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unami

Protecia civila
Tema 3: UNAMI

UST - 2016

BANDA ACEH, INDONESIA: 23 iunie, 2004


O imagine din satelit a zonei de pe malul mrii, oraul
Aceh, capitala provinciei nainte de tsunami.

BANDA ACEH, INDONESIA: 28 Decembie, 2004


O imagine satelit luat dup tsunami

Ce este un tsunami ?
What is a Tsunami?
n

cazul micrii unei mase tectonice, cum


ar fi un cutremur sau alunecare de teren,
se disloc brusc o mare cantitate de ap
din starea sa de echilibru i se poatew
forma un val dezastruos numit tsunami.
Tsunami-ul se traduce literalmente din
limba japonez - "val de port.

Surse de unami
Tsunami Sources

Earthquakes (e.g. Sumatra, 2004: >200,000


people killed; Papa New Guinea, 1998: ~3,000
people killed)
Volcanic eruptions (e.g. Krakatoa, 1883:
tsunamis killed 30,000 people; Santorini, 2002).
Mass Movement (e.g. Alaska, 1958: waves up to
518 m high formed in Lituya Bay).

Extraterrestrial Impacts - large impacts have the


potential to create enormous tsunamis.

Surse unami Cutremurul


de Pmnt

Cutremure de pmnt, care brusc mic n jos,


sau nal fundul mrii genereaz tsunami-urile.
n general, tsunami-ul sunt generate de defecte
de inversare.

Tsunami Genesis
Tsunamurile

sunt

cauzate de
fenomene, care
deplasezbrusc i
n mod drastic un
volum mare de ap.

From Plummer McGeary Carlson

Tsunami Earthquakes
Seismurile

din mari si oceane au generat


tsuname foarte mari pentru "mrimea" lor.
Aceste fenomene sunt numite cutremuretsunami.
Analiza seismografic a acestor fenomene
sugereaz c acestea sunt rezultatul
degajarii energiei seismice de frecven
joasa.
Aceste cutremure prezint o problem
pentru sistemele de avertizare de tsunami

Tsunami Earthquakes
O

modalitate de a identifica aceste


fenomene - este de a compara Ms i Mw
Ms ~ perioad de 20 de secunde
Mw ~ Perioada de 100-200secunde
Din moment ce semnalele sunt mbogite
cu semnale de perioade lungi de timp
magnitudinea la unami este neobinuit de
mare.

Standard
Earthquake
M~7.0

Un cutremur cu o component
mare pe vertical este mai mult
"tsunamigenic" dect un
fenomen pur orizontal.
Cutremurul "lent" cu o durat
mare sunt, de asemenea, surse
de tsunami.
From E. Okal

Slow-source Tsunami Earthquake


mb ~5.8, MS ~7.2, MW~7.7

Descriere undelor de seism oceanice

Undele (valurile) oceanului sunt deformri ale


suprafeei mrii.
Lungime de und: distana ntre 2 creste vecine (L)
Inaltimea valului (ampletuda): distana vertical ntre
creasta i jgheab
Perioada (T): intervalul de timp n care unda parcurge
distana dintre 2 maxime (vrfuri) succesive

Descrierea undelor oceanice

Propagarea valurilor n timp ce apa medie rmne n


aceeai poziie (apa nu se aduna pe plaja).
La adncime unda are forma circulara cu diametrul care
este n scdere n jos.

Descriere undelor de seism oceanice

energia undei seismice se misca in directia de propagare.


Cele mai multe valuri de ocean sunt produse prin
transmiterea energiei de vnt n larg spre coasta vntului.
Rata la care un val i pierde energia sa este invers
proporional cu lungimea de unda.
Valurile de lungime de und mare pot cltori la distante
mari.

Descriere undelor de seism oceanice

Valuri de ap adnci sunt valuri de suprafa.


Apa adnc: adncimea apei n cazul n care un vrf
val de trecere nu este perceptibil pe fundul mrii.
Valuri de ap adnc: lungimea de und este <1/2
Adncimea apei (D)Deep Water Waves: the
wavelength is < 1/2 Water depth (D)

Descriere undelor de seism oceanice

Perioada si lungimea de unda a valurilor de vint: T~ 1020s ~10-600m


Viteza: v=/T (v~1-30m/s)
Viteza undelor (valurilor) de ap la adncime depinde de
lungimea de und, undele de adncime sunt de
dispersive.
Viteza undelor de ap la adncime mica:
2D
g
v
tanh
L

2
d 20 c

gD

Descriere undelor de seism oceanice

Viteza undelor de apa la adincime mica:

v gD

Viteza undelor superficiale nu depinde de lungimea


de unda. valuri de ap de mica adncime nu sunt
dispersive.
Pe msur ce unda se apropie de mal unde
adincimea
se micsoreaza, forma micrii devine mai

eliptica iar viteza ncetinete.


Pentru a conserva energia valului creste amlituda.

Descriere undelor de seism oceanice

Unde Tsunami: T~3600 s ~800 km


Avnd n vedere c oceanul are o adncime medie
de 5 km unedele Tsunami sunt ntotdeauna un val de
ap de mic adncime
v gD
viteza crete cu adncimea oceanului.
Viteza undei tsunami (adncime 5000m):
v ~ 220 m / s = 792 km / h (viteza de croazier a
avionului 747 ~ 800 km / h)

Descrierea undelor Oceanice

Unde Tsunami: T~3600 s ~800 km


Din moment ce valurile de lungime de und mare i pierd mai
puin energie, un tsunami poate parcurge distane cu
transoceanic cu pierderi de energie limitat.
n adncul oceanului amplitudinea unui tsunami este de civa
centimetri pn la cteva dm pe o lungime de und de foarte
mare: ea nu se simte la bordul unei nave si poate fi vzut din
aer n ocean (dar poate fi msurat prin geamandur sau
altimetru prin satelit).
Atunci cnd un tsunami se apropie de rm viteza scade (D
diminuza), precum i pentru a conserva energia (proporional
cu v i H), amplitudinea crete.

2
H D1
vD 2

2
H D 2 v D1

gD2
gD1

From UNESCO/PTWC tsunami booklet

Exemplu

Unde Tsunami: Sumatra 2004


Ct timp este nevoie pentru a ajunge la SriLanka?
Distante ~1600 km
Adincimea ~4000 m
m
km
v gD 9.8 * 4000 198 713
s
hr

T= 2000/713=2.2 hr

Exemplu

Unde Tsunami: Sumatra 2004


How long to get to Thailand?
Distance ~500 km
Water Depth ~1500 m
m
km
v gD 9.8 *1500 120 430
s
hr

T= 500/430=1.1 hr

Exemplu

Unde Tsunami: Sumatra 2004


Pentru descrierea propagarii undelor frontale se foloseste
Batimetrie de nalt definiie care are la baza modele
numerice

Courtesy: K. Satake,
unpublished

Exemplu

Tsunami Wave Example: Sumatra 2004


Ct de mare este valul?
2
H D1
vD 2

2
H D 2 v D1
2
H D1
0.6 2

2
2
HD 2 HD 2

gD2

gD2
gD1

gD1

9.8 *10
H D 2 7.6m
9.8 * 4000

1
NOAA

QuickTime and a
GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Describing Tsunamis
Tsunami

wave height is the height of the


wave at the shore.
Tsunami run-up height is the maximum
height that the wave reaches on land.

Tsunami Locations
Zonele

de subductie mari produc cele mai


multe valuri tsunami. Pacificul, cu zone de
subductie mrginit, este sursa de cele
mai multe tsunami.
Pacific, ~ 80%
Atlanticul de ~ 10%
n alt parte ~ 10%

Propagarea Tsunami
Valurile

Tsunami sunt cele mai


devastatoare dupa cutremur. Ele loveasc
regiunea n curnd dup cutremur.
De asemenea, Valurile Tsunami cltoresc
peste oceane ntregi i poate provoca
pagube i moarte la mii de km (mile) de
cutremur.

QuickTime and a
Cinepak decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Daune locale produse de


Tsunami

Daunele provocate de tsunami-ul in apropiere


sunt de obicei devastatoare.
Chiar i mici evenimente pot genera valuri la
nivel local ridicate. (De exemplu, ntr-un golf
undele pot fi concentrate i amplitudinea crete.
O alunecare de teren declanata de un cutremur
ntr-un golf din Alaska, n 1958, a creat valuri cu
amplitude de pn la 518 m nlime).
Timpul de avertizare poate fi dramatic scurt.

Wave diffraction

Waves that pass from a media where they


move fast to a media where they move more
slowly, are refracted, and waves that move
around obstacles, are diffracted. This can
highly influence the local damages resulting
from the waves.
QuickTime and a
Cinepak decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Bascom, 1964

86 feet = 26 m

QuickTime and a
GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Avertizare de tsunami
Din

cauza tsunami-urilor cu viteze relativ


mici, avem o ans de a avertiza regiunile
ndeprtate ale potenialelor tsunami-urilor.
Aceste eforturi furnizeaz argumente
puternice pentru monitorizarea
cutremurelor n timp real.
Alerte sunt emise n mod curent de ctre
guvernele care au cooperat.
Verific:http://wcatwc.gov/

Avertizare de tsunami

De ndat ce un cutremur de magnitudine > 6.5


este situat n mare se declansaza alarma.
Folosind simulri pe calculator i hri oamenii
de tiin pot prognoza ora de sosire n locaii
diferite.

Tsunami: Timp de cltorie


(Hawaii)

From Merritts et al., 1998

Avertizare de tsunami

As soon as an earthquake of magnitude >6.5 is


located in the sea the alarm start.
Using computer simulations and maps like the
one in the following slide scientists forecast the
time of arrival in different locations.
Utilizarea geamandurilor digitale ajuta pentru a
verifica prezena efectiv a unui tsunami, se d
alarma.

Tsunami Warning

As soon as an earthquake of magnitude >6.5 is


located in the sea the alarm start.
Using computer simulations and maps like the one in
the following slide scientists forecast the time of
arrival in different locations.
The use of Buoy and tide gauges help to verify the
effective presence of a tsunami, the alarm is given.
Odat ce alarma este data este necesar ca
comunitile locale ce au planuri de urgen, dupa ce
primesc mesajele de alarma anunta populaia, care
tie ce s fac.

Sumatra Tsunami 2004

A emergency reaction example (thanks to Benz, USGS)

Propagation, Response and Warning Times


for the M9.0 Sumatra EQ
Northern Sumatra
People are sensing severe
shaking

1 minutes after OT

NEIC
No information regarding
earthquake

PTWC
No information regarding
earthquake and/or tsunami

90

100

Propagation, Response and Warning Times


for the M9.0 Sumatra EQ
Northern Sumatra
10 minutes after OT

Significant structural damage


in Banda Aceh
Tsunami inundation along the
Sumatran coast
EQ is widely felt throughout
the region

NEIC
P

Short period alarm on eight


stations in the region

PTWC
Short period alarm on western
Pacific stations
Short-period alarm stations

10 minutes after OT

10 minutes after OT

Propagation, Response and Warning Times


for the M9.0 Sumatra EQ
Northern Sumatra
Tsunami inundation spreads
further along the Sumatran
coast

12 minutes after OT

NEIC
Short period alarm on sixteen
stations In the region

Mb6.2, Mwp8.2 earthquake


located off the north coast of
Sumatra
Pager notification to duty
seismologists and others at
NEIC

PTWC
Mwp8.2 earthquake located
off the north coast of Sumatra

90

No tsunami advisor for the


Pacific Ocean

Propagation, Response and Warning Times


for the M9.0 Sumatra EQ
Northern Sumatra
16 minutes after OT

Tsunami inundation spreads


further along the Sumatran
coast and reaches the
Nicobar Islands

NEIC
First automatic location released
at NEIC

Pager notification to about 10


people in the USGS

PTWC
Confers with NEIC on the
location and magnitude of the
Earthquake
Release Tsunami Information Bulletin

01:14
Information Bulletin

WC&ATWC Tsunami

Location 3.4 N, 95.7 E


BASED ON LOCATION AND MAGNITUDE THE
EARTHQUAKE WAS NOT SUFFICIENT TO GENERATE
A TSUNAMI DAMAGING TO CALIFORNIA - OREGON WASHINGTON - BRITISH COLUMBIA OR ALASKA.
SOME AREAS MAY EXPERIENCE SMALL SEA LEVEL
CHANGES. IN AREAS OF INTENSE SHAKING
LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS CAN BE
TRIGGERED BY SLUMPING. THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI
WARNING CENTER WILL ISSUE TSUNAMI BULLETINS
FOR HAWAII AND OTHER AREAS OF THE PACIFIC.

16 minutes after OT

16 minutes after OT

30 minutes after OT

M5.5

34 minutes after OT

M6.1
M5.5

39 minutes after OT

M6.0
M6.1
M5.5

43 minutes after OT

M5.5
M6.0
M6.1
M5.5

Propagation, Response and Warning Times


for the M9.0 Sumatra EQ
Northern Sumatra
Tsunami is passing thru the
Nicobar Islands

44 minutes after OT

NEIC
Automatic Ms magnitude is
calculated (Ms8.5)
Pager notification to about 30
people in the USGS
Aftershocks suggest Ms8.5 is
too low

PTWC
0

Confers with NEIC on the


location and magnitude of the
earthquake
Notifies US Military on Diego
Garcia on the possibility of
an approaching tsunami

90

Propagation, Response and Warning Times


for the M9.0 Sumatra EQ
Northern Sumatra
75 minutes after OT

Tsunami reaches the Andaman


Islands, approaches the Thai
coast

NEIC
Releases reviewed
earthquake location and
magnitude (Ms8.5)
Pager notifications are sent
to 25,000 people
Call down list is activated
Wire service reports
of collapsed buildings in
Banda Aceh

PTWC
90

Telephone Call-Down List


USGS Earthquake Hazards Program Coordinator
USGS Office of Communications
USGS NEIS Coordinator
White House situation room
State Department Operations Center
FEMA Operations Center
International Commission on
Renal Failure, Alberta, Canada
EERI
USGS GHT Chief Scientist
USGS GHT Chief Scientist
USGS CR Executive for Geology

02:30 UTC
02:30
02:25
02:35
02:36
02:37
02:39
02:42
02:27
02:29
02:32

Msg

Agency

Pager/Email
USGS Earthquake Program, Reston and Golden
Pager
FEMA, Washington DC area
Pager/Email
UN Radio Readiness Group, New York
Fax/Email
Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo
Email
Schweizerischer Erdbebendienst, Zurich,Switzerland
Email
Servicio Hidrogrfico y Oceanogrfico de la
Armada, Chile
Email
Rseau National de Surveillance Sismique, EOPGS,
Strasbourg, France
Email
Seismic Data Analysis Center, BGR, Hannover,
Germany
Email
Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch,
Novosibirsk, Russia
Email
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Email
US Strategic Air Command, Nebraska
Email
National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, Virginia
Email
European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre,
Bruyres-le-Chtel, France
Email
Instituto Geogrfico Nacional, Madrid, Spain
Email
World Agency of Planetary Monitoring and EQ Risk
Reduction, Geneva

Recipients of embassy news release message


(Sent between 02:21 and about 02:30)
Msg. type
Fax/Email

US

Fax/Email

US

Fax/Email

US

Fax

UN

Agency
Embassy Consular Section,
Jakarta, Indonesia
Consulate General,
Surabaya, Indonesia
Consular Agent, Denpasar,
Indonesia
Office for the Coordination
of Humanitarian
Affairs, Geneva,
Switzerland

104 minutes after OT

104 minutes after OT

Propagation, Response and Warning Times


for the M9.0 Sumatra EQ
Indian Ocean
122 minutes after OT

Little communication from


Banda Aceh
Destruction in Pkuket
Tsunami hits Sri Lanka

NEIC
Continuing dialogue between
USGS scientists in Golden,
Reston and Menlo Park
No confirmation via wire
services of tsunami in the
Indian Ocean
Wire service reports of
building collapse in Banda
Aceh
Web content is being
developed and posted

Propagation, Response and Warning Times


for the M9.0 Sumatra EQ
Indian Ocean
122 minutes after OT

Little communication from


Banda Aceh
Destruction in Pkuket
Tsunami hits Sri Lanka

NEIC
Continuing dialogue between
USGS scientists in Golden,
Reston and Menlo Park
No confirmation via wire
services of tsunami in the
Indian Ocean
Wire service reports of
building collapse in Banda
Aceh
Web content is being
developed and posted

Can We Do Better? Yes


Improved sensor networks in hazards areas of the world (seismic,
tide gauge, ocean buoys) and coordinated distribution and
processing of data
Better information content that can better assist emergency
responders to assess the scope of the disaster
Coordination and integration with national, regional and local
emergency response agencies and civil authorities
Education and training at national, regional and local levels of
government and the general population

Tsunami Hazard Mitigation


We

can warn people of potential tsunamis


from distant earthquakes. Warning of near
source tsunamis is much more difficult.
Prevention of tsunami catastrophes
requires carefully planned use of low-lying
areas.

This is not always possible, or affordable.

Protejarea de Tsunami
Deplaseazate

la un un loc cu inaltime mai

mare.
Ateptai pn cnd autoritile dau und
verde pentru a reveni la regiunile joase.
Uita-te pentru valuri de ap n ruri i
praie n apropierea coastei.
n cazul n care simii un cutremur
puternic, nu ateptai un avertisment
oficial.

Agitatii de apa & Riuri & Lacuri


Tsunamiuri

sunt un fenomen ocean, dar


orice volum mare de ap poate fi pericol n
cazul n care o parte mai mare a apei sale
este deplasat dintr-o dat.
Comasarea malurilor rurilor sau bluffurile
din lac pot fi periculoase pentru oricine pe
apa si pot perturba traficul fluvial, care
poate avea un impact negative asupra
economiei locale.

Alunecari de teren in lacuri

Un pericol mult mai grav este o alunecare de


teren din lacuri, n special, bazine artificiale.
n acest caz, unda generat poate fi mai
nalta dect barajul i / sau cauza cedrii
barajului.
Rezultatele pot fi devastatoare (de exemplu,
Longarone, Italia, 1963, au fost 1917 de
persoane ucise)

Landslide Tsunami
Sissano Lagoon - Papua New
Guinea
Earthquake Magnitude ~ 7.0
Landslide ~ 3-5 km3 [0.6 - 1.0 miles ]
Tsunami 10-15 meters [30 - 50 feet]
3

1929 Grand Banks


Earthquake Magnitude ~ 7.2
Landslide ~ 185 km3 [~35 miles ]
Tsunami 4-12 meters [12 - 40 feet]
3

Mid-Atlantic Coast
Landslide ~ 150 km3 [~30 miles ]
Tsunami ??????
3

New Jersey Coast


Landslide ~ 120 km3 [~25 miles ]
Tsunami ??????
3

Tunami dupa cutremur 2004

1946 Hilo

Ancorare, Alaska 1964

Ancorare, Alaska 1964

secvene fotografice de la
balconul unui hotel in Thailand (1 of 2)

secvene fotografice (2 of 2)

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