0 evaluări0% au considerat acest document util (0 voturi)

44 vizualizări9 paginiLinealización de termistores

Oct 13, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

Linealización de termistores

© All Rights Reserved

0 evaluări0% au considerat acest document util (0 voturi)

44 vizualizări9 paginiLinealización de termistores

© All Rights Reserved

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

2, FEBRUARY 2009

441

Zvezditza P. Nenova and Toshko G. Nenov, Member, IEEE

AbstractThermistors have found wide application in temperature measurement and control in different fields, but they exhibit

a strong nonlinearity of the characteristic, which is of an exponential type. This paper investigates the possibility of creating a

thermistor-based temperature sensor with frequency and analog

outputs and a linearized characteristic on the basis of a 7555 timer.

It is shown through simulations that the linearization of the characteristic can be achieved without connecting additional elements

to the circuit but only through a choice of the parameters of the

thermistor and of the frequency-determining circuit elements. The

investigations conducted show a good match between the theoretically and experimentally obtained characteristics. The proposed

circuit is characterized by nonlinearity of 1% in a specific

temperature range, as well as high temperature stability.

Index TermsLinearization, sensors, temperature measurement, thermistors, 7555 timer.

I. I NTRODUCTION

have found a wide application in temperature measurement and control in the chemical, food, and automobile

industries, in measurement instruments, and in medicine, for

temperature compensation of electronic components, for the

control of liquid level, for measuring flow, as current and

voltage limiters, etc.

Thermistors are prepared from oxide materials through ceramic or film technology. The oxides of the metals Mn, Fe,

Co, Ni, and Cu, from the group of the transitory elements

in the fourth group of the periodic table, are most widely

used [1][3]. These oxides have semiconductor properties. In

comparison with resistance temperature detectors and thermocouples, thermistors have high sensitivity and allow for the

detection of small changes in temperature. Furthermore, they

are characterized by a low price and comparatively simple

preparation technology.

When thermistors are used in temperature measurement,

they are connected to a corresponding measurement circuit.

Most frequently, the measurement circuits are voltage dividers

or bridge circuits. However, due to the strongly manifested

nonlinearity of the thermistor characteristic, which is of an

exponential type, different methods for linearization are used

[2], [3]. The linearization of the transformation function of the

thermistor connection circuits makes their application much

easier.

Manuscript received October 7, 2003; revised June 12, 2008. First published

September 5, 2008; current version published January 5, 2009.

Z. P. Nenova is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical

University of Gabrovo, Gabrovo 5300, Bulgaria (e-mail: nenova@tugab.bg).

T. G. Nenov is with the Department of Automation, Information, and Control

Systems, Technical University of Gabrovo, Gabrovo 5300, Bulgaria (e-mail:

tnenov@tugab.bg).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIM.2008.2003320

are connected to the thermistor (in series or parallel), which

makes different segments of their characteristic linearized

[4], [5]. The second group of linearization methods consists of

connecting the thermistor into circuits containing logarithmic

amplifiers [6][8]. The third group of linearization methods

contains the conversion of temperature into frequency or time

intervals. In this case, the thermistor is connected to circuits

on the basis of discrete active elements, which perform this

conversion [9][13].

Apart from the methods described, computer methods for

linearization are also used, with the usage of a lookup table being the most common [14][16]. For this purpose, a

special read-only memory or an analog-to-digital converter

is used.

This paper proposes a method of characteristic linearization

of an NTC thermistor temperature sensor based on a 7555 timer

with frequency and analog outputs. Linearization of the highly

nonlinear thermistor characteristic is achieved only through a

choice of the frequency-determining parameters of the connection circuit, depending on the thermistor parameters and

the prespecified working temperature range without additional

linearization elements. It is determined that the connection of

thermistors with lower values of their parameter B, such as

V2 O5 -based thermistors, leads to a wider linearization range.

The circuit is easy to implement and convenient for various

applications. Furthermore, when using the frequency output,

the signal has a higher noise immunity, which is a property of

frequency modulation.

II. T HEORETICAL B ACKGROUND

The NTC thermistors, which are prepared on the basis of

semiconductor oxide materials, exhibit the following transformation function [2]:

RT = AeB/T

(1)

where A = R is a constant corresponding to the thermistor resistivity at an infinitely high temperature T (i.e., when

1/T 0), and B is the material constant (expressed in

kelvins), which is determined by the activation energy q and

the Boltzmanns constant k with the dependence

B = q/k.

(2)

Fig. 1. The timer works as an astable multivibrator,

and the corresponding thermistor RT is connected to its

Authorized licensed use limited to: Rafael Gonzalez-Landaeta. Downloaded on January 22, 2009 at 11:22 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

442

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 58, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009

timer is given by the dependence [17]

f=

1.44

(R + 2RT )C

(3)

the values of the corresponding circuit elements.

Therefore, the transformation function of the measurement

circuit can be represented as

f=

1.44

1.44

=

B/T

(R +2R e

)C

R +2RT 25 eB(1/T 1/298) C

(4)

(298 K), which, together with B, is given in the thermistor

reference data of the manufacturer.

The graphs of function (4), as well as of its first and second

derivatives with respect to temperature T (f (T ) and f (T ),

respectively), are shown in Fig. 2.

The transformation function (4) contains an inflection point,

which corresponds to an extreme point of the first derivative

and a zero value of the second derivative. The first derivative

changes the least around this inflection point, and the characteristic of the measurement circuit can be treated as linearized

in this range. The method of reciprocal transformations [18] is

the basis for the linearization of the transformation function,

i.e., if

Y = F (Z)

(5)

Z = F (X)

(6)

Y = X.

(7)

then

In this case, the linearization of the highly nonlinear characteristic of the thermistor is attained because of the reciprocal

character in some ranges of the functions f = F (RT ) and

RT = F (T ), and unlike other circuits of thermistor connection, the connection of additional linearization elements is not

required.

From the analysis of function (4), it follows that

lim f = 0

T 0+

lim f =

T +

1.44

1.44

(R + 2R )C

R C

(8)

(9)

(c) Second derivative.

to provide maximum temperature stability of the timer

circuit [19]).

It can be inferred from dependence (9) that the frequencydetermining capacitance C can only influence the circuit

sensitivity and that the necessary output frequency range of

the circuit can be selected through it. As C is increased,

the sensitivity and the output frequency of the circuit are

decreased. Furthermore, C does not affect the shape of the

dependence f = F (T ). The frequency-determining resistance

R influences the sensitivity and the frequency range of the

circuit, similarly to C . As C and R are increased, the

value toward which the output frequency goes asymptotically

decreases, in accordance with dependence (9).

To investigate the influence of the thermistor parameters

RT 25 and B, as well as the frequency-determining parameter

Authorized licensed use limited to: Rafael Gonzalez-Landaeta. Downloaded on January 22, 2009 at 11:22 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

443

values of B.

with the MathCAD software package is used. This is important

for achieving linearization that covers the most frequently used

working temperature ranges of the thermistors. To obtain the

point of inflection, the equation

f (T ) = 0

(10)

is numerically solved.

From the simulation results, it is determined that the temperature at which the point of inflection is obtained (further on

in this paper, this temperature is termed inflection temperature

Tin for short) depends on the ratio RT 25 /R , as well as on B.

This dependence is graphically shown in Fig. 3.

For the cases when RT 25 /R 11.2, the parameter B

only insignificantly influences the inflection temperature. At

RT 25 /R 1.1, the points of inflection for different values of

B coincide at Tin 308 K with precision of 1 K (Fig. 4).

When RT 25 > R , an increase in B leads to a decrease in

the inflection temperature, and when RT 25 < R , an increase

in B leads to an increase in the inflection temperature, but in

this case, this influence is much smaller. Apart from this, the

results obtained lead to the conclusion that for small values of

B, the rate of change of the second derivative around the point

of inflection is small, which leads to a wider linearized segment

of the characteristic.

An increase in the ratio RT 25 /R leads to an increase in

the inflection temperature. That is, keeping the frequencydetermining resistance R constant, using thermistors with

higher values of RT 25 leads to an increase in the inflection

temperature, which means linearization at higher temperatures.

For a given thermistor (i.e., for a given RT 25 ), an increase in

R will lead to a decrease in the inflection temperature, and

vice versa.

Fig. 5 shows simulation results when varying RT 25 (R =

const and B = const), whereas Fig. 6 shows results when

varying B (RT 25 > R , R = const, and RT 25 = const).

Fig. 7 shows the influence of R (RT 25 = const and B =

const). The results obtained not only show that an increase in

R leads to a decrease in the inflection temperature but also

confirm the conclusion obtained on the basis of (9) that, for a

given thermistor, an increase in R leads to a decrease in the

asymptotic value to which the output frequency of the circuit

and (b) on the second derivative (inflection point Tin ) for RT 25 /R 1.1.

tends. To increase the output range in such cases, the frequencydetermining capacitance C has to be decreased.

On the basis of the simulations and the dependences obtained, the following approach for the choice of the thermistor

and frequency-determining parameters of the circuit can be

proposed to obtain a linearized segment of the characteristic in

a prespecified working temperature range.

1) To achieve a wider linearized segment of the characteristic, a choice of a thermistor with a lower value of B is

required.

2) If RT 25 /R 11.2, then the inflection temperature is

around 308 K (35 C) for any value of B.

3) If the inflection point required has to be at a temperature

lower than 308 K (35 C), then the condition RT 25 < R

has to hold, in which case, the value of B does not

significantly affect the position of this point.

4) If the inflection point required has to be at a temperature

higher than 308 K (35 C), then the condition RT 25 > R

has to hold. In this case, an increase in the ratio RT 25 /R

(holding B constant) leads to an increase in the inflection

temperature, i.e., the linearized segment will be in a

higher temperature range.

5) When RT 25 > R , a decrease in B while holding the

ratio RT 25 /R constant increases the inflection temperature, and vice versa.

6) A specific output frequency range for a given set of parameters of the thermistor and the frequency-determining

Authorized licensed use limited to: Rafael Gonzalez-Landaeta. Downloaded on January 22, 2009 at 11:22 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

444

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 58, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009

F (T ) and (b) on the second derivative (inflection point Tin ) for RT 25 >

R (R = 1 k).

F (T ) and (b) on the second derivative (inflection point Tin ) for RT 25 >

R (RT 25 = 4700 ).

TABLE I

EXPERIMENTALLY INVESTIGATED THERMISTORS

A. Preparation of the Experimental Samples

F (T ) and (b) on the second derivative (inflection point Tin ) for RT 25 >

R (RT 25 /R = 4.7).

NTC thermistors with different parameters have been selected to conduct the investigations. Because manufacturers

usually offer thermistors with B greater than 3000 K, a V2 O5 based thermistor has been prepared. The experimentally investigated thermistors [20], [21] are shown in Table I.

The V2 O5 -based thermistor has been prepared using classical ceramic technology [22]. V2 O5 (purity) has been used as

a material. The ceramic samples have been synthesized at a

temperature of 660 C for 2 h. After being fired, the ceramic

samples have been ground and cleaned in an ultrasonic basin.

obtained for R = 1 k and C = 120 nF and for the parameters of

thermistors Ther1 (RT 25 /R = 2.4), Ther2 (RT 25 /R = 4.7), and Ther3

(RT 25 /R = 47).

ethylene glycol and xylol) to form electrodes.

Investigated Thermistors

A simulation of the characteristics is conducted for the

thermistors in Table I at R = 1000 and C = 120 nF, and

the results are shown in Fig. 8. The inflection temperatures are

around 341, 347, and 422 K, respectively.

In accordance with the simulation investigations, the linearity

in the widest temperature range is observed in Ther1, which

has the lowest value of B. The lower value of RT 25 for this

thermistor (R = const for all three thermistors), i.e., a smaller

RT 25 /R ratio, leads to a lower inflection temperature since, as

previously discussed, its influence is larger than that of B. The

linearized segment for Ther1 is from around 0 C to 120 C;

for Ther2, it is from around 30 C to 120 C; and for Ther3,

it is above 90 C. To decrease the inflection temperature for

Ther3, simulations are conducted at higher values of R for

the circuit. Because this leads to a decrease in the output

frequency, the appropriate change of the output signal is accomplished with a change in the value of the frequency-determining

capacitance C . Fig. 9 shows the characteristic obtained and

the second derivative at R = 6200 and C = 47 nF, and the

inflection temperature is around 358 K.

445

Fig. 9. (a) Simulated characteristics f = F (T ) and (b) second derivative obtained for R = 6.2 k and C = 47 nF and for the parameters of thermistor

Ther3 (RT 25 /R 7.6).

the range from around 40 C to 120 C. In the cases considered

for Ther2 and Ther3, which have higher values of B, the

linearized segment is narrower compared with Ther1.

Temperature Characteristics

The investigation of the temperature dependences is carried

out using a thermostat in the range from 0 C to 120 C. The

temperature has been measured with a mercurial thermometer

in the chamber of the thermostat with precision of up to

0.2 C, and the resistance has been measured with an RLC

bridge (type P5030) at a frequency of 1 kHz.

The investigation of the temperature characteristics of the

measurement circuit has been carried out under analogous

conditions. The frequency and voltage have been measured

using a frequency meter Philips PM6622 and a voltmeter Metex

M-3850D, respectively.

The dependences RT = F (T ) for the specified thermistors

are presented in Fig. 10. They show the strong nonlinearity of

the thermistor characteristics.

Experimental investigations have been carried out for the

three thermistors and the parameters C and R used in the

446

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 58, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009

investigated.

TABLE II

PARAMETERS C AND R FOR THE THERMISTOR CONNECTION CIRCUIT

AND T EMPERATURE R ANGES W ITH A L INEARIZED C HARACTERISTIC

with a linearized characteristic, are shown in Table II.

Fig. 11 shows the dependences f = F (T ) obtained through

a simulation with the parameters shown in Table II, as well as

the dependences fe = F (T ) obtained through an experimental

acquisition of the circuit characteristics. Because of tolerances

in the thermistor parameters for a given series, some differences

in the simulation results and the experimental characteristics

are possible. Nevertheless, these differences are mostly in the

circuit sensitivity (the slope of the characteristic). What is important is the linearization effect achieved, which confirms the

practical applicability of the proposed method. As aforementioned, the sensitivity can easily be influenced by the frequencydetermining capacitance C .

Additionally, for greater universality, a frequency-to-voltage

converter can be connected at the output so that the circuit can

have a voltage output.

A linearized thermistor connection circuit with frequency

and voltage outputs is shown in Fig. 12. The circuit contains

two U2 and U3 7555 timers. The first timer works in an astable

multivibrator mode, and the respective thermistor is connected

to pins 6 and 7. With the change in temperature, the resistance

of the thermistor RT changes, and in accordance with (1) and

(3), the frequency at the output of the timer (pin 3) also changes.

Fig. 11. Simulated characteristics f = F (T ) and experimental characteristics fe = F (T ) of the connection circuit when connecting (a) Ther1, (b) Ther2,

and (c) Ther3.

and capacitance C6 = C correspond to the values shown for

the different thermistors and temperature ranges in Table II. The

second timer works in a monostable multivibrator mode [23],

and the pulse sequence formed by the first timer is fed at its

input. The U3 timer forms a pulse with a specific amplitude U0

and duration t0 with each negative front of the incoming pulses.

Thus, a pulse sequence with the same frequency as that at the

output of the first timer but with constant pulse parameters will

be formed on pin 3 of the U3 timer. The average value of the

voltage, i.e., the dc component of the output signal of the second

timer, will be [24]

1

U = U= =

Tx

Tx

u(t)dt =

1

U0 t0 = U0 t0 f = pf

Tx

(11)

and p = U0 t0 is the coefficient of proportionality.

447

Fig. 12. Thermistor connection circuit with frequency and voltage outputs.

a low-frequency RC filter, which is realized on the basis of the

R5 and C10 elements, is used. Therefore, the U3 timer works

as a frequency-to-voltage converter with a linear function of

converting U = F (f ), preserving the shape of the dependence

f = F (T ). The duration of the pulses formed by the second

timer is determined using the following dependence [23]:

t0 = 1.1R4 C9 .

(12)

t0 < Tx for the highest working frequency is kept in order

for a frequency-to-voltage linear conversion to be provided in

accordance with (11).

The stabilization of the supply voltage +5 V of the circuits

is realized using an integral stabilizer U1 type 78L05.

Fig. 13 shows the experimental characteristics f = F (T ) and

U = F (T ) of the investigated circuit for thermistor Ther1. Due

to the high linearity of conversion of the frequency-to-voltage

converter, in accordance with (11), the nonlinearity errors of

both characteristics are almost the same. The sensitivity of the

frequency output circuit is high, and for Ther1, it is about

48 Hz/ C. The sensitivity of the voltage output circuit for Ther1

is about 15 mV/ C.

The characteristic obtained for Ther1 is approximated by

straight lines in the ranges from 0 C to 120 C and from

20 C to 120 C. The nonlinearity error for the two cases is

shown in Fig. 14. In the first case, the nonlinearity error in the

whole range does not exceed 1.7%, and in the second case,

for the range from 20 C to 120 C, it does not exceed 1%.

The temperature impact on the elements in the measurement

circuit has also been investigated. For this purpose, instead of

the thermistor, a standard resistor with a value equal to that of

the thermistor at 20 C is connected. This resistor is placed at

a constant temperature so that it would not interfere with the

Fig. 13. Experimental characteristics f = F (T ) and U = F (T ) of the connection circuit from Fig. 12 when connecting Ther1.

the thermostat chamber, and the temperature is varied in the

range from 20 C to 50 C. The changes in output frequency

and voltage are traced. These results are shown in Fig. 15.

The output frequency and voltage of the measurement circuit

insignificantly change with the change in temperature. The

error from the temperature influence on the frequency output

circuit for Ther1 is about 0.01%/ C, and for the voltage output

circuit, it is about 0.02%/ C. To achieve this high temperature

stability of the circuit, elements with low temperature coefficients in the frequency-determining circuits of the two timers

have been used.

IV. C ONCLUSION

As a result of the investigation conducted in this paper,

the possibility for the design of a temperature sensor on the

basis of a thermistor connected to a 7555 integrated timer with

frequency and analog outputs and a linearized characteristic has

been shown. The linearization of the transformation function

is accomplished without connecting additional elements to the

448

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 58, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009

the frequency-determining resistance R .

4) The nonlinearity error of the circuit when a thermistor

with a low value of B (B < 2200 K) is connected does

not exceed 1% for a temperature range of about 100 C.

5) The temperature influence error on the measurement

circuit is in the range from 0.01%/ C to 0.02%/ C.

The high temperature stability of the circuit is achieved

by using capacitors and resistors with low temperature

coefficients in the frequency-determining circuits of the

timers.

R EFERENCES

Fig. 14. Nonlinearity error of the Ther1 connection circuit characteristic with

linear approximation for ranges (a) 0 C to 120 C and (b) 20 C to 120 C.

the connection circuit under the temperature impact on its elements.

parameters of the frequency-determining circuit elements.

Several conclusions can be made on the basis of the obtained

results.

1) The ratio between the thermistor resistance and the

frequency-determining resistance of the circuit, i.e.,

RT 25 /R , significantly influences the sensor characteristic and the linearized segment.

2) A selection of a thermistor with a lower value of B leads

to a wider linearized segment of the sensor characteristic.

3) A specific frequency range of the output signal of the

sensor can be selected through a change in the value of the

frequency-determining capacitance C of the timer, given

on the electrical properties of NiOMn2 O3 NTC thermistor material, J.

Mater. Sci. Lett., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 99102, Mar. 1982.

[2] E. D. Macklen, Thermistors. London, U.K.: Electrochemical, 1979.

[3] W. Heywang, Amorphe und polykristalline Halbleiter. New York:

Springer-Verlag, 1984.

[4] M. Diamond, Linearization of resistance thermometers and other transducers, Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 5360, Jan. 1970.

[5] A. Burke, Linearizing thermistors with a single resistor, Electron.,

vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 151154, 1981.

[6] A. A. Khan and R. Sengupta, A linear temperature/voltage converter

using thermistor in logarithmic network, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.,

vol. IM-33, no. 1, pp. 24, Mar. 1984.

[7] A. A. Khan, An improved linear temperature/voltage converter using

thermistor in logarithmic network, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. IM34, no. 5, pp. 635638, Dec. 1985.

[8] D. Patranabis, S. Ghosh, and C. Bakshi, Linearizing transducer characteristics, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 6669,

Mar. 1988.

[9] D. K. Stankovic, Linearized thermistor multivibrator bridges for temperature measurement, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. IM-23, no. 2,

pp. 179180, Jun. 1974.

[10] D. Stankovic and J. Elazar, Thermistor multivibrator as the

temperature-to-frequency converter and as a bridge for temperature

measurement, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. IM-26, no. 1, pp. 4146,

Mar. 1977.

[11] B. Sundvist, Simple, wide-range, linear temperature-to-frequency converters using standard thermistors, J. Phys. E, Sci. Instrum., vol. 16, no. 4,

pp. 261264, Apr. 1983.

[12] R. N. Sengupta, A widely linear temperature to frequency converter using

a thermistor in a pulse generator, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 37,

no. 1, pp. 6265, Mar. 1988.

[13] S. Natarajan and B. B. Bhattacharyya, Temperature-to-time converters,

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. IM-26, no. 1, pp. 7779, Mar. 1977.

[14] W. T. Bolk, A general digital linearizing method for transducers, J. Phys.

E, Sci. Instrum., vol. 18, pp. 6164, 1985.

[15] W. Balzer, Sensorkennlinien linearizieren, Feinwerktechnik und

Messtechnik, no. 6, pp. 221226, 1992.

[16] A. Flammini, D. Marioli, and A. Taroni, Application of an optimal lookup table to sensor data processing, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 48,

no. 4, pp. 813816, Aug. 1999.

[17] M. Tooley, Practical Digital Electronics Handbook. London, U.K.: PC,

1988.

[18] L. I. Volgin, Electrical Transducers for Measurement Instruments and

Systems. Moscow, Russia: Sovetskoe radio, 1971 (in Russian).

[19] L. M. Faulkenberry, An Introduction to Operational Amplifiers With

Linear IC Applications. New York: Wiley, 1982.

[20] Data Handbook, Varistors, Thermistors and Sensors, Philips,

Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1992.

[21] Z. Nenova, Keramische Temperatursensoren auf der Basis von

Vanadium-Pentoxyd, J. Univ. Appl. Sci. Mittweida, no. 5, pp. 3541,

1998.

[22] T. Nenov and S. Yordanov, Ceramic Sensors: Technology and Applications. Lancaster, PA: Technomic, 1996.

[23] M. Dimitrova and I. Vankov, Digital Circuits and Devices. Part 1. Sofia,

Bulgaria: Tehnika, 1989 (in Bulgarian).

[24] S. Soclof, Applications of Analog Integrated Circuits. Englewood Cliffs,

NJ: PrenticeHall, 1985.

degrees in electrical engineering from the National

Technical University of Ukraine Kiev Polytechnic Institute, Kiev, Ukraine, in 1983 and 1990,

respectively.

During 19881999, she was an Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering,

Technical University of Gabrovo, Gabrovo, Bulgaria,

where she has been an Associate Professor since

1999. She has authored more than 80 publications

in multiple journals and conferences. Her research

interests are in the fields of measurement and control and computer-based

systems for data acquisition.

Prof. Nenova is a member of the Union of Scientists in Bulgaria and the

Bulgarian Union of Automation and Informatics.

449

Toshko G. Nenov (M98) received the M.S. degree in electronics from the Technical University

of Gabrovo, Gabrovo, Bulgaria, in 1979 and the

Ph.D. degree in microelectronics from the National

Technical University of Ukraine Kiev Polytechnic

Institute, Kiev, Ukraine, in 1984.

During 19851994, he was an Assistant Professor with the Department of Automation, Information, and Control Systems, Technical University of

Gabrovo, where he has been an Associate Professor

since 1994. He has authored more than 100 publications, including the book Ceramic Sensors: Technology and Application

(Technomic, 1996), which was published in the U.S. His research interests are

in the fields of sensors and microprocessor systems.

Prof. Nenov is a member of the Bulgarian Union of Automation and

Informatics.

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.