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U.S. Department Publication No. FHWA HI-98-032 of Transportation May 2001 Federal Highway Administration NHI

U.S. Department

Publication No. FHWA HI-98-032

of Transportation

May 2001

Federal Highway Administration

NHI Course No. 132068

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Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Highway Bridge Substructures

Reference Manual and Participant Workbook

Factor Design (LRFD) for Highway Bridge Substructures Reference Manual and Participant Workbook National Highway Institute
Factor Design (LRFD) for Highway Bridge Substructures Reference Manual and Participant Workbook National Highway Institute

National Highway Institute

Factor Design (LRFD) for Highway Bridge Substructures Reference Manual and Participant Workbook National Highway Institute

PREFACE

For many years, engineers have designed foundations, walls and culverts for highway and other applications using allowable stress design (ASD) methods. In ASD, all uncertainty in loads and material resistance is combined in a factor of safety or allowable stress. For most highway design, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges represents the primary source document for ASD of substructures. In 1994, AASHTO approved Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) in the LRFD Highway Bridge Design Specifications. In LRFD, the uncertainty in load is represented by a load factor and the uncertainty in material resistance is represented by a resistance factor. Due to the fundamental differences between the substructure design process by ASD and LRFD, this course has been developed to present the fundamentals of LRFD for the geotechnical design of highway bridge substructures. Because this document was prepared for engineers and others who are already familiar with the design of substructures using ASD, it is intended for use in conjunction with other documents describing standard geotechnical design procedures.

The objectives of this reference manual are to provide the basis for an understanding of the:

Differences between ASD and LRFD for substructure design Benefits of LRFD for substructure design Importance of site characterization and selection of geotechnical design parameters Process for design of substructure elements by LRFD using the AASHTO LRFD Specifications as a guide Process for selection and application of load factors and load combinations Methods available for calibration of resistance factors Basis for calibration of the AASHTO LRFD resistance factors for substructure design Procedures available for modifying or developing resistance factors to achieve designs comparable to ASD

This Reference Manual is intended principally to serve as a supplement to the Participant’s Workbook for the FHWA’s National Highway Institute Course on Load and Resistance Factor Design for Highway Bridge Substructures. The Reference Manual can also serve as a primary reference for engineers in modifying or developing resistance factors to achieve designs comparable to ASD and for designing foundations, earth retaining structures and culverts through the numerous design examples included throughout the design chapters in the manual.

The authors acknowledge the efforts of the project technical managers, Mr. Jerry DiMaggio and Mr. Richard Cheney, FHWA Senior Geotechnical Engineers who provided constructive guidance and input for this document, and Mr. Chien-Tan Chang, FHWA’s Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative who provided administrative oversight and guidance.

i

The authors also wish to acknowledge contributions of the following members of the Technical Working Group listed in alphabetical order:

Chris Benda - Vermont Department of Transportation

James Cuthbertson - Washington State Department of Transportation

Richard Engle - Ohio Department of Transportation

Ashton Lawler - Virginia Department of Transportation

James Lyons - Federal Highway Administration

Paul Passe - Florida Department of Transportation

Tom Saad - Federal Highway Administration

James Schluter - CONTECH Construction Products

Lastly, the authors wish to thank the following employees from D’Appolonia for their vital contributions and significant effort in preparing this document: Ms. Tara Heyer, Mr. Robert Whitaker, Mr. David Mudry, Mr. Christopher Lewis, Mr. James Wang and Dr. Yasser A. Hegazy.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

xii

LIST OF FIGURES

xix

LIST OF SYMBOLS

xxiii

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

1.1 Manual Objectives

1-1

1.2 Manual Outline

1-2

1.3 General References

1-3

CHAPTER 2 - TRANSITION TO LRFD FOR SUSBSTRUCTURE DESIGN

2.1 Introduction

2-1

2.2 Allowable Stress Design

2-1

2.3 Load and Resistance Factor Design

2-2

2.4 LRFD Calibration

2-8

2.5 Summary

2-9

CHAPTER 3 PRINCIPLES OF LIMIT STATES DESIGN

3.1 Introduction

3-1

3.2 Design Procedures

3-2

3.2.1 Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

3-2

3.2.2 Shortcomings of ASD

3-3

3.2.3 Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

3-4

3.2.4 Advantages and Limitations of LRFD

3-5

3.3 Calibration

3-6

3.4 Review of Statistics and Probability Concepts

3-10

3.4.1 Statistical Descriptors

3-10

3.4.2 Probability Density Functions

3-12

3.4.3 Probability of Failure

3-16

3.4.4 Reliability Index,

3-17

3.4.5 Resistance Statistics

3-20

3.4.6 Load Statistics

3-23

3.4.7 Calibration by a Combined Approach

3-29

3.5 Student Exercise

3-31

CHAPTER 4 - LOADS

4.1 Introduction

4-1

4.2 Load Considerations for Geotechnical Design of Substructures

4-2

4.2.1 Permanent Loads

4-3

4.2.1.1 Dead Loads - DC, DW and EV

4-3

4.2.1.2 Downdrag Load - DD

4-3

4.2.1.3 Lateral Earth Pressure Load- EH

4-4

4.2.1.4 Earth Surcharge Load - ES

4-8

4.2.2 Transient Loads

4-9

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

4.2.2.1 Vehicular Live Load - LL

4-9

4.2.2.2 Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance - IM

4-10

4.2.2.3 Vehicular Centrifugal Force - CE

4-10

4.2.2.4 Vehicular Breaking Force - BR

4-10

4.2.2.5 Pedestrian Live Load - PL

4-11

4.2.2.6 Live Load Surcharge - LS

4-11

4.2.2.7 Water Load and Stream Pressure Force - WA

4-12

4.2.2.8 Wind Load - WS and WL

4-13

4.2.2.9 Friction Force- FR

4-14

4.2.2.10 Force Effects Due to Superimposed Deformations - TU, TG,

CR, SH, and SE

4-15

4.2.2.11 Earthquake Force - EQ

4-15

4.2.2.12 Ice Load - IC

4-21

4.2.2.13 Vehicular Collision Force - CT

4-23

4.2.2.14 Vessel Collision Force - CV

4-23

4.3 Load Factors and Load Combinations

4-24

4.4 Loads on Foundations and Retaining Walls

4-31

4.5 Loads on Culverts

4-34

4.5.1 Earth Loads

4-34

4.5.2 Vehicular Live Loads

4-36

4.6 Student Exercise

4-47

4.7 Student Problem:

Load Combinations for Retaining Wall

4-48

4.8 Design Example:

Load Combinations for Bridge Pier Foundation

4-57

CHAPTER 5 - GEOTECHNICAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION

5.1 Introduction

5-1

5.2 Planning Exploration and Testing Programs

5-1

5.2.1 General

5-1

5.2.2 Soil and Rock Variability

5-2

5.3 Field Test Methods

5-8

5.3.1 Split-Barrel Sampling

5-9

5.3.2 Cone Penetration Testing

5-10

5.3.3 Vane Shear Testing

5-12

5.3.4 Pressuremeter Test

5-13

5.3.5 Other Methods

5-14

5.3.5.1 Undisturbed Sampling

5-15

5.3.5.2 Rock Coring

5-16

5.3.5.3 Ground Water Location

5-16

5.4 Laboratory Test Methods

5-16

5.4.1 Soil Index Testing

5-16

5.4.2 Rock Index Testing

5-17

5.4.3 Engineering Property Testing of Soil

5-18

5.4.4 Engineering Property Testing of Rock

5-18

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

5.5 Local Geologic Problem Conditions

5-21

5.6 Example Problem: Develop Site Specific Resistance Factors from Field and Laboratory Test Data

5-23

CHAPTER 6 - GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN PARAMETER SELECTION

6.1 Introduction

6-1

6.2 Test Method Selection

6-1

6.2.1 Field Test Methods

6-2

 

6.2.1.1 Shear Strength

6-2

6.2.1.2 Compressibility

6-4

6.2.2 Laboratory Tests

6-5

 

6.2.2.1 Shear Strength

6-5

6.2.2.2 Compressibility

6-5

6.2.2.3 Index Tests

6-5

6.2.3 Parameter Evaluation

6-6

6.3 Reliability of Tests for Estimating Design Parameters

6-7

6.3.1 Field Test Methods

6-7

 

6.3.1.1 Shear Strength

6-7

6.3.1.1.1 Effective Stress Strength

6-7

6.3.1.1.2 Total Stress Strength

6-9

6.3.1.2 Compressibility

6-11

6.3.2 Laboratory Tests

6-14

6.4 Design Parameter Selection and Resistance Factors

6-16

6.5 Example Problem: Characterization Planning

6-18

CHAPTER 7 - CALIBRATION AS PART OF THE DESIGN PROCESS

7.1 Introduction

7-1

7.2 Reliability Theory or Fitting with ASD?

7-1

7.3 Evaluating Resistance Factors Using Reliability Method

7-2

7.3.1 Estimating Resistance Bias R and Coefficient of Variation COV R

7-3

7.3.2 Example Problem - Estimating R and COV R for Friction Angle

7-5

7.3.3 Example Problem - Estimating R and COV R for Undrained Strength

7-5

7.3.4 Values of Dead Load Bias QD and Coefficient of Variation COV QD

7-5

7.3.5 Example Problem - Estimating QD and COV QD for a Bridge

7-6

7.3.6 Values of Load Factors P for Permanent (Dead) Loads

7-6

7.3.7 Values of Q D /Q L

7-6

7.3.8 Values of T

7-8

7.3.9 Example Problem - Resistance Factors for the Nordlund Method

7-8

7.4 Simplified Reliability Method to Evaluate Resistance Factors

7-10

7.4.1

Example Problem - Estimating Resistance Factors for the Nordlund Method

7-10

7.5 Fitting with ASD to Evaluate Resistance Factors

7-11

7.5.1

Example Problem - Estimating Resistance Factors for the Nordlund Method

7-11

7.6 Summary and Closing Remarks

7-12

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

7.7

Student Exercise

7-14

Appendix 7A - Derivation of Simplified Reliability Calibration of Resistance Factors

7-15

Appendix 7B - Derivation for Fitting with ASD

7-17

CHAPTER 8 - SPREAD FOOTING DESIGN

8.1 Introduction

 

8-1

8.2 Design Methods

8-1

 

8.2.1 ASD Summary

8-1

8.2.2 LRFD Summary

8-5

 

8.2.2.1 Limit States

8-7

8.2.2.2 Resistance Factors

8-8

8.2.2.3 Comparison of Spread Footing Design Using LRFD and ASD

8-10

8.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors

8-13

 

8.2.3 Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD

8-14

8.3 Performance Limits

8-14

 

8.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria

8-16

8.3.2 Bearing Resistance

8-17

8.3.3 Sliding Resistance

8-19

8.3.4 Load Eccentricity (Overturning)

8-19

8.3.5 Overall Stability

8-20

8.3.6 Structural Resistance

8-21

8.3.7 Other Considerations

8-21

 

8.3.7.1 Footing Embedment

8-21

8.3.7.2 Buoyancy and Uplift

8-21

8.4 Student Exercise: Bearing Resistance of Spread Footings on Sand

8-23

8.5 Student Problem: Footing Design on Soil Using ASD and LRFD

8-25

CHAPTER 9 - DRIVEN PILE DESIGN

9.1 Introduction

 

9-1

9.2 Design Methods

9-1

 

9.2.1 ASD Summary

9-1

9.2.2 LRFD Summary

9-4

 

9.2.2.1 Limit States

9-6

9.2.2.2 Resistance Factors

9-7

9.2.2.3 Comparison of Driven Pile Design Using LRFD and ASD

9-12

9.2.2.3.1 Geotechnical Design

9-12

9.2.2.3.2 Structural Design

9-14

9.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors

9-14

9.2.2.4.1 Geotechnical Design

9-14

9.2.2.4.2 Structural Design

9-15

 

9.2.3 Summarized Comparison of LRFD and ASD

9-16

9.3 Performance Limits

9-16

 

9.3.1

Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria

9-18

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

9.3.2 Axial Resistance

9-18

9.3.2.1 Geotechnical Resistance

9-18

9.3.2.2 Structural Resistance

9-20

9.3.3 Lateral Resistance

9-21

9.3.4 Other Considerations

9-22

9.3.4.1 Group Effects

9-22

9.3.4.2 Negative Loading

9-23

9.3.4.3 Uplift Loading

9-23

9.3.4.4 Driving Stresses and Driveability

9-24

9.3.4.5 Fixity of Pile-Cap Connection

9-25

9.4 Student Problem: Comparison of Pile Designs Using ASD and LRFD

9-26

9.5 Student Exercise: Pile Capacity Evaluation by Nordlund Method

9-38

9.6 Design Example 1: Design of Pile Support for Bridge Pier

9-41

9.7 Design Example 2: Design of Pile Support for Bridge Pier Subjected to Downdrag Loading

9-53

CHAPTER 10 - DRILLED SHAFT DESIGN

10.1 Introduction

10-1

10.2 Design Methods

10-1

10.2.1 ASD Summary

10-1

10.2.2 LRFD Summary

10-3

10.2.2.1 Limit States

10-5

10.2.2.2 Resistance Factors

10-6

10.2.2.3 Comparison of Drilled Shaft Design Using LRFD and ASD

10-9

10.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors

10-9

10.2.3 Summarized Comparison of LRFD and ASD

10-11

10.3 Performance Limits

10-13

10.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria

10-13

10.3.2 Axial Resistance

10-14

10.3.2.1 Geotechnical Resistance

10-14

10.3.2.2 Structural Resistance

10-16

10.3.3 Lateral Resistance

10-17

10.3.4 Other Considerations

10-18

10.3.4.1 Group Effects

10-18

10.3.4.2 Negative Loading

10-19

10.3.4.3 Uplift Loading

10-19

10.3.4.4 Fixity of Cap Connection

10-20

10.4 Design Example: Comparison of Drilled Shaft Designs Using ASD and LRFD

10-21

10.5 Student Exercise: Development of Resistance Factor for Design of

Drilled Shafts in Sand

10-28

CHAPTER 11 - CONVENTIONAL RETAINING WALL AND ABUTMENT DESIGN

11.1 Introduction

vii

11-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

11.2 Design Methods

 

11-1

11.2.1 ASD Summary

11-1

11.2.2 LRFD Summary

11-2

 

11.2.2.1 Limit States

11-2

11.2.2.2 Resistance Factors

11-3

11.2.2.3 Comparison of Wall Design Using LRFD and ASD

11-5

11.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors

11-5

11.2.3

Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD

11-5

11.3 Performance Limits

 

11-5

11.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria

11-6

11.3.2 Geotechnical Resistance

11-7

11.3.3 Structural Resistance

11-7

11.3.4 Other Considerations

11-7

 

11.3.4.1 Loss of Passive Resistance

11-7

11.3.4.2 Drainage

11-7

11.4 Design Example: Cantilever Retaining Wall on Spread Footing by LRFD and ASD

11-8

CHAPTER 12 - PREFABRICATED MODULAR WALL DESIGN

12.1 Introduction

 

12-1

12.2 Design Methods

12-1

12.2.1 ASD Summary

12-1

12.2.2 LRFD Summary

12-2

 

12.2.2.1 Limit States

12-2

12.2.2.2 Resistance Factors

12-3

12.2.2.3 Comparison of Wall Design Using LRFD and ASD

12-3

12.2.2.4 Modification of Resistance Factors

12-3

12.2.3

Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD

12-4

12.3 Performance Limits

 

12-4

12.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria

12-5

12.3.2 Geotechnical Resistance

12-5

12.3.3 Structural Resistance

12-5

12.3.4 Other Considerations

12-6

 

12.3.4.1 Loss of Passive Resistance

12-6

12.3.4.2 Drainage

12-6

12.4 Design Example: Geotechnical Design of Prefabricated Modular Retaining Wall

12-7

CHAPTER 13 - ANCHORED WALL DESIGN

13.1 Introduction

 

13-1

13.2 Design Methods

13-1

13.2.1 General Design Considerations

13-1

13.2.2 ASD Summary

 

13-3

13.2.3 LRFD Summary

13-5

 

13.2.3.1

Limit States

13-7

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

 

13.2.3.2 Resistance Factors

13-8

13.2.3.3 Comparison of Anchored Wall Design Using LRFD and ASD

13-8

13.2.3.3.1 Geotechnical Design

13-8

13.2.3.3.2 Structural Design

13-10

13.2.3.4 Modification of Resistance Factors

13-11

13.2.3.4.1 Geotechnical Design

13-11

13.2.3.4.2 Structural Design

13-13

13.2.4

Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD

13-13

13.3 Performance Limits

13-13

13.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movement Criteria

13-13

13.3.2 Anchor Pullout

13-16

13.3.3 Bearing Resistance (Vertical Wall Elements)

13-17

13.3.4 Passive Resistance (Vertical Wall Elements)

13-18

13.3.5 Overall Stability

13-18

13.3.6 Structural Resistance

13-18

 

13.3.6.1 Vertical Wall Elements

13-18

13.3.6.2 Permanent Facing

13-19

13.3.7

Other Considerations

13-20

13.3.7.1 Corrosion

13-20

13.3.7.2 Drainage

13-20

13.4 Student Problem: Anchored Soldier Pile Wall Design by LRFD

13-21

CHAPTER 14 - MECHANICALLY-STABILIZED EARTH (MSE) WALL DESIGN

14.1 Introduction

14-1

14.2 Design Methods

14-1

14.2.1 General Design Considerations

14-1

14.2.2 ASD Summary

14-2

14.2.3 LRFD Summary

14-6

 

14.2.3.1 Limit States

14-8

14.2.3.2 Resistance Factors

14-9

14.2.3.3 Comparison of Wall Design Using LRFD and ASD

14-12

14.2.3.4 Modification of Resistance Factors

14-12

14.2.4 Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD

14-13

14.3 Performance Limits

14-14

14.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movements

14-14

14.3.2 Bearing Resistance

14-15

14.3.3 Sliding Resistance

14-15

14.3.4 Overall Stability

14-15

14.3.5 Pullout of Reinforcing Elements

14-15

14.3.6 Rupture of Reinforcing Elements

14-18

14.3.7 Horizontal Forces for Internal Stability Calculations

14-18

14.3.8 Design Life

14-20

14.4 Design Example 1: MSE Wall Design by LRFD

14-22

ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

14.5

Design Example 2: Design of MSE Wall with Broken Backslope and Traffic Surcharge by LRFD

14-39

CHAPTER 15 - FLEXIBLE CULVERT DESIGN

15.1 Introduction

 

15-1

15.2 Design Methods

15-2

 

15.2.1 ASD Summary

15-2

15.2.2 LRFD Summary

15-4

 

15.2.2.1 Limit States

15-5

15.2.2.2 Loads and Load Factors

15-6

15.2.2.3 Resistance Factors

15-7

15.2.2.4 Comparison of Flexible Culvert Design Using ASD and LRFD

15-8

15.2.2.5 Modification of Resistance Factors

15-9

 

15.2.3

Summarized Comparison of ASD and LRFD

15-10

15.3 Performance Limits

15-10

 

15.3.1 Displacements and Tolerable Movements

15-10

15.3.2 Wall Compression (Thrust)

15-13

15.3.3 Wall Buckling

15-15

15.3.4 Seam Strength

15-17

15.3.5 Handling Flexibility

15-18

15.3.6 Other Considerations

15-19

15.4 Design Example

15-20

CHAPTER 16 - RIGID CULVERT DESIGN

16.1 Introduction

 

16-1

16.2 Design Methods

16-1

 

16.2.1 Indirect Design Method

16-2

16.2.2 Direct Design Method

16-4

 

16.2.2.1 Limit States

16-7

16.2.2.2 Resistance Factors

16-7

16.2.2.3 Comparison of Rigid Culvert Design Using ASD and LRFD

16-8

16.3 Performance Limits

16-8

 

16.3.1 Elastic Load Models

16-8

16.3.2 Flexure and Thrust

16-10

16.3.3 Shear

16-11

16.3.4 Radial Tension

16-11

16.3.5 Crack Width

16-11

CHAPTER 17 - SUMMARY

17.1

Summary and Overview

17-1

REFERENCES APPENDIX A - METRIC STANDARDS AND UNIT CONVERSIONS

x

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

A.1

Introduction

 

A-1

A.2

Standard Metric Units and Conversions with English Units

A-1

A.2.1

Base Units

A-1

 

A.2.1.1

Length

A-1

A.2.1.2

Mass

A-1

A.2.1.3

Time

A-2

A.2.1.4

Temperature

A-2

 

A.2.2

Derived Units

A-2

 

A.2.2.1

Force

A-2

A.2.2.2 Pressure

A-2

A.2.2.3

Mass Density and Unit Weight

A-2

A.2.2.4

Temperature

A-2

 

A.2.3

Unit Prefixes

A-2

A.2.4

Summary of Standard and Preferred Metric Units

A-3

A.2.5

English to SI Unit Conversions

A-3

A.2.6

SI Units in Engineering Documents

A-5

 

A.2.6.1

Variable Symbols

A-5

A.2.6.2

Base Dimensions

A-6

A.2.6.3

Unit Symbols

A-6

A.2.6.4

Combined Units and Symbols

A-8

A.3

Examples

A-10

APPENDIX B - SOLUTIONS TO STUDENT EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS

B.1

Chapter 3 Student Exercise

B-1

B.2

Chapter 4 Student Exercise

B-5

B.3

Chapter 4 Student Problem: Load Combinations for Retaining Wall

B-7

B.4

Chapter 7 Student Exercise

B-15

B.5

Chapter 8 Student Exercise: Bearing Resistance of Spread Footings on Sand

B-17

B.6

Chapter 8 Student Problem: Footing Design on Soil Using ASD and LRFD

B-21

B.7

Chapter 9 Student Problem: Comparison of Pile Designs by ASD and LRFD

B-33

B.8

Chapter 9 Student Exercise: Pile Capacity Evaluation by Nordlund Method

B-45

B.9

Chapter 10 Student Problem: Development of Resistance Factor for Design of

Drilled Shafts in Sand

B-48

B.10

Chapter 13 Student Problem: Anchored Soldier Pile Wall Design by LRFD

B-49

xi

Table

No.

2-1

3-1

3-2

3-3

3-4

3-5

3-6

3A-1

4-1

4-2

4-3

4-4

4-5

4-6

4-7

4-8

4-9

4-10

4-11

4-12

4-13

4-14

4-15

4-16

4-17

4-18

4-19

LIST OF TABLES

Title

Relationship Between p f and for Lognormal Distribution Values of Resistance Factors Corresponding by Fitting for Different Values of Safety Factor and Dead to Live Load Ratios for D = 1.25 and L = 1.75 Summary of Measured and Predicted Driven Pile Axial Soil Resistance Using Meyerhof Procedure Relationship Between Probability of Failure and Reliability Index for Lognormal Distribution Summary of Resistance Statistics Statistics for Bridge Load Components Resistance Factors for Axially Loaded Driven Piles in Sand, In-Situ Methods Relationship Between Probability of Failure and Reliability Index for Normal Distribution Relative Movements Needed to Achieve Active of Passive Earth Pressure Conditions Equivalent Height of Soil for Vehicular Loading Values of V 0 and Z 0 for Various Upstream Surface Conditions Base Pressure, P B , for V a = 160 km/hr Seismic Performance Zones Site Coefficients Classification of Soil Profile Types Response Modification Factors for Substructure Design Response Modification Factors for Connector Design Load Combinations and Load Factors

Load Factors for Permanent Loads, P Minimum Soil Cover for Culverts Multiple Presence Factors Unfactored Vertical Loads and Resisting Moments

Unfactored Horizontal Loads and Overturning Moments

Load Factors

Factored Vertical Loads

Factored Horizontal Loads

Factored Moments from Vertical Forces (M v )

xii

4-20

4-21

4-22

4-23

4-24

4-25

4-26

4-27

4-28

4-29

5-1

5-2

5-3

5-4

5-5

5-6

5-7

5-8

5-9

5-10

5-11

5-12

5-13

6-1

6-2

6-3

6-4

6-5

6-6

6-7

LIST OF TABLES (continued)

Factored Moments from Horizontal Forces (M h )

Unfactored Pier Loads and Moments

Load Combinations and Load Factors

Load Factors for Permanent Loads, P

Moment Magnification Factors,

Summary of Factored Loads and Moments in Pier Stem Summary of Factored Axial Loads and Average Bearing Pressures at Base of Pier Stem Critical Load Combinations for Deep Foundations

Critical Load Combinations for Spread Footing Foundations

Summary of Factored Loads for Critical Foundation Design Load Combinations

Guideline Minimum Boring and Sampling Criteria

Comparison of Ground Investigation Cost to Project Cost Overruns

Estimates of In-Situ Test Variability

Selected Major Sources of Error in the Standard Penetration Test

Major Sources of Error in the Cone Penetration Test

Major Sources of Error in the Vane Shear Test

Major Sources of Error for the Pressuremeter Test

Summary of Inherent Soil Variability and Measurement Variability for Index Tests

Index Test and Inherent Variability of Calcareous Mudstone Summary of Inherent Soil Variability and Measurement Variability for Strength Tests Selected Variability of Rock Modulus Values

Problem Conditions Requiring Special Consideration

Field and Laboratory Shear Strength Test Data for Example Problem

Correlation of In-Situ Test with Foundation Performance for Cohesive Soils

Correlation of In-Situ Test with Foundation Performance for Cohesionless Soils

Correlations of In-Situ Tests with Engineering Behavior for Cohesive Soils

Correlations of In-Situ Tests with Engineering Behavior for Cohesionless Soils

Soil Property Correlations with Index Test Data

Approximate Guidelines for Design Property Variability

Example Problem Work Sheet

xiii

7-1

7-2

7-3

7-4

7-5

7-6

7-7

7-8

8-1

8-2

8-3

8-4

8-5

8-6

8-7

8-8

8-9

8-10

8-11

8-12

8-13

8-14

8-15

8-16

8-17

8-18

9-1

9-2

9-3

LIST OF TABLES (continued)

Values of R and COV R

Values of QD and COV QD

Load Factors for Permanent Loads, P

Values of Q D /Q L

Values of Target Reliability Index, T

Values of for Nordlund's Method Calculated Using Reliability Theory Values of for Nordlund's Method Calculated Using the Simplified Approximate Reliability Method Values of for Nordlund's Method Calculated Using Fitting with ASD Factors of Safety on Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity of Spread Footings for Bearing Capacity and Sliding Failure Factors of Safety on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Spread Footings on Soil

Variable Factors of Safety on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Spread Footings

Suggested Minimum Factors of Safety for Overall Slope Stability from FHWA Required Minimum Factors of Safety for Overall Slope Stability from AASHTO ASD Limit States for Design of Spread Footing Foundations Resistance Factors for Semi-Empirical Evaluation of Bearing Capacity for Spread Footings on Sand Using Reliability-Based Calibration Resistance Factors for Geotechnical Strength Limit State for Shallow Foundations Comparison of ASD Factor of Safety with LRFD Equivalent Factor of Safety for Spread Footing Foundations Unfactored and Factored Vertical Loads

Unfactored and Factored Horizontal Loads

Unfactored and Factored Moments from Vertical Forces (M v )

Unfactored and Factored Moments from Horizontal Forces (M h )

Consolidation Settlement Calculation

Summary of Eccentricity Check

Summary of Factored Bearing Pressures

Summary of Sliding Resistance

Summary of Spread Footing Design by LRFD and ASD Factor of Safety on Ultimate Axial Geotechnical Capacity Based on Level of Construction Control Allowable Stresses in Piles

Strength and Service Limit States for Design of Driven Pile Foundations

xiv

9-4

9-5

9-6

9-7

9-8

9-9

9-10

9-11

9-12

9-13

9-14

9-15

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

10-5

10-6

10-7

10-8

10-9

11-1

11-2

12-1

12-2

12-3

12-4

12-5

12-6

LIST OF TABLES (continued)

Resistance Factors for Driven Piles for Estimating the Axial Geotechnical Pile Capacity Using Reliability-Based Calibration Resistance Factors for Geotechnical Strength Limit State for Axially Loaded Piles

Resistance Factors for Structural Design of Axially-Loaded Piles Calibrated to ASD Comparison of ASD Factor of Safety with LRFD Equivalent Factor of Safety Geotechnical Strength Limit State for Axially-Loaded Piles Conditions When Downdrag Should be Considered in Design

Permissible Stresses During Pile Driving

Load Factors

Tabulation of Side Resistance Along Pile Length

Determination of Required Pile Group Size Based on ASD

Determination of Required Pile Group Size Based on LRFD

Summary of Factored Loads for Critical Foundation Design Load Combinations

Pile Spacing Effect

Factor of Safety on Ultimate Axial Geotechnical Capacity Factors of Safety on Ultimate Geotechnical Capacity Based on Design Life and Level of Construction Control Limit States for Design of Drilled Shaft Foundations Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts for Estimating the Ultimate Axial Shaft Capacity Using Reliability-Based Calibration Resistance Factors for Geotechnical Strength Limit States for Axially Loaded Drilled Shafts Resistance Factor for Structural Design of Axially-Loaded Drilled Shafts Comparison of ASD Factor of Safety with LRFD Equivalent Factor of Safety, Geotechnical Strength Limit State for Axially-Loaded Shafts Comparison of ACI and AASHTO LRFD Load and Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts Conditions When Downdrag Should be Considered in Design

Limit States for Design of Gravity Retaining Walls and Abutments

Summary of Parametric Study Results from LRFD Eccentricity Calibration

Strength and Service Limit States for Design of Prefabricated Modular Walls

Unfactored Unit Properties of 2.44-m Long Wall Modules

Unfactored Vertical Loads and Resisting Moments

Unfactored Horizontal Loads and Overturning Moments

Load Factors

Factored Vertical Loads

xv

12-7

12-8

12-9

12-10

12-11

12-12

12-13

13-1

13-2

13-3

13-4

13-5

13-6

13-7

13-8

14-1

14-2

14-3

14-4

14-5

14-6

14-7

14-8

14-9

14-10

14-11

14-12

14-13

14-14

14-15

14-16

LIST OF TABLES (continued)

Factored Horizontal Loads

Factored Moments from Vertical Forces (M v )

Factored Moments from Horizontal Forces (M h )

Summary of Eccentricity Check

Summary of Maximum Bearing Pressures

Summary of Sliding Resistance

Summary of Spread Footing Design by LRFD and ASD

Factors of Safety for Anchored Walls

Maximum Allowable Tensile Loads for Ground Anchors

Strength and Service Limit States for Design of Anchored Walls

Resistance Factors for Anchored Walls

Comparison of FS ASD and FS LRFD for Anchored Walls Comparison of ASD Allowable Load/Stress with the LRFD Equivalent Load/Stress for Structural Design of Ground Anchors Ultimate Unit Resistance of Anchors in Soil

Ultimate Unit Resistance of Anchors in Rock

Factors of Safety for External Stability of MSE Walls

ASD Criteria for Internal Stability Evaluation of Reinforcements for MSE Walls

Strength and Service Limit States for Design of MSE Walls

Resistance Factors for Strength Limit State of MSE Walls

Creep Reduction Factors for Polymeric Reinforcements

Relationship Between Joint Width and Limiting Distortion of MSE Wall Facing

Coefficient of Resistance for Steel Reinforcements

Equivalent Height of Soil for Vehicular Loading

Unfactored Vertical Loads/Moments

Unfactored Horizontal Loads/Moments

Load Factors and Load Combinations

Factored Vertical Loads

Factored Horizontal Loads

Factored Moments from Vertical Loads

Factored Moments from Horizontal Loads

Summary for Eccentricity Check

xvi

14-17

14-18

14-19

14-20

14-21

14-22

14-23

14-24

14-25

14-26

14-27

14-28

14-29

14-30

14-31

14-32

14-33

14-34

14-35

15-1

15-2

15-3

15-4

15-5

15-6

15-7

15-8

15-9

15-10

LIST OF TABLES (continued)

Summary for Bearing Check Factored Vertical Load and Moment at Reinforcement Levels for Reinforcement Tensile Resistance Evaluation Summary of Factored Horizontal Loads for Reinforcement Tensile Resistance Evaluation Factored Vertical Load and Moment at Reinforcement Levels for Pullout Resistance Evaluation Summary of Factored Horizontal Loads for Reinforcement Pullout Resistance Evaluation Pullout Resistance in Reinforcement Levels

Equivalent Height of Soil for Vehicular Loading

Unfactored Vertical Loads/Moments

Unfactored Horizontal Loads/Moments

Load Factors and Load Combinations

Factored Vertical Loads

Factored Horizontal Loads

Factored Moments from Vertical Loads

Factored Moments from Horizontal Loads

Summary for Eccentricity Check

Factored Vertical Load and Moment at Reinforcement Levels

Summary of Factored Horizontal Loads Summary of Maximum Factored Horizontal Forces for Connection of Strip to Facing Pullout Resistance in Reinforcement Levels

Factor of Safety on Ultimate Structural Capacity of Flexible Culverts

Limit States Applicable for Design of Metal Pipes and Arches

Limit States Applicable for Design of Thermoplastic Pipe

Load Factors for Flexible Culvert Design

Resistance Factors for Design of Flexible Culverts Comparison of Effective Factors of Safety for Flexible Culverts - Strength I Limit State Strength and Elastic Properties of Aluminum and Steel Culverts

Strength and Elastic Properties of PE and PVC Culverts Flexibility Factor Limits for Corrugated Metal, Structural Plate and Thermoplastic Pipe Minimum Longitudinal Seam Strength for Steel and Aluminum Structural Plate Pipe

xvii

LIST OF TABLES (continued)

16-1

Load Coefficients/Factors for LFD of Rigid Culverts

16-2

Load Factors for LRFD Rigid Culverts

16-3

Limit States Applicable for Design of Reinforced Concrete Pipes

16-4

Resistance/Strength - Reduction Factors for Precast Reinforced Concrete Culverts

A-1

Prefixes Used with Metric Units

A-2

Metric Units for Common Geotechnical Problems

A-3

Common English to Metric Unit Conversions

xviii

Figure

No.

2-1

2-2

2-3

2-4

2-5

2-6

2-7

2-8

3-1

3-2

3-3

3-4

3-5

3-6

3-7

3-8

4-1

4-2

4-3

4-4

4-5

4-6

4-7

4-8

4-9

4-10

4-11

4-12

4-13

LIST OF FIGURES

Title

Factor of Safety for ASD LRFD Design Approach Variation of Load and Resistance Variation of Load and Resistance

Reliability Index, Empirical Rates of Failure for Civil Works Facilities Example Condition for Service Limit State Evaluation Example Condition for Strength Limit State Evaluation Histogram of Measured to Predicted Axial Driven Pile Resistance for Example Problem 3.2 Lognormal Probability Density Function Standard Normal Density Function Lognormal Density Function Probability Density Functions for Normally Distributed Load and Resistance Definition of Reliability Index, for Lognormal Distributions of R and Q Reliability Index for Meyerhof’s SPT Method

Resistance Factors for Meyerhof’s SPT Method for T = 2.0 and 2.5 Typical Loading for Substructure Design Downdrag Loading Location of Resultant Lateral Earth Pressure Earth Pressure Distribution for Anchored Wall Design Earth Pressure Distribution for MSE Wall Design with Level Backfill Surface Earth Pressure Distribution for MSE Wall Design with Sloping Backfill Surface HS20 Truck Configuration Horizontal Pressure on Wall Due to Uniformly-Loaded Strip Pressure Earthquake Loads on a Bridge Definition Sketch for Monobe-Okobe Analysis Load Combination for Evaluation of Sliding Resistance of a Cantilever Retaining Wall Supported on a Spread Footing Load Combination for Evaluation of Bearing Resistance and Eccentricity of a Cantilever Retaining Wall Supported on a Spread Footing Schematic Representation of Factored Loads on Driven Piles Subjected to Downdrag

xix

Figure No.

4-14

4-15

4-16

4-17

4-18

4-19

4-20

4-21

4-22

5-1

5-2

5-3

5-4

5-5

5-6

5-7

5-8

5-9

5-10

6-1

6-2

6-3

6-4

6-5

6-6

6-7

6-8

6-9

6-10

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)

Title

Soil Blocks Mobilized by Arching Over Culverts Design Truck Pressure Distribution From Elastic Theory Comparison of AASHTO Live Load Pressures Through Earth Fills Surface Loading Pattern for Design Truck and Design Tandem Distributed Area at Depth for Design Truck and Design Tandem Live-Load Distribution Through Soil for Design Truck Live-Load Distribution Through Soil for Design Tandem Schematic of Example Problem Retaining Wall Area Designations for Weight of Concrete Reliability Variation with Sample Size for Indirect Testing for Mobilized Undrained Shear Strength Optimization of Foundation and Exploration Cost Illustrative Variation of Resistance Factor with Resistance Coefficient of Variability Split-Barrel Sampler Electrical Friction-Cone Penetrometer Tip Field Vane Geometries and Sizes Menard Pressuremeter Equipment Thin-Walled Tube Sampler Double-Tube Core Barrel Histograms of Intact Rock Strength Properties Uncertainty in Soil Property Estimates Comparison of Field and Laboratory Shearing Modes Correlation of CPT Tip Resistance, SPT N-Value and Mean Particle Size Correlation of CPT Tip Resistance, SPT N-Value and Fines Content Correlation of Triaxial Compression Effective Stress Friction Angle with Cone Penetration Tip Resistance Field Vane Shear Correction Factor Pressuremeter Modulus versus N Value for Cohesionless Soil Pressuremeter Modulus versus N Value for Cohesive Soils Correlation of CPT Tip Resistance with Constrained Modulus and Relative Density for NC Sands Correlation of CPT Resistance with Constrained Modulus and Relative Density for OC Sands

xx

Figure No.

6-11

6-12

6-13

6-14

8-1

8-2

8-3

8-4

8-5

8-6

8-7

9-1

9-2

9-3

9-4

9-5

9-6

9-7

9-8

9-9

9-10

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

11-1

12-1

12-2

12-3

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)

Title

Correlation Between Normalized Undrained Shear Strength and Liquidity Index for NC Clays Compression and Unload-Reload Indices versus Plasticity Index Normalized Undrained Shear Strength Versus Undrained Strength Ratio from CIUC and UU Tests Example Problem, Site Exploration Plan for Western Approach Circular Arc Slope Stability Failure Surface Showing Typical Soil Slice Forces Generalized Flow Chart for Spread Footing Design by ASD and LRFD Comparison of Resultant Force Location for Footing on Soil Using ASD and LRFD Comparison of Resultant Force Location for Footings on Rock Using ASD and LRFD Schematic of Example Problem Reduced Footing Dimensions Procedure for Estimating Sliding Resistance of Footings on Clay Generalized Flow Chart for Driven Pile Design by LRFD and ASD Pile Group Loading Generalized Problem Geometry and SPT Design Envelope Representative Pile and CPT Tip Resistance Profile Used in Example Representative Pile and CPT Side Resistance Profile Used in Example Pile Cap and Pile Layout Axial Load, P u , Summary Strong Axis Maximum Bending Moment, M ux , Summary Weak Axis Maximum Bending Moment, M uy , Summary Pile Settlements Generalized Flow Chart for Drilled Shaft Design by LRFD and ASD Soil Profile for Example Shaft Group Layout for Example Preliminary Longitudinal Shaft Reinforcement for Example Generalized Flow Chart for Conventional Retaining Wall and Abutment Design by ASD and LRFD Generalized Flow Chart for Modular Retaining Wall Design Schematic of Example Problem Retaining Wall Area Designation for Weight of Concrete and Soil

xxi

Figure No.

12-4

13-1

13-2

13-3

13-4

13-5

14-1

14-2

14-3

14-4

14-5

14-6

14-7

14-8

14-9

14-10

15-1

15-2

15-3

15-4

15-5

16-1

16-2

16-3

16-4

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)

Title

Bearing Pads at Rear and Front of Modules Anchored Wall Nomenclature Generalized Flow Chart for Anchored Wall Design by ASD and LRFD Settlement Profiles Behind Anchored Walls Schematic of Example Problem Lateral Earth Pressure Diagram for Soldier Pile Embedment into Cohesionless Soil Generalized Flow Chart for MSE Wall Design by ASD and LRFD Pullout Factors for Inextensible Mesh and Grid Reinforcement Determination of Failure Plane and Earth Pressure Coefficients for MSE Wall with Inextensible Reinforcements Problem Geometry Pressure Diagram for Computation of q uniform for Reinforcement Tensile Resistance Evaluation of Layer 1 Pressure Diagram for Computation of q uniform for Reinforcement Pullout Resistance Evaluation of Layer 1 Problem Geometry Earth Pressure Distribution for MSE Wall with Broken Back Backfill Surface Geometry of Assumed Failure Surface for Example Problem Pressure Diagram for Computation of q uniform for Internal Stability Evaluation of Layer 1 Generalized Flow Chart for Flexible Culvert Design by ASD and LRFD Comparison of Flexible Culvert Deflection Modes in Loose and Dense Soils Problem Definition Pressure Distribution at Pipe Crown for Design Truck Pressure Distribution at Pipe Crown for Design Tandem D-Load Test Setup Comparison of AASHTO Live Load Pressures Through Earth Fills Paris (a) and Olander (b) Pressure Distributions Heger Pressure Distribution with Arching Factors

xxii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

A

A

A

A

A

a

A

a B

A

b

A

AF

D

A

A

A

A

g

p

s

s

A

AL

A s

B

B

B

B B B B B c

st

BP

c

= Acceleration coefficient for earthquake load evaluation (dim)

= Cross-sectional area of soil reinforcement less any sacrificial thickness (m 2 )

= Cross-sectional area of structural element (m 2 )

= Cross sectional area of pipe wall (m 2 )(15.2.1)

= Wall area per unit length (m 2 /m)(15.3.2)

=

=

=

=

Net area ratio for cone penetrometer (dim) Effective footing area (m 2 ) Barge bow damage length (m) Surface area of transverse reinforcement in bearing, less sacrificial thickness of cross bars (m 2 ) Distributed area at depth D E (m 2 ) Annual frequency of collapse of a bridge component (dim) Gross area of concrete section (m 2 ) Area of pile or shaft tip (m 2 ) Net cross-sectional area reduced for corrosion (m 2 )(14.2.2) Total top and bottom surface area of reinforcement along, L eff'' less any sacrificial thickness (m 2 ) Area of reinforcing steel (m 2 ) Group axle load (kN) Area of pile or shaft side surfaces (m 2 )

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

= Width of footing (m)

= Base width (m)

= Effective backslope (deg)

=

=

=

=

=

1 - 0.33 h w /h (dim) Effective width of footing (m) Bearing pad width (m) Outside diameter or width of pipe (m) Out-to-out vertical rise of pipe (m) =

Bedding factor (dim)

B FE , B FLL

BR

c =

C

=

= Vehicular braking force (kN)

Cohesion of soil (kPa) Coefficient for effect of pier width to ice thickness ratio where flow fails by crushing (dim) Compression Index (dim) Recompression Index (dim) Vehicular centrifugal force (kN) Hydrodynamic mass coefficient (dim) Unconfined compressive strength of rock core (kPa) Coefficient of variation (dim) =

Coefficient of variation of property measurement (dim) Coefficient of variation of predictive model (dim) Coefficient of variation of load (dim) Coefficient of variation of dead load (dim)

=

a

C

cr

H

o

C

C

CE

C

C

COV =

COV COV COV COV Q = COV QD =

=

=

=

=

=

INHERENT

Coefficient of variation of inherent soil variability (dim) =

MEASUREMENT

MODEL

xxiii

COV QL = COV R = COV RA =

COV RN = COV =

COV i = =

CR =

CRF =

C n

=

CT =

=

CV =

=

C v

D =

D =

D =

C ur

C sm

DC =

DD =

D E

DLP

DTP

D r

DW

DWT

D

D

E

e

e B , e L E c

50

10

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

ecc

E D

EH

E m

e max

n

E

E

ES

E s

PMT

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

EQ

E u

=

=

LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued)

Coefficient of variation of live load (dim) Coefficient of variation of resistance (dim) Coefficient of variation for soil internal friction angle using Nordlund Method (dim) Coefficient of variation for pile capacity using Nordlund Method (dim) Coefficient of variation of overall bias (dim) Coefficient of variation of a bias factor (dim) Horizontal inclination of pier nose to a vertical line (dim) Force effects due to creep (kN) Creep reduction factor from creep tests or Table 14-5 (dim) Elastic seismic response coefficient for m th mode of vibration (dim) Vehicular collision force (kN) Recompression Index (dim) Vessel collision force (kN) Coefficient of consolidation (m 2 /sec)

Pile, shaft or culvert diameter (m)

Diameter of vane (mm)

D-load (three-edge bearing resistance of reinforced concrete pipe, corresponding to an experimentally observed 0.25 mm width crack or to ultimate load capacity of culvert (kN/m) Dead load of structural components and non-structural attachments (kN) Downdrag load (kN) Depth below road surface (m) Distributed lane pressure (kPa) Distributed truck/tandem pressure (kPa) Relative density (percent) Dead load of wearing surfaces and utilities (kN) Dead weight tonnage of vessel (metric ton) Particle diameter for which material is 10% finer by weight (mm) Mean particle diameter (mm)

Young's modulus (kPa)

Eccentricity (m) Eccentricity of load resultant with respect to centroid of footing (m) Thickness of metal reinforcement at end of service life (mm) Reduction factor for accidental load eccentricity (dim) Dilatometer modulus averaged over a depth interval of 5m (kPa) Horizontal earth pressure load (kN) Modulus of elasticity of culvert material (kPa) Maximum allowed eccentricity (m) Nominal thickness of steel reinforcement at construction (mm) Pressuremeter modulus (kPa) Earth surcharge load (kN) Sacrificial metal thickness expected to be lost by uniform corrosion during service life of structure (mm) Earthquake load (kN) Undrained modulus in cohesive soils (kPa)

xxiv

LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued)

EV =

F

F b

FC

=

=

=

Vertical pressure from dead load of earth fill (kN)

Horizontal force caused by ice flows (kN) Horizontal force caused by ice flows which fail by bending (kN) Construction damage factor for geosynthetic reinforcement ranging from 1.1 to 3.0, and taken as 3.0 without tests (dim) Horizontal force caused by ice flows which fail by crushing (kN) Concrete compressive strength (kPa) Buckling strength of culvert wall (kPa) Durability factor for geosynthetic reinforcement ranging from 1.1 to 2.0, and taken as 2.0 without tests (dim) Coefficient of resistance to direct sliding of reinforcement (dim) Soil-structure interaction factor (dim) (4.5) Flexibility Factor (m/kN) Suggested Maximum Permissible Flexibility Factor (m/kN) Material limit stress (kPa) Concrete compressive stress due to prestressing (kPa) Frictional force effects due to sliding between structure members (kN) Factor of safety (dim) Cone penetrometer side resistance (kPa) ASD Factor of Safety (dim) LRFD equivalent factor of safety (dim) Specified minimum tensile strength (kPa) Probability density function Minimum yield stress (kPa) Yield strength of metal (kPa) Apparent coefficient of friction at each reinforcement level (dim) Gravitational acceleration (9.8/m/s 2 ) =

Combined probability density function Design height of wall and height of backfill above culvert crown (m) (4.5) Nominal height of horizontal earth pressure diagram (m) Height of ground surface above culvert (m) Depth of reinforced soil (m) Reduction factor for hidden defects due to damage during pile driving (dim) Equivalent height of soil for design live load (m)

Height of reinforced zone contributing horizontal load to reinforcement at level i

(m)

Total horizontal force per unit length (kN/m) Height of water surface above culvert (m)

Slope of backfill behind wall (deg)

Impact Factor (dim)

Moment of inertia of culvert wall (m 4 /m)

Ice load (kN) Inside diameter (m) (4.5) Dynamic Load Allowance (dim) Point load strength (kPa)

F c f c

f cr

FD

=

=

=

=

=

f d

F e

FF

FF max

f L

f pe

FR

FS

=

f s FS ASD =

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

FS LRFD =

=

=

=

=

=

=

eq

i

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

H TOT

h w

=

=

I =

I =

I =

IC =

ID =

IM =

=

I S

f u f x (x) F y f y

f*

g

func {overline g}

g(R,Q) =

H

h

h

h

HDF

h

h

Mean value of g(R,Q)

xxv

k =

k =

k =

k a

=

=

=

=

k o

=

k s

k v

L

=

=

L

L

l

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

K ae

KE

k h

k h

K pe

=

l = L e

L

L D

L eff = L e

LF =

LI =

LL =

LS =

M =

M =

m =

M

M

M

N

N

N

n

n

N

N

dt

max

s

k

p

OCR

P

p

p

p

PA

P a

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued)

Horizontal earth pressure coefficient (dim)

Coefficient of permeability (m/s)

Soil correlation factor (dim)

Active earth pressure coefficient (dim) Seismic active earth pressure coefficient (dim)

Vessel collision energy (joule)

Lateral earth pressure coefficient (dim)

Horizontal acceleration coefficient (dim) (4.2.1.3)

At-rest earth pressure coefficient (dim) Seismic passive earth pressure coefficient (dim)

Coefficient of earth pressure due to surcharge (dim)

Vertical acceleration coefficient (dim)

Footing length, anchor bond length and span length of culvert (m)

Horizontal spacing between vertical wall elements (m)(13.3.6.1)

Soil reinforcement length (m)

Length of tire contact in direction of travel (m)

Length of geogrid beyond failure plane (m) Effective footing length (m) Incremental length of sliding surface in slope stability analysis (m)

Distributed length of wheel load (m)

= Effective soil reinforcement length (m) Load factor (dim) Liquidity Index (dim) Vehicular live load (kN) Live load surcharge (kN) Vessel displacement tonnage (metric ton) Constrained modulus (kPa) Multiple presence factor (dim) Tangent constrained drained modulus (kPa) Factored maximum flexural moment in facing or vertical wall element (kN-m/m) Confined modulus of soil (kPa)

Number of data values (dim)

SPT blow count (blows per 30 cm)

Normal force (kN)

Sample size

Number of transverse bearing members behind failure plane (dim) Cone bearing factor (dim) Passive resistance factor based on site-specific pullout tests, or as defined by Figure 14-2 (dim)

Overconsolidation ratio (dim)

Wheel load (kN)

Effective ice crushing strength (kPa) (4.2.2.12)

Live load intensity (kPa)

Average factored lateral pressure acting on vertical wall element or facing (kPa)

Probability of vessel aberrancy (dim)

Lateral earth pressure resultant force per unit wall length (kN/m)

xxvi

p

a

=

p

a

=

P

ae

=

P

all

=

P

all(LRFD)

P

B

=

P

B

=

PC =

P

D

=

p

f

=

P

fg

=

P

fs

=

P

H

=

P

h

=

p h

=

PI =

PL =

P

L

=

P

N

=

P n =P ult = P P P P P p P

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

n

r

P

pe

r

s

v

LIST OF SYMBOLS (continued)

Lateral earth pressure (kPa) Atmospheric pressure (kPa) Seismic active earth pressure (kN/m) Allowable axial, tensile or flexural structural capacity (kN) = LRFD equivalent allowable tensile load (kN) Base wind pressure (kPa) (4.2.2.8) Equivalent static vessel impact force (kN) Probability of bridge collapse due to a collision with an aberrant vessel (dim) Design wind pressure (kPa) Probability of failure (dim) Nominal pullout resistance of steel grid reinforcement (kN) Nominal pullout capacity of ribbed or smooth steel reinforcing strips (kN) Horizontal load (kN) Horizontal component of lateral earth pressure per unit length of wall (kN/m) Horizontal stress (kPa) Plasticity Index (dim) Pedestrian live load (kN) Factored crown pressure (kPa) Wind pressure normal to structure component (kPa) Ultimate (nominal) structural resistance (kN) Ultimate anchor tensile resistance or GUTS (kN)(13.2.2) Factored structural resistance of reinforcements, facing and connections (kN) Wind pressure parallel to structure (kPa) Seismic passive earth pressure (kN/m) Factored structural resistance (kN) Probability of survival (dim)

Vertical component of lateral earth pressure resultant per unit wall length (kN/m)

Q

=

Load or design load (kN)

q

=

Surcharge pressure (kPa)

q

=

Average pressure of an assumed rectangular distribution (kPa) =

=

func {overline Q} func {overline q}

Mean load (kN) Magnitude of uniform distribution of soil pressure (kPa)

Q

a

Q

q c

Q

all

D

ep

i

L

max

min

Q

Q

Q

q

q

Q

Q

q p

Q R

n

p

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Ultimate unit resistance between grout/soil/rock in anchor bond zone per unit length (kN/m) Allowable design load (kN) Cone penetrometer tip resistance (kPa) Dead load (kN) Nominal passive resistance of foundation material (kN) Force effect, stress or stress resultant (kN or kPa) Live load (kN) Maximum unit bearing stress (kPa) Minimum unit bearing stress (kPa) Nominal sliding resistance of footing (kN) Ultimate pile tip resistance (kN) Unit tip resistance (kPa) Factored geotechnical resistance (kN)

xxvii