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Main Tools for Radio Network

Optimization GSM
Statistic Handling Tool
OSS Recording Tool
Cell Data Design Tools
Field Measurement

NWS (C); SPOS&Turle, Statics (I)


PMR, RNO package (C)
CNA (C); IPOS, BSSTool (I)
TEMS only!!!

Field Measurement Analysis TEMS, MapInfo (C); MCOM (I)


Cell Planning Tool

TEMS Cellplanner (C); MCOM (I)

Radio Network Growth Flow

Where does TEMS


INVESTIGATION fit in

Design & Rollout

Operation & Improvement

Model Tuning

Traditional Optimization

Network Integration Test

Network Feature Optimization

Initial Tuning
GPRS Performance
Verification
Training

Verification of Network Changes

DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE


Network Integration Test
When a site is integrated to BSC it is tested
Call set up test
Timeslot test, forced call test

* TEMS Pocket is the preferred tool for Network Integration Test

DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE


Initial Tuning
Produce Coverage Plot
Identify Coverage Holes
Identify Interference Area
Optimize Neighbor Relations
Find Hardware/Installation Problems
Verify Parameter Setting

DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE


GPRS Performance Verification
Application Performance Test
WWW, FTP, WAP etc.
Mobility Test
Cell Reselection, RA Update

OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT


PHASE
Traditional Optimization
Investigate & Trouble-shooting Specific Areas
Neighbor Relation Optimization
Coverage Issues

OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT


PHASE
Network Feature Optimization

Parameter Settings:
MS, BTS Power Control
HCS
Idle Mode Behavior
Locating Algorithm
Frequency Hopping
Intra-cell Handover

OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT


PHASE
Verification of Network Changes
Did a certain change in the network give desired results?
New coverage area?
Less interference?
Better speech quality?
Is handover possible?

TEMS Measurement & Analyzing


Process
Preparations

Collect Data

Analyze

Report

Clear objective

Check equipment

Save logfile

Why should this


measurement be
done

Get input files

Take notes

Find problem
areas

Give answer
to objective

Prepare route

Monitor

Find solutions

External Antenna?
Changes in
Network

What should be
changed?

Measurement Will Depend on


Objective
?

Preparations

Clear objective

Check equipment

Why should this


measurement be
done

Get input files


Prepare route
External antenna?

Possible Objectives
Coverage analysis
Trouble shooting
Scanning
Verify network changes

Performing Measurements with


Drive Test
TEMS
Large areas
Specific areas
Walk Test
Scanning

Drive Test
- Large area
INPUT
INPUT
Acceptance
New sites on air
Frequency Re-plan
BSC Re-homing

MEASUREMENT
Drive defined
route/area
Record Logfile
Long / Short calls
Assure no data loss

OUTPUT
Plots & Report
- Signal Strength
- Quality
Trouble Report /
Area for further
investigation

Drive Test
- Specific area
INPUT

Measurement

OUTPUT

Statistics

Manipulate

Trouble Report

Customer complain

- Forced handover

- Identified problem

Large area drive test


Trouble Report

- Lock on to Frequency

- Solution

- Layer 3 messages
Analysis on-spot
Rectify & Verify on-spot

Walk Test
INPUT

Measurement

OUTPUT

Statistics

Add file marks (GPS)

Trouble Report

Customer complain

Scanning

Planning Report

Micro cell planning

- Antenna location

Indoor cell planning

- Frequency
- HCS setting

* TEMS Light is the preferred tool for indoor cell planning

Scanning
INPUT

Measurement

Finding a new
frequency

TEMS INV in
scanning mode

Area Network

Set ARFCN to scan

Scanning

OUTPUT
Received SS on
different ARFCN
plot
New frequency

Analyzing Measurements

Post-Processing TEMS Logfiles


Geographical
Presentation

TEMS
Logfiles

Statistics
Report

Analysis

Problem Cases
Low Signal Strength
Interference
Handover
Call Setup Failure
Dropped Call
Misc.

Signal Strength Case


INPUT

TEMS
Logfiles

Large area DT

Post-Processing

Specific area DT

Analysis

Identify areas with low signal strength e.g. SS < -100dBm (outdoor)
Look at RxLev distribution (for acceptance)
Compare with design level or new requirements

Signal Strength Case


Possible Reasons
Shadowed Antenna
Antenna Direction
Antenna Height / down tilt
Output Power
Missing Neighbor Relation
Site Location
Faulty Hardware e.g. antenna & TMA
Cell is down

Signal Strength Case


Analysis
Shadowed Antenna

Output Power

Faulty Hardware

Visit site

Check output power

Check antenna installation

Parameters

Check alarm & BTS Error


log

Is there a better antenna


position at same site?

BSPWRT - NON BCCH FREQ

Visit site

Height/down Tilt

BSPWRB - BCCH FREQ

Missing Neighbor

Site Location

Add reduce down tilt?

Is the call dragged?

Possible to move site?

Can antenna be placed


lower or higher to give
better coverage?

Is low SS due to missing


neighbor relations

New antenna location at


same site? Is it necessary to
expand and build a new
site?

Signal Strength Case


Possible Solutions
Change parameter BSPWR , BSPWRT.
Add neighbor relation.
Physical changes:
Antenna direction
Antenna height, tilt or position
New site as last option.

Interference Case
TEMS
Logfiles

INPUT
Large area DT

Post-Processing

Specific area DT

Analysis

Identify areas with Rxqual > 5


Identify source using Map and STS
New drive test around problem area?

Interference Case
Logfile analysis
From logfile & map:
What channel group suffer from interference? HOP or Non HOP?
Check Current channel information in TEMS INV, hopping
channel and hopping frequency.
Where does the interference come from? Cell name?
Study map and logfile, look for co-channel or adjacent channel
interference.
Does the interference lead to lower SQI?
Look at SQI measurement during high RxQual.
Use STS & RNO to assist analysis.

Types of Interference
Co - Channel interference
Adjacent Interference
CASE 1

BCCH 600
BCCH 595

CASE 2

High site

BCCH 590
BCCH 590
BCCH 590
BCCH 590

Interference Case
Possible Reasons
Poor frequency plan
No dominant cell --> low C/I ---> increased Rxqual
Frequency Hopping is off
External interference e.g. jammer
Example of high Rxqual
due to low Signal Strength

Interference Case
Possible solutions
Enable Frequency Hopping or add frequencies to
Hopping group.
Enable BTS Power Control, MS power control and
make it less aggressive.
Change frequency of interferer or interfered cell:
Possible to find new frequency by using TEMS
Scanning.

Down tilt or change antenna of interferer.

Handover Case
INPUT
Large area DT

Post-Processing

Specific area DT

Analysis

Look for:

Repeated handover (Ping Pong)


Repeated Intra-cell handover
Handover failure,
Unrealistic handover

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


- Examples

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


- Possible Reason 1

Merry-go-round Handover, Offset >


Hysterisis

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


- Possible Reason 2
Offset only in one direction e.g A-B for Inter
BSC relation
BSC 1

BSC

CELL A

A -> B OFFSET = -5dB

BSC

BSC 2

CELL B

No B -> A OFFSET

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


Other Possible Reasons

No dominant Server

No dominant server
Locating penalty settings
e.g. PSSBQ, PTIMBQ
Too small hysterisis
setting

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


Possible Solutions
Antenna direction
Antenna Tilts
Plan for new site
Change Locating Parameter e.g.
KHYST or LHYST

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


Possible Solution
Change Parameter, KHYST or LHYST

Hysterisis

CELL A

CELL B
Handover
From A to B

Handover Case
Handover Reversion

Check layer 3 message


Handover command BSC correct?
Check reason for handover SS, RXQUAL
Target cell?

Handover Reversion
Common Reason
Duplicates of BSIC BCCH combinations in neighboring list

BSC

Handover command?
610_12

606_33
610_31

610_31

Serving cell

Neighbor cell 2

Neighbor cell 1
608_32
608_32

Road

Handover Reversion
Other Reasons
Uplink interference in target cell
Downlink interference at MS
Solutions
Interference Investigation
MRR
Statistics
Scanning

Handover Case
Repeated Intra-cell Handover
Possible Reasons
Wrong intra-cell handover settings
External Uplink Interference
Possible Solutions
Consider to change parameters:
SSOFFSETUL, SSOFFSETDL
QOFFSETUL, QOFFSETDL
A wrong setting of parameters will cause unnecessary IHO
Turn off Intra-cell Handover?

Handover Case
Unrealistic Handover

Unrealistic Handover
Reason & Solution
Possible Reasons
Wrong locating settings, in Serving or Target cell
Note: Could be on purpose e.g. Dual Band network with HCS

Solution
Fix locating settings e.g. MSRXSUFF, BSRXSUFF

Call Setup Failure

Call Setup Failure


Input Activities, Initial Tuning
Activities
Initial Tuning
(Acceptance Test)

Troubleshooting
(Customer
complaint etc.)

Measurement Type
Large Area Drive Test
Short Call Sequences

Post-Processing Output
Statistics Report
Geographical Report
showing failure positions

Call Setup Failure


Input Activities, Troubleshooting
Input Activities
Measurement Type
Initial Tuning
(Acceptance Test)

Troubleshooting
(Customer
complaint etc.)

Small Area Drive Test


Lock on problem cells BCCH
Force handover to the cell

Post-Processing Output
Geographical Report (if
necessary)

Call Setup Failure Analysis


- Initial Tuning Scenario
Check the TEMS statistics report (Blocked Call)
if there is Call Setup Failure.
If yes, identify the problem cells and which
logfile from geographical report.
Replay the logfile and jump to the Blocked Call
event.
Check if there is any successful call setup to the
problem cell.

Call Setup Failure Analysis


- Initial Tuning Scenario cont.
Review the layer 3 messages to check at which
sequence the failure occur (random access,
SDCCH, TCH assignment etc.).
Check STS report on the problem cell. Is there
any traffic (SDCCH & TCH) in the cell, SDCCH
& TCH seizures, congestion etc.
Check fault report & CDD configuration.

Call Setup Failure Analysis


- Troubleshooting Scenario
Before performing drive test, check STS report &
fault report.
If can not identify the problem, perform drive
test.
During measurement, lock the BCCH of the
problem cell.
Review the layer 3 messages to check at which
sequence the failure occur (random access,

Call Setup Failure Analysis


- Possible reasons with ranking

Low Signal Strength


Interference
High Congestion on SDCCH
High Congestion on TCH
Transmission Fault
Faulty TRU/Hardware
Central Processor Overload
Software File Congestion

Call Setup Failure Analysis


- Possible solutions
Low signal strength Signal strength analysis.
Interference Interference analysis.
High Congestion on SDCCH:
Define more SDCCHs.
Activate adaptive configuration of logical channel
feature and immediate assignment to TCH.

High Congestion on TCH:


Add capacity/Tune coverage array.
Activate assignment to worse cell.

Failed Call Setup (Blocked Call)


Example
Multiple Channel Requests.
Successful Random Access after the
third try.
Congestion in SDCCH.

Dropped Call Case


- Input
Statistics Report
Note from drive test.

Dropped Call Case


- Analysis
From plot, identify which & where in logfile
the dropped call occurs.
In the log file, Jump the drop call event.
Check if there is a disrupt in the recording. If
yes could be a false drop due to TEMS
mobile disconnection during recording!!!

Dropped Call Case


- Analysis (cont)
Check the Radio environment just before drop:
If High Rxqual for a longer period of time and
RLINKT expire Interference problem.
If Low SS DL, SSDL < MSSENS ( -104dBm) low
signal strength problem.
If TA > 63 too far from the cell.

If DL radio is good, check the TX power. If


there is MS power down regulation when the
MS is close to the cell. If full power suspect
uplink interference or antenna, TMA problem.

Miscellaneous Case 1
From TEMS Logfile
Good Signal strength DL, Good Rxqual DL
No call set up possible unless very close to site = high SS
Dropped call when SS < approx. -75dBm
Analysis
Since DL SS & Rxqual is good
Suspect UL problems e.g. external uplink interference
Conclusion
TMA power turned off

Miscellaneous Case 2
From TEMS Logfile
TCH has lower Signal strength than BCCH (Own BCCH included in
BA-list)
BTS power control = OFF
Conclusion
Antenna cable for TCH is swapped between sectors (CDU-A)
SEKTOR C

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH
SDCCH\8

TCH
TCH

CHG0

BCCH

CHG1

TCH

Configuration/cell

SEKTOR A

SEKTOR B

Miscellaneous Case 3
From TEMS Logfile
Fail to perform Call Setup
Analysis
Check if any success call setup to the same cell No
Check if handover is possible Yes
Suspected wrong cell definition in MSC but Cell is properly
defined in MCS and LA
Conclusion

Corrupted block in MSC

GPRS Verification &


Optimization
with TEMS Investigation

GPRS Measurement Activities


GPRS Performance Prediction
GPRS Field Measurement

GPRS Performance Prediction


- Overview

GPRS RNAP Service uses TEMS Inv to predict


following performance:
Throughput
Cell Reselection & Routing Area Update

GPRS Throughput Prediction


Perform Throughput prediction for each
coding scheme

Cell Reselection Prediction


Dedicated mode drive
test

HO types
LA HO
(10)
HO int.
(220)
LA HO at BQ (1)
HO int. at BQ (11)
BSC3 serving
Other BSC

Cell Reselection Prediction

BCCH Scanning
Simulate the cell update with different CRH
values
CRH = 4 dB

CRH = 8 dB

CRH
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14

# HO
365
246
211
178
156
147
138
130

GPRS Field Measurement


- Procedure

Preparations

Excel

Set up files
Cell definitions
TEMS,
IP Sniffers

GIMS

Mapinfo
Charts / Tables

Dig maps

Graphical
presentation of route
Report

GPRS Field Measurement


- Type of Measurements
Application Performance Test

Ping
WWW
FTP
WAP

Mobility Performance Investigation


Cell Reselection
RA Update

GPRS Field Measurement


- Application Performance Test
Attached performance
Attached Time = Attach Complete msg Attach
Request msg
Attach Success Rate

PDP context activation performance


PDP context activation = Activate PDP Context
Accept msg Activate PDP context request

Throughput on RLC level

GPRS Application Test Tools


General
Windump, Commview, Ethereal, Protocol Analyser
for Gb

PING
MS DOS ping command

WWW
IE, Netscape

FTP
DOS FTP, WS_FTP, TEMS built in sequence

GPRS Field Measurement


- Mobility Performance
Investigation
Number of Cell Reselection & RA Update
TCP Outage Time
Cell Reselection Failure

Mobility test CRH = 4, CRO = 4

Cell Reselection. Sample Report


Routing Area

Time

Cell

Reselection
time
2s
2s
21 s

Result

Comments

D0241A
D0241B
D0242A

Target
Cell
D0241C
D0242A
D0248C

BSC1
BSC1
BSC1

16:30:42
16:33:18
16:35:04

OK
OK
OK

16:37:44

D0244B

D0248C

--

NA

16:38:11

D0248C

D0244B

--

Failed

NA
NA
This cell reselection was
made to a cell located quite
far away (not the closest),
thus the RxLev was quite
bad!
No throughput before or
after the cell reselection.
This is due to that the cell
DF0242B were halted by
some reason!
The through put was never
resumed and the FTP
connection was aborted by
the ftp-server!

BSC1

BSC1