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REL670 - CT calculation example for distance protection function.

1.

Brief description of measuring principle and CT requirements. _________________________ 3

2.

CT requirements for REL670 line distance protection function. _________________________ 4

3.

CT secondary wiring lead resistance Calculation. _____________________________________ 5

4.

Current transformer data. ________________________________________________________ 6

5.

Calculation of required rated equivalent secondary e.m.f Ealreq _________________________ 6


5.1

Ealreq for 3 phase close in fault. ______________________________________________________ 6

5.2

Ealreq for 3 phase fault at zone 1 limit. ________________________________________________ 6

5.3

Ealreq for single phase close in fault. __________________________________________________ 6

5.4

Ealreq for single phase fault at zone 1 limit._____________________________________________ 6

6.

Verification of CT data according to different standards._______________________________ 7


6.1

Current transformer according to IEC 60044-1 class P and PR. ____________________________ 7

6.2

Current transformer according to IEC 60044-6 class TPS. ________________________________ 7

6.3

Current transformer data according to IEC 60044-1 class PX and BS class X. ________________ 7

Type des.
Prep.
Appr.
Resp. dept

Part no.

PSS/TP/MC / Gert Apell


/ Apell Gert
PSS/TP/MC

2009-03-18
2009-03-18
Approved

Doc. kind
Title

Description
CT calculation example for distance
protection REL670

Doc. no.

ABB AB

Lang.

SA2009-001608

FILE: SA2009-001608-Example_of_CT_calculation_for_REL670-rev0.doc; SAVEDATE: 2009-03-18 10:25; TEMPLATE: TECHN_DOC_STAND_P.dot C; SKELETON:

en

Rev. ind.

No. of p.

7
Page

REVISION
Rev. ind. Page (P)
Chapt. (C)

Description

Date
Dept./Init.

Doc. no.

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SA2009-001608

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Rev. ind.

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1. Brief description of measuring principle and CT requirements


Distance protection is instantaneous impedance measuring protection. The general requirements on
current transformer cores are that the core must not saturate for faults at the end of zone 1 setting.
Saturation due to DC component must be considered due to the instantaneous operation of the
protection. Saturation is allowed for close in faults as the relays are designed to operate with saturated
CT core without any delay in operation.
In order to secure the relay operation, additional transient dimensioning over sizing factor for the CT has
to be considered. The value of over dimensioning factor is dependent on the network frequency and the
primary time constant for the DC component in the fault current.
The CT ratio should be selected so that the current to the protection is higher than the minimum
operating value for all faults that are to be detected.
CT sizing calculation for distance protection application must be verified based on the maximum fault
current for close in fault and fault at the end of zone 1 reach.
Fault current for close in fault condition must be calculated as a three phase fault on the bus bar with
maximal generation in the system in operation at the same time as the protected line is out of service.

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2. CT requirements for REL670 line distance protection function.


Current transformer used must have rated secondary limiting e.m.f that is greater than or equal to
required secondary e.m.f that fulfils the following conditions:
For close in fault forward and reverse direction

E al E alreq1

I k max * I sn
S

* a * RCT RL 2R
I pn
I r

(1)

For faults at zone 1 end

E al E alreq 2

I kzone1 * I sn
S

* k * RCT RL 2R
I pn
I r

(2)

Where:
E al = rated equivalent secondary e.m.f (V) .

I k max = Maximum primary fundamental frequency current for close in forward and reverse
faults (A).

I kzone1 = Maximum primary fundamental frequency current for faults at zone 1 reach (A).
I pn = CT rated primary current (A).
I sn
Ir
RCT
RL
SR

= CT rated secondary current (A).

= Transient dimensioning over sizing factor for close in fault. This factor is function of the
network frequency and the primary time constant for the DC component in the fault
current for close in fault.

= The protection terminal rated current (A).


= CT secondary winding resistance ().
= The resistance of the secondary cable and additional load ().

= Protection relay rated burden (VA).


SR=0,02 VA/channel for Ir=1A and SR=0,15 VA/channel for Ir=5A.

a = 2 :for the primary time constant Tp < 50 ms.


a = 3 :for the primary time constant Tp > 50 ms.

= This factor is function of the network frequency and the primary time constant for the DC
component in the fault current for a fault at the set reach of zone 1.
k = 4 :for the primary time constant Tp < 30 ms.
k = 6 :for the primary time constant Tp > 30 ms.

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3. CT secondary wiring lead resistance Calculation.


The CT saturation is directly affected by the voltage at the CT secondary terminals. This voltage is
developed in a loop containing the conductors and the relay burden. For three-phase faults, the neutral
current is zero, and only the phase conductor and relay phase burden have to be considered. For earth
faults in solidly earthed systems it is important to consider the loop containing both the phase and the
neutral conductors.
In accordance with IEC 60044-1, the CT secondary winding resistance is defined as the d.c. resistance
in ohms corrected to 75 C. Hence for the evaluation of the CT performance, the resistance of the
conductor running between the CT and the relay terminal must also be corrected to 75 C. The
correction of the resistance to 75 C is done in accordance with the following:

Cu 20 * 1 0.0039 2 1 =0.021

(3)

* ( w )
L Cu
Q

(4)

Where:
Cu

= Specific resistance of copper at maximum site temperature of 75 C (mm2 /m)

20

= Specific resistance of copper at temperature of 20 C (0.0178 mm2 /m).

1
2

= reference temperature for specific copper resistance (20 C).

L
Q

=Maximum single length of the conductor running between CT and the relay (m).
=Cross section area of the conductor running between CT and the relay (mm2).

= reference temperature for copper resistance used in the calculation (75 C).

=Phase resistance of conductor running between CT and the relay location ().

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4. Current transformer data.


Rated primary current used for the calculation.
Rated secondary current.
CT secondary winding resistance.

Ipn
Isn
RCT

1000 A
1A
2

5. Calculation of required rated equivalent secondary e.m.f Ealreq


5.1 Ealreq for 3 phase close in fault.
DC time constant for close in fault.
Required transient dimensioning factor for TP50msec.
Maximum symmetrical fault current for close in fault.
Phase resistance of CT secondary wire up to IED location
according to section 3 formula 4.
Protection relay rated burden.
CT secondary winding resistance.
Required secondary e.m.f according to section 2 formula 1.

TP
a
IkmaxP
RL

45msec.
2
31 kA
0,35

SR
RCT
Ealreq1

0.02 VA
2
147 V

DC time constant for faults at zone 1 limit.

Tkz1P

37 msec.

Required transient dimensioning factor for TP30msec.


Maximum symmetrical fault current for faults at zone 1 limit.

I kz1P

6
24 kA

Phase resistance of CT secondary wire up to IED location


according to section 3 formula 4.
Protection relay rated burden.
CT secondary winding resistance.
Required secondary e.m.f according to section 2 formula 2.

RL

0,35

SR
RCT
Ealreq2

0.02 VA
2
341 V

5.2 Ealreq for 3 phase fault at zone 1 limit.

5.3 Ealreq for single phase close in fault.


DC time constant for close in fault
Required transient dimensioning factor for TP50msec.
Maximum symmetrical fault current for close in fault.
Loop resistance of CT secondary wire up to IED location
according to section 3 formula 4.
Protection relay rated burden.
CT secondary winding resistance.
Required secondary e.m.f according to section 2 formula 1.

TP
a
IkmaxG
RL

45 msec.
2
45 kA
0,7

SR
RCT
Ealreq3

0.02 VA
2
245 V

DC time constant for faults at zone 1 limit.

Tkz1G

26 msec.

Required transient dimensioning factor for TP30msec.


Maximum symmetrical fault current for faults at zone 1 limit.
Loop resistance of CT secondary wire up to IED location
according to section 3 formula 4
Protection relay rated burden.
CT secondary winding resistance.
Required secondary e.m.f according to section 2 formula 2.

k
Ikz1G
RL

4
26 kA
0,7

SR
RCT
Ealreq4

0.02 VA
2
283 V

5.4 Ealreq for single phase fault at zone 1 limit.

The highest value of Ealrq1, Ealreq2, Ealreq3 and Ealreq4 shall be selected as final value for the CT
requirement.

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6. Verification of CT data according to different standards.


6.1 Current transformer according to IEC 60044-1 class P and PR.
The CT according to class P and PR must have a secondary limiting e.m.f E2max higher than the
maximum value of Ealreq1Ealreq4. The value of E2max is defined as the product of the accuracy limit factor,
the rated secondary current and the vectorial sum of the rated burden and the impedance of the
secondary winding. The value can be estimated using the following formula:

E 2 max I sn * n * ( RCT

Sn
)
I sn2

(5)

Where:
I

sn
R
CT
S
n

= CT rated secondary current (A).


= CT secondary winding resistance ().
= CT rated output (VA).

The relay requirements are fulfilled if the CT has the following magnetizing characteristics (Ref. to
section 5 above.):
Current transformer class.
Rated primary current used for the calculation.
Rated secondary current.
Rated accuracy limit factor.
Rated burden.
CT secondary winding resistance.
Calculated rated equivalent limiting secondary e.m.f.

P,PR
Ipn
Isn
n
Sn
RCT
E2max

1000 A
1A
20
15 VA
2
340 V

6.2 Current transformer according to IEC 60044-6 class TPS.


The CT according to class TPS must have a secondary limiting voltage Ual higher than the maximum
value of 0.8* ( Ealreq1Ealreq4.
The relay requirements are fulfilled if the CT has the following magnetizing characteristics (Ref. to
section 5 above):
Current transformer class.
Rated primary current used for the calculation.
Rated secondary current.
CT secondary winding resistance.
Rated limiting secondary voltage

TPS
Ipn
Isn
RCT
Ual

1000 A
1A
2
273 V

6.3 Current transformer data according to IEC 60044-1 class PX and BS class X.
The CT according to class PX /X must have a knee point voltage Ek/EKneeBS higher than the maximum
value of 0.8*( Ealreq1Ealreq4.)
The relay requirements are fulfilled if the CT has the following magnetizing characteristics (Ref. to
section 5 above.):
Current transformer class.
Rated primary current used for the calculation.
Rated secondary current.
CT secondary winding resistance.
Rated knee point voltage

X,PX
Ipn
Isn
RCT
Ek ,EkneeBS

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1000 A
1A
2
273 V

Lang.

SA2009-001608

en

Rev. ind.

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