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Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Conics Sections

(Hyperbola and Eccentricity) Mathematics 54–Elementary Analysis 2

Institute of Mathematics University of the Philippines-Diliman Hyperbola

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

A hyperbola is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two ﬁxed points (focuses/foci) have a constant difference. Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola Foci : F 1 = (c, 0) and F 2 = (c, 0)

Vertices : V 1 = (a, 0) and V 2 = (a, 0)

From the above ﬁgure and from the deﬁnition of the hyperbola we have

(x+c) 2 +y 2 (xc) 2 +y 2 = constant2a

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Simplifying, we get

x 2 a 2

y 2

2 = 1

c 2 a Since c > a , we can let b 2 = c 2 a 2 . Thus, obtaining

x 2

a 2 y 2

b 2 = 1

The rectangle formed above is called the auxiliary rectangle of the hyperbola.

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Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

If we solve for y in terms of x we get

y

= ± x 2 b 2 b 2

2

a

Consider the lines y = a x and y = − a x. It is easy to show that:

b

b

lim

x→+∞

lim

x→−∞

± x 2 b 2

a 2

b 2 ±

a 2

b 2

± x 2 b 2

b

a

b

a

x   = 0

x   = 0 b

These tell us that the lines y = ± a x are asymptotes of the given hyperbola.

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, a hyperbola centered at the origin has form:

x 2

a 2 y 2

b 2 = 1 Foci: (c,0), (-c,0)

Vertices: (horizontal transverse axis)

(a, 0), (a, 0)

y 2

a 2 x 2

b 2 = 1 Foci: (0,c), (0,-c)

Vertices: (vertical transverse axis)

(0, a), (0, a)

Note:

In either case, a 2 +b 2 = c 2

Hyperbola

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Example

Sketch the graph of x 2 y 2 = 4. Identify the foci.

Solution. The equation can be written as

x 2

2

2

y 2 2 = 1.

2

Hence, a = 2, b = 2, and transverse axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V 1 (2, 0), V 2 (2, 0)

draw the auxiliary rectangle

draw the asymptotes

c 2 = a 2 +b 2 = 2 2 +2 2 = 8= (2 2) 2

foci : F 1 (2 2, 0), F 2 (2 2, 0) Hyperbola

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Example

Sketch the graph of 9y 2 4x 2 = 144. Identify the foci.

Solution. The equation can be written as y 2

4

2 x 2

6 2 = 1.

Hence, a = 4, b = 6, and transverse axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V 1 (0, 4), V 2 (0, 4)

draw the auxiliary rectangle

draw the asymptotes

c 2 = a 2 +b 2 = 4 2 +6 2 = 52= (2 13) 2

foci : F 1 (0, 2 13), F 2 (0, 2 13) Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, a hyperbola cenered at (h, k) has the form:

(xh) 2 (y k) 2

2

a

b 2

= 1 Vertices Transverse Axis (h ± a, k) horizontal

(y k) 2 (xh) 2

2

a

2

b

= 1 Vertices Transverse Axis (h, k ± a) vertical

Note:

a 2 +b 2 = c 2 and the asymptotes are shifted as well.

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Example

Find the equations of the hyperbola centered at (1, 3) having its foci at (1, 5) and (1, 1) and its vertices at (1, 2) and (1, 4) and its asymptotes.

Solution:

Since the center is at (1, 3), then h = 1 and k = −3, So we have

3 + b = −2

and

3 b = −4

Thus, b = 1. Also,

3+ a 2 +b 2 = −1

Hence, a = 3.

and

3 a 2 +b 2 = −5

Therefore, the hyperbola has the equation

(y + 3) 2 (x 1)

2

1

2

(

3)

2

= 1.

Moreover, its asymptotes are

1

y (3) = ± 3 (x 1)

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1).

Solution:

Half-way between the vertices (or foci) is the center, i.e., 2 3 ,1 .

a is the distance from the center to a vertex. i.e., a = 3

2 .

Also, c is the distance from the center to a focus. i.e., c = 5

2 .

Since, a 2 +b 2 = c 2 =⇒ b 2 = 25

4

4 = 16

9

4

= 4.

Since the transverse axis is horizontal, the equation is

2 2

4 x3 (y 1) 2

9

4

= 1.

Hyperbola

Exercises

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

1 Identify the following conic sections.

a. 2x 2 3y 2 +4x+6y 1 = 0

b. 2x 2 +3y 2 + 16x 18y 53 = 0

c. 9x + y 2 +4y 5 = 0

d. 4x 2 x = y 2 +1

e.

7y y 2 x = 0

2 Sketch the graph of the following hyperbolas:

a. x 2 16y 2 = 4

b. 4y 2 (x + 3) 2 = 16

c. (x 1) 2 + 36y 2 = 9

d. x 2 y 2 +6x4y = 4

3 Determine the equation of the hyperbola having (±2, 1) as its foci and has a conjugate axis of length 3.

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

For the parabola, we deﬁne the eccentricity e to be e = 1.

For the ellipse and hyperbola, we deﬁne eccentricity to be

Hence, we have

e =

distance between vertices = 2a = a c

distance between foci

2c

 0 < e < 1 ellipse e = 1 parabola e > 1 hyperbola

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Consider the ellipse x 2

a 2 + y 2

b 2 = 1.

Exercises The lines parallel to the minor axis of this ellipse of distance a = a 2

e

c

to the

right and to the left, from the center, are the directrices of this ellipse.

Let D 1 be the directrix nearest the focus F 1 and let D 2 be the directrix nearest the focus F 2 . This pairing will be referred to as the focus-directrix pairing.

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Focus-Directrix Equation

Let P(x, y) be a point on the ellipse, and F 2 (c, 0) be a focus.

PF 2

=

=

=

=

(x+c) 2 +y 2 = (x + ae) 2 +b 2

b 2 a 2 x 2

a 2 x 2 +2a 3 ex + a 4 e 2 +a 2 b 2 b 2 x 2

a 2

c 2 x 2 +2a 3 ex + a 4 e 2 +a 2 b 2

a 2

a 2 e 2 x 2 +2a 3 ex + a 4 e 2 +a 2 b 2

a 2

= e 2 x 2 + 2aex + a 2 e 2 +b 2

= e 2 x 2 + 2aex + c 2 +b 2

= e 2 x 2 + 2aex + a 2

=

e x 2 +2 a x+ a 2 = e x a 2 = e x a = e · PD 2

e

e

e

e

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Focus-Directrix Equation

 Thus, if P is a point on the ellipse then PF 1 PF 2 = e = e PD 1 PD 2 Remember: 0 < e < 1

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Focus-Directrix Equation

Consider the hyperbola (xh) 2

2

a

(y k) 2

2

b

= 1.

The lines perpendicular to the transverse axis of the hyperbola of distance

= a 2 to the right and to the left of the center are the directrices of this hyperbola.

a

e

c

Let D 1 be the directrix nearest the focus F 1 and let D 2 be the directrix nearest the focus F 2 . This pairing will be referred to as the focus-directrix pairing.

Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Focus-Directrix Equation

Similarly, if P is a point on the hyperbola,then

 PF 1 PF 2 = e = e PD 1 PD 2 Hyperbola

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Focus-Directrix Equation

Hence, for any focus-directrix pair in a parabola, ellipse, or hyperbola, we have the following equation

PF PD = e

⇐⇒

PF = e · PD

Either of this equation is referred to as the focus-directrix equation.

Hyperbola

Exercises

Eccentricity

Focus-Directrix Equation

Exercises

Determine the eccentricity of the following conic sections.

1 2x 2 3y 2 + 4x + 6y 1 = 0.

2 2x 2 +3y 2 + 16x 18y 53 = 0.

3 9x+y 2 + 4y 5 = 0.

4 4x 2 x = y 2 + 1.

5 7y y 2 x = 0.

6 y 2 4x 2 + 4x = 2.