just a small portion of the heat trapped
in the ocean could power the world.
Ocean thermal energy is used for many
applications, including electricity generation.
There are three types of electricity conversion
systems: closed-cycle, opencycle, and hybrid. Closed-cycle systems use the
ocean's warm surface water to vaporize
a working fluid, which has a low-boiling point,
such as ammonia. The vapor expands and turns
a turbine. The turbine then activates a generator
to produce electricity. Open-cycle systems
actually boil the seawater by operating at low
pressures. This produces steam that passes
through a turbine/generator. And hybrid systems combine both closed-cycle and open-cycle
Ocean mechanical energy is quite different from ocean thermal energy. Even though the
sun affects all ocean activity, tides are driven primarily by the gravitational pull of the moon,
and waves are driven primarily by the winds. As a result, tides and waves are intermittent
sources of energy, while ocean thermal energy is fairly constant. Also, unlike thermal
energy, the electricity conversion of both tidal and wave energy usually involves mechanical
A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water
through turbines, activating a generator. For wave energy conversion, there are three basic
systems: channel systems that funnel the waves into reservoirs; float systems that drive
hydraulic pumps; and oscillating water column systems that use the waves to compress air
within a container. The mechanical power created from these systems either directly
activates a generator or transfers to a working fluid, water, or air, which then drives a


Generated by converting the energy of ocean waves (swells) into other forms of energy
(currently only electricity). There are many different technologies that are being developed
and trialed to convert the energy in waves into electricity.
Kinetic energy (movement) exists in the moving waves of the ocean. That energy can be
used to power a turbine. In this simple example, to the right, the wave rises into a chamber.
The rising water forces the air out of the chamber. The moving air spins a turbine which can
turn a generator. When the wave goes down, air flows through the turbine and back into the
chamber through doors that are normally closed. This is only one type of wave-energy
system. Others actually use the up and down motion of the wave to power a piston that

moves up and down inside a cylinder. That piston

can also turn a generator. Most wave-energy
systems are very small. But, they can be used to
power a warning buoy or a small light house.

Generated from tidal movements. Tides contain
both potential energy, related to the vertical
fluctuations in sea level, and kinetic energy, related
to the horizontal motion of the water. It can be
harnessed using technologies using energy from
the rise and fall of the tides or by technologies
using energy from tidal or marine currents)
Another form of ocean energy is called tidal energy.
When tides comes into the shore, they can be trapped in reservoirs behind dams. Then when
the tide drops, the water behind the dam can be let out just like in a regular hydroelectric
power plant.
Tidal energy has been used since about the 11th Century, when small dams were built along
ocean estuaries and small streams. the tidal water behind these dams was used to turn
water wheels to mill grains.
In order for tidal energy to work well, you need large increases in tides. An increase of at
least 16 feet between low tide to high tide is needed. There are only a few places where this
tide change occurs around the earth. Some power plants are already operating using this
idea. One plant in France makes enough energy from tides (240 megawatts) to power
240,000 homes.
This facility is called the La Rance Station in France. It began making electricity in 1966. It
produces about one fifth of a regular nuclear or coal-fired power plant. It is more than 10
times the power of the next largest tidal station in the world, the 17 megawatt Canadian
Annapolis station.


Generated by converting the temperature difference between surface water and water at
depth into useful energy. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants may have a range

of applications for Australia, including electricity generation. They may be land-based,

floating or grazing.
The idea is not new. Using the temperature of water to make energy actually dates back to
1881 when a French Engineer by the name of Jacques D'Arsonval first thought of OTEC. The
final ocean energy idea uses temperature differences in the ocean. If you ever went
swimming in the ocean and dove deep below the
surface, you would have noticed that the water
gets colder the deeper you go. It's warmer on the
surface because sunlight warms the water. But
below the surface, the ocean gets very cold.
That's why scuba divers wear wet suits when
they dive down deep. Their wet suits trapped
their body heat to keep them warm.
Power plants can be built that use this difference
in temperature to make energy. A difference of at
least 38 degrees Fahrenheit is needed between
the warmer surface water and the colder deep
ocean water.

Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy
resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit. EPA defines
green power as electricity produced from solar, wind, geothermal, biogas, eligible biomass,
and low-impact small hydroelectric sources. Customers often buy green power for its zero
emissions profile and carbon footprint reduction benefits.
Renewable energy includes resources that rely on fuel sources that restore themselves
over short periods of time and do not diminish. Such fuel sources include the sun, wind,
moving water, organic plant and waste material (eligible biomass), and the earth's heat
(geothermal). Although the impacts are small, some renewable energy technologies can
have an impact on the environment. For example, large hydroelectric resources can have
environmental trade-offs on such issues as fisheries and land use.
Conventional power includes the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) and
the nuclear fission of uranium. Fossil fuels have environmental costs from mining, drilling, or
extraction, and emit greenhouse gases and air pollution during combustion. Although
nuclear power generation emits no greenhouse gases during power generation, it does
require mining, extraction, and long-term radioactive waste storage.
The following graphic depicts how EPA defines different types of energy resources based on
their relative environmental benefits.
Green power is electricity that is generated from resources such as solar, wind,
geothermal, biomass, and low-impact hydro facilities. Conventional electricity generation,

based on the combustion of fossil fuels, is the nation's single largest industrial source of air
pollution. The increasing availability of green power enables electricity customers to
accelerate installation of renewable energy technologies. As more green power sources are
developed - displacing conventional generation - the overall environmental impacts
associated with electricity generation will be significantly reduced.


Choosing green power offers a number of benefits to businesses and institutions, including:

ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP - Many innovative organizations are establishing

environmental commitments to make their operations and practices sustainable.
Choosing green power is a simple step towards creating a more sustainable
PUBLIC IMAGE - Green power can help improve an organization's public image by
demonstrating environmental stewardship.
CUSTOMER LOYALTY - Demonstrating environmental stewardship through green
power may help increase an organization's customer and investor loyalty.
EMPLOYEE PRIDE - Employees prefer to work for companies that give back to their
communities and to the environment.
POWER PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT - Because some green power sources have no
fuel costs, green power can help protect your power portfolio from volatile prices of
fossil-fuel-generated electricity.

POWER RELIABILITY - On-site renewable generation can be a more reliable source of

power than power distributed through the electric grid.


Green power is available in four basic forms, the availability of which partially depends upon
the status of electric utility restructuring in the state where the purchase is being made.
Also known as "percentage products," blended products allow customers, primarily in states
with competitive electricity markets, to switch to electricity that contains a percentage of
renewable energy. The renewable energy content of blended products can vary from 2
percent to 100 percent according to the renewable resources available to utilities or
Block products allow customers served by monopoly utilities to choose green power from the
electric grid in standard units of energy at a fixed price, which is converted to a premium
and added to their regular electric bill. Customers decide how many blocks they want to
purchase each month.
Green tags allow customers to purchase the renewable attributes of a specific quantity of
renewable energy. Green tags are sold separately from electricity and can be purchased for
a location anywhere in the U.S. In this way, a customer can choose green power even if the
local utility or marketer does not offer a green power product. One green tag typically
represents the renewable attributes associated with one megawatt hour of green power.