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# TRANSFORMER PROTECTION EXERCISE SOLUTION

H3

X3

H2

X2

H1

X1

n
X0

Exercise 1.2:

H3

X3

H2

X2

H1

X1

N
H0

## 17b_Transformer Class Exercise_Solution_r13.doc

Page 1 of 10

Exercise 2.1: Determine the CT connections and transformation ratio for the
following step-down transformer. Assume the differential protection is
a traditional electromechanical relay. The transformer is 138/22 kV,
Dy1 (DAB-Wye), 60 MVA.

H1

High-Side CT
600/5 MR
600-500-450-400
300-250-200-150
100-50/5

X1

X3

H3

Low-Side CT
2000/5 MR
2000-1600-1500-1200
1100-800-500-400-300/5

X0

H2
X2

H3
(C)

IC

H2
(B)
H1
(A)

IB

IA

300/5

251.02 / 150

IC

Ic

1574.6/ 120

1600/5

x3
(c)

300/5

251.02 / 90

IB

Ib

1574.6 / 120

1600/5

x2
(b)

300/5

251.02/ 30

IA

Ia

1574.6 / 0

1600/5

x1
(a)

4.18/ 150

8.52/ 150

4.18/ 90

8.52 / 90

4.18/ 30

8.52 / 30

Relay Taps:
2.9 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.2 4.6 5.0 8.7
All currents are in Amps.
All angles are in degrees

Page 2 of 10

## Calculations for Exercise 2.1

High-Voltage Side: 138 kV

Low-Voltage Side: 22 kV

## Current transformers must be connected in:

Y . Draw the connection diagram on the
figure.

## Current transformers must be connected in:

DELTA. Draw the connection diagram on
the figure.

I RATED =

60000
= 251.02 A
3 138

I rated =

60000
= 1574.6 A
3 22

300/5

1600/5

## Secondary currents leaving the relays:

I A =

251.02 / 30
= 4.18/ 30 A
300 / 5

I B =

251.02 / 90
= 4.18/ 90 A
300 / 5

I C =

251.02/ 150
= 4.18/ 150 A
300 / 5

1574.6 / 30
= 8.52 / 30 A
1600 / 5
1574.6 / 90
I b = 3
= 8.52 / 90 A
1600 / 5
1574.6 / 150
I c = 3
= 8.52/ 150 A
1600 / 5
I a = 3

Differential current before balancing with the relays TAP compensation = |8.52-4.18| = 4.34 A
TAP Selection: 4.2

## TAP Selection: 8.7

8.52 8.7

4.18 4.2
Mismatch: M =
100 = 1.63% (See Table I at the end of this section).
8.7
4.2

## 17b_Transformer Class Exercise_Solution_r13.doc

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Exercise 2.2: Determine the TAP value and the compensation matrix for each side of
the differential protection shown in the figure. Determine the value of
current for each branch of the circuit. Fill in all the blanks. The
transformer is 138/22 kV, Dy1 (DAB-Wye), 60 MVA.

251.02 / 150

H3
(C)

251.02 / 90

H2
(B)

251.02 / 30

H1
(A)

## All currents are in Amps.

All angles are in degrees
300/5

1600/5

300/5

1600/5

300/5

1600/5

1574.6 / 120

x2
(b)
1574.6 / 0

x1
(a)

4.92 / 120

4.18/ 90

4.92 / 120

4.18/ 30

4.92/ 0

TAP2=
1/TAP2

1/TAP1

4.18

1.0/ 150

1.0/ 120

1.0/ 90

1.0/ 120

1.0/ 30

1.0/ 0

COMPENSATION
MATRIX

COMPENSATION
MATRIX

4.92

1 -1 0
1
0 1 -1
3
-1 0

1.0 / 30
1.0/ 90

1.0/ 150

Page 4 of 10

x3
(c)

4.18/ 150

TAP1=

1574.6 / 120

1.0/ 30

DIFF.

1.0/ 90

1.0 / 150

## Calculations Related to Exercise 2.2

High-Voltage Side: 138 kV

Low-Voltage Side: 22 kV

I RATED =

60000
= 251.02 A
3 138

I rated =

60000
= 1574.6 A
3 22

300/5

1600/5

251.02/ 30
= 4.18/ 30 A
300 / 5
251.02/ 90
= 4.18/ 90 A
I B =
300 / 5
251.02/ 150
= 4.18/ 150 A
I C =
300 / 5
I A =

TAP1 =

60 1000 1
3 138 300 / 5

= 4.18

I a =

1574.6/ 0
= 4.92/ 0 A
1600 / 5

I b =

1574.6/ 120
= 4.92/ 120 A
1600 / 5

I c =

1574.6/ 120
= 4.92/ 120 A
1600 / 5

TAP 2 =

60 1000 1
3 22 300 / 5

= 4.92

I AT =

4.18/ 30
= 1.0/ 30 A
4.18
4.18/ 90
=
I BT
= 1.0 / 90 A
4.18
4.18/ 150
=
I CT
= 1.0 / 150 A
4.18

=
I aT

## Currents after the compensation block:

I Acomp = 1/ 30 A

I Bcomp
= 1/ 90 A

## = (1 / 3 )(1.0/ 0 1.0 / 120) = 1/ 30 A

I acomp

I Ccomp
= 1/ 150 A

4.92 / 0
= 1.0 / 0 A
4.92
4.92/ 120
=
= 1.0 / 120 A
I bT
4.92
4.92 / 120
=
= 1.0/ 120 A
I cT
4.92

I bcomp
= (1 / 3 )(1.0 / 120 1.0 / 120) = 1/ 90 A

I ccomp
= (1 / 3 )(1.0 / 120 1.0/ 0) = 1/ 150 A

Differential Current = 0

## 17b_Transformer Class Exercise_Solution_r13.doc

Page 5 of 10

Exercise 3.1: Determine the CT connections and transformation ratio for the
following step-up transformer. Assume the differential protection is a
traditional electromechanical relay. The transformer is 138/12 kV, Yd1
(Wye-DAC), 30 MVA.

High-Side CT
600/5 MR
600-500-450-400
300-250-200-150
100-50/5

H1

X1

H0

X3

H3

H2

Low-Side CT
2000/5 MR
2000-1600-1500-1200
1100-800-500-400-300/5

X2

H3
(C)

150/5

125.5/ 120

IC

Ic

1443.4 / 90

1500/5

x3
(c)

H2
(B)

150/5

125.5/ 120

IB

Ib 1443.4/ 150

1500/5

x2
(b)

H1
(A)

150/5

125.5/ 0

1443.4/ 30

1500/5

x1
(a)

IA

Ia

4.81/ 90

7.24/ 90

4.81/ 150

7.24/ 150

4.81/ 30

7.24 / 30

Relay Taps:
2.9 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.2 4.6 5.0 8.7
All currents are in Amps.
All angles are in degrees

Page 6 of 10

## Calculations for Exercise 3.1

High-Voltage Side: 138 kV

Low-Voltage Side: 12 kV

## Current transformers must be connected in:

DELTA. Draw the connection diagram on
the figure.

## Current transformers must be connected in:

Y . Draw the connection diagram on the
figure.

I RATED =

30000
= 125.5 A
3 138

150/5

125.5/ 30
= 7.24 / 30 A
150 / 5
125.5/ 150
= 7.24 / 150 A
I B = 3
150 / 5
125.5/ 90
= 7.24 / 90 A
I C = 3
150 / 5
I A = 3

I rated =

30000
= 1443.4 A
3 12

1500/5

## Secondary currents leaving the relays:

1443.4 / 30
= 4.81/ 30 A
1500 / 5
1443.4 / 150
= 4.81/ 150 A
I b =
1500 / 5
1443.4 / 90
= 4.81/ 90 A
I c =
1500 / 5
I a =

Differential current before balancing with the relays TAP compensation = |7.24-4.81|=2.43 A
TAP Selection: 5.0

## TAP Selection: 3.2

7.24 4.81

5.0
3.2
100 = 3.8% (See Table II at the end of this section)
Mismatch: M =
7.24
5.0

## 17b_Transformer Class Exercise_Solution_r13.doc

Page 7 of 10

Exercise 3.2: Determine the TAP value and the compensation matrix for each side of
the differential protection shown in the figure. Determine the value of
current for each branch of the circuit. Fill in all the blanks. The
transformer is 138/12 kV, Yd1 (Wye-DAC), 30 MVA.

125.5/ 120

H3
(C)

125.5/ 120

H2
(B)

125.5/ 0

H1
(A)

## All currents are in Amps.

All angles are in degrees
150/5

1500/5

150/5

1500/5

150/5

1500/5

1443.4/ 90

x3
(c)

1443.4 / 150

x2
(b)

1443.4 / 30

x1
(a)

4.18/ 120

4.81/ 90

4.18/ 120

4.81/ 150

4.18 / 0

4.81/ 30

TAP2=
4.18

1 0

1
-1 1
3

0 -1

1/TAP1

1/TAP2
1.0/ 120

1.0 / 90

1.0/ 120

1.0/ 150

1.0 / 0

1.0 / 30

-1
0

COMPENSATION
MATRIX

COMPENSATION
MATRIX

1.0 / 90

Page 8 of 10

4.81

1 0 1

1.0/ 30

1.0/ 30

1.0 / 150

TAP1=

DIFF.

1.0 / 150
1.0 / 90

## Calculations Related to Exercise 3.2

High-Voltage Side: 138 kV

Low-Voltage Side: 12 kV

I RATED =

30000
= 125.5 A
3 138

I rated =

30000
= 1443.4 A
3 12

150/5

1500/5

125.51/ 0
= 4.18/ 0 A
150 / 5
125.51/ 120
= 4.18/ 120 A
I B =
150 / 5
125.51/ 120
= 4.18/ 120 A
I C =
150 / 5

I a =

I A =

TAP 2 =

30 1000 1
= 4.18
3 138 150 / 5

1443.4/ 30
= 4.81/ 30 A
1500 / 5
1443.4/ 150
= 4.81/ 150 A
I b =
1500 / 5
1443.4/ 90
= 4.81/ 90 A
I c =
1500 / 5
TAP1 =

30 1000 1
= 4.81
3 12 1500 / 5

I AT =

4.18/ 0
= 1.0/ 0 A
4.18
4.18/ 120
=
= 1.0/ 120 A
I BT
4.18
4.18/ 120
=
I CT
= 1.0 / 120 A
4.18

=
I aT

## I Acomp = (1 / 3 )(1.0/ 0 1.0 / 120) = 1/ 30 A

I acomp
= 1/ 30 A

I Bcomp
= (1 / 3 )(1.0 / 120 1.0 / 0) = 1/ 150 A

I bcomp = 1/ 150 A

I ccomp
= 1/ 90 A

I Ccomp
= (1 / 3 )(1.0/ 120 1.0 / 120) = 1/ 90 A

4.81/ 30
= 1.0 / 30 A
4.81
4.81/ 150
=
= 1.0/ 150 A
I bT
4.81
4.81/ 90
=
= 1.0/ 90 A
I cT
4.81

Differential current = 0

## 17b_Transformer Class Exercise_Solution_r13.doc

Page 9 of 10

Table 1 shows mismatch (sign considered) for different electromechanical relay taps used
for the example in Exercise 2.1.
Table 1

TAP2

2.9
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.2
4.6
5
8.7

TAP 1
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.2
4.6
5
8.7
-103.83 -124.91 -146.00 -167.08 -195.20 -223.31 -251.43 -511.48
-84.72 -103.83 -122.94 -142.05 -167.52 -193.00 -218.48 -454.16
-68.89 -86.36 -103.83 -121.30 -144.59 -167.89 -191.18 -406.66
-55.55 -71.64 -87.74 -103.83 -125.28 -146.74 -168.19 -366.66
-40.74 -55.30 -69.86 -84.42 -103.83 -123.24 -142.65 -322.21
-28.50 -41.79 -55.09 -68.38 -86.10 -103.83 -121.55 -285.50
-18.22 -30.45 -42.68 -54.91 -71.22 -87.52 -103.83 -254.66
47.18 33.38 21.95 12.32
1.63
-7.77 -17.14 -103.83

Table 2 shows mismatch (sign considered) for different electromechanical relay taps, for
example in Exercise 3.1.
Table 2

TAP2

Page 10 of 10

2.9
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.2
4.6
5
8.7

TAP 1
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.2
4.6
5
50.52 36.41 24.72 14.87
3.93
-5.38 -14.55
66.09 50.52 37.62 26.75 14.68
4.71
-3.81
81.66 64.63 50.52 38.64 25.43 14.53
5.36
97.23 78.74 63.42 50.52 36.18 24.34 14.40
117.99 97.56 80.62 66.36 50.52 37.43 26.44
138.76 116.37 97.83 82.21 64.85 50.52 38.48
159.52 135.19 115.03 98.05 79.19 63.61 50.52
351.56 309.23 274.15 244.61 211.79 184.68 161.90

8.7
-99.31
-80.62
-65.14
-52.10
-37.62
-25.65
-15.60
50.52