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10/18/2016

BernoulliEquation

10/18/2016 BernoulliEquation Resources,ToolsandBasicInformationforEngineeringandDesignofTechnicalApplications!

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BernoulliEquation FlowCalculator FluidMeasurement Search Conservationofenergy­non­viscou s , incom pre
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Conservationofenergy­non­viscous,incompressiblefluidinsteadyflow

s , incom pre ss i b lef l uidin st e a dy f lo

HeadofFlow

Equation(3)isoftenreferredtothe"head"becauseallelementshastheunitoflength.

DynamicPressure

velocitycomponentasthedynamicpressureofthefluidflow(5).

componentiszero.

Example­BernoulliEquationandFlowfromaTankthroughasmallOrifice

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AspecialformoftheEuler’sequationderivedalongafluidflowstreamlineisoftencalledtheBernoulliEquation:

Liquidflowsfromatankthroughaorificeclosetothebottom.TheBernoulliequationcanbeadaptedtoastreamlinefromthesurface(1)totheorifice(2)as(e1):

Thestatementofconservationofenergyisusefulwhensolvingproblemsinvolvingfluids.Foranon­viscous,incompressiblefluidinasteadyflow,thesumofpressure,potentialandkineticenergiesperunitvolumeisconstantatanypoint.

ForsteadystateincompressibleflowtheEulerequationbecomes(1).Ifweintegrate(1)alongthestreamlineitbecomes(2).(2)canfurtherbemodifiedto(3)bydividingbygravity.

(2)and(3)aretwoformsoftheBernoulliEquationforsteadystateincompressibleflow.Ifweassumethatthegravitationalbodyforceisnegligible,(3)canbewrittenas(4).Bothelementsintheequationhavetheunitofpressureandit'scommontorefertheflow

Sinceenergyisconservedalongthestreamline,(4)canbeexpressedas(6).Usingtheequationweseethatincreasingthevelocityoftheflowwillreducethepressure,decreasingthevelocitywillincreasethepressure.

Thisphenomenacanbeobservedinaventurimeterwherethepressureisreducedintheconstrictionareaandregainedafter.Itcanalsobeobservedinapitottubewherethestagnationpressureismeasured.Thestagnationpressureiswherethevelocity

10/18/2016

BernoulliEquation

10/18/2016 BernoulliEquation Since(1)and(2)'sheightsfromacommonreferenceisrelatedas(e2),andthe equationofcontinuity

Since(1)and(2)'sheightsfromacommonreferenceisrelatedas(e2),andtheequationofcontinuitycanbeexpressedas(e3),it'spossibletotransform(e1)to(e4).

Ventedtank

Aspecialcaseofinterestforequation(e4)iswhentheorificeareaismuchlesserthanthesurfaceareaandwhenthepressureinsideandoutsidethetankisthesame­whenthetankhasanopensurfaceor"vented"totheatmosphere.Atthissituationthe(e4)

canbetransformedto(e5).

"Thevelocityoutfromthetankisequaltospeedofafreelybodyfallingthedistanceh."­alsoknownasTorricelli'sTheorem.

Example­outletvelocityfromaventedtank

Theoutletvelocityofatankwithheight10mcanbecalculatedas

V 2 =(2(9.81m/s 2 )(10m)) 1/2

=14(m/s)

PressurizedTank

Ifthetanksispressurizedsothatproductofgravityandheight(gh)ismuchlesserthanthepressuredifferencedividedbythedensity,(e4)canbetransformedto(e6).Thevelocityoutofthetankdependsmostlyonthepressuredifference.

Example­OutletVelocityfromaPressurizedTank

Theoutletvelocityofapressurizedtankwhere

p 1 =0.2(MN/m 2 )

p 2 =0.1(MN/m 2 )

A 2 /A 1 =0.01

h=10(m)

canbecalculatedas

V 2 =((2/(1­(0.01) 2 )((0.210 6 N/m 2 )­(0.110 6 N/m 2 ))/(1000kg/m 3 )+(9.81m/s 2 )(10m))) 1/2

=19.9(m/s)

CoefficientofDischarge­FrictionCoefficient

Duetofrictiontherealvelocitywillbesomewhatlowerthanthistheoreticexamples.Ifweintroduceafrictioncoefficientc(coefficientofdischarge),(e5)canbeexpressedas(e5b).

Thecoefficientofdischargecanbedeterminedexperimentally.Forasharpedgedopeningitmaybeeaslowas0.6.Forsmoothorificesitmaybeebetween0.95and1.

EnergyLossthroughaReductionValve

Whenfluidflowsthroughareductionvalveandpressureisreduced­thereisaenergyloss.Byneglectingthechangeinelevation(h 1 =h 2 )andthechangeinpipevelocity(v 1 =v 2 )thepressureenergybeforethevalveandthepressureenergyafterthevalve includingtheenergylossthroughthevalve­isconstant,andtheBernouilliequationcanbemodifiedto

p 1 /ρ=p 2 /ρ+dE (7)

where

dE=energylossthroughvalve(J)

(7)canbetransformedto:

dE=(p 1 ­p 2 )/ρ

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10/18/2016

BernoulliEquation

10/18/2016 BernoulliEquation RelatedDocuments LiquidFlowwhenDrainingContainersorTanks ­Liquidvelocityandvolumeflow

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10/18/2016

BernoulliEquation

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