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VIDEO CODING

M. Ezhilarasan, P. Thambidurai

Department of Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology,

Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry 605 014, India

mrezhil@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A Video encoder performs video data compression by having combination of three

main modules such as Motion estimation and compensation, Transformation, and

Entropy encoding. Among these three modules, transformation is the module of

removing the spatial redundancy that exists in the spatial domain of video

sequence. Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) is the defacto transformation

method in existing image and video coding standards. Even though the DCT has

very good energy preserving and decorrelation properties, it suffers from blocking

artifacts. To overcome this problem, a hybridization method has been incorporated

in transformation module of video encoder. This paper presents an hybridization in

the transformation module by incorporating DCT as transformation technique for

inter frames and a combination of wavelet filters for intra frames of video

sequence. This proposal is also applied in the existing H.264/AVC standard.

Extensive experiments have been conducted with various standard CIF and QCIF

video sequences. The results show that the proposed hybrid transformation

technique outperforms the existing technique used in the H.264/AVC considerably.

Keywords: Data Compression, DCT, DWT, Video Coding, Transformation.

INTRODUCTION

important paradigm in image and video coding

standards, in which the Discrete Cosine Transform

(DCT) [1][2] is applied due to its high decorrelation

and energy compaction properties. In the past two

decades, more contributions focused on Discrete

Wavelet

Transform

(DWT)

[3][4]

for

its

performance in image coding. The two most popular

techniques such as DCT and DWT are well applied

on

image

and

video

coding

applications.

International

Organization

for

Standards

/

International

Electro

technical

Commission

(ISO/IEC) and International Telecommunications

Union Telecommunication standardization sector

(ITU-T) organizations have developed their own

video coding standards viz., Moving Picture Experts

Group MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 for multimedia

and H.261, H.263, H.263+, H.263++, H.26L for

videoconferencing applications. Recently, the MPEG

and the Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) have

jointly designed a new standard namely, H.264 /

MPEG-4 (Part-10) [5] for providing better

compression of video sequence. There has been a

tremendous contribution by researchers, experts of

various institutions and research laboratories for the

past two decades to take up the recent technology

requirements in the video coding standards.

Volume 3 Number 3

Page 89

captured as a sequence of frames. Each frame is

compressed by partitioning it as one or more slices,

where each slice consists of sequence of macro

blocks. These macro blocks are transformed,

quantized and encoded. The transformation module

converts the frame data from time domain to

frequency domain, which intends to decorrelate the

energy (i.e., amount of information present in the

frame) present in the spatial domain. It also converts

the energy components of the frame into small

numbers of transform coefficients, which are more

efficient for encoding rather than their original

frame. Since the transformation module is reversible

in nature, this process does not change the

information content present in the source input signal

during encoding and decoding process. By

information theory, transformed coefficients are

reversible in nature.

As per Human Visual System (HVS), human

eyes are highly sensitive on low frequency signals

than the high frequency signals. The decisive

objective is this paper is to develop a hybrid

technique that achieves higher performance in the

parameters specified above than the existing

technique used in the current advanced video coding

standard.

In this paper, a combination of orthogonal and

bi-orthogonal wavelet filters have been applied at

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DCT for inter frames of video encoder. Even though

intra frames are coded with wavelet transform, the

impact of this can be seen in inter frame coding.

With better quality anchor pictures are retained in

frame memory for prediction, the remaining inter

frame pictures are more efficiently coded with DCT.

The proposed transformation method is also

implemented on H.264/AVC reference software [7].

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the

basics of the transform coding methods are

highlighted. The proposed hybrid transformation

technique has been described in section 3. Extensive

experimental results and discussion have been given

in section 4 followed by conclusion in section 5.

2.1

The Discrete Cosine Transform, a widely used

transform coding technique in image and video

compression algorithms. It is able to perform decorrelation of the input signal in a data-independent

manner. When an image or a frame is transformed by

DCT, it is first divided into blocks, typically of size

of 8x8 pixels.

These pixels are transformed

separately without any influence from the other

surrounding blocks. The top left coefficient in each

block is called the DC coefficient, and is the average

value of the block. The right most coefficients in the

block are the ones with highest horizontal frequency,

while the coefficients at the bottom have the highest

vertical frequency. This implies that the coefficient

in the bottom right corner has the highest frequencies

of all the coefficients.

The forward DCT of a discrete signal for

original image f(i,j) for (MxN) block size and inverse

DCT (IDCT) of reconstructed image f- (i, j) for the

same (MxN) block size are defined as

basic functional modules are motion estimation and

compensation, transformation, quantization and

entropy encoder. As shown in the Fig. 1, the

temporal redundancies exists in successive frames

are minimized or reduced by motion estimation and

compensation module. The residue or the difference

between the original and motion compensated frame

is applied into the sequence of transformation and

quantization modules. The spatial redundancy exists

in neighboring pixels in the image or intra-frame is

minimized by these modules.

Basics of Transformation

coding of symbols in vectors is more efficient than

coding of symbols in scalars [8]. By using this

phenomenon, a group of blocks of consecutive

symbols from the source video input are taken as

vectors. There is high correlation in the neighboring

pixels in an image or intra-frame of video.

Transformation is a reversible model [9] by theory,

which decorrelates the symbols in the given blocks.

In the recent image and video coding standards the

following transformation techniques are applied due

to their

orthonormal

property

and energy

compactness.

F(u,v) =

f(i,j)

=

2C(u)C(v)

MN

M 1N 1

2C(u)C(v)

u 0 v 0

MN

(2i 1)u

cos

2M

cos

(2i 1)u

2M

cos

cos

(2 j 1)v

2N

f (i, j )

(2 j 1)v

F (u , v )

2N

(1)

(2)

constants C(u) and C(v) are obtained by

The transformation module converts the residue

symbols from time domain into frequency domain,

which intends decorrelate the energy present in the

spatial domain. This is so appropriate for

quantization. Quantized transform coefficients and

motion displacement vectors obtained from motion

estimation and compensation module are applied into

entropy encoding (Variable Length Coding) module,

where it removes the statistical redundancy. These

modules are briefly introduced as follows.

Volume 3 Number 3

M 1N 1

i 0 j 0

Page 90

C(x)

2

2

=1

if x = 0

otherwise

compression. The compression exploits spatial and

temporal redundancies which occur in video objects

or frames. Spatial redundancy can be utilized by

simply coding each frame separately. This technique

is referred to as intra frame coding. Additional

compression can be achieved by taking advantage of

the fact that consecutive frames are often almost

identical. This temporal compression has the

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each frame separately, but the effect is lessened by

the fact that video contains frequent scene changes.

This technique is referred to as inter-frame coding.

The DCT and motion compensated Inter-frame

prediction are combined. The coder subtracts the

motion-compensated prediction from the source

picture to form a prediction error picture. The

prediction error is transformed with the DCT, the

coefficients are quantized using scalar quantization

and these quantized values are coded using an

arithmetic coding. The coded luminance and

chrominance prediction error is combined with side

information required by the decoder, such as motion

vectors and synchronizing information, and formed

into a bit stream for transmission. This technique

works well with a stationary background and a

moving foreground since only the movement in the

foreground is coded.

Despite all the advantages of JPEG and MPEG

compression schemes based on DCT namely

simplicity, satisfactory performance, and availability

of special purpose hardware for implementation;

these are not without their shortcomings. Since the

input image needs to be blocked, correlation across

the block boundaries is not eliminated. The result is

noticeable and annoying blocking artifacts

particularly at low bit rates.

2.1.2 Discrete Wavelet Transform

Wavelets are functions defined over a finite

interval and having an average value of zero. The

basic idea of the wavelet transform is to represent

any arbitrary function as a superposition of a set of

such wavelets or basis functions.

These basis

functions or child wavelets are obtained from a

single prototype wavelet called the mother wavelet,

by dilations or scaling and translations. Wavelets are

used to characterize detail information.

The

averaging information is formally determined by a

kind of dual to the mother wavelet, called the scaling

function (t). The main concept of wavelets is that

at a particular level of resolution j, the set of

translates indexed by n form a basis at that level.

The set of translates forming the basis at the j+1 next

level, a coarser level, can all be written as a sum of

weights times the level-j basis. The scaling function

is chosen such that the coefficients of its translation

are all necessarily bounded.

The scaling function, along with its translation,

forms a basis at the coarser level j+1 but not level j.

Instead, at level j the set of translates of the scaling

function (t) along with the set of translates of the

translates of the scaling function (t) at a coarser

mother wavelet

translates at a finer level, the scaling function must

satisfy the dilation function

Volume 3 Number 3

Page 91

(t )

n)

(3)

n Z

that can be build from a sum of copies of itself that

are scaled, translated, and dilated. Equation (3)

expresses a condition that a function must satisfy to

be a scaling function and at the same time forms a

definition of the scaling vector h0. The wavelet at the

coarser level is also expressed as

\jf (t)

n)

(4)

n Z

describing the details using the wavelet function, can

be derived from the discrete low-pass impulse

response h0[n] using the following equation.

h1 [n] ( 1) n h0 [1 n]

(5)

The number of coefficients in the impulse

coefficients in the impulse response is called the

number of taps in the filter. For orthogonal filters,

the forward transform and its inverse are transposing

of each other, and the analysis filters are identical to

the synthesis filters.

2.2

Quantization

A Quantizer [10][11] simply reduces the number

of bits needed to store the transformed coefficients

by reducing the precision of those values. Since this

is a many to one mapping, it is a lossy process and is

the main source of compression in an encoder.

Quantization can be performed on each individual

coefficient, which is referred as scalar quantization.

Quantization can also be performed on a group of

coefficients together, and which is referred as vector

quantization.

Uniform quantization is a process of partitioning

the domain of input values into equally spaced

intervals, except outer intervals. The end points of

partition intervals are called the quantizer decision

boundaries. The output or reconstruction value

corresponding to each interval is taken to be the

midpoint of the interval. The length of each interval

is referred to as the step size (fixed in the case of

uniform quantization), denoted by the symbol .

The step size is given by

2 X max

M

(6)

maximum range of input symbols.

In this work, a quantizer used in H.264 has been

considered for inter-frame motion compensated

predictive coding, which allows acceptable loss in

quality for the given video sequences.

2.3

Motion Estimation

Motion estimation (ME) [12] is a process to

estimate the pixels of the current frame from

reference

frame(s).

Block

matching

motion

estimation or block matching algorithm (BMA),

which is temporal redundancy removal technique

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integral part for most of the motion compensated

video coding standards. Frames are being divided

into regular sized blocks, so referred as macro blocks

(MB). Block-matching method is to find the bestmatched block from the previous frame. Based on a

block distortion measure (BDM), the displacement of

the best-matched block will be described as the

motion vector (MV) to the block in the current frame.

The best match is usually evaluated by a cost

function based on a BDM such as Mean absolute

difference (MAD) defined as

1 M 1 N 1 | c( x

MN k 0 l 0

MAD(i, j)

k, y l)

p( x k

i, y l

j) |

(7)

where M x N is the size of the macro block, c(.,.) and

p(.,.) denote the pixel intensity in the current frame

and previously processed frames respectively, (k,l) is

the coordinates of the upper left corner of the current

block, and (x,y) represents the displacement in pixel

which is relative to the position of current block.

After checking each location in the search area, the

motion vector is then determined as the (x,y) at

which the MAD has the minimum value. In this wok,

an exhaustive full search has been applied for motion

compensated prediction technique.

2.4

Entropy Encoding

Based on scientist Claude E. Shannon [8], the

entropy 11 of an information source with alphabet S =

{s1, s2, , s3} is defined as

11

H (S )

pi log 2

pi

i 1

(8)

Where pi is the probability of symbol si in S. The

term log2 1 indicates the amount of information

pi

bits needed to encode si. An entropy encoder further

compresses the quantized values to give better

compression ratio. It uses a model to accurately

determine the probabilities for each quantized value

and produces an appropriate code based on these

probabilities so that the resultant output code stream

will be smaller than the input stream. The most

commonly used entropy encoders are the Huffman

encoder [13] and the arithmetic encoder [14]. It is

important to note that a properly designed entropy

encoder is absolutely necessary along with optimal

signal transformation to get the best possible

compression.

Arithmetic coding is a more modern coding

method that usually outperforms Huffman coding in

practice. In arithmetic coding, a message is

represented by an interval of real numbers between 0

and 1. As the message becomes longer, the interval

needed to represent it becomes smaller, and the

number of bits needed to specify that interval grows.

Successive symbols of the message reduce the size of

the interval in accordance with the symbol

probabilities generated by the model. The arithmetic

Volume 3 Number 3

Page 92

implementation. CAVLC used in H.264 has been

considered in the experiments for entropy encoding

process.

2.5

DCT is best transformation technique for Motion

estimation and compensated predictive coding

models.

Due to blocking artifacts problems

encountered in DCT, sub band coding methods are

considered as an alternative for this problem. DWT

is the best alternative method because of its energy

compaction and preservation property. Due to

ringing artifacts incurred in DWT, there is a

tremendous contribution from the researchers,

experts from various institutes and research labs for

past two decades.

In addition to the transformation module, In

DCT-based

Motion

compensated

Predictive

(MCP)

[15]

coding

architecture,

previously

processed frames are considered as reference frames

to predict the future frames. Even though the

transformation module is energy preserving and

lossless module, it is irreversible in experiments.

Subsequently the transformed coefficients are

quantized to achieve higher compression leads

further loss in the frame, which are to be considered

as reference frames stored in frame memory for

future frame prediction. Decoded frames are used for

the prediction of new frames as per the MCP coding

technique. JPEG 2000 [16] proved that high quality

image compression can be achieved by applying

DWT. This motivates us to have a combination of

orthogonal and bi-orthogonal wavelet filters at

different level of decompositions for intra frames and

DCT for inter frames of video sequence.

3

WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATION OF

WAVELET FILTERS

transformation phase, the following techniques are

adopted in the transformation module of the

CODEC. Orthogonal wavelet filters such as Haar

filter and Daubechies 9/7 filters are considered for

intra frames and Discrete Cosine Transform for inter

frames of video sequence. Figure 2 illustrates an

overview of the encoder of H.264/AVC with a

hybrid

transformation

technique.

Previously

processed frames (Fn-1) are used to perform Motion

Estimation and Motion Compensated Prediction,

which yields motion vectors.

These motion vectors are used to make a motion

compensated frame. In the case of inter frames, the

frame is subtracted from the current frame (Fn) and

the residual frame is transformed using Discrete

Cosine Transform (T) and quantized (Q). In the case

of intra frame, the current frame is transformed using

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orthogonal wavelet filters such as Haar and

Daubechies and quantized (Q). The quantized

transform coefficients are then entropy coded and

transmitted or stored through NAL along with the

motion vectors found in the motion estimation

process.

+

Fn

frame is reconstructed with high quality. The first

frame in a GOF is intra frame coded. Frequent intra

frames enable random access to the coded stream.

Inter frames are predicted from previously decoded

intra frames.

4

Reorder

Entropy

encoder

EXPERIMENTAL

DISCUSSION

RESULTS

AND

ME

DWT

Inter

MC

Fn- 1

Choose

intra

prediction

NAL

Intra

prediction

Intra

IDWT

+

+

Filter

Fn

IT

Q1

wavelet filters.

For predicting the subsequent frames from the

anchor intra frames, the quantized transform

coefficients are again dequantized (Q1) followed by

inversely transformed (IT) and retained in the frame

store or store memory for motion compensated

prediction.

Table 1: Biorthogonal wavelets filter coefficients.

Analysis Filter Coefficients

video sequences such as Bus (352x288, 149

frames), Stefan (352x288, 89 frames) and Flower

Garden (352x288, 299 frames), and two QCIF

video sequences like Suzie (176x144, 149 frames)

and Mobile (176x144, 299 frames).

The

experimental results show that the developed hybrid

transform coding with wavelet filters combination

outperforms over conventional DCT based video

coding in terms of quality performance.

Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) is commonly

used to measure the quality. It is obtained from

logarithmic scale and it is Mean Squared Error

(MSE) between the original and reconstructed image

or video frame with respect to the highest available

symbol in the spatial domain.

PSN R

0.602949018236359

1.115087052456994

0.266864118442872

0.091271763114249

0.026748757410809

1 0 log

(2n

10

1) 2

M SE

(9)

dB

The fundamental tradeoff is between bit rate and

fidelity [17]. The ability of any source encoding

system is to make this tradeoff as acceptable by

keeping moderate coding efficiency.

i

1.115087052456994

0.602949018236379

0.591271763114247

Proposed

combination

1st level

Decomposition

P1

Haar

Haar

0.016864118442874

P2

P3

Haar

Daub

Daub

Haar

0.026748757410809

P4

Daub

Daub

Wavelet Transform is applied in order to obtain

reconstructed reference frames (Fn) through deblocking filter for inter frames of video sequence.

The hybrid transformation technique employs

different techniques for different categories of frames.

Intra frames are coded using both Haar wavelet filter

coefficients [0.707, 0.707] and bi-orthogonal

Daubechies 9/7 wavelet filter coefficients as shown

in Table 1 [16] in different combinations on different

decomposition

levels. Because of wavelets

advantages over DCT such as complete spatial

correlation among pixels in the whole frame,

Volume 3 Number 3

Page 93

2nd level

Decomposition

Haar and Daubechies 9/7 wavelet filters in different

level of decompositions in transform coding. These

combinations are simulated in H.264/AVC codec,

where the DCT is the de-facto transformation

technique for both intra frame and inter frames of

video sequence processing.

Table 3 shows the performance comparison of

the quality parameter in terms of Peak Signal-toNoise Ratio (PSNR) for the existing de-facto DCT

transformation with combination of proposed

wavelet filters. The values in the table represent the

average PSNR improvement for Luminance (Y)

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As per Human Vision System, human eyes are

highly sensitive on Luminance than the Chrominance

components. In this analysis, both Luminance and

Chrominance components are considered due to the

importance of colour in near lossless applications.

There is 0.12 dB Y-PSNR improvement in P4

combination with DCT transformation for Bus CIF

sequence. When the comparison has been made for

Stefan

CIF sequence,

0.31 dB Y-PSNR

improvement has been achieved in P1 combination

with existing transformation. 0.14 dB Y-PSNR

quality has been obtained with DCT transformation

in P4 combination for Flower-Garden CIF

sequence.

Table 3: PSNR comparison for the various video

sequences.

performance. The performance evaluations show that

the hybrid transformation technique outperforms the

existing DCT transformation method used in

H.264/AVC significantly. The experimental results

also demonstrate that the combination of Haar

wavelet filter in 1st level of decomposition and

Daubechies

wavelet

filters in 2nd level of

decomposition outperforms other combination and

the original DCT used in the existing AVC standard.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors wish to thank S. Anusha, A. R.

Srividhya, S. Vanitha, V. Rajalakshmi, R. Ramya, M.

Vishnupriya A. Arun, V. Vijay Anand, S. Dhinesh

Kumar and P. Navaneetha Krishnan undergraduate

students for their valuable help.

6

Sequence PSNR

Bus

Stefan

Flower

Garden

Suzie

Mobile

Y

U

V

Y

U

V

Y

U

V

Y

U

V

Y

U

V

Existing

(dB)

35.77

35.83

36.04

36.38

35.00

36.90

36.00

36.51

34.93

37.62

43.76

43.32

33.95

35.13

34.92

P1

(dB)

35.03

35.81

36.03

35.69

35.00

36.90

35.72

36.49

34.92

37.57

43.71

43.35

33.92

35.12

34.96

P2

(dB)

35.88

35.83

36.04

36.50

35.01

36.91

36.13

36.47

34.93

37.66

43.72

43.43

34.10

35.10

34.91

P3

(dB)

35.88

35.82

36.03

36.50

35.00

36.91

36.13

36.50

34.94

37.68

43.75

43.39

34.10

35.08

34.91

P4

(dB)

35.89

35.82

36.03

36.50

35.00

36.91

36.14

36.50

34.93

37.68

43.74

43.39

34.10

35.08

34.91

Mobile are concerned, up to 0.15 dB Y-PSNR

improvement has been achieved when the biorthogonal wavelet filters are considered in the 2nd

level of decomposition of the wavelet operation for

intra frames of the video sequences. In both CIF and

QCIF video sequences, a comparable quality

improvement has been attained as per Luminance

components such as U-PSNR and V-PSNR are

concerned.

5

CONCLUSION

for advanced video coding has been proposed. In

which, the intra frames of video sequence are coded

by DWT with Haar and Daubechies wavelet filters

and the inter frames of video sequence are coded

with DCT technique. The hybrid transformation

technique is also simulated in the existing

H.264/AVC reference software. Experiments were

conducted with various standard CIF and QCIF

video sequences such as Bus, Stefan, Flower-Garden,

Mobile and Suzie. The performance parameter

Volume 3 Number 3

Page 94

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Zixiang

Xiong,

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