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Materials Science Lab Report:

In this Materials Science lab, we performed the Metallography Experiment. It
included preparing and examining a metallographic sample or steel specimen in a
rigid step-by-step process. This procedure consisted of sectioning, mounting, course
and fine grinding, polishing, etching, and viewing the specimen through the
microscope (Metallography experiment pdf). Great care and precision must be
taken when dealing with the specimen or else a change in its original microstructure
may occur and hence, inaccurate results may be obtained. The results of our
experiment included finding the values of N and n, where N denotes the number of
grains per square inch at a magnifying factor of 400X and n represents the ASTM
grain size number. These numbers enable us to study the properties of the given
material. Thus, we have found them to be:

0.674 grain/inch2

; n= 6.201

Consequently, we came to a conclusion that this material exhibits the following


There comes a time when materials engineers are called upon to create new
products. In order to accomplish that, they must develop a comprehensive
knowledge of the materials and their properties. Hence, materials engineers
with a firm background must be able to predict the behavior and
performance of materials only by examining their microstructure, the small
scaled structure (2016). As a result, the science of metallography, or
materialography, has been developed within the last fifteen years due to its
importance in closely investigating and testing the microstructure of the
materials. The founder of metallography is known as Henry Clifton Sorby whom
happens to also be a geologist, petrographer, and mineralogist.

Clearly stated, metallography is the science interested in the study of the

microscopic composition of metals and metal alloys. It reveals the atomic
and chemical structure of elements in metals and alloys. The objectives of
this experiment were to learn the techniques of specimen, a sample of a
material, preparation in metallography. As well as, an analysis and a study
regarding that metal specimen microstructure was to be made.
Preparation of specimens requires five major operations. This experiment
starts off with the selection of a suitable specimen which is obtained from the

original material by the abrasive cutting machine. For safety insurance and
because the specimens size is small, the specimen is inserted into the
Specimen Mounting Press to support it with plastic mould. Moving on, a
grinder is used to remove any surface imperfections followed by utilizing a
polisher that clears away any scratches off the specimens surface that may
affect our results. Finally, we arrive at the most significant stage that is
known as the etching stage; this is the stage where the structure of the
specimen and the boundaries of its grains, group of atoms, are revealed
visibly through a microscope. As soon as its microscopic organization is
known, structural characteristics such as grain size, number, and shape are
identified (2016). Subsequently, these characteristics will eventually affect the
mechanical and physical properties of the material. Once all the
constitutional properties of the material are known, one can make good use
of the material and use it in suitable situations.
The importance of metallography is that it supplies us with efficient
knowledge to guess the type of material we are dealing with by viewing its
macroscopic structure. Moreover, it enables us to determine its physical
properties by using an optical or electron microscopy ("CONCLUSION
Metallography is one of the most important part of - MATH - 265", 2016). An optical microscope
is one in which it directs an intense light on the specimens surface in order
to get the magnified image of the specimen; this image consists of small
grains that influence the various properties of the material. As well as,
observation of defects that are on the finished products but cannot be
viewed through the naked eye can be spotted by metallography.
In brief, (2016) stated that Metallography is the study of the structural
characteristics or constitution of a metal or an alloy in relation to its physical and
mechanical properties; on top of that, the most important section of metallography
that helps in evaluating those properties is viewing the metal specimen through a
microscope. Metallographic examination provides us with quantitative information
regarding the specimen grain sizes, the amount of interfacial area per unit volume,
and other useful properties. Viewing the specimen with a microscope will help us
determine the possibility for this material to be used for a specific purpose.


(2016). Retrieved 20 September 2016, from
Metallography experiment pdf from Blackboard.
CONCLUSION Metallography is one of the most important part of - MATH 265. (2016). Retrieved 20 September 2016, from