U.S. Department 
Publication No. FHWA HI98032 
of Transportation 
May 2001 
Federal Highway Administration
NHI Course No. 132068
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Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Highway Bridge Substructures
Reference Manual and Participant Workbook
National Highway Institute
PREFACE
For many years, engineers have designed foundations, walls and culverts for highway and other applications using allowable stress design (ASD) methods. In ASD, all uncertainty in loads and material resistance is combined in a factor of safety or allowable stress. For most highway design, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges represents the primary source document for ASD of substructures. In 1994, AASHTO approved Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) in the LRFD Highway Bridge Design Specifications. In LRFD, the uncertainty in load is represented by a load factor and the uncertainty in material resistance is represented by a resistance factor. Due to the fundamental differences between the substructure design process by ASD and LRFD, this course has been developed to present the fundamentals of LRFD for the geotechnical design of highway bridge substructures. Because this document was prepared for engineers and others who are already familiar with the design of substructures using ASD, it is intended for use in conjunction with other documents describing standard geotechnical design procedures.
The objectives of this reference manual are to provide the basis for an understanding of the:
Differences between ASD and LRFD for substructure design Benefits of LRFD for substructure design Importance of site characterization and selection of geotechnical design parameters Process for design of substructure elements by LRFD using the AASHTO LRFD Specifications as a guide Process for selection and application of load factors and load combinations Methods available for calibration of resistance factors Basis for calibration of the AASHTO LRFD resistance factors for substructure design Procedures available for modifying or developing resistance factors to achieve designs comparable to ASD
This Reference Manual is intended principally to serve as a supplement to the Participant’s Workbook for the FHWA’s National Highway Institute Course on Load and Resistance Factor Design for Highway Bridge Substructures. The Reference Manual can also serve as a primary reference for engineers in modifying or developing resistance factors to achieve designs comparable to ASD and for designing foundations, earth retaining structures and culverts through the numerous design examples included throughout the design chapters in the manual.
The authors acknowledge the efforts of the project technical managers, Mr. Jerry DiMaggio and Mr. Richard Cheney, FHWA Senior Geotechnical Engineers who provided constructive guidance and input for this document, and Mr. ChienTan Chang, FHWA’s Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative who provided administrative oversight and guidance.
i
The authors also wish to acknowledge contributions of the following members of the Technical Working Group listed in alphabetical order:

Chris Benda  Vermont Department of Transportation 

James Cuthbertson  Washington State Department of Transportation 

Richard Engle  Ohio Department of Transportation 

Ashton Lawler  Virginia Department of Transportation 

James Lyons  Federal Highway Administration 

Paul Passe  Florida Department of Transportation 

Tom Saad  Federal Highway Administration 

James Schluter  CONTECH Construction Products 
Lastly, the authors wish to thank the following employees from D’Appolonia for their vital contributions and significant effort in preparing this document: Ms. Tara Heyer, Mr. Robert Whitaker, Mr. David Mudry, Mr. Christopher Lewis, Mr. James Wang and Dr. Yasser A. Hegazy.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES 
xii 
LIST OF FIGURES 
xix 
LIST OF SYMBOLS 
xxiii 
CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Manual Objectives 
11 
1.2 Manual Outline 
12 
1.3 General References 
13 
CHAPTER 2  TRANSITION TO LRFD FOR SUSBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 

2.1 Introduction 
21 
2.2 Allowable Stress Design 
21 
2.3 Load and Resistance Factor Design 
22 
2.4 LRFD Calibration 
28 
2.5 Summary 
29 
CHAPTER 3 PRINCIPLES OF LIMIT STATES DESIGN 

3.1 Introduction 
31 
3.2 Design Procedures 
32 
3.2.1 Allowable Stress Design (ASD) 
32 
3.2.2 Shortcomings of ASD 
33 
3.2.3 Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) 
34 
3.2.4 Advantages and Limitations of LRFD 
35 
3.3 Calibration 
36 
3.4 Review of Statistics and Probability Concepts 
310 
3.4.1 Statistical Descriptors 
310 
3.4.2 Probability Density Functions 
312 
3.4.3 Probability of Failure 
316 
3.4.4 Reliability Index, _{} 
317 
3.4.5 Resistance Statistics 
320 
3.4.6 Load Statistics 
323 
3.4.7 Calibration by a Combined Approach 
329 
3.5 Student Exercise 
331 
CHAPTER 4  LOADS 

4.1 Introduction 
41 
4.2 Load Considerations for Geotechnical Design of Substructures 
42 
4.2.1 Permanent Loads 
43 
4.2.1.1 Dead Loads  DC, DW and EV 
43 
4.2.1.2 Downdrag Load  DD 
43 
4.2.1.3 Lateral Earth Pressure Load EH 
44 
4.2.1.4 Earth Surcharge Load  ES 
48 
4.2.2 Transient Loads 
49 
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
4.2.2.1 Vehicular Live Load  LL 
49 

4.2.2.2 Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance  IM 
410 

4.2.2.3 Vehicular Centrifugal Force  CE 
410 

4.2.2.4 Vehicular Breaking Force  BR 
410 

4.2.2.5 Pedestrian Live Load  PL 
411 

4.2.2.6 Live Load Surcharge  LS 
411 

4.2.2.7 Water Load and Stream Pressure Force  WA 
412 

4.2.2.8 Wind Load  WS and WL 
413 

4.2.2.9 Friction Force FR 
414 

4.2.2.10 Force Effects Due to Superimposed Deformations  TU, TG, 

CR, SH, and SE 
415 

4.2.2.11 Earthquake Force  EQ 
415 

4.2.2.12 Ice Load  IC 
421 

4.2.2.13 Vehicular Collision Force  CT 
423 

4.2.2.14 Vessel Collision Force  CV 
423 

4.3 Load Factors and Load Combinations 
424 

4.4 Loads on Foundations and Retaining Walls 
431 

4.5 Loads on Culverts 
434 

4.5.1 Earth Loads 
434 

4.5.2 Vehicular Live Loads 
436 

4.6 Student Exercise 
447 

4.7 Student Problem: 
Load Combinations for Retaining Wall 
448 
4.8 Design Example: 
Load Combinations for Bridge Pier Foundation 
457 
CHAPTER 5  GEOTECHNICAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION 

5.1 Introduction 
51 

5.2 Planning Exploration and Testing Programs 
51 

5.2.1 General 
51 

5.2.2 Soil and Rock Variability 
52 

5.3 Field Test Methods 
58 

5.3.1 SplitBarrel Sampling 
59 

5.3.2 Cone Penetration Testing 
510 

5.3.3 Vane Shear Testing 
512 

5.3.4 Pressuremeter Test 
513 

5.3.5 Other Methods 
514 

5.3.5.1 Undisturbed Sampling 
515 

5.3.5.2 Rock Coring 
516 

5.3.5.3 Ground Water Location 
516 

5.4 Laboratory Test Methods 
516 

5.4.1 Soil Index Testing 
516 

5.4.2 Rock Index Testing 
517 

5.4.3 Engineering Property Testing of Soil 
518 

5.4.4 Engineering Property Testing of Rock 
518 
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
5.5 Local Geologic Problem Conditions 
521 

5.6 Example Problem: Develop Site Specific Resistance Factors from Field and Laboratory Test Data 
523 

CHAPTER 6  GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN PARAMETER SELECTION 

6.1 Introduction 
61 

6.2 Test Method Selection 
61 

6.2.1 Field Test Methods 
62 

6.2.1.1 Shear Strength 
62 

6.2.1.2 Compressibility 
64 

6.2.2 Laboratory Tests 
65 

6.2.2.1 Shear Strength 
65 

6.2.2.2 Compressibility 
65 

6.2.2.3 Index Tests 
65 

6.2.3 Parameter Evaluation 
66 

6.3 Reliability of Tests for Estimating Design Parameters 
67 

6.3.1 Field Test Methods 
67 

6.3.1.1 Shear Strength 
67 

6.3.1.1.1 Effective Stress Strength 
67 

6.3.1.1.2 Total Stress Strength 
69 

6.3.1.2 Compressibility 
611 

6.3.2 Laboratory Tests 
614 

6.4 Design Parameter Selection and Resistance Factors 
616 

6.5 Example Problem: Characterization Planning 
618 

CHAPTER 7  CALIBRATION AS PART OF THE DESIGN PROCESS 

7.1 Introduction 
71 

7.2 Reliability Theory or Fitting with ASD? 
71 

7.3 Evaluating Resistance Factors Using Reliability Method 
72 

7.3.1 Estimating Resistance Bias _{} _{R} and Coefficient of Variation COV _{R} 
73 

7.3.2 Example Problem  Estimating _{} _{R} and COV _{R} for Friction Angle 
75 

7.3.3 Example Problem  Estimating _{} _{R} and COV _{R} for Undrained Strength 
75 

7.3.4 Values of Dead Load Bias _{} _{Q}_{D} and Coefficient of Variation COV _{Q}_{D} 
75 

7.3.5 Example Problem  Estimating _{} _{Q}_{D} and COV _{Q}_{D} for a Bridge 
76 

7.3.6 Values of Load Factors _{} _{P} for Permanent (Dead) Loads 
76 

7.3.7 Values of Q _{D} /Q _{L} 
76 

7.3.8 Values of _{} _{T} 
78 

7.3.9 Example Problem  Resistance Factors for the Nordlund Method 
78 

7.4 Simplified Reliability Method to Evaluate Resistance Factors 
710 

7.4.1 
Example Problem  Estimating Resistance Factors for the Nordlund Method 
710 
7.5 Fitting with ASD to Evaluate Resistance Factors 
711 

7.5.1 
Example Problem  Estimating Resistance Factors for the Nordlund Method 
711 
7.6 Summary and Closing Remarks 
712 
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
7.7 
Student Exercise 
714 

Appendix 7A  Derivation of Simplified Reliability Calibration of Resistance Factors 
715 

Appendix 7B  Derivation for Fitting with ASD 
717 

CHAPTER 8  SPREAD FOOTING DESIGN 

8.1 Introduction 
81 

8.2 Design Methods 
81 

8.2.1 ASD Summary 
81 

8.2.2 LRFD Summary 
85 

8.2.2.1 Limit States 
87 

8.2.2.2 Resistance Factors 
88 

8.2.2.3 Comparison of Spread Footing Design Using LRFD and ASD 
810 

8.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors 
813 

8.2.3 Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD 
814 

8.3 Performance Limits 
814 

8.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria 
816 

8.3.2 Bearing Resistance 
817 

8.3.3 Sliding Resistance 
819 

8.3.4 Load Eccentricity (Overturning) 
819 

8.3.5 Overall Stability 
820 

8.3.6 Structural Resistance 
821 

8.3.7 Other Considerations 
821 

8.3.7.1 Footing Embedment 
821 

8.3.7.2 Buoyancy and Uplift 
821 

8.4 Student Exercise: Bearing Resistance of Spread Footings on Sand 
823 

8.5 Student Problem: Footing Design on Soil Using ASD and LRFD 
825 

CHAPTER 9  DRIVEN PILE DESIGN 

9.1 Introduction 
91 

9.2 Design Methods 
91 

9.2.1 ASD Summary 
91 

9.2.2 LRFD Summary 
94 

9.2.2.1 Limit States 
96 

9.2.2.2 Resistance Factors 
97 

9.2.2.3 Comparison of Driven Pile Design Using LRFD and ASD 
912 

9.2.2.3.1 Geotechnical Design 
912 

9.2.2.3.2 Structural Design 
914 

9.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors 
914 

9.2.2.4.1 Geotechnical Design 
914 

9.2.2.4.2 Structural Design 
915 

9.2.3 Summarized Comparison of LRFD and ASD 
916 

9.3 Performance Limits 
916 

9.3.1 
Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria 
918 
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
9.3.2 Axial Resistance 
918 
9.3.2.1 Geotechnical Resistance 
918 
9.3.2.2 Structural Resistance 
920 
9.3.3 Lateral Resistance 
921 
9.3.4 Other Considerations 
922 
9.3.4.1 Group Effects 
922 
9.3.4.2 Negative Loading 
923 
9.3.4.3 Uplift Loading 
923 
9.3.4.4 Driving Stresses and Driveability 
924 
9.3.4.5 Fixity of PileCap Connection 
925 
9.4 Student Problem: Comparison of Pile Designs Using ASD and LRFD 
926 
9.5 Student Exercise: Pile Capacity Evaluation by Nordlund Method 
938 
9.6 Design Example 1: Design of Pile Support for Bridge Pier 
941 
9.7 Design Example 2: Design of Pile Support for Bridge Pier Subjected to Downdrag Loading 
953 
CHAPTER 10  DRILLED SHAFT DESIGN 

10.1 Introduction 
101 
10.2 Design Methods 
101 
10.2.1 ASD Summary 
101 
10.2.2 LRFD Summary 
103 
10.2.2.1 Limit States 
105 
10.2.2.2 Resistance Factors 
106 
10.2.2.3 Comparison of Drilled Shaft Design Using LRFD and ASD 
109 
10.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors 
109 
10.2.3 Summarized Comparison of LRFD and ASD 
1011 
10.3 Performance Limits 
1013 
10.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria 
1013 
10.3.2 Axial Resistance 
1014 
10.3.2.1 Geotechnical Resistance 
1014 
10.3.2.2 Structural Resistance 
1016 
10.3.3 Lateral Resistance 
1017 
10.3.4 Other Considerations 
1018 
10.3.4.1 Group Effects 
1018 
10.3.4.2 Negative Loading 
1019 
10.3.4.3 Uplift Loading 
1019 
10.3.4.4 Fixity of Cap Connection 
1020 
10.4 Design Example: Comparison of Drilled Shaft Designs Using ASD and LRFD 
1021 
10.5 Student Exercise: Development of Resistance Factor for Design of 

Drilled Shafts in Sand 
1028 
CHAPTER 11  CONVENTIONAL RETAINING WALL AND ABUTMENT DESIGN
11.1 Introduction
vii
111
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
11.2 Design Methods 
111 

11.2.1 ASD Summary 
111 

11.2.2 LRFD Summary 
112 

11.2.2.1 Limit States 
112 

11.2.2.2 Resistance Factors 
113 

11.2.2.3 Comparison of Wall Design Using LRFD and ASD 
115 

11.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors 
115 

11.2.3 
Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD 
115 

11.3 Performance Limits 
115 

11.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria 
116 

11.3.2 Geotechnical Resistance 
117 

11.3.3 Structural Resistance 
117 

11.3.4 Other Considerations 
117 

11.3.4.1 Loss of Passive Resistance 
117 

11.3.4.2 Drainage 
117 

11.4 Design Example: Cantilever Retaining Wall on Spread Footing by LRFD and ASD 
118 

CHAPTER 12  PREFABRICATED MODULAR WALL DESIGN 

12.1 Introduction 
121 

12.2 Design Methods 
121 

12.2.1 ASD Summary 
121 

12.2.2 LRFD Summary 
122 

12.2.2.1 Limit States 
122 

12.2.2.2 Resistance Factors 
123 

12.2.2.3 Comparison of Wall Design Using LRFD and ASD 
123 

12.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors 
123 

12.2.3 
Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD 
124 

12.3 Performance Limits 
124 

12.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria 
125 

12.3.2 Geotechnical Resistance 
125 

12.3.3 Structural Resistance 
125 

12.3.4 Other Considerations 
126 

12.3.4.1 Loss of Passive Resistance 
126 

12.3.4.2 Drainage 
126 

12.4 Design Example: Geotechnical Design of Prefabricated Modular Retaining Wall 
127 

CHAPTER 13  ANCHORED WALL DESIGN 

13.1 Introduction 
131 

13.2 Design Methods 
131 

13.2.1 General Design Considerations 
131 

13.2.2 ASD Summary 
133 

13.2.3 LRFD Summary 
135 

13.2.3.1 
Limit States 
137 
viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
13.2.3.2 Resistance Factors 
138 

13.2.3.3 Comparison of Anchored Wall Design Using LRFD and ASD 
138 

13.2.3.3.1 Geotechnical Design 
138 

13.2.3.3.2 Structural Design 
1310 

13.2.3.4 Modification of Resistance Factors 
1311 

13.2.3.4.1 Geotechnical Design 
1311 

13.2.3.4.2 Structural Design 
1313 

13.2.4 
Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD 
1313 
13.3 Performance Limits 
1313 

13.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria 
1313 

13.3.2 Anchor Pullout 
1316 

13.3.3 Bearing Resistance (Vertical Wall Elements) 
1317 

13.3.4 Passive Resistance (Vertical Wall Elements) 
1318 

13.3.5 Overall Stability 
1318 

13.3.6 Structural Resistance 
1318 

13.3.6.1 Vertical Wall Elements 
1318 

13.3.6.2 Permanent Facing 
1319 

13.3.7 
Other Considerations 
1320 
13.3.7.1 Corrosion 
1320 

13.3.7.2 Drainage 
1320 

13.4 Student Problem: Anchored Soldier Pile Wall Design by LRFD 
1321 

CHAPTER 14  MECHANICALLYSTABILIZED EARTH (MSE) WALL DESIGN 

14.1 Introduction 
141 

14.2 Design Methods 
141 

14.2.1 General Design Considerations 
141 

14.2.2 ASD Summary 
142 

14.2.3 LRFD Summary 
146 

14.2.3.1 Limit States 
148 

14.2.3.2 Resistance Factors 
149 

14.2.3.3 Comparison of Wall Design Using LRFD and ASD 
1412 

14.2.3.4 Modification of Resistance Factors 
1412 

14.2.4 Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD 
1413 

14.3 Performance Limits 
1414 

14.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movements 
1414 

14.3.2 Bearing Resistance 
1415 

14.3.3 Sliding Resistance 
1415 

14.3.4 Overall Stability 
1415 

14.3.5 Pullout of Reinforcing Elements 
1415 

14.3.6 Rupture of Reinforcing Elements 
1418 

14.3.7 Horizontal Forces for Internal Stability Calculations 
1418 

14.3.8 Design Life 
1420 

14.4 Design Example 1: MSE Wall Design by LRFD 
1422 
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
14.5 
Design Example 2: Design of MSE Wall with Broken Backslope and Traffic Surcharge by LRFD 
1439 

CHAPTER 15  FLEXIBLE CULVERT DESIGN 

15.1 Introduction 
151 

15.2 Design Methods 
152 

15.2.1 ASD Summary 
152 

15.2.2 LRFD Summary 
154 

15.2.2.1 Limit States 
155 

15.2.2.2 Loads and Load Factors 
156 

15.2.2.3 Resistance Factors 
157 

15.2.2.4 Comparison of Flexible Culvert Design Using ASD and LRFD 
158 

15.2.2.5 Modification of Resistance Factors 
159 

15.2.3 
Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD 
1510 

15.3 Performance Limits 
1510 

15.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movements 
1510 

15.3.2 Wall Compression (Thrust) 
1513 

15.3.3 Wall Buckling 
1515 

15.3.4 Seam Strength 
1517 

15.3.5 Handling Flexibility 
1518 

15.3.6 Other Considerations 
1519 

15.4 Design Example 
1520 

CHAPTER 16  RIGID CULVERT DESIGN 

16.1 Introduction 
161 

16.2 Design Methods 
161 

16.2.1 Indirect Design Method 
162 

16.2.2 Direct Design Method 
164 

16.2.2.1 Limit States 
167 

16.2.2.2 Resistance Factors 
167 

16.2.2.3 Comparison of Rigid Culvert Design Using ASD and LRFD 
168 

16.3 Performance Limits 
168 

16.3.1 Elastic Load Models 
168 

16.3.2 Flexure and Thrust 
1610 

16.3.3 Shear 
1611 

16.3.4 Radial Tension 
1611 

16.3.5 Crack Width 
1611 

CHAPTER 17  SUMMARY 

17.1 
Summary and Overview 
171 
REFERENCES APPENDIX A  METRIC STANDARDS AND UNIT CONVERSIONS
x
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
A.1 
Introduction 
A1 

A.2 
Standard Metric Units and Conversions with English Units 
A1 

A.2.1 
Base Units 
A1 

A.2.1.1 
Length 
A1 

A.2.1.2 
Mass 
A1 

A.2.1.3 
Time 
A2 

A.2.1.4 
Temperature 
A2 

A.2.2 
Derived Units 
A2 

A.2.2.1 
Force 
A2 

A.2.2.2 Pressure 
A2 

A.2.2.3 
Mass Density and Unit Weight 
A2 

A.2.2.4 
Temperature 
A2 

A.2.3 
Unit Prefixes 
A2 

A.2.4 
Summary of Standard and Preferred Metric Units 
A3 

A.2.5 
English to SI Unit Conversions 
A3 

A.2.6 
SI Units in Engineering Documents 
A5 

A.2.6.1 
Variable Symbols 
A5 

A.2.6.2 
Base Dimensions 
A6 

A.2.6.3 
Unit Symbols 
A6 

A.2.6.4 
Combined Units and Symbols 
A8 

A.3 
Examples 
A10 

APPENDIX B  SOLUTIONS TO STUDENT EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS 

B.1 
Chapter 3 Student Exercise 
B1 

B.2 
Chapter 4 Student Exercise 
B5 

B.3 
Chapter 4 Student Problem: Load Combinations for Retaining Wall 
B7 

B.4 
Chapter 7 Student Exercise 
B15 

B.5 
Chapter 8 Student Exercise: Bearing Resistance of Spread Footings on Sand 
B17 

B.6 
Chapter 8 Student Problem: Footing Design on Soil Using ASD and LRFD 
B21 

B.7 
Chapter 9 Student Problem: Comparison of Pile Designs by ASD and LRFD 
B33 

B.8 
Chapter 9 Student Exercise: Pile Capacity Evaluation by Nordlund Method 
B45 

B.9 
Chapter 10 Student Problem: Development of Resistance Factor for Design of 

Drilled Shafts in Sand 
B48 

B.10 
Chapter 13 Student Problem: Anchored Soldier Pile Wall Design by LRFD 
B49 
xi
Table
No.
21
_{3}_{}_{1}
32
_{3}_{}_{3}
34
35
36
_{3}_{A}_{}_{1}
_{4}_{}_{1}
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
LIST OF TABLES
Title
Relationship Between p _{f} and _{} for Lognormal Distribution Values of Resistance Factors Corresponding by Fitting for Different Values of Safety Factor and Dead to Live Load Ratios for _{} _{D} = 1.25 and _{} _{L} = 1.75 Summary of Measured and Predicted Driven Pile Axial Soil Resistance Using Meyerhof Procedure Relationship Between Probability of Failure and Reliability Index for Lognormal Distribution Summary of Resistance Statistics Statistics for Bridge Load Components Resistance Factors for Axially Loaded Driven Piles in Sand, InSitu Methods Relationship Between Probability of Failure and Reliability Index for Normal Distribution Relative Movements Needed to Achieve Active of Passive Earth Pressure Conditions Equivalent Height of Soil for Vehicular Loading Values of V _{0} and Z _{0} for Various Upstream Surface Conditions Base Pressure, P _{B} , for V _{a} = 160 km/hr Seismic Performance Zones Site Coefficients Classification of Soil Profile Types Response Modification Factors for Substructure Design Response Modification Factors for Connector Design Load Combinations and Load Factors
Load Factors for Permanent Loads, _{} _{P} Minimum Soil Cover for Culverts Multiple Presence Factors Unfactored Vertical Loads and Resisting Moments
Unfactored Horizontal Loads and Overturning Moments
Load Factors
Factored Vertical Loads
Factored Horizontal Loads
Factored Moments from Vertical Forces (M _{v} )
xii
420
421
422
423
424
425
_{4}_{}_{2}_{6}
427
428
429
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
510
511
512
513
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
Factored Moments from Horizontal Forces (M _{h} )
Unfactored Pier Loads and Moments
Load Combinations and Load Factors
Load Factors for Permanent Loads, _{} _{P}
Moment Magnification Factors, _{}
Summary of Factored Loads and Moments in Pier Stem Summary of Factored Axial Loads and Average Bearing Pressures at Base of Pier Stem Critical Load Combinations for Deep Foundations
Critical Load Combinations for Spread Footing Foundations
Summary of Factored Loads for Critical Foundation Design Load Combinations
Guideline Minimum Boring and Sampling Criteria
Comparison of Ground Investigation Cost to Project Cost Overruns
Estimates of InSitu Test Variability
Selected Major Sources of Error in the Standard Penetration Test
Major Sources of Error in the Cone Penetration Test
Major Sources of Error in the Vane Shear Test
Major Sources of Error for the Pressuremeter Test
Summary of Inherent Soil Variability and Measurement Variability for Index Tests
Index Test and Inherent Variability of Calcareous Mudstone Summary of Inherent Soil Variability and Measurement Variability for Strength Tests Selected Variability of Rock Modulus Values
Problem Conditions Requiring Special Consideration
Field and Laboratory Shear Strength Test Data for Example Problem
Correlation of InSitu Test with Foundation Performance for Cohesive Soils
Correlation of InSitu Test with Foundation Performance for Cohesionless Soils
Correlations of InSitu Tests with Engineering Behavior for Cohesive Soils
Correlations of InSitu Tests with Engineering Behavior for Cohesionless Soils
Soil Property Correlations with Index Test Data
Approximate Guidelines for Design Property Variability
Example Problem Work Sheet
xiii
71
72
73
74
75
76
_{7}_{}_{7}
78
_{8}_{}_{1}
82
83
84
85
86
_{8}_{}_{7}
88
_{8}_{}_{9}
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
_{9}_{}_{1}
92
93
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
Values of _{} _{R} and COV _{R}
Values of _{} _{Q}_{D} and COV _{Q}_{D}
Load Factors for Permanent Loads, _{} _{P}
Values of Q _{D} /Q _{L}
Values of Target Reliability Index, _{} _{T}
Values of _{} for Nordlund's Method Calculated Using Reliability Theory Values of _{} for Nordlund's Method Calculated Using the Simplified Approximate Reliability Method Values of _{} for Nordlund's Method Calculated Using Fitting with ASD Factors of Safety on Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity of Spread Footings for Bearing Capacity and Sliding Failure Factors of Safety on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Spread Footings on Soil
Variable Factors of Safety on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Spread Footings
Suggested Minimum Factors of Safety for Overall Slope Stability from FHWA Required Minimum Factors of Safety for Overall Slope Stability from AASHTO ASD Limit States for Design of Spread Footing Foundations Resistance Factors for SemiEmpirical Evaluation of Bearing Capacity for Spread Footings on Sand Using ReliabilityBased Calibration Resistance Factors for Geotechnical Strength Limit State for Shallow Foundations Comparison of ASD Factor of Safety with LRFD Equivalent Factor of Safety for Spread Footing Foundations Unfactored and Factored Vertical Loads
Unfactored and Factored Horizontal Loads
Unfactored and Factored Moments from Vertical Forces (M _{v} )
Unfactored and Factored Moments from Horizontal Forces (M _{h} )
Consolidation Settlement Calculation
Summary of Eccentricity Check
Summary of Factored Bearing Pressures
Summary of Sliding Resistance
Summary of Spread Footing Design by LRFD and ASD Factor of Safety on Ultimate Axial Geotechnical Capacity Based on Level of Construction Control Allowable Stresses in Piles
Strength and Service Limit States for Design of Driven Pile Foundations
xiv
_{9}_{}_{4}
95
96
_{9}_{}_{7}
98
99
910
911
912
913
914
915
101
_{1}_{0}_{}_{2}
103
_{1}_{0}_{}_{4}
_{1}_{0}_{}_{5}
106
_{1}_{0}_{}_{7}
_{1}_{0}_{}_{8}
109
111
112
121
122
123
124
125
126
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
Resistance Factors for Driven Piles for Estimating the Axial Geotechnical Pile Capacity Using ReliabilityBased Calibration Resistance Factors for Geotechnical Strength Limit State for Axially Loaded Piles
Resistance Factors for Structural Design of AxiallyLoaded Piles Calibrated to ASD Comparison of ASD Factor of Safety with LRFD Equivalent Factor of Safety Geotechnical Strength Limit State for AxiallyLoaded Piles Conditions When Downdrag Should be Considered in Design
Permissible Stresses During Pile Driving
Load Factors
Tabulation of Side Resistance Along Pile Length
Determination of Required Pile Group Size Based on ASD
Determination of Required Pile Group Size Based on LRFD
Summary of Factored Loads for Critical Foundation Design Load Combinations
Pile Spacing Effect
Factor of Safety on Ultimate Axial Geotechnical Capacity Factors of Safety on Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity Based on Design Life and Level of Construction Control Limit States for Design of Drilled Shaft Foundations Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts for Estimating the Ultimate Axial Shaft Capacity Using ReliabilityBased Calibration Resistance Factors for Geotechnical Strength Limit States for Axially Loaded Drilled Shafts Resistance Factor for Structural Design of AxiallyLoaded Drilled Shafts Comparison of ASD Factor of Safety with LRFD Equivalent Factor of Safety, Geotechnical Strength Limit State for AxiallyLoaded Shafts Comparison of ACI and AASHTO LRFD Load and Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts Conditions When Downdrag Should be Considered in Design
Limit States for Design of Gravity Retaining Walls and Abutments
Summary of Parametric Study Results from LRFD Eccentricity Calibration
Strength and Service Limit States for Design of Prefabricated Modular Walls
Unfactored Unit Properties of 2.44m Long Wall Modules
Unfactored Vertical Loads and Resisting Moments
Unfactored Horizontal Loads and Overturning Moments
Load Factors
Factored Vertical Loads
xv
127
128
129
1210
1211
1212
1213
131
132
133
134
135
_{1}_{3}_{}_{6}
137
138
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
Factored Horizontal Loads
Factored Moments from Vertical Forces (M _{v} )
Factored Moments from Horizontal Forces (M _{h} )
Summary of Eccentricity Check
Summary of Maximum Bearing Pressures
Summary of Sliding Resistance
Summary of Spread Footing Design by LRFD and ASD
Factors of Safety for Anchored Walls
Maximum Allowable Tensile Loads for Ground Anchors
Strength and Service Limit States for Design of Anchored Walls
Resistance Factors for Anchored Walls
Comparison of FS _{A}_{S}_{D} and FS _{L}_{R}_{F}_{D} for Anchored Walls Comparison of ASD Allowable Load/Stress with the LRFD Equivalent Load/Stress for Structural Design of Ground Anchors Ultimate Unit Resistance of Anchors in Soil
Ultimate Unit Resistance of Anchors in Rock
Factors of Safety for External Stability of MSE Walls
ASD Criteria for Internal Stability Evaluation of Reinforcements for MSE Walls
Strength and Service Limit States for Design of MSE Walls
Resistance Factors for Strength Limit State of MSE Walls
Creep Reduction Factors for Polymeric Reinforcements
Relationship Between Joint Width and Limiting Distortion of MSE Wall Facing
Coefficient of Resistance for Steel Reinforcements
Equivalent Height of Soil for Vehicular Loading
Unfactored Vertical Loads/Moments
Unfactored Horizontal Loads/Moments
Load Factors and Load Combinations
Factored Vertical Loads
Factored Horizontal Loads
Factored Moments from Vertical Loads
Factored Moments from Horizontal Loads
Summary for Eccentricity Check
xvi
1417
_{1}_{4}_{}_{1}_{8}
1419
_{1}_{4}_{}_{2}_{0}
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
151
152
153
154
155
_{1}_{5}_{}_{6}
157
158
_{1}_{5}_{}_{9}
_{1}_{5}_{}_{1}_{0}
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
Summary for Bearing Check Factored Vertical Load and Moment at Reinforcement Levels for Reinforcement Tensile Resistance Evaluation Summary of Factored Horizontal Loads for Reinforcement Tensile Resistance Evaluation Factored Vertical Load and Moment at Reinforcement Levels for Pullout Resistance Evaluation Summary of Factored Horizontal Loads for Reinforcement Pullout Resistance Evaluation Pullout Resistance in Reinforcement Levels
Equivalent Height of Soil for Vehicular Loading
Unfactored Vertical Loads/Moments
Unfactored Horizontal Loads/Moments
Load Factors and Load Combinations
Factored Vertical Loads
Factored Horizontal Loads
Factored Moments from Vertical Loads
Factored Moments from Horizontal Loads
Summary for Eccentricity Check
Factored Vertical Load and Moment at Reinforcement Levels
Summary of Factored Horizontal Loads Summary of Maximum Factored Horizontal Forces for Connection of Strip to Facing Pullout Resistance in Reinforcement Levels
Factor of Safety on Ultimate Structural Capacity of Flexible Culverts
Limit States Applicable for Design of Metal Pipes and Arches
Limit States Applicable for Design of Thermoplastic Pipe
Load Factors for Flexible Culvert Design
Resistance Factors for Design of Flexible Culverts Comparison of Effective Factors of Safety for Flexible Culverts  Strength I Limit State Strength and Elastic Properties of Aluminum and Steel Culverts
Strength and Elastic Properties of PE and PVC Culverts Flexibility Factor Limits for Corrugated Metal, Structural Plate and Thermoplastic Pipe Minimum Longitudinal Seam Strength for Steel and Aluminum Structural Plate Pipe
xvii
LIST OF TABLES (continued)
161 
Load Coefficients/Factors for LFD of Rigid Culverts 
162 
Load Factors for LRFD Rigid Culverts 
163 
Limit States Applicable for Design of Reinforced Concrete Pipes 
164 
Resistance/Strength  Reduction Factors for Precast Reinforced Concrete Culverts 
A1 
Prefixes Used with Metric Units 
A2 
Metric Units for Common Geotechnical Problems 
A3 
Common English to Metric Unit Conversions 
xviii
Figure
No.
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
_{3}_{}_{1}
32
33
34
35
_{3}_{}_{6}
37
38
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
410
411
_{4}_{}_{1}_{2}
413
LIST OF FIGURES
Title
Factor of Safety for ASD LRFD Design Approach Variation of Load and Resistance Variation of Load and Resistance
Reliability Index, _{} Empirical Rates of Failure for Civil Works Facilities Example Condition for Service Limit State Evaluation Example Condition for Strength Limit State Evaluation Histogram of Measured to Predicted Axial Driven Pile Resistance for Example Problem 3.2 Lognormal Probability Density Function Standard Normal Density Function Lognormal Density Function Probability Density Functions for Normally Distributed Load and Resistance Definition of Reliability Index, _{} for Lognormal Distributions of R and Q Reliability Index for Meyerhof’s SPT Method
Resistance Factors for Meyerhof’s SPT Method for _{} _{T} = 2.0 and 2.5 Typical Loading for Substructure Design Downdrag Loading Location of Resultant Lateral Earth Pressure Earth Pressure Distribution for Anchored Wall Design Earth Pressure Distribution for MSE Wall Design with Level Backfill Surface Earth Pressure Distribution for MSE Wall Design with Sloping Backfill Surface HS20 Truck Configuration Horizontal Pressure on Wall Due to UniformlyLoaded Strip Pressure Earthquake Loads on a Bridge Definition Sketch for MonobeOkobe Analysis Load Combination for Evaluation of Sliding Resistance of a Cantilever Retaining Wall Supported on a Spread Footing Load Combination for Evaluation of Bearing Resistance and Eccentricity of a Cantilever Retaining Wall Supported on a Spread Footing Schematic Representation of Factored Loads on Driven Piles Subjected to Downdrag
xix
Figure No.
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
510
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
_{6}_{}_{1}_{0}
LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Title
Soil Blocks Mobilized by Arching Over Culverts Design Truck Pressure Distribution From Elastic Theory Comparison of AASHTO Live Load Pressures Through Earth Fills Surface Loading Pattern for Design Truck and Design Tandem Distributed Area at Depth for Design Truck and Design Tandem LiveLoad Distribution Through Soil for Design Truck LiveLoad Distribution Through Soil for Design Tandem Schematic of Example Problem Retaining Wall Area Designations for Weight of Concrete Reliability Variation with Sample Size for Indirect Testing for Mobilized Undrained Shear Strength Optimization of Foundation and Exploration Cost Illustrative Variation of Resistance Factor with Resistance Coefficient of Variability SplitBarrel Sampler Electrical FrictionCone Penetrometer Tip Field Vane Geometries and Sizes Menard Pressuremeter Equipment ThinWalled Tube Sampler DoubleTube Core Barrel Histograms of Intact Rock Strength Properties Uncertainty in Soil Property Estimates Comparison of Field and Laboratory Shearing Modes Correlation of CPT Tip Resistance, SPT NValue and Mean Particle Size Correlation of CPT Tip Resistance, SPT NValue and Fines Content Correlation of Triaxial Compression Effective Stress Friction Angle with Cone Penetration Tip Resistance Field Vane Shear Correction Factor Pressuremeter Modulus versus N Value for Cohesionless Soil Pressuremeter Modulus versus N Value for Cohesive Soils Correlation of CPT Tip Resistance with Constrained Modulus and Relative Density for NC Sands Correlation of CPT Resistance with Constrained Modulus and Relative Density for OC Sands
xx
Figure No.
_{6}_{}_{1}_{1}
612
_{6}_{}_{1}_{3}
614
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
910
101
102
103
104
111
121
122
123
LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Title
Correlation Between Normalized Undrained Shear Strength and Liquidity Index for NC Clays Compression and UnloadReload Indices versus Plasticity Index Normalized Undrained Shear Strength Versus Undrained Strength Ratio from CIUC and UU Tests Example Problem, Site Exploration Plan for Western Approach Circular Arc Slope Stability Failure Surface Showing Typical Soil Slice Forces Generalized Flow Chart for Spread Footing Design by ASD and LRFD Comparison of Resultant Force Location for Footing on Soil Using ASD and LRFD Comparison of Resultant Force Location for Footings on Rock Using ASD and LRFD Schematic of Example Problem Reduced Footing Dimensions Procedure for Estimating Sliding Resistance of Footings on Clay Generalized Flow Chart for Driven Pile Design by LRFD and ASD Pile Group Loading Generalized Problem Geometry and SPT Design Envelope Representative Pile and CPT Tip Resistance Profile Used in Example Representative Pile and CPT Side Resistance Profile Used in Example Pile Cap and Pile Layout Axial Load, P _{u} , Summary Strong Axis Maximum Bending Moment, M _{u}_{x} , Summary Weak Axis Maximum Bending Moment, M _{u}_{y} , Summary Pile Settlements Generalized Flow Chart for Drilled Shaft Design by LRFD and ASD Soil Profile for Example Shaft Group Layout for Example Preliminary Longitudinal Shaft Reinforcement for Example Generalized Flow Chart for Conventional Retaining Wall and Abutment Design by ASD and LRFD Generalized Flow Chart for Modular Retaining Wall Design Schematic of Example Problem Retaining Wall Area Designation for Weight of Concrete and Soil
xxi
Figure No.
124
131
132
133
134
_{1}_{3}_{}_{5}
141
142
143
144
_{1}_{4}_{}_{5}
_{1}_{4}_{}_{6}
147
148
149
_{1}_{4}_{}_{1}_{0}
151
152
153
154
155
161
162
163
164
LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Title
Bearing Pads at Rear and Front of Modules Anchored Wall Nomenclature Generalized Flow Chart for Anchored Wall Design by ASD and LRFD Settlement Profiles Behind Anchored Walls Schematic of Example Problem Lateral Earth Pressure Diagram for Soldier Pile Embedment into Cohesionless Soil Generalized Flow Chart for MSE Wall Design by ASD and LRFD Pullout Factors for Inextensible Mesh and Grid Reinforcement Determination of Failure Plane and Earth Pressure Coefficients for MSE Wall with Inextensible Reinforcements Problem Geometry Pressure Diagram for Computation of q _{u}_{n}_{i}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m} for Reinforcement Tensile Resistance Evaluation of Layer 1 Pressure Diagram for Computation of q _{u}_{n}_{i}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m} for Reinforcement Pullout Resistance Evaluation of Layer 1 Problem Geometry Earth Pressure Distribution for MSE Wall with Broken Back Backfill Surface Geometry of Assumed Failure Surface for Example Problem Pressure Diagram for Computation of q _{u}_{n}_{i}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m} for Internal Stability Evaluation of Layer 1 Generalized Flow Chart for Flexible Culvert Design by ASD and LRFD Comparison of Flexible Culvert Deflection Modes in Loose and Dense Soils Problem Definition Pressure Distribution at Pipe Crown for Design Truck Pressure Distribution at Pipe Crown for Design Tandem DLoad Test Setup Comparison of AASHTO Live Load Pressures Through Earth Fills Paris (a) and Olander (b) Pressure Distributions Heger Pressure Distribution with Arching Factors
xxii
LIST OF SYMBOLS
A
A
A
A
A
a
A _{}
a _{B}
A
_{b}
A
AF
_{D}
A
A
A
A
_{g}
p
s
_{s}
A
AL
A _{s}
B
B
B
B B B B B _{} _{c}
_{s}_{t}
_{}
_{B}_{P}
_{c}
= Acceleration coefficient for earthquake load evaluation (dim)
= Crosssectional area of soil reinforcement less any sacrificial thickness (m ^{2} )
= Crosssectional area of structural element (m ^{2} )
= Cross sectional area of pipe wall (m ^{2} )(15.2.1)
= Wall area per unit length (m ^{2} /m)(15.3.2)
=
=
=
=
Net area ratio for cone penetrometer (dim) Effective footing area (m ^{2} ) Barge bow damage length (m) Surface area of transverse reinforcement in bearing, less sacrificial thickness of cross bars (m ^{2} ) Distributed area at depth D _{E} (m ^{2} ) Annual frequency of collapse of a bridge component (dim) Gross area of concrete section (m ^{2} ) Area of pile or shaft tip (m ^{2} ) Net crosssectional area reduced for corrosion (m ^{2} )(14.2.2) Total top and bottom surface area of reinforcement along, L _{e}_{f}_{f}_{'}_{'} less any sacrificial thickness (m ^{2} ) Area of reinforcing steel (m ^{2} ) Group axle load (kN) Area of pile or shaft side surfaces (m ^{2} )
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
= Width of footing (m)
= Base width (m)
= Effective backslope (deg)
=
=
=
=
=
1  0.33 h _{w} /h (dim) Effective width of footing (m) Bearing pad width (m) Outside diameter or width of pipe (m) Outtoout vertical rise of pipe (m) =
Bedding factor (dim)
B _{F}_{E} , B _{F}_{L}_{L}
BR
c =
C
=
= Vehicular braking force (kN)
Cohesion of soil (kPa) Coefficient for effect of pier width to ice thickness ratio where flow fails by crushing (dim) Compression Index (dim) Recompression Index (dim) Vehicular centrifugal force (kN) Hydrodynamic mass coefficient (dim) Unconfined compressive strength of rock core (kPa) Coefficient of variation (dim) =
Coefficient of variation of property measurement (dim) Coefficient of variation of predictive model (dim) Coefficient of variation of load (dim) Coefficient of variation of dead load (dim)
=
_{a}
_{C}
_{c}_{r}
_{H}
_{o}
C
C
CE
C
C
COV =
COV COV COV COV _{Q} = COV _{Q}_{D} =
=
=
=
=
=
_{I}_{N}_{H}_{E}_{R}_{E}_{N}_{T}
Coefficient of variation of inherent soil variability (dim) =
_{M}_{E}_{A}_{S}_{U}_{R}_{E}_{M}_{E}_{N}_{T}
_{M}_{O}_{D}_{E}_{L}
xxiii
COV _{Q}_{L} = COV _{R} = COV _{R}_{A} =
COV _{R}_{N} = COV _{} =
COV _{} _{i} = =
CR =
CRF =
C _{n}
=
CT =
=
CV =
=
C _{v}
D =
D =
D =
C _{u}_{r}
C _{s}_{m}
DC =
DD =
D _{E}
DLP
DTP
D _{r}
DW
DWT
D
D
E
e
e _{B} , e _{L} E _{c}
_{5}_{0}
_{1}_{0}
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
ecc
E _{D}
EH
E _{m}
e _{m}_{a}_{x}
_{n}
E
E
ES
E _{s}
_{P}_{M}_{T}
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
EQ
E _{u}
=
=
LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued)
Coefficient of variation of live load (dim) Coefficient of variation of resistance (dim) Coefficient of variation for soil internal friction angle using Nordlund Method (dim) Coefficient of variation for pile capacity using Nordlund Method (dim) Coefficient of variation of overall bias (dim) Coefficient of variation of a bias factor (dim) Horizontal inclination of pier nose to a vertical line (dim) Force effects due to creep (kN) Creep reduction factor from creep tests or Table 145 (dim) Elastic seismic response coefficient for m ^{t}^{h} mode of vibration (dim) Vehicular collision force (kN) Recompression Index (dim) Vessel collision force (kN) Coefficient of consolidation (m ^{2} /sec)
Pile, shaft or culvert diameter (m)
Diameter of vane (mm)
Dload (threeedge bearing resistance of reinforced concrete pipe, corresponding to an experimentally observed 0.25 mm width crack or to ultimate load capacity of culvert (kN/m) Dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments (kN) Downdrag load (kN) Depth below road surface (m) Distributed lane pressure (kPa) Distributed truck/tandem pressure (kPa) Relative density (percent) Dead load of wearing surfaces and utilities (kN) Dead weight tonnage of vessel (metric ton) Particle diameter for which material is 10% finer by weight (mm) Mean particle diameter (mm)
Young's modulus (kPa)
Eccentricity (m) Eccentricity of load resultant with respect to centroid of footing (m) Thickness of metal reinforcement at end of service life (mm) Reduction factor for accidental load eccentricity (dim) Dilatometer modulus averaged over a depth interval of 5m (kPa) Horizontal earth pressure load (kN) Modulus of elasticity of culvert material (kPa) Maximum allowed eccentricity (m) Nominal thickness of steel reinforcement at construction (mm) Pressuremeter modulus (kPa) Earth surcharge load (kN) Sacrificial metal thickness expected to be lost by uniform corrosion during service life of structure (mm) Earthquake load (kN) Undrained modulus in cohesive soils (kPa)
xxiv
LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued)
EV =
F
F _{b}
FC
=
=
=
Vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill (kN)
Horizontal force caused by ice flows (kN) Horizontal force caused by ice flows which fail by bending (kN) Construction damage factor for geosynthetic reinforcement ranging from 1.1 to 3.0, and taken as 3.0 without tests (dim) Horizontal force caused by ice flows which fail by crushing (kN) Concrete compressive strength (kPa) Buckling strength of culvert wall (kPa) Durability factor for geosynthetic reinforcement ranging from 1.1 to 2.0, and taken as 2.0 without tests (dim) Coefficient of resistance to direct sliding of reinforcement (dim) Soilstructure interaction factor (dim) (4.5) Flexibility Factor (m/kN) Suggested Maximum Permissible Flexibility Factor (m/kN) Material limit stress (kPa) Concrete compressive stress due to prestressing (kPa) Frictional force effects due to sliding between structure members (kN) Factor of safety (dim) Cone penetrometer side resistance (kPa) ASD Factor of Safety (dim) LRFD equivalent factor of safety (dim) Specified minimum tensile strength (kPa) Probability density function Minimum yield stress (kPa) Yield strength of metal (kPa) Apparent coefficient of friction at each reinforcement level (dim) Gravitational acceleration (9.8/m/s ^{2} ) =
Combined probability density function Design height of wall and height of backfill above culvert crown (m) (4.5) Nominal height of horizontal earth pressure diagram (m) Height of ground surface above culvert (m) Depth of reinforced soil (m) Reduction factor for hidden defects due to damage during pile driving (dim) Equivalent height of soil for design live load (m)
Height of reinforced zone contributing horizontal load to reinforcement at level i
(m)
Total horizontal force per unit length (kN/m) Height of water surface above culvert (m)
Slope of backfill behind wall (deg)
Impact Factor (dim)
Moment of inertia of culvert wall (m ^{4} /m)
Ice load (kN) Inside diameter (m) (4.5) Dynamic Load Allowance (dim) Point load strength (kPa)
F _{c} f _{} _{c}
f _{c}_{r}
FD
=
=
=
=
=
f _{d}
F _{e}
FF
FF _{m}_{a}_{x}
f _{L}
f _{p}_{e}
FR
FS
=
f _{s} FS _{A}_{S}_{D} =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
FS _{L}_{R}_{F}_{D} =
=
=
=
=
=
=
_{e}_{q}
_{i}
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
H _{T}_{O}_{T}
h _{w}
=
=
I =
I =
I =
IC =
ID =
IM =
=
I _{S}
f _{u} f _{x} (x) F _{y} f _{y}
f*
g
func {overline g}
g(R,Q) =
H
h
h
h
HDF
h
h
Mean value of g(R,Q)
xxv
k =
k =
k =
k _{a}
=
=
=
=
k _{o}
=
k _{s}
k _{v}
L
=
=
L
L
l
=
=
=
=
_{}
=
=
=
=
=
K _{a}_{e}
KE
k _{h}
k _{h}
K _{p}_{e}
=
l = L _{e}
L _{}
L _{D}
L _{e}_{f}_{f} = L _{e}
LF =
LI =
LL =
LS =
M =
M =
m =
M
M
M
N
N
N
n
n
N
N
_{d}_{t}
_{m}_{a}_{x}
_{s}
_{k}
_{p}
OCR
P
p
p
p
PA
P _{a}
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued)
Horizontal earth pressure coefficient (dim)
Coefficient of permeability (m/s)
Soil correlation factor (dim)
Active earth pressure coefficient (dim) Seismic active earth pressure coefficient (dim)
Vessel collision energy (joule)
Lateral earth pressure coefficient (dim)
Horizontal acceleration coefficient (dim) (4.2.1.3)
Atrest earth pressure coefficient (dim) Seismic passive earth pressure coefficient (dim)
Coefficient of earth pressure due to surcharge (dim)
Vertical acceleration coefficient (dim)
Footing length, anchor bond length and span length of culvert (m)
Horizontal spacing between vertical wall elements (m)(13.3.6.1)
Soil reinforcement length (m)
Length of tire contact in direction of travel (m)
Length of geogrid beyond failure plane (m) Effective footing length (m) Incremental length of sliding surface in slope stability analysis (m)
Distributed length of wheel load (m)
= Effective soil reinforcement length (m) Load factor (dim) Liquidity Index (dim) Vehicular live load (kN) Live load surcharge (kN) Vessel displacement tonnage (metric ton) Constrained modulus (kPa) Multiple presence factor (dim) Tangent constrained drained modulus (kPa) Factored maximum flexural moment in facing or vertical wall element (kNm/m) Confined modulus of soil (kPa)
Number of data values (dim)
SPT blow count (blows per 30 cm)
Normal force (kN)
Sample size
Number of transverse bearing members behind failure plane (dim) Cone bearing factor (dim) Passive resistance factor based on sitespecific pullout tests, or as defined by Figure 142 (dim)
Overconsolidation ratio (dim)
Wheel load (kN)
Effective ice crushing strength (kPa) (4.2.2.12)
Live load intensity (kPa)
Average factored lateral pressure acting on vertical wall element or facing (kPa)
Probability of vessel aberrancy (dim)
Lateral earth pressure resultant force per unit wall length (kN/m)
xxvi
p 
_{a} 
= 
p 
_{a} 
= 
P 
_{a}_{e} 
= 
P 
_{a}_{l}_{l} 
= 
P 
_{a}_{l}_{l}_{(}_{L}_{R}_{F}_{D}_{)} 

P 
_{B} 
= 
P 
_{B} 
= 
PC = 

P 
_{D} 
= 
p 
_{f} 
= 
P 
_{f}_{g} 
= 
P 
_{f}_{s} 
= 
P 
_{H} 
= 
P 
_{h} 
= 
p _{h} 
= 

PI = 

PL = 

P 
_{L} 
= 
P 
_{N} 
= 
P _{n} =P _{u}_{l}_{t} = P P P P P p P
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
_{n}
_{r}
_{P}
_{p}_{e}
_{r}
_{s}
_{v}
LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued)
Lateral earth pressure (kPa) Atmospheric pressure (kPa) Seismic active earth pressure (kN/m) Allowable axial, tensile or flexural structural capacity (kN) = LRFD equivalent allowable tensile load (kN) Base wind pressure (kPa) (4.2.2.8) Equivalent static vessel impact force (kN) Probability of bridge collapse due to a collision with an aberrant vessel (dim) Design wind pressure (kPa) Probability of failure (dim) Nominal pullout resistance of steel grid reinforcement (kN) Nominal pullout capacity of ribbed or smooth steel reinforcing strips (kN) Horizontal load (kN) Horizontal component of lateral earth pressure per unit length of wall (kN/m) Horizontal stress (kPa) Plasticity Index (dim) Pedestrian live load (kN) Factored crown pressure (kPa) Wind pressure normal to structure component (kPa) Ultimate (nominal) structural resistance (kN) Ultimate anchor tensile resistance or GUTS (kN)(13.2.2) Factored structural resistance of reinforcements, facing and connections (kN) Wind pressure parallel to structure (kPa) Seismic passive earth pressure (kN/m) Factored structural resistance (kN) Probability of survival (dim)
Vertical component of lateral earth pressure resultant per unit wall length (kN/m)
Q 
= 
Load or design load (kN) 

q 
= 
Surcharge pressure (kPa) 

q 
= 

Average pressure of an assumed rectangular distribution (kPa) = = func {overline Q} func {overline q} Mean load (kN) Magnitude of uniform distribution of soil pressure (kPa) 
Q
_{a}
Q
q _{c}
Q
_{a}_{l}_{l}
_{D}
_{e}_{p}
_{i}
_{L}
_{m}_{a}_{x}
_{m}_{i}_{n}
Q
Q
Q
q
q
Q
Q
q _{p}
Q _{R}
_{n}
_{p}
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Ultimate unit resistance between grout/soil/rock in anchor bond zone per unit length (kN/m) Allowable design load (kN) Cone penetrometer tip resistance (kPa) Dead load (kN) Nominal passive resistance of foundation material (kN) Force effect, stress or stress resultant (kN or kPa) Live load (kN) Maximum unit bearing stress (kPa) Minimum unit bearing stress (kPa) Nominal sliding resistance of footing (kN) Ultimate pile tip resistance (kN) Unit tip resistance (kPa) Factored geotechnical resistance (kN)
xxvii
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