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Organizational Behavior, 15e (Robbins/Judge)

Chapter 8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications


Multiple Choice
1) ________ is an extrinsic means of motivation.
A) Recognition
B) Autonomy
C) Responsibility
D) Flexibility
E) Salary
2) Job design is defined as the ________.
A) degree to which the job rewards competence
B) way the elements in a job are organized
C) degree to which the job contributes to profit margins
D) degree of decision-making power with the immediate superiors
E) way the job is evaluated in terms of its relative worth to other jobs
3) With reference to the job characteristics model, which of the following defines skill variety?
A) the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
B) the degree to which work activities generate direct and clear information about performance
C) the degree to which a job provides the worker freedom in scheduling and procedure
D) the degree to which a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people
E) the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities tapping different abilities
4) With reference to the job characteristics model, which of the following defines task identity?
A) the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
B) the degree to which work activities generate direct and clear information about performance
C) the degree to which a job provides the worker freedom in scheduling and procedure
D) the degree to which a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people
E) the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities
5) Adam Sears is an assembly line employee with Swenson Motors. Though Adam is popular among his
supervisors and colleagues, Adam experiences low morale and lack of motivation. He feels frustrated
that his job is restricted to fixing nuts and bolts on the car parts. He fears that he has no chances of
advancing in his career as he cannot completely assemble a car. Which of the following is true with
regard to Adam?
A) Adam's job has high task complexity.
B) Adam's job has a high span of control.
C) Adam's job has low role definition.
D) Adam's job has low task identity.
E) Adam's job has high task significance.

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6) According to the job characteristics model, task significance is the degree to which ________.
A) a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
B) a job generates direct and clear information about performance
C) a job provides the worker freedom in scheduling work and determining its procedure
D) a job bears an impact on the lives or work of other people
E) a job requires a variety of different activities
7) Samantha Barnes is an emergency medical technician. Recently, during an emergency call, she was
able to resuscitate a man who had a cardiac arrest. Subsequently, she spent some time calming the 12year-old daughter of the patient and looked after her till the rest of the patient's family arrived at the
hospital. Based on this description, it can be concluded that Samantha's job is high in ________.
A) task identity
B) feedback
C) extrinsic rewards
D) task significance
E) job rotation
8) According to the job characteristics model, autonomy is defined as the degree to which ________.
A) a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
B) a job generates direct and clear information about performance
C) a job provides the worker freedom, independence, and discretion
D) a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people
E) a job requires a variety of different activities
9) According to the job characteristics model, ________ indicates the degree to which carrying out work
activities generates direct and clear information about your own performance.
A) task significance
B) autonomy
C) feedback
D) task identity
E) skill variety
10) Which of the following series of dimensions of the job characteristics model (JCM) combine to
create meaningful work?
A) autonomy, task identity, and feedback
B) skill variety, autonomy, and task significance
C) skill variety, autonomy, and feedback
D) feedback, task identity, and task significance
E) skill variety, task identity, and task significance
11) The core dimensions of the job characteristics model can be combined into a single predictive index
called ________.
A) extrinsic motivation score
B) personal outcome score
C) job diagnostic score
D) motivating potential score
E) potential development score

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12) Which of the following statements is true of the job characteristics model?
A) The operation of the model is universal and unaffected by cultural factors.
B) The operation of the model is relatively individualistic in nature.
C) The operation of the model requires employees to have similar skill sets.
D) The operation of the model cannot be quantitatively measured.
E) The operation of the model fulfils only extrinsic motivational needs.
13) Which of the following statements is true regarding job rotation?
A) It decreases the flexibility with which an organization can adapt to a change.
B) It decreases employee motivation.
C) It decreases productivity in the short-run.
D) It decreases supervisory workload.
E) It decreases the flexibility in scheduling work.
14) The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another with similar skill requirements at the
same organizational level is defined as ________.
A) job enlargement
B) job analysis
C) job rotation
D) job sharing
E) job enrichment
15) A prerequisite condition for job rotation is the ________.
A) presence of high level of autonomy among workers
B) presence of high need for affiliation among workers
C) presence of employees with similar skill sets and requirements
D) presence of alternative work arrangements for employees to avail
E) presence of employee involvement programs
16) Managers at Flavors, a restaurant chain, train their employees such that in the absence of employees,
someone trained in the same skills can step in and do the job equally well. Thus, many modules in
training are extensive as they provide employees with details of the skill sets required for different jobs.
In practice, this lengthy training program does help the company as a well-trained and flexible
workforce is at their disposal at all times. The managers at Flavors use ________.
A) job rotation
B) vertical enhancement
C) telecommuting
D) job sharing
E) flextime

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CalTrack Services has been facing employee-related issues like decreased productivity, low morale, and
poor organizational commitment in recent times. At a meeting to discuss strategies to address these
issues of immediate concern, Joe McEnroe, the production manager, proposed that the roles of
employees working on key projects be enhanced to increase autonomy. He felt that this would enhance
productivity, motivation, and accountability. Taking a cue from McEnroe, Paul Wilbur suggested job
rotation as a solution to the problem they were facing. Paul felt that a change of job roles would make
the employees keener to learn and perform. He emphasized that job rotation would help management
create a larger skill base to choose from, depending on the needs of specific projects.
17) Which of the following, if true, would weaken the argument of adopting job rotation?
A) The employees of the company have similar skill sets which are suited to transfer of learning.
B) The company has been conducting professional training programs to keep all employees up-to-date
with the developments in the field.
C) AmWeb, one of the major rival firms, witnessed a substantial rise in profits following its crosstraining program for employees.
D) The research evidence favoring job rotation has rarely used samples from the service industry.
E) The company is now entering its busiest business season with multiple project deadlines.
18) Which of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument in favor of adopting job rotation?
A) The company is currently facing numerous budget constraints.
B) The company can enhance productivity of existing employees in various areas for different projects.
C) Two front-level managers have resigned in the last quarter as they were not promoted.
D) The company has launched a new brand which is cannibalizing one of its existing products.
E) The company has recently given employees new responsibilities by combining their routine tasks into
natural work units.
19) One of the methods of job enrichment is to expand jobs vertically. This method involves modifying
the ________ dimension of the job.
A) task significance
B) autonomy
C) feedback
D) task identity
E) skill variety
20) Job enrichment is the process of ________.
A) periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another with similar skill requirements at the same
organizational level
B) expansion of jobs by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and
evaluation of the work
C) redistribution of power within the organization through work councils and board representations
D) distribution of a significant degree of power between subordinates and supervisors
E) evaluation of an employee wherein subordinates, peers, and managers provide comprehensive
feedback

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21) The job characteristics model describes five dimensions of a job. A job can be enriched by
modifying one or more of these five dimensions. Which of the following methods of job enrichment
involves modifying skill variety and task identity dimensions of a job?
A) combining tasks
B) forming natural work units
C) establishing client relationships
D) expanding jobs vertically
E) opening feedback channels
22) Beyond redesigning the nature of the work itself and involving employees in decisions, another
approach to making the work environment more motivating is to alter work arrangements to meet
employee needs. Which of the following is designed to give an employee greater control of their
schedule?
A) flextime
B) gainsharing
C) job rotation
D) job enlargement
E) job enrichment
23) Employees who use the flextime option have to ________.
A) work from the office for three days of the week
B) work from home on a relatively permanent basis
C) work from the office based on a schedule fixed with the compatible partner they function with
D) work from the office during the common core period and put in the extra hours as per their
convenience
E) work from home only two days a week
24) An arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job is
called ________.
A) flextime
B) job sharing
C) gainsharing
D) telecommuting
E) job rotation
25) Janice and Shane are both senior software analysts. They have worked together on projects for six
years and get along very well. Janice is anticipating the arrival of her first child and will not be able to
work on a full-time basis in the future. Shane is also contemplating opening his own business as a home
media installation consultant and does not want to continue to work full time. They both need some
income. Which of the following alternative job structures would be best for Janice and Shane?
A) job enlargement
B) telecommuting
C) job rotation
D) job sharing
E) job enrichment

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26) Which of the following statements is true regarding job sharing?


A) It expands jobs by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and
evaluation of the work.
B) It is also called cross-training.
C) It allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job.
D) It involves periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another with similar skill requirements
at the same organizational level.
E) Job sharing is a method of job enrichment.
27) Which of the following alternative work arrangements enables the organization to draw on the
talents of more than one individual in a given job?
A) telecommuting
B) flextime
C) gainsharing
D) profit-sharing
E) job sharing
28) Which of the following is the major drawback of job sharing from management's perspective?
A) increase in supervisory workload
B) increased costs for providing supporting infrastructure (such as desk and computer) to two employees
instead of one
C) difficulty in finding compatible partners
D) difficulty in designing the reward structure
E) difficulty in coordinating schedules
29) After the training and development manager at Add Worth, Nicole Hayes, resigned, the CEO has
made it a priority that the position be filled soon by someone of equal expertise and experience as
Nicole. To locate the right candidate, Jennifer Ray, the HR manager, has been contacting recruitment
firms, checking job sites, and pushing for referrals from the employees. However, she has only found
candidates with little or no experience in the field who were willing to work full time for the position. At
the next meeting with the CEO, Jennifer proposes an alternative strategy; she suggests hiring two
experienced candidates who are open to the idea of handling the training needs on a part-time basis as a
team. The CEO listens to her proposal but is not too convinced by it. Which of the following, if true,
would strengthen Jennifer's proposal to use work sharing for the vacant position?
A) Trainers are exempted from the requirement of being at the office throughout the common core
period of the workday.
B) The employees of the company on the work council have planned to demand the flextime option.
C) A good proportion of the company's prized workforce comprises employees from the baby boomer
generation who are set to retire in the impending future.
D) The headhunting firms that Jennifer contacted are usually helpful in generating a good pool of
potential candidates.
E) A rival firm recently adopted telecommuting to reduce administrative costs cutting into its bottom
line.

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30) The option of working at home at least 2 days a week on a computer linked to the employer's office
is termed as ________.
A) work sharing
B) social loafing
C) offshoring
D) telecommuting
E) homeshoring
31) Amanda McPherson is a working mother with one child and an ailing parent to look after in addition
to her duties as a wife and job responsibilities as a legal consultant. Since Amanda always felt pressed
for time, the news that the consultancy she worked for would allow her to work from home two days a
week came as a great relief to her. She now feels more motivated to work for the company as the
company has taken into account her personal and professional needs. The company has allowed Amanda
to use the option of ________.
A) gainsharing
B) offshoring
C) telecommuting
D) homeshoring
E) work sharing
32) An MNC in a developing country is operating amidst severe space constraints, and the
infrastructural conditions in the city are bad, causing a lot of lost man-hours. Anticipating rapid growth
in the months to come, the company has created a recruitment plan based on its revenue expectations.
However, it wants to manage this expansion without undertaking an expensive physical expansion.
Which of the following could be a solution for the company?
A) profit-sharing
B) groupshifting
C) telecommuting
D) gainsharing
E) codetermining
33) For management, the major downside of telecommuting is ________.
A) decreased productivity
B) increased turnover
C) reduced morale
D) difficulty in scheduling work
E) less direct supervision of employees
34) Telecommuting is an option that suits professionals like ________.
A) trainers
B) nurses
C) analysts
D) receptionists
E) sales representatives

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35) Which of the following factors represents the influence of social aspects of the work environment on
motivation?
A) task identity
B) autonomy
C) feedback
D) interdependence
E) skill variety
36) The job characteristic model fails to consider the role ________ plays in employee motivation.
A) job design
B) meaningfulness
C) social support
D) growth need
E) responsibility
37) ________ is a participative process that uses employees' input to increase their commitment to the
organization's success.
A) Job enrichment
B) Employee involvement
C) Vertical integration
D) Groupshifting
E) Job sharing
38) To be effective, an employee involvement program must ________.
A) rightsize the company by eliminating obsolete positions
B) incorporate the unique demands of different cultures
C) mandatorily establish work councils in the company
D) eliminate the influence of employees in managerial decision making
E) implement autocratic ways of handling its employees
39) Which of the following is the distinct characteristic of participative management programs?
A) joint decision making
B) representative participation
C) performance norms
D) establishment of work councils
E) autocratic decision making
40) Participative management is a method of management where ________.
A) representatives of workers form work councils and these councils must be consulted when
management makes decisions about employees
B) few representatives of workers sit on a company's board of directors
C) subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors
D) low-level workers meet occasionally with the CEO to discuss problems within their department
E) low-level workers are responsible for making corporate policy decisions

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41) The two major forms of employee involvement are participative management and ________.
A) organizational restructuring
B) job sharing
C) representative participation
D) job rotation
E) job enlargement
42) Representative participation is characterized by ________.
A) joint decision making by employees and management
B) democratic leadership behaviors
C) open and honest two-way communication
D) a significant positive impact on employee morale and performance
E) compliance with the legal need to redistribute power within organizations
43) The two most common forms of representative participation are ________ and board
representatives.
A) quality circles
B) work councils
C) employee unions
D) task teams
E) cross-functional teams
44) The main drawback of representative participation as an employee involvement measure is that
________.
A) it is a time-consuming process
B) it is able to exert its impact only in the short run
C) it is primarily symbolic in its impact
D) it is consistent with the Theory Y view of motivation
E) it is likely to require a major change in organizational roles
45) Woodworth & Baines is a retail chain that has taken up numerous measures to improve employee
attitude, motivation, and organizational performance. New training programs, employee engagement
initiatives, and an employee welfare council were the three main strategies implemented as part of the
employee empowerment program. Norman Kilner was one of twenty employees nominated to the
employee welfare council where they were required to interact with the management to promote the
interests of the employees. Additionally, the job roles of these twenty employees were vertically
enhanced to give them more autonomy in the organization. However, six months into the employee
empowerment program, a survey by HR revealed no actual change in employee attitudes. Similarly, a
survey conducted by the production manager revealed that work productivity had not increased by any
substantial measure either. Which of the following, if true, would best explain this outcome?
A) Management strengthened the regulations relating to employee absenteeism in this period.
B) Management retained the degree of control they had in the organizational affairs.
C) The company moved from a merit-based to a piece-rate pay system in the last quarters.
D) The employees performed poorly because of the lack of training and development programs.
E) Management implemented a 360-degree feedback system for performance appraisals.

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46) Which of the following is Theory X consistent with?


A) the autocratic style of managing people
B) the principles of participative management
C) the vertical enhancement of jobs to enhance autonomy
D) the use of recognition and achievements to motivate employees
E) the reduced need of supervision and direction from managers
47) Internal equity refers to the ________.
A) list of the knowledge, skills, and abilities required in a particular job
B) arrangement of the elements of different jobs in the organization
C) worth of the job to the organization
D) organization's pay relative to pay elsewhere in its industry
E) framework of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that the job involves
48) The external competitiveness of an organization's pay relative to elsewhere in the industry is
measured by its ________.
A) external benefit
B) external rotation
C) external costs
D) external equity
E) external liability
49) ________ bases a portion of an employee's pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of
performance.
A) Guaranteed pay program
B) Variable-pay program
C) Flexible benefits program
D) Modular plans program
E) Base pay program
50) The ________ pay plan has long been popular as a means of compensating production workers by
paying a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.
A) competency-based
B) gainsharing
C) piece-rate
D) profit sharing
E) merit-based
51) Which of the following is an example of a piece-rate plan?
A) $20 for each hour of work
B) $2 for each unit produced
C) stock options at cheaper prices
D) straight commission plan
E) spot bonuses

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52) Which of the following statements is true regarding a merit-based pay plan?
A) It bases pay levels on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.
B) It is also called competency-based pay plan.
C) Unions typically resist merit-based pay plan.
D) It distributes compensation based on an established formula designed around a company's
profitability.
E) A typical merit-based pay plan provides no base salary and pays the employee only for what he or
she produces.
53) A ________ pay plan pays for individual performance based on performance appraisal ratings.
A) piece-rate
B) merit-based
C) employee stock ownership
D) profit sharing
E) gainsharing
54) Daichi Inc. is a Japanese software development firm known for its high quality products. Recently,
the company held its annual conference and awarded all those employees who were in the top five
percent with substantial monetary rewards. Their performance was evaluated on the basis of target
achievement, client feedback, and quality ratings. Employees whose performance had not changed
drastically were given a minor raise and those who faired badly received no incentives. Many employees
blamed the company of creating differences among employees because they felt that it would harm the
company in the long run, but Daichi Inc. truly believes that to retain and motivate its best performers, a
large incentive is a good step. Daichi Inc. is using a(n) ________ here.
A) piece-rate plan
B) employee stock ownership plan
C) modular plan
D) merit-based plan
E) flexible benefits plan
55) Which of the following represents a pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather
than historical performance?
A) bonus
B) flexible benefits
C) modular plans
D) cafeteria plans
E) base salary
56) What is an advantage of bonuses over merit-based pay plan?
A) Employees don't view bonuses as a part of their salary.
B) Bonuses improve flexibility of the workforce.
C) Bonuses are paid based on a formula.
D) Bonuses improve performance of the group as a whole.
E) Employees are rewarded for recent performance.

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57) In which of the following variable-pay programs is the pay level based on how many skills
employees have or how many jobs they can do?
A) bonuses
B) piece-rate pay
C) skill-based pay
D) gainsharing
E) merit-based pay
58) A ________ plan distributes compensation based on some established formula designed around
revenue of the company.
A) piece-rate
B) merit-based
C) skill-based
D) profit-sharing
E) competency-based
59) ________ is a formula-based group incentive plan that uses improvements in group productivity
from one period to another to determine the total amount of money allocated.
A) Employee stock ownership plan
B) Gainsharing
C) Profit-sharing
D) Piece-rate pay plan
E) Merit-based pay plan
60) Which of the following statements is true regarding gainsharing?
A) Gainsharing focuses on productivity gains rather than profits.
B) Gainsharing involves paying employees based on the number of new skills acquired by them in a
specific time period.
C) Gainsharing does not distribute profits, only gains in profits.
D) Employees working under gainsharing plans have a greater feeling of psychological ownership.
E) Gain sharing encourages social loafing.
61) At Dortix, a manufacturing company, at the end of every quarter, the total production of each
department is calculated, compared with the predetermined targets, and the rewards for each set of
divisional employees is determined this way. Dortix uses a ________ plan to incentivize its employees.
A) profit-sharing
B) gainsharing
C) core-plus
D) modular
E) bonus
62) Which of the following variable pay programs is free from dependence on company profits?
A) profit-sharing
B) job sharing
C) bonuses
D) employee stock ownership plans
E) gainsharing

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63) An advantage of the ________ plan is that benefits accrue to groups of workers, high-performing
workers pressure weaker performers to work harder, improving performance for the group as a whole.
A) modular
B) gainsharing
C) skill-based pay
D) flexible benefits
E) profit-sharing
64) Exsell is a popular consumer goods company known for hiring the best resources and using the best
technology to produce an extensive range of goods. The manufacturing units consider productivity to be
the only criterion; targets are upgraded, supervised, and rewarded amply. The groups with the highest
productivity in each manufacturing unit owned by Exsell are incentivized using a substantial monthly
monetary reward program. Of late, there have been some rumors about the company not doing very well
in the market. Many claims of defective quality, declining market share, and employee unrest have been
doing the rounds. However, the CEO of Exsell recently held a conference with the organization and the
media to share its expansion plans for the coming year. He ended the conference with a discussion of
how the profit margin of the company had grown substantially but many employees were left in doubt.
Which of the following, if true, would indicate the need for Exsell to replace gainsharing with profitsharing as a variable pay program for its employees?
A) The company used a merit-based pay plan for decades to reward the employees who deserved
recognition for good performance.
B) The company has opened multiple product categories and is experiencing brand dilution.
C) Executives who receive and evaluate client feedback have found a lot of quality concerns with the
products dispatched in recent times.
D) The economy is showing signs of robust growth after last year's recession and losses.
E) The consumer goods industry has traditionally had higher barriers to entry than other industries of
similar size and reach.
65) At Esco Retail, all employees are constantly driven to work hard. The company places maximum
emphasis on stocking high quality goods and providing high quality service to retain the edge they have
in the retail industry. To promote organizational commitment further, employees are incentivized by
enabling them to purchase company shares at below-market prices as a part of their benefits. This mode
of providing incentives represents the use of ________.
A) flexible benefits plans
B) merit-based plans
C) modular plans
D) employee stock ownership plans
E) core-plus plans
66) Which of the following statements is true regarding an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)?
A) Under this plan, employees acquire company shares often at below-market prices.
B) There exists a strong correlation between ESOPs and employee performance.
C) The financial stake in the company is adequate to use ESOPs as an effective means to motivate
employees.
D) ESOPs are effective because, like bonuses, they reward recent performance.
E) ESOPs are also called competency-based pay plans.

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67) For employee stock ownership plans to be effective in improving performance, they must ________.
A) be based solely on productivity like gainsharing plans
B) be implemented such that employees psychologically experience ownership
C) be determined on the basis of performance appraisals and recent performance
D) be planned such that they are unaffected by company profitability
E) be based on the market compensation philosophy
68) Individualized rewards by allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best
satisfies his or her current needs and situation are called ________.
A) variable pay programs
B) standardized benefits packages
C) employee recognition programs
D) employee involvement programs
E) flexible benefits plans
69) Which of the following statements is true regarding flexible benefits?
A) Flexible benefits are awarded through uniform packages to cover the requirements of a married
couple with two children.
B) Flexible benefits are in accordance with the belief that employees have identical needs that must be
rewarded identically.
C) Gainsharing and profit-sharing plans are two major types of flexible benefits.
D) Flexible benefits can be altered to meet employee needs based on age, marital status, and number and
age of dependents.
E) Flexible benefits are given based on an employee's skills, competence, and productivity.
70) ________ are predesigned packages or modules of benefits, each of which meets the needs of a
specific group of employees.
A) Modular plans
B) Employee stock ownership plans
C) Profit sharing plans
D) Merit-based plans
E) Flextime plans
71) Core-plus plans consist of ________.
A) predesigned packages of benefits that an employee must accept as a whole
B) monetary benefits which are linked to one's performance appraisals
C) fractions of a company's profit margins determined on the basis of an established formula
D) pretax dollars up to the dollar amount offered in the plan that an employee sets apart to pay for
particular benefits
E) essential benefits and a menu-like selection of other benefits that an employee can choose from

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72) Sally Peterson, who works as an entry-level editor, wants to go for dental reconstruction surgery and
sent a query to her HR department asking for a list of preferred hospitals. The HR looked through her
healthcare plan which provided only a minimum coverage for routine drugs and vision care.
Consequently, the HR manager has recently informed her that if she wishes to carry on with the dental
procedure, she will have to pay for it on her own. Which of the following healthcare plans should she
avail to meet her needs?
A) a basic modular plan
B) a standardized benefits package
C) a core-plus plan
D) a fringe benefits plan
E) a 401k plan
73) Flexible spending plans consist of ________.
A) a set of core of essential benefits and a menu-like selection of others from which employees can
select
B) no base salary and pays the employee only for what he or she produces on the basis of a fixed sum
for each unit of production completed
C) a fraction of a company's profit margins determined on the basis of an established formula
D) pretax dollars up to the dollar amount offered in the plan that an employee sets apart to pay for
particular benefits
E) modules of benefits, each of which meets the needs of a specific group of employees
74) Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reward?
A) bonus
B) profit-sharing plan
C) employee stock option
D) employee recognition
E) gainsharing
75) Jack Holmes is a middle-aged, lower-level employee at an automobile service center. Though he is
not paid very well, he loves his job. His supervisor speaks to him with respect and he is the favored
candidate for mentoring new employees because on the vast experience he holds in the job. Based on
this information, which of the following is most likely to be the reason Jack likes his job?
A) recognition
B) prospects of growth
C) salary
D) flextime
E) job sharing
76) Which of the following statements is true regarding employee recognition?
A) Employee recognition is an extrinsic reward.
B) Critics argue that employee recognition programs are highly susceptible to political manipulation by
management.
C) Employee recognition programs are expensive.
D) Centralized programs across multiple offices in different countries can hinder the process of
employee recognition programs.
E) Employee stock option is a more powerful workplace motivator than recognition.

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True/False
77) The job characteristics model describes any job in terms of five core job dimensions and these five
dimensions are skill variety, task significance, recognition, reward, and feedback.
78) Task identity is defined as the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities so the
worker can use a number of different skills and talent.
79) John Dunker is one of the best firefighters in his squad and he recently received an award for his
outstanding performance.
80) Feedback is the degree to which carrying out work activities generates direct and clear information
about one's own performance.
81) Jobs with high autonomy give incumbents a feeling of personal responsibility for the results.
82) Job enrichment improves employees' skills by periodically shifting an employee from one task to
another with similar skill requirements at the same organizational level.
83) To enhance the amount of autonomy employees enjoy, a company must provide its employees with
tasks combined into natural work units.
84) A flextime arrangement requires all employees to be at their jobs during the common core period.
85) The major advantage of flextime is that it can be used for all categories of jobs.
86) The term "virtual office" describes working from home on a relatively permanent basis.
87) Participative management is characterized by the symbolic representation of employees in work
councils and board meetings.
88) Internal equity refers to the worth of the job to the organization.
89) A variable-pay program bases a portion of an employee's pay on some individual and/or
organizational measure of performance.
90) A pure piece-rate plan provides no base salary and pays the employee only for what he or she
produces.
91) A profit-sharing plan works by tying rewards to productivity gains as the only criterion.
92) When the profits of Emm Corp rose steadily over two quarters three years back, the employees of
the company were given the offer of purchasing the company's shares at subsidized rates. Many of the
employees who bought the shares have become extremely rich after the phenomenal growth Emm Corp
has had in the following years. This is an example of a bonus.

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93) A flexible benefits package is designed for a male with a wife and two children at home.
94) Flexible spending plans allow employees to set aside pretax dollars up to the dollar amount offered
in the plan to pay for particular benefits, such as health care and dental premiums.
95) When it comes to motivating employees, financial incentives may be more motivating in the short
term, but in the long run it's nonfinancial incentives.
96) Employee recognition programs are highly susceptible to political manipulation by management.
Essay
97) What are the various dimensions of the job characteristics model?

98) Andrew is a software tester. He runs through the same types of programs day after day looking for
bugs and reporting them. He is taking night classes on programming. Often, he knows the best solution
to many of the bugs, but he is still learning to code. Describe two job characteristics that Andrew is
striving to improve, and explain two ways that Andrew's manager can redesign his current job to help
him reach his goals.

99) What is job enrichment? Describe various methods of job enrichment based on the job
characteristics model .

100) Compare and contrast the job characteristics model and mutual assistance programs in terms of
how they lend meaning to an employee's role.

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101) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of flextime.

102) Describe telecommuting as an alternative work arrangement.

103) Discuss the relationship between social and physical work context and employee satisfaction.

104) What is employee involvement and why is it important. What are the two major forms of employee
involvement?

105) Nora Elm is a newly appointed HR manager at Seven Oaks, a famous PR firm that is not doing too
well at present. As she assumed the post of the HR manager, everyone impressed upon her the need to
energize the employees and motivate them to give their best to the job. After she met with the
employees and managers, she felt that many employees were demotivated because they had attained
their maximum potential in the current job roles. Additionally, she felt that though the management
believed strongly in its employee-friendly nature, this nature was not manifested in its actions. Those
employees who were on the board had begun to mimic the management's action of attributing the lack of
any constructive change to company policies. Describe any two changes that Nora should propose at the
meeting with a rationale for each.

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106) Explain how participative management can enhance skill variety, task identity, and autonomy as
described in the Job Characteristics Model (JCM).

107) List and describe different variable-pay programs.

108) How would you relate skill variety, job rotation, and skill-based pay?

109) Differentiate between bonuses and gainsharing plans.

110) List and describe the various flexible benefits plans.

111) Compare and contrast the benefits of intrinsic rewards, such as recognition, and extrinsic rewards,
such as pay, as forms of motivation.

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