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VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE

Vignan Hills, Deshmukhi, Pochampalli (M), Nalgonda (DT), Telangana - 508284

(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad)


2015-2016

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


A
INDUSTRY ORIENTED MAIN PROJECT REPORT
ON
SOIL STABILIZATION USING FLY ASH
Project work submitted in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the award of the degree
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
BY
K.VINOD REDDY : (H.NO: 12891A0122)
M.HARSHITH SAI : (H.NO: 12891A0129)
N.RAVI TEJA

: (H.NO: 12891A0139)

Under the Guidance of


Mr. B.RAM MOHAN REDDY
(Assistant Professor)

C E R T I F I C AT E
This is to certify that it is the bonafied main project of SOIL STABILIZATION USING
FLY

ASH

prepared

by

K.VINODREDDY

(12891A0122),

M.HARSHITH

SAI

(12891A0129), N.RAVI TEJA (12891A0139), Final year B.tech.(Civil) Student of this


institution during the academic year 2015-2016.
This main project work is partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of B.tech in
CIVIL ENGINEERING by the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, T.S,
India.

Project Guide
Mr. B.RAM MOHAN REDDY
(Assistant Professor)

Head of the Department


Mr. G.NARENDAR
(Senior Assistant Professor)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our sincere thanks and profound gratitude to Mr. B. RAM MOHAN REDDY,
for his valuable guidance, bestowed on us completing this project successfully SOIL
STABILIZATION USING FLY ASH. We wish to regard our deep sense of gratitude for his
enthusiastic guidance and valuable assistance.
Our special thanks to Dr. C. SRINIVAS KUMAR (principal), G. NARENDER (Assistant
Professor) Head of the Department for their encouragement and full support to us by providing
the required equipments and lab facilities.
We thank Civil Engineering Department teaching & Non-teaching staff for their cooperation extended to us in successful completion of our main project work.
We further thank one and all who have directly or indirectly helped us in completing this work.

K.VINOD REDDY(12891A0122)
M.HARSHITH SAI(12891A0129)
N.RAVI TEJA(12891A0139)

DECLARATION
We hereby declare our sincerity in doing this project titled SOIL STABILIZATION
USING FLY ASH, Hyderabad.
The results embodied in this have not copied from anywhere else and have not been
submitted to any other University / Institution for the award of degree.

K.VINOD REDDY(12891A0122)
M.HARSHITH SAI(12891A0129)
N.RAVI TEJA(12891A0139)

CONTENTS
DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO.

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

iii

LIST OF GRAPHS

iv

KEY WORDS

ABSTRACT

ix

CHAPTER 1: SOILS
1.1: INTRODUCTION

1.2: SOIL FORMATION

1.3: STRUCTURE OF SOILS

1.3.1: SINGLE GRAINED STRUCTURE

1.3.2: HONEY COMB STRUCTURE

1.3.3: FLOCCULENT STRUCTURE

1.4: SOIL CLASSIFICATION AGENCIES INVOLVED

1.5: MAJOR SOIL TYPES IN INDIA

1.5.1: ALLUVIAL SOIL

1.5.2: RED SOIL

1.5.3: BLACK SOIL / REGUR SOIL

1.5.4: LATERITE SOIL

1.5.5: DESERT / ARID SOIL

1.5.6: PEATY / MARSHY SOIL

1.5.7: FOREST SOIL

1.5.8: MOUNTAIN SOIL

1.5.9: SALINE AND ALKALINE SOILS

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1: GENERAL

2.2: EARLY HISTORY

CHAPTER 3: FLY ASH


3.1: GENERAL

11

3.2: COMPOSITION OF FLY ASH

12

3.3: SOURCES OF FLY ASH

12

3.4: ORIGIN

13

3.5: AMOUNT OF FLY ASH GENERATED IN INDIA

14

3.6: PRESENT UTILIZATION OF FLY ASH IN INDIA

14

3.7: CLASSES OF FLY ASH

15

3.7.1: Class C

15

3.7.2: Class F

15

3.7.3: Class N

15

3.8: DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASS C AND CLASS

15

3.9: FLY ASH USAGE IN SOIL

16

CHAPTER 4: SOIL STABILIZATION


4.1: INTRODUCTION

17

4.2: GENERAL INFORMATION

18

4.3: SOIL STABILIZATION PROCESS

19

4.4: SOIL STABILIZER

20

4.4.1: FLY ASH

21

4.4.2: CEMENT

21

4.4.3: LIME

22

4.4.4: BITUMEN

23

4.5: DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL STABILIZATION

23

4.5.1: MECHANICAL STABILIZATION

23

4.5.2: SOIL STABILIZATION WITH CEMENT

23

4.5.3: SOIL STABILIZATION USING LIME

24

4.5.4: SOIL STABILIZATION WITH BITUMEN

24

4.5.5: CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SOIL

25

4.5.6: ELECTRICAL STABILIZATION OF SOILS

26

4.5.7: SOIL STABILIZATION BY GROUTING

26

4.5.8: SOIL STABILIZATION BY GEOTEXTILES AND FABRICS

26

4.5.9: OTHER NEW METHODS


4.6: TYPES OF EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR STABILIZING SOILS

26
27

CHAPTER 5: STABILIZATION OF SOILS USING FLY ASH


5.1: INTRODUCTION

29

5.2: FLY ASH FOR SOIL STABILIZATION

29

5.3: MIX DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

30

5.3.1: SELF CEMENTING FLY ASH

30

5.3.2: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

31

5.3.3: MIX DESIGN

31

5.3.4: NON SELF CEMENTING FLY ASH

32

5.3.5: SELECTION OF OPTIMAL FLY ASH CONTENT

32

CHAPTER 6: EXPERIMENTS
6.1: DATA ANALYSIS

34

6.2: PROPERTIES OF THE MATERIAL

34

6.2.1: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH

34

6.2.2: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

34

6.2.3: PROPERTIES OF SOIL USED

34

6.3: LABORATORY TESTS


6.3.1: ATTERBERG LIMITS

35
35

6.3.2: PERMEABILITY TEST

36

6.3.3: COMPACTION OF SOIL FLY ASH MIXTURES

37

6.3.4: DIECT SHEAR TEST

39

6.3.6: CBR TEST

40

CHAPTER 7: EXPERIMENT RESULTS


7.1: ATTERBERG LIMITS

43

7.1.1: LIQUID LIMIT TEST

43

7.1.2: PLASTIC LIMIT TEST

44

7.2: PERMEABILITY TEST

45

7.3: STANDARD PROCTOR TEST

45

7.4: DIRECT SHEAR

47

7.5: CBR TEST

48

CHAPTER 8: SCOPE AND CONCLUSION


8.1: USES OF STABILIZATION

50

8.1.1: QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

50

8.1.2: THICKNESS REDUCTION

50

8.2: SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

50

8.3: CONCLUSIONS

51

CHAPTER-9: REFERENCES

53

LIST OF FIGURES
DESCRIPTION

PAGE. NO.

Figure 1.1: Soils in India

Figure 1.2: Alluvial soil

Figure.1.3: Red soil

Figure.1.4: Black cotton soil

Figure.1.5: Laterite soil

Figure.1.6: Desert soil

Figure.1.7: Peaty/marshy soil

Figure.1.8: Saline/alkaline soil

Figure 3.1: Fly ash manufacturing plant

11

Figure 3.2: Fly ash: the modern pozzolana

12

Figure 3.3: Production of fly ash with electrostatic precipitator

13

Figure 4.1: Soil stabilization using fly ash

17

Figure 4.2: Excavation of surface soil

19

Figure 4.3: Soil stabilizing machine

20

Figure 4.4: A road reclaimer mixes soil with moist conditioned fly ash

21

Figure 4.5: Addition of chemical to the soil

25

Figure 4.6: Soil mixing with fly ash

27

Figure.4.7: WIRTGEN WR 240I recycler/stabilizer

27

Figure.4.8: CATERPILLAR RM300 Pulverizer

28

Figure.4.9: CATERPILLAR SS250B Soil Stabilizer

28

Figure 5.1: Mixing of fly ash with soil

32

Figure 6.1: Casagrandes liquid limit apparatus

36

Figure 6.2: Compaction of fly ash stabilized soil for construction

37

Figure 6.3: Sample preparation for standard compaction test

38

Figure 6.4: Direct shear test

40

Figure 6.5: CBR Test apparatus

41

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LIST OF TABLES
DESCRIPTION

PAGE. NO.

Table 3.1: Coal v/s fly ash utilization

14

Table.6.1: Standard loads of CBR

42

Table.7.1: Liquid limit of normal soil

43

Table.7.2: Liquid limit of soil+10% fly ash

44

Table.7.3: Liquid limit of soil+20% fly ash

44

Table.7.4: Plastic limit of soil- fly ash mix

44

Table.7.5: Atterbergs limits of soil fly ash mixtures

45

Table.7.6: Permeability test results

45

Table.7.7: Dry density of normal soil

45

Table.7.8: Dry density of soil+10% fly ash

46

Table.7.9: Dry density of soil+20% fly ash

46

Table.7.10: Optimum moisture content and dry density

46

Table.7.11: Shear strength of normal soil

47

Table.7.12: Shear strength of soil+10% fly ash

47

Table.7.13: Shear strength of soil+20% fly ash

47

Table.7.14: CBR values for normal soil

48

Table.7.15: CBR values for soil+10% fly ash

48

Table.7.16: CBR values for soil+20% fly ash

49

iii

LIST OF GRAPHS
DESCRIPTION

PAGE. NO.

Graph 3.1: Coal ash production

14

iv

KEY WORDS
Feldspars1: A group of minerals that have similar characteristics due to a similar structure. All
feldspars have low symmetry, being only monoclinic.
Amphiboles2: A group of widely distributed rock-forming crystals consisting of oxysilicate
compounds of magnesium, iron, less often aluminum, and alkalies.
Pyroxenes3: Very common group of minerals of many varieties, silicates of magnesium, iron,
calcium, and other elements, occurring as important constituents of many kinds of rocks,
especially basic igneous rocks.
Crystalline4: Solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are
arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure .
Gneis5: A metamorphic rock form characterized by banding caused by segregation of different
types of rock, typically light and dark silicates
Quartzitic6: Mineral related to quartzite
Felspathic7: Relating to, or containing feldspar
Pedologist8: Scientists or science that deals with the study of soils.
Titaniferous magnetite9: Mineral rich in titanium found in black soils
Retentivity10: Power to retain; retentiveness
Lateritics11: Form of laterite a reddish ferruginous soil formed in tropical regions by the
decomposition of the underlying rocks.
Podzols12: Soils with an ash-grey subsurface horizon, bleached by organic acids, on top of a
dark accumulation horizon with brown or black humus
Blending13: To mix smoothly and inseparably together
Valencies14: Quality that determines the number of atoms or groups with which any single atom
or group will unite chemically
Texture15: Visual and especially tactile quality of a surface
Cementitious16: Having the properties of a cement
Anthracite17: Mineral coal containing little of the volatile hydrocarbons and burning almost
without flame; hard coal.
Lignite18: Lignite, often referred to as brown coal,is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock
formed from naturally compressed peat
v

Puzzolans19: A type of volcanic ash used for mortar or for cement which sets under water
Oedometer20: A kind of test for geotechnical investigation performed in geotechnical
engineering that measures a soil's consolidation properties
Flocculation21: A process where a solute comes out of solution in the form of floc or flakes
Heave22: An effort to raise something, as a weight, or one's self, or to move something heavy
Incinerator23: Furnace or apparatus for burning trash, garbage, etc., to ashes.
Arsenic24: A notoriously poisonous mettaloid which comes in many allotropic forms
Antimony25: Brittle, lustrous, white metallic element occurring in nature free or combined, used
chiefly in alloys and in compounds in medicine
Selenium26: Chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal
Stockpiling27: Process of supply of material, as a pile of gravel in road maintenance
Landfilling28: System of trash and garbage disposal in which the waste is buried between layers
of earth to build up low-lying land
Sluicing29: An artificial channel for conducting water, often fitted with a gate
ASTM C61830: Standard specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan
Susceptible31: Admitting or capable of some specified treatment
Liquefaction32: Phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses
strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress
Surfactants33: Large group of surface active substances with a great number of (cleaning)
applications
Biopolymers34: Polymers produced by living organisms
Synthetic polymer35: A type of polymer made by engineers and scientists from artificial
components rather than natural ones
Copolymer36: A chemical compound of high molecular weight produced by polymerizing two or
more different monomers together
Styrene37: Known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound
with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2

vi

Acrylic38: Chemical compounds that contain the acryloyl group derived from acrylic acid
Tree resin39: Any natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a non crystalline or
viscous liquid substance
Hydrophobic40: Effect that observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in aqueous
solution and exclude water molecules.
Inhibiting41: To restrain, hinder, arrest, or check
Glue42: A hard, impure
Encapsulation43: Inclusion of one thing within another thing so that the included thing is not
apparent
Capping44: The provision of a protective or obstructive covering
Blending45: To mix smoothly and inseparably together
Asphalt46: A mixture of bitumen with crushed stone gravel or sand
Gasoline47: Mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and used
as fuel
Emulsion48: Mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or un
blendable
Hygroscopy49: Ability of a substance to attract and hold water molecules from the surrounding
environment
Deliquescence50: Process by which a substance absorbs moisture from the atmosphere until it
dissolves in the absorbed water and forms a solution
Retentive51: Having the power, property, or capacity of retaining
Chlorosilanes52: Group of reactive, chlorine-containing chemical compounds, related to silane
and used in many chemical processes
Amine53: Class of compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen
atoms with organic groups
Quaternary ammonium54: Salts or quaternary ammonium compounds (called quaternary
amines in oilfield parlance) are salts of quaternary ammonium cations

vii

Sodium hexameta phosphate55: A sequestrant that binds with calcium ions


Geotextiles56: Permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to
separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain
Polyethylene57: Polymer of ethylene; especially: any of various partially crystalline lightweight
thermoplastics (CH2 CH2)x that are resistant to chemicals and moisture
Polyester58: Category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain
Nylon59: A thermoplastic, silky material
Polyvinyl chloride60: A thermoplastic and it soft when heated and hard when cooled. Polyvinyl
chloride is made by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride
Loss on ignition61: The percentage loss in weight of an ignited sample to constant weight at a
specified temperature, usually 900C 1,000C
ASTM D 5239-0462: Standard Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization
Densification63: A procees to impregnate (wood) with additives under heat and pressure in order
to achieve greater density and hardness
Permeameter64: A laboratory device for measurement of permeability of materials,

viii

ABSTRACT
Fly ash is an important industrial by-product that comes from the combustion of coal, for
the production of electrical energy. It is the residual remains after the combustion of coal which
is made up of very fine particles. In our country, only a small percentage is used for the
construction of technical projects, while the rest is stockpiled, causing serious problems. Because
of its great availability and its low cost, further possibility of its usage should be investigated. It
has various applications in the field of construction such as concrete production, in cement
clinkers, substitute material in brick manufacturing, mineral filler in bituminous concrete, etc.
One such application is soil stabilization for construction of buildings and roads. Fly ash mix can
be used for stabilizing of soil having poor compressive strength for construction. After it has
been added the reactions that take place between fly ash and water gives rise to cementitious
products which bonds the soil particles together.
From research, it has been found that stabilization with fly ash, improves the natural and
mechanical characteristics of soils (plasticity, compressive strength and particle size
distribution). In the present project soil is stabilized with different quantities of fly ash for the
creation of good strength bearing soil. This project presents the results of laboratory experiments
of fly-ash soil stabilization. Tests were conducted on soil and fly ash samples form electric power
plant. Effects of fly ash on physical and mechanical properties of soil ( Atterberg limits,
moisture-density relationship, shear strength, CBR) were evaluated. Test mixtures were prepared
at optimum water content from standard Proctor compaction test. Results of the project indicate
that fly ash can effectively improve some engineering properties of soil.

Ix