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THE INFINITIVE

- may have several forms:


LONG

e.g. to play

SHORT

e.g. play

INDEFINITE ( BE + VBing) e.g. be playing


PERFECT INFINITIVE (HAVE + VB3rd form/ed)

e.g. have played

THE SHORT INFINITIVE


* is used with:
- MODAL VERBS: can, may, must, shall, should
- the verbs MAKE, LET in the ACTIVE VOICE
- HAD BETTER, WOULD RATHER, WOULD SOONER
e.g. I can fly. Make me go! Let me stay.
THE LONG INFINITIVE
* is used with:
- MODAL VERBS: OUGHT TO, HAVE TO, BE ABLE TO, BE ALLOWED TO
- BE + PITY / FOLLY / MADNESS / MISTAKE
e.g. It would be a mistake to do this.
- VERBS such as :REQUIRE, TAKE, NEED, TELL ,WANT, LEARN, OFFER,
REFUSE, DECIDE
: THINK TO, CARE TO, HESITATE TO, TROUBLE TO,
PROCEED TO
: REMIND smb TO, ASSIST smb TO, CONDEMN smb TO
- SO AS, IN ORDER (AS)

e.g. I gave you the photo (so as) to remember me.


- TOO, ENOUGH, SO...AS
e.g. Shes too furious to say anything.
- WH words: what, who, where, why, how
e.g. He asked me what to do.
- with constructions such as: SO TO SAY / SPEAK, TO TELL THE TRUTH, TO BE
HONEST, TO PUT IT BLUNTLY, TO BE MORE PRECISE

INFINITIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS
1. THE ACCUSATIVE + INFINITIVE
NOUN / PRON in ACC + INFINITIVE SHORT / LONG
A. with SHORT INFINITIVE
* after VERBS of PERCEPTION: SEE, HEAR, NOTICE, WATCH,FEEL
- in the ACTIVE VOICE: COMPLETED ACTION
e.g. I saw Jane vacuum her bedroom.
- in the PASSIVE VOICE: + LONG INFINITIVE
e.g. She was seen to vacuum her bedroom.
- can be used, also, with a PARTICIPLE ,showing action in
progress
e.g. I saw Jane vacuuming her bedroom.
* after CAUSATIVE VERBS: LET, MAKE, HAVE
e.g. I had my friend repair my TV.
[I had my TV repaired by my friend.]
B. with LONG INFINITIVE
*after verbs such as: WANT, WISH / DESIRE, HATE, MEAN, CHOOSE,
EXPECT, FORBID, DEMAND
e.g. We chose him to speak to the manager.
* DECLARE, ADMIT, REPORT, ANNOUNCE, STATE, PRONOUNCE
e.g. Ive admitted her to be the best shop-assistant.
* OBLIGE, ORDER, COMMAND, ALLOW / PERMIT, URGE, WARN
e.g. I ordered him to leave.
* causative verbs such as :GET, DETERMINE, FORCE, COMPEL

e.g. What determined you to go abroad?


* KNOW, UNDERSTAND, CONSIDER, THINK, ADMIT, SUPPOSE,
IMAGINE
e.g. I consider them to be our best friends.
* intransitive prepositional verbs: COUNT ON, CALL UPON, RELY ON,
HOPE FOR, WAIT FOR

2. THE NOMINATIVE + INFINITIVE


NOUN / PRON + VERB + LONG INFINITIVE
- used after a PASSIVE FORM
e.g. She is known (said) to be the best.
- after some intransitive verbs : HAPPEN, PROVE, TURN OUT, SEEM,
APPEAR
e.g. She seems to be the best.
- after TO BE CERTAIN / SURE, TO BE (UN)LIKELY
e.g. Hes likely to succeed.

3. THE FOR TO INFINITIVE


FOR + NOUN / PRON in ACC + LONG INF
- used after BE + EASY / POSSIBLE / IMPOSSIBLE / ADVISABLE / NECESSARY /
DIFFICULT/ IMPERATIVE / URGENT
e.g. Its easy for you to speak!
- after some NOUNS
e.g. Heres a coat for you to put on.
- after some INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
e.g. Theres nothing for us to eat.
- after some TRANSITIVE VERBS : HOPE, LONG, PROVODE + FOR
e.g. I longed for him to tell the truth.
Hes waiting for the bus to come.

THE GERUND

may have two forms:


INDEFINITE: VB. short inf. + ING
PERFECT :

HAVING + VB III/ed

e.g. taking
e.g. having taken

used after:

- PREPOSITIONS: after, before, by, for, from, on, with, like, to, without, in
e.g. I raised the money I needed by selling my house.
- NOUNs with PREPOSITIONS:
IN: confidence/difficulty/faith/interest/belief
TO: objections/contribution
AT: astonishment/surprise/disappointment
FOR: apology/tool/reason
OF: opportunity/art/habit/gift/pleasure/possibility/importance/process/ideea
e.g. Dont miss the opportunity of joining us on the trip!
-ADJECTIVEs with PREPOSITIONS:
ABOUT: anxious/sure/happy
AT: clever/good/expert
IN: correct/interested/quick
OF: afraid /(in)capable/proud/ashamed

WITH: angry/busy
e.g. Jean was fond of swimming.
FOR : useful/responsible/excellent
-VERBs with PREPOSITIONS:
AT: AIM/LAUGH
BY: BEGIN/CONCLUDE/END
FROM : PREVENT
IN : CONSIST/SUCCEED/ASSIST
OF: ACCUSE/APPROVE
FOR: APOLOGIZE/COUNT/INSIST
TO: AGREE/CANTRIBUTE/OBJECT

after certain verbs: -AVOID,CONSIDER,ESCAPE,DELAY,POSTPONE,TRY*,

FANCEY/FEEL LIKE, RISK


e.g. She postponed going to the dentist.
-BEGIN, START,CONTINUE, STOP, FINISH
e.g. They started laughing.
-UNDERSTAND, FORGET, REMEMBER*,RECOLLECT,IMAGINE,FANCY,MIND
e.g. Would you mind opening the window?
-LOVE, LIKE, LOVE,HATE, ENJOY, DETEST, DREAD,RESENT
e.g. I love reading.

After expressions:ITS NO GOOD/USE,CANT HELP,CANT TAND/RESIST,


ITS WORTH

e.g. I cant help falling in love with you.

GERUND CONSTRUCTIONS
NOUN /PRON.in the POSSESSIVE / NOUN/PRON. In the ACC. + GERUND

e.g. They insisted on my leaving earlier. /me leaving earlier.

PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTIONS

1. THE ACCUSATIVE with THE PARTICIPLE


NOUN /PRONOUN in the ACC. + INDEFINITE PARTICIPLE
*the action is seen in progress and the SBJ. of the participial form is NOT the same as
the SBJ of the predicate.
* used with VERBS OF PERCEPTION : see, watch, hear, feel, look at, notice, observe,
perceive
e.g. I watched him swimming.
* used with verbs such as: find, catch, discover, imagine,spot,leave,start
e.g. He left me waiting in the rain.

2. THE NOMINATIVE with the PARTICIPLE


NOUN/PRON. in the N. + VB in the passive+ INDEFINITE PART.
* the SUBJECT of the PARTICIPIAL form is the SAME with the SUBJECT of the
predicate
* used with VERBS OF PERCEPTION in the PASSIVE : SEE, HEAR
e.g. Ann was heard practicing the piano.
* VERBS such as : LEAVE,FIND, KEEP, CATCH in the passive .
3. THE ABSOLUTE NOMINATIVE with the PARTICIPLE
NOUN/PRON in the N. + PARTICIPLE FORM

The SUBJECT of the participial form differs from the SUBJECT of the predicate.
e.g. The partner being reliable, we started the talks.
Weather permitting, well go on a trip to the mountains.

3. THE ACCUSATIVE with the PARTICIPLE


NOUN/PRON in the ACC. + PAST PARTICIPLE
* used with VERBS OF PERCEPTION : SEE,HEAR, FEEL
e.g. I saw his name mentioned in the paper.
* VERBS such as: ORDER, COMMAND, WISH,WANT
e.g. I want my coat cleaned by mom.
* GET and HAVE
e.g. I had my hair cut yesterday.