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Bishwajit Mazumder

Nursing Instructor
Dhaka Nursing College,
E. mail:

Transformational Leadership
1. Introduction:
Better leaders are transformational more frequently .. (Bass, 88).
Transformational leadership is inspirational leadership that promotes employee
development, attends to need and motivates followers, inspires through optimism,
influences changes in perception, provides intellectual stimulation.Transformational
leadership process that changes and transforms individuals. Transformational
Leadership begins with awareness awareness of our ownthoughts and feelings, and
how these affect your actions, and the states ofothers.Transformational Leadership
inspires wholeness of being, our thoughts,feelings and actions are consistent. It is
about leading with an integrity andauthenticity that resonates with others, and inspires
them to follow. Not onlydoes it inspire others to follow, but to become leaders

2. Background of transformational leadership:

The term transformational leadership was first coined by J.V. Downton in
Rebel Leadership: Commitment and Charisma in a Revolutionary Process
(1973).James MacGregor Burns first introduced the concept of transformational
leadership in hisbook Leadership (1978), during his study of political leadership, but
this term is now usedin organizational psychology as well. He described it not as a set
of specific behaviors,but rather an ongoing process by which "leaders and followers
raise one another tohigher levels of morality and motivation" (p. 20).
Transformational leaders offer a purposethat transcends short-term goals and focuses
on higher order intrinsic needs.Transformational leaders raise the bar by appealing to
higher ideals and values offollowers. In doing so, they may model the values
themselves and use charismaticmethods to attract people to the values and to the
Burns was influenced by Abraham Maslows Theory of Human Needs. This
theoryrecognizes that people have a range of needs, and the extent to which they will
perform effectively in the workplace will be affected by the extent to which these

needs are satisfied. Transformational Leadership fits into the higher levels, as it
requires a high level of self esteem and self actualization to successfully be an
authentic transformational leader.
Its about values, purpose and meaning:
Essentially the leaders task is consciousness-raising on a wide plane. The
leaders fundamental act is to induce people to be aware or conscious of what they
feel -- to feel their true needs so strongly, to define their values so meaningfully, that
they can be moved to purposeful action.(Leadership, pp 43-44). Burns was one of the
first scholars to assert that true leadership not only creates change and achieves goals
within the environment, but changes the people involved in the necessary actions for
the better as well: both followers and leaders are ennobled. Burns became famous
among alternative leadership scholars because his model of transformational
leadership included an ethical/moral dimension that, prior to 1978, had not been
infused into any leadership theory

3. Definition of transformational leadership:

Bernard Bass, a disciple of Burns, defined transformational leadership in terms
of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire and respect the
transformational leader. He identified three ways in which leaders transform
Increasing their awareness of task importance and value.
Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their
own interests.
Activating their higher-order needs.
In contrast to Burns, who sees transformational leadership as being
inextricably linked with higher order values, Bass sees it as amoral, and therefore
questions the morality and ethical component of transformational leadership.
A leadership style focused on effecting revolutionary change in organizations
through a commitment to the organizations vision. ( Sullivan& Decker, 2001)
According to Tracey and Hinkin (1988), transformational theory is the process
that motivates people by appealing to higher ideas ad moral values, defining and
articulating a vision of the future and forming a base credibility

4. Components of Transformational Leadership:

Transformational Leadership has evolved from and contains elements of
preceding leadership types, such as trait and behaviour theories, charismatic,
situational and transactional leadership. There are four components
transformational leadership, which are:


There are four components of transformational leadership, which are:

4.1. Charisma or idealized influence:

This is the degree to which the leader behaves in admirable ways that cause
followers to identify with the leader. Charismatic leaders display convictions, take
stands and appeal to followers on an emotional level. This is about the leader
having a clear set of values and demonstrating them in every action, providing a
role model for their followers. Genuine trust must be built between leaders and
followers. Trust for both leader and follower is built on a solid moral and ethical

4.2. Inspirational motivation:

The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and
inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with
high standards, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for
the task at hand. Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to
be motivated to act. It is also important that this visionary aspect of leadership be
supported by communication skills that allow the leader to articulate his or her
vision with precision and power in a compelling and persuasive way.

4.3. Intellectual stimulation:

The degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits
followers' ideas. Leaders with this trait stimulate and encourage creativity in their
followers. The leaders vision provides the framework for followers to see how
they connect to the leader, the organization, each other, and the goal. Once they
have this big picture view and are allowed freedom from convention they can
creatively overcome any obstacles in the way of the mission.

4.4. Individualized consideration or individualized

The degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as a
mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs.
This also encompasses the need to respect and celebrate the individual
contribution that each follower can make to the team (it is the diversity of the
team that gives it its true strength). This approach not only educates the next
generation of leaders, but also fulfils the individuals need for self-actualization,
self-fulfilment, and self-worth. It also naturally propels followers to further
achievement and growth.
(The Transformational Leadership Report
2007 6 of 19)

Dimension of transformational leadership:

Together, the four main dimensions of transformational leadership are

interdependent; they must co-exist; and they are held to have an additive effect that
yieldsperformance beyond expectations (Gellis, 2001; Hall, Johnson,
Wysocki&Kepner, 2002; Kelly, 2003).

clear sense of purpose,

expressed simply (e.g.
metaphors, anecdotes)
value driven (e.g. have core
values and congruent
strong role model
high expectations
perpetual desire for learning

emotionally mature
unwilling to believe in failure
sense of public need.
considerate of the personal
needs of employees
listens to all viewpoints to
develop spirit of cooperation


love work
life-long learners
identify themselves as change
able to attract and inspire others
effective communicator


Kouzes& Posner(1987)
Challenging the process
Inspiration a shared vision

Intellectual stimulation
Individualized consideration

Enabling others to act

Modeling the way
Encouraging the heart

7. Transformational leadership process:

Transformational leadership process:

Required ethical element :

Ethical orientation of leader
Top management support
Established corporate ethics policy

7.1. Characteristics:

Human need
Stong core value

7.2. Behavior:

able to deal with complexity,
uncertainty and ambiguity

Transformational leadership strategies &


Attention through vision
Meaning through
Trust through positioning
Deployment of self

Communication of vision
Reinforcement for involvement
Considerationfor employees
Fulfilment of commitment

7.3. Outcome:

Institionalized organizational ethics:



Mission changes
Strategic changes
Culture changes
Internalization of
Organizational value
Empowered employees
Psychological contract
Organizational commitment
Ethically oriented cultur

There are 7 principles to Transformational Leadership(Smith,

Mary Atkinson, 2011):
8.1. Simplification: The transformational leader speaks in a clear and practical manner
while explaining the direction the team is heading. Specifically, the plan for each
project should include more than what needs to be done at the moment. The desired
end result should also be vividly communicated so employees know where they, and
the project, are heading. By knowing and effectively relaying what the project needs
to transform into the anticipated result, you eliminate miscommunication and
8.2. Motivation: Employees need motivation to perform at their best. Under the
principle of motivation, you gain the agreement and commitment necessary to elevate
your vision. By understanding your employees likes and dislikes, you know what
motivates and what doesnt. For example, recognizing and applauding their
accomplishments, providing training to increase their knowledge base, establishing a
pleasant work environment, can motivate employees into performing at their highest
8.3. Determination: Determination means having the tenacity to finish the race
regardless of the hurdles that come your way. The principle of determination requires
you to depend on your courage, stamina, strength and perseverance to realize your
vision. By displaying endurance, you show employees that hard work pays off in the
8.4. Mobilization: You need the right people to elevate your vision. Transformational
leaders know how to assemble the appropriate team to get the job done. This includes
enlisting, empowering and equipping qualified team leaders and other willing
participants who do not have leadership roles. The transformational leader
understands the importance of assigning tasks based on participants characteristics
and abilities.

8.5. Preparation: The principle of preparation requires transformational leaders to be

infinite students. You must have the introspective ability to keep learning about
yourself, alone or with the assistance of others. To maintain a flourishing bond with
your employees, you must always be prepared to nurture and support the relationship.
This means looking outside yourself, concentrating on whats best for the team, and
transferring this energy to your employees so they emulate this behavior.
8.6. Facilitation: The principle of facilitation requires you to provide your
employees with the proper learning tools to elevate the vision to its greatest
height. Specifically, workers need stimulating work that challenges and
expands their minds and facilitates the desire to keep learning. As a
transformational leader, you recognize this principle and work toward
improving your employees intellectuality.
8.7 Innovation: Change in a business environment is inevitable. Under the
principle of innovation, you courageously recognize the need for change and
initiate it accordingly. For example, innovation may include learning and
adapting to an upgraded accounting system, or adjusting to an employee who
has just been promoted to management. As a transformational leader, you
effectively show employees why the change is needed, how it will benefit
them and the company, and how to embrace it.
9. According

to Kouzes and Posner,there is five key

action for successful leadership:
9.1. Model the way: Modeling means going first, living the behaviors you want others
to adopt. This is leading from the front. People will believe not what they hear
leaders say but what they see leader consistently do.
9.2. Challenge the process: Leaders thrive on and learn from adversity and difficult
situations. They are early adopters of innovation.
9.3. Inspire a shared vision: Peoples are motivated most not by fear or reward, but
ideas that capture their imagination. Note that this is not so much about having vision,
but communicating it so effectively that others take it as their own.
9.4. Enable others to act: Encouragement and exhortation is not enough. People must
feel able to act and then must have the ability to put their ideas into action.
9.5. Encourage the heart: People act best of all when they are not passionate about
what they are doing. Leaders unleash the enthusiasm of their followers this with
stories and passions of their own.(Kouzes and Posner, The leadership challenge,
Jossey Bass,2002)

10. Implications of Transformational Leadership

The current environment characterized by uncertainty, global turbulence, and
organizational instability calls for transformational leadership to prevail at all levels of
the organization. The followers of such leaders demonstrate high levels of job
satisfaction and organizational commitment, and engage in organizational citizenship
behaviors. With such a devoted workforce, it will definitely be useful to consider
making efforts towards developing ways of transforming organization through
11. Strength&

weakness of transformational leadership:


Broadly researched
Intuitive appeal
Process-focused: Transformational leadership treats leadership as process
occurring as a followers and leaders.
Provides a broader view of leadership augments other leadership models.
Emphasizes follower: transformational leadership emphasize followers needs,
values and morals.
Effectiveness: evidence supports that transformational leadership is an
effective form of leadership.


Weakness of transformational leadership:

It is difficult to define exactly the parameters of transformational

leadership( wide range, a vision, motivating, building trust )
The parameters of transformational leadership often overlap with other similar
conceptualization of leadership.
Treats as a personality trait or personal predisposition rather than a behavior in
which people can be instructed.
It is based on primary qualitative data collected from leaders who were very
12. Application

of administration:

Leaders make sure that their followers are know their roles & understand how
they contribute to the greater purpose of the organization. Transformational leaders

are effective at working with people & create social architects. Transformational
leader create a vision that emerge from collective interest of various individual&
unite organization.
Transformational leadership results in people feeling better about themselves
& their contribution to the greater good. Leaders make sure that their followers are
know their roles & understand how they contribute to the greater purpose of the
organization. Transformational leaders are effective at working with people & create
social architects. Transformational leader create a vision that emerge from collective
interest of various individual & unite organization. Transformational leadership
results in people feeling better about themselves & their contribution to the greater


Criticisms of Transformational Leadership

The morality of transformational leadership has been questioned, especially by

libertarians and organizational development consultants (Griffin, 2003). A key
criticism is that within it transformational leadership has potential for the abuse of
power (Hall, Johnson, Wysocki&Kepner, 2002). Transformational leaders motivate
followers by appealing to strong emotions regardless of the ultimate effects on
followers and do not necessarily attend to positive moral values. As Stone, Russell
and Patterson (2003, p. 4) observe, transformational leaders can exert a very powerful
influence over followers, who offer them trust and respect. Some leaders may have
narcissistic tendencies, thriving on power and manipulation. Moreover, some
followers may have dependent characters and form strong and unfortunate bonds with
their leaders (Stone, Russell and Patterson, 2003, p. 4).
Further, as Bass (1997) notes, transformational leadership lacks the checks
and balances of countervailing interests, influences and power that might help to
avoid dictatorship and oppression of a minority by a majority. In the absence of moral
rectitude it is self-evident then that transformational leadership might be applied for
less-than-desirable social ends. Yukl (1989, p. 226) describes this as the dark side of
charisma and goes on to note (p. 227) that for every example of a positive
transformational leader demonstrating charismatic qualities (e.g., Mohandas
[Mahatma] Ghandi), there is an equally negative example (e.g., Charles Manson).
The Rev Jim Jones, who led the massive Jonestown suicide, is an example of a
transformational leader from the dark side (Southwest Educational Development
Laboratory, 2004). These criticisms about the morality of transformational leadership
have been addressed by the argument that to be truly transformational, leadership
must have moral foundations (Griffin, 2003). Thus: To bring about change, authentic
transformational leadership fosters the modal values of honesty, loyalty, and fairness,

as well as the end values of justice, equality, and human rights.(Griffin, 2003, p. 8.
Emphasis added).
Bass (1997) usefully summarizes some of the other criticisms of
transformational leadership. It lends itself to amoral self promotion by leaders since it
makes use of impression management. He suggests it is antithetical to organization
learning and development involving shared leadership, equality, consensus and
participative decision-making. It encourages followers to go beyond their own selfinterests for the good of the organization and may emotionally engage followers in
pursuit of evil ends. This point is supported by Carlson and Peewee (1995) who
remind us that an organizations culture socializes individuals into that culture. While
acceptable behavior might be supported in this way, so too might socially
unacceptable behavior. Finally, Bass notes that transformational leadership can see
followers manipulated in ways that may see them lose more than they gain.


Future direction:

The organization of the future is the knowledge organization composed of knowledge

The new leadership
Anew leadership encompasses connectedness and self organizing systems that
follow a natural order of both chaos and uncertainly , which is different from a
linear order in a hierarchy.
The leaders functions guide to an organization using vision , to make choice
based on mutual values and to engage in the culture to provide meaning and
coherence .
This type of leadership foster growth within the people both as individuals and as a
member of group. (Burns, 1978)- the effective leaders work from the inside out to
transform their organization and works


. Transformational Leadership begins with awareness awareness of our

ownthoughts and feelings, and how these affect your actions, and the states
ofothers.Through charisma, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation and
inspirational motivation, transformational leaders have great potential to promote
performance beyond expectations and to effect enormous changes within individuals
and organizations. It appears to a be a form of leadership well-suited to these current
times characterized by uncertainty, global turbulence and organizational instability.
The capacity for individual and organizational transformation must be accompanied
by moral responsibility, for transformational leaders shape powerful social and
institutional cultures which may either be liberating or oppressive.



Sources: Bass (1990a); Cox (2001); Epitropaki (undated); Hall, Johnson,

Wysocki&Kepner (2002); Lussier&Achua (2004); Stone, Russell &
Patterson (2003); Tichy&Devanna (1986); and University of Regina
1. Grant A.B,& Massy V.H.(1999), Nursing Leadership, Management &
2. Barker A.M.(1992) Transformational Nursing Leadership A Vision for
Future (p-42,43)
3. The Transformational leadership
5. Stone A.G.& Patterson K(August 2005), The History of Leadership

10. Skimming thought of seminar:

According to our curricula, individually we have to organized seminar. So I
organized seminar dated on 15/11/2012. This date is predetermined and at 10.30 am.
When I prepared lecture then I contacted my respected ajarnProf.Dr. Pronom .She
gave me advice how to conducted seminar. According to my ajarnsadvice , I gave
seminar equipment that is lecture, seminar schedule before seminar and I prepared
All participants and respected ajarn presented in due time. According to
seminar schedule, I started seminar at 10.30 am. And my discussing area is
transformational leadership theory. At first introductory discuss such as what is
seminar, transformational, leader, theory. Then I gradually discussed my main point
such as background, definition, elements, strategies and characteristics, process,
leadership behavior, strength and weakness, application of administration, who are
transformational leader and at last ending discussion. Our seminar has view, discussed
some problem with some students in front of ajarn/ teacher. All of participants
actively discussed about transformational theory and we decided the transformational
theory is the best leadership theory and we actively support Bass, 1988, Better
leaders are transformational more frequently...Because transformational leaders
follow democratic mission and vision. Transformational leadership is inspirational
leadership that promotes employee development, attends to need and motivates
followers, inspires through optimism, influence changes in perception, provides

intellectual stimulation. Transformational leader are developing and sharing an

inspiring vision of the organization future, behaving in ways that bring out the best in
individual and teams, showing genuine concerned and respect for others, continuously
investigating themselves and followers . And we discuss about some transformational
leader such as Mahatma Gandhi ( Father of Indian nation). Aun San SuuKyi, leader
of Myanmar who awarded noble prize for peace in 1991.Nelson Mendela, leader of
South Africa, who awarded noble prize for peace in1993.
At last, our chief guest, chief evaluator, honorable ajarn discussed various aspect
of seminar, advantage of seminar, and very much appreciate us to actively
participate the seminar.

Contents of transformational leadership

page no
1. Introduction 01
2. Background of transformational leadership02
3. Definition02
4. Components/Elements of transformational leadership03
a. Charisma/Idealized influence04
b. Inspirational motivation05
c. Intellectual stimulation05
d. Individualized consideration/Individualized attention05
5. Dimension of transformational leadership06
6. Transformational leadership strategies & characteristics07
7. Transformational leadership process08
a. Required ethical element 08
b. Characteristic09
c. Behavior09
d. Outcome09
i. Individualized organizational ethics10
8. Principles of transformational leadership10
a. Simplification10
b. Motivation10
i. Determination11
c. Mobilization11
d. Preparation11
e. Facilitation12
f. Innovation12
9. Key action of successful leadership12
a. Model the way12
b. Challenge the process13
c. Inspired a shared vision13
d. Enable others to acts 13
e. Encourage the hart13

10. Implication of transformational leadership13

11. Strength & weakness of transformational leadership14
a. Strength14
b. Weakness14
12. Application of administration15
13. Criticism of transformational theory16
14. Future of transformational theory17
15. Skimming thought of seminar
16. Conclusion 19
17. Reference2o

Leadership Theories: Transformational Leadership Theory

Subject: Leadership & Management in Nursing

Submitted by-

Respected Ajarn
Professor Dr.PranomOrthaganont
Submitted to

ID No- 55910278

Faculty of Nursing, Burapha