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# The use of this video in the classroom is created for stage 2 as an

## introduction to fractions. It would be used as an accompanying resource to

warm up activities and investigations about fractions. This particular video
is based on the use of fractions in cooking, to create a real life example for
students to relate to.
A warm up activity will be used prior to the video as part of an explanation
on fractions. Throughout the video, the teacher is able to pause the video
to engage students in questioning. Examples of these are Where have
you seen fractions in your everyday life? Throughout the video, there are
opportunities for further questioning of students including identifying
fractions, denominators, numerators and how many equal parts would
there be in this fraction? Technical language will also be encouraged
through the video as well as the teacher modelling the use of words such
as fraction, quarter and half. Students will be extended as students write
their own fractions using a numerator, denominator and vinculum.
After watching the video, students will be involved in a mathematical
investigation about fractions in recipes, eventually creating their own. This
final activity will also involve equivalent fractions, with students solving
problems such as If the recipe makes enough for 26 people but only 13
are coming, what would you do to the recipe? What would the
measurements look like? and what if double/three times the amount of
people are coming what would you do? What would the recipe look like?
Students could also create their own recipes, with parameters being
placed on what fractions they use, how many and the amount of food
used. This can also be adapted to accommodate for varying learning
abilities in the classroom.
This video supports teaching a learning in the classroom in an engaging,
easy to understand way. Research has shown that many students have a
negative experience when learning mathematics (Clements, as cited in,
Jorgensen & Niesche, 2008). The main key factors that cause these
negative experiences are expectations from teachers and students, and
the other is discussing students mathematical ability throughout lessons
(Jorgensen & Niesche, 2008). Considering these two factors, the video is
designed to target the abilities and the different degrees of mathematical
confidence of all students in the class using visuals and language.
Students would find the video easy to understand as it uses clear visuals
to show fractions, as well as demonstrating how they are represented. In
the video, this is explicitly shown in one part using an apple. Animation is
used in this particular video to provide a fun and engaging learning
experience. As it is also an educational video with instructional strategies
and cognitive modeling, it can aid in comprehension for students
(http://www.safarimontage.com/pdfs/training/usingeducationalvideointhecl
assroom.pdf). Haylock and Cockburn (2003) also suggests that the

## network of connections between concrete experiences, pictures, language

and symbols could be significant to the understanding of a mathematical
concept. The use of cooking to explain fractions is an everyday life
experience that students would be familiar with. This link between home
and school assist students to make sense of their learning. This is part of a
cognitive and social constructivism theory where teachers facilitate a
learning environment that is dynamic and effective, incorporating
students previous knowledge from their home into their school (Reference
cognitive and social constructivism: developing tools for an ieffective classroom ).

Using this video, teachers are able to use strategies such as explicit and
step by step teaching to impact upon students ability to understand the
concept of fractions, including the ability to represent fractions
appropriately, compare the relative magnitude of two fractions, and
complete calculations accurately (Bruce, Chang, Flynn & Yearley, 2013).
Teachers can also use concrete materials in conjunction with the video to
engage students in hands on learning. Students would be provided with a
bowl, measuring cups and something to measure so that they can visually
see two thirds, one half and a quarter. This teaching strategy has often
been proved effective as it means that students are able to challenge
themselves, learn from mistakes and investigate (Anthony & Walshaw,
2009). Questioning students using the video and concrete materials
involve students in their learning and give them the tools to solve cooking
problems accurately.
Literacy instruction is also a necessary part of mathematics instruction
(Draper 2002). Throughout this video, the importance of mathematical
language used is for students to build up a vocabulary when working with
fractions. When students undertake a task such as following a recipe to
make chocolate cupcakes, the teacher should encourage the students to
use mathematical language terms such as one half, one quarter, one
whole, part or equal parts, numerator, denominator and other
relative terms used. The teacher could also ask students to think about
terms identified above and how they can relate to real life experiences.