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26/10/2016

FRESH CONCRETE
To the designer, fresh concrete
is of little importance. To the
constructor, fresh concrete is
all-important, because it must
be mixed, transported, placed,
supported, consolidated,
finished, and cured.

FRESH CONCRETE

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CEMENT
TRUCK

CONCRETE PLANT
STANDARDS
 Cement of cementitious



materials shall be batched by


weight.
Aggregates shall be batched
by weight.
Water shall be batched by
weight or volume.

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BATCH PLANT
Accurately proportions
aggregate and cement.
Water is measured in
the mixer truck.

MIXER TRUCK

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MIXER TRUCK

MIXER
TRUCK

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HAULING CONCRETE
Transit mixer truck
Maximum duration 1 hr
or 300 drum revolutions
from introduction of water

until placement.

MIXER DRUM

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MIXER DRUM

CENTRAL MIX PLANT

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CENTRAL MIX PLANT


Accurately proportions
aggregate, cement and
water, and mixes these
materials automatically.

CENTRAL MIX PLANT

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CENTRAL
MIX
PLANT

CENTRAL MIX PLANT

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CENTRAL
MIX
PLANT

Quantities of
Cement, Aggregate
and Water
Specifications may simply
define strength:
28 day strength
(i.e. 2,500, 3,000 or 6,000 psi)

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Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
Specs may define other requirements:
Maximum size aggregate (i. e. 1 in.)
Minimum cement content (sacks per
cy or lb/cy)
Maximum water cement ratio by
weight or in gallons per sack of
cement)

Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
One sack of cement weights
94 lbs.
One barrel of cement contains
four sacks
Specific gravity of cement,
3.15

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Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
Specific gravity (average) of
course or fine aggregate, 2.65
Water weights 62.4 lb/cf
One cf of water = 7.48 U.S. gal.
One gallon of water weights
8.33 lb.

Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
Usually the proportion of fine
aggregate varies between 25 and
45% of total aggregate volume.
Absolute volume of any ingredient
in cubic feet equals:

Wt of the ingredient ( lb )
Specific gravity ingredient 62.4 lb / cf

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Quantity Example
Max. size aggregate 1 in.
Min. cement content
6.0 sacks/cy
Max. water/cement ratio
0.65

Quantity Example
Cement/cubic yard 6.0 sacks
6 sacks 94 lb/sack = 564 lb
Absolute volume of cement

564 lb
= 2.87 cf
3.15 62.4

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Quantity Example
Water/cubic yard
564 lb 0.65 = 366.6 lb
Absolute volume of water

366.6 lb
= 5.88 cf
1.0 62.4

Quantity Example
Absolute volume of 1 cy of
concrete = 27.0 cf
Assume 6% air voids

27.0 0.06 = 1.62 cf

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Quantity Example
Absolute volume of aggregate

27.0 2.87 5.88 1.62


=16.63 cf

Quantity Example
Absolute volume of sand
Assume fine aggregate 35%

0.35 16.63 = 5.82 cf


Weight fine aggregate

5.82 cf 2.65 62.4


= 962.4 lb/cy

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Quantity Example
Absolute volume of coarse
aggregate

16.63 5.82 = 10.81 cf


Weight course aggregate

10.81 cf 2.65 62.4


= 1,787.5 lb/cy

Quantity Example
Assume a 700 cy placement.
Cement required

564.0 #/ cy 700 cy = 394,800 lb

197.4 tn

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Quantity Example
Assume a 700 cy placement.
Water required

366.6 #/ cy 700 cy = 256,620 lb

256,620 lb
= 30,807 gallons
8.33 #/ gal

Quantity Example
Assume a 6 hours for the
placement.

30,807 gal
= 5,134 gal / hr
6 hours
Or 86 gallons/minute

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Quantity Example
Assume a 700 cy placement.
Sand required

962.4 #/ cy 700 cy = 673,680 lb

337 tn

Quantity Example
Assume a 700 cy placement.
Course aggregate required

1,787.5 #/ cy 700 cy = 1, 251, 250 lb

626 tn

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Quantity Example

Assume a 700 cy placement.

How much for waste??

HAULING CONCRETE
Wet Central Mix Concrete
Using dump or agitor
trucks, 30 minute maximum
haul at 70 to 90 degrees.

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CABLE &
BUCKET SYSTEM

CABLE &
BUCKET
SYSTEM

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CONVEYOR SYSTEM

CONVEYOR SYSTEM

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SLIPFORM PAVER

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SLIPFORM PAVER

PAVING OVER DOWELS

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PAVING OVER REBAR

SIDE FEEDER
Side feeder when paving over
dowels or rebar.

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PAVING the
MIDDLE LANE

CONCRETE

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SMOOTHNESS
Specifications require smoothness.

A Profileometer. is used
to measure smoothness.

SMOOTHNESS


Monitor supply of concrete.

Mix design is but a prerequisite.

Many of the problems occurring


in pavements concern what is
done with the mix.

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SMOOTHNESS


Control
density.
Vibration is a
vital part of the
paving process.
Paver Vibrators

SMOOTHNESS


Weight & Traction

The principle which makes a


slipform paver work is the
consolidation of the concrete
in a confined space.

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SMOOTHNESS

 Paver attitude.
The paver attitude is
the attack angle in
relation to the concrete.

SAWING
JOINTS

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SAWING JOINTS

Saw depth
Resulting crack

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CONCRETE
PLACEMENT
Very important to
prevent
segregation of the
coarse aggregate
during
placement.

CONSOLIDATION
Consolidation
is normally
achieved
through the
use of
mechanical
vibrators.

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SCREED

BRIDGE DECK

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FORM SYSTEMS

TEMPERATURE
When the temperature of
fresh concrete exceeds 85
or 90F, the resulting
strength and durability of
the concrete can be
reduced.

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TEMPERATURE
Most specifications require
that concrete be placed at a
temperature of less than
90F. In hot weather it may
be necessary to cool the
ingredients before mixing

CURING
Do not forget
about the curing
requirements.

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LABOR
Carpenters
Labors
Cement masons
Ironworkers
Teamsters
Operating engineers

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