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Course Schedule

1.

Introduction and Optical Fibers (17.03)

2.

Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers (24.03)

3.

Fiber-Optic Components I (31.03)

4.

Fiber-Optic Components II (07.04)

5.

Transmitters and Receivers (05.05)

6.

p Measurements & Review ((14.04))


Fiber-Optic

Lecturers
In case of problems, questions...
9 Course lecturers
G. Genty (5 lectures)
F. Manoocheri (1 lectures)

goery.genty@tut.fi
farshid.manoocheri@tkk.fi

Optical Fiber Concept


9 Optical fibers are light pipes
9 Communications signals can be
transmitted over these hair-thin strands of
glass or plastic
9 Concept is a century old
9 But only used commercially for the last
~30 years when technology had matured

Why Optical Fiber Systems?


9 Optical fibers have more capacity than other
means (a single fiber can carry more
information than a giant copper cable!)
9 Price
9 Speed
S
9 Distance
9 Weight/size
9 Immune from interference
9 Electrical isolation
9 Security

Optical Fiber Applications


Optical fibers are used in many areas
9 > 90% of all long distance telephony
9 > 50% of all local telephony
9 Most CATV (cable television) networks
9 Most LAN (local area network) backbones
9 Many video surveillance links
9 Military

Optical Fiber Technology


An optical fiber consists of two different types of solid glass

9 Core
9 Cladding
9 Mechanical protection layer

9 1970: first fiber with attenuation (loss) <20 dB/km


9 1979: attenuation reduced to 0.2 dB/km
commercial systems!

Optical Fiber Communication


Optical fiber systems transmit modulated infrared light

Fiber

Transmitter

Components

Receiver

Information can be transmitted over


very long distances due to the low attenuation of optical fibers

Frequencies in Communications
100 km
10 km

wire pairs

1 km
100 m
10 m

coaxial
cable

TV
Radio

waveguide

Satellite
Radar

1m
10 cm
1 cm
1 m
wavelength
a e e gt

ffrequency
3 kHz
Submarine cable
30 kHz
p
Telephone
Telegraph
300 kHz

optical
fiber

Telephone
Data
Video

3 MHz
30 Mhz
300 MHz
3 GHz
30 GHz
300 THz

10

10

Frequencies in Communications
Data rate

Optical Fiber: > Gb/s


Mi
Micro-wave
~10
10 Mb/
Mb/s
Short-wave radio ~100 kb/s
Long-wave radio ~4 Kb/s

Increase of communication capacity and rates


requires higher carrier frequencies

Optical Fiber Communications!

11

11

Optical Fiber
Optical fibers are cylindrical dielectric waveguides
Dielectric: material which does not conduct electricity but can sustain an electric field

n2
Cladding diameter
125 m

Core diameter
from 9 to 62.5 m

n1

Cladding (pure silica)


Core silica doped with Ge, Al

Typical values of refractive indices


9 Cladding: n2 = 1.460 (silica: SiO2)
9 Core: n1 =1
1.461
461 (dopants increase ref
ref. index compared to cladding)
A useful parameter: fractional refractive index difference = (n1-n2) /n1<<1

12

12

Fiber Manufacturing
Optical fiber manufacturing is performed in 3 steps
9 Preform (soot) fabrication
deposition of core and cladding materials onto a rod using vapors of SiCCL4 and
GeCCL4 mixed
GeCC
ed in a flame
a e bu
burned
ed

9 Consolidation of the preform


p
preform is p
placed in a high
g temperature
p
furnace to remove the water vapor
p and obtain
a solid and dense rod

9 Drawing in a tower
solid preform is placed in a drawing tower and drawn into a
thin continuous strand of glass fiber

13

13

Fiber Manufacturing
Step 1

Steps 2&3

14

14

Light Propagation in Optical Fibers


9 Guiding principle: Total Internal Reflection
Critical angle
p
Numerical aperture

9 Modes
9 Optical Fiber types
Multimode fibers
Single mode fibers

9 Attenuation
9 Dispersion
Inter-modal
Intra-modal

15

15

Total Internal Reflection


Light is partially reflected and refracted at the interface of two media
with different refractive indices:

9
9

Reflected ray with angle identical to angle of incidence


Refracted ray with angle given by Snells law

Snell s law:
Snells
n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2

Angles 1 & 2 defined


p
to normal!
with respect

n1 > n2

1
2

n1
n2

9 Refracted ray with angle: sin 2 = n1/ n2 sin 1


9 Solution only if n1/ n2 sin 11
16

16

Total Internal Reflection


Snells law:
n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2

n1 > n2

n1
n2

2
n2
n1
n2

sin c = n2 / n1

If >c No ray
is refracted!

n1
n2n2

For angle such that >C , light is fully reflected at


the core-cladding interface: optical fiber principle!

17

17

Numerical Aperture
9 For angle such that < max, light propagates inside the fiber
9 For angle such that >max, light does not propagate inside the fiber

n2
n1

max

NA = n1 sin max

Example: n1 = 1.47
n2 = 1.46
NA = 0.17

n1 n2
= n n n1 2 with =
<< 1
n1
2
1

2
2

Numerical aperture NA describes


p
angle
g max for light
g to be g
guided
the acceptance

18

18

Theory of Light Propagation in Optical Fiber


9 Geometrical optics cant describe rigorously light propagation in fibers
9 Must be handled by electromagnetic theory (wave propagation)
9 Starting point: Maxwells equations
B

T
D
H =J+
T
D = f

(3)

B =0

(4)

E =

((1))
(2)

with

B = 0 H + M
D = 0 E + P
J =0
f = 0

: Magnetic
M
ti flflux d
density
it
: Electric flux density
: Current densityy
: Charge density

19

19

Theory of Light Propagation in Optical Fiber


P (r,t ) = PL (r,t ) + PNL (r,t )
PL (r,t ) = 0 (1) (t t1 )E (r,t1 )dt1 : Linear Polarization
+

PNL (r,T ) : Nonlinear Polarization

(1): linear

susceptibility

We consider only linear propagation: PNL(r,T) negligible

20

20

Theory of Light Propagation in Optical Fiber


2 PL (r , t )
1 2 E (r , t )
E (r , t ) + 2
= 0
2
c
t
t 2
We now introduce the Fourier transform: E% (r , ) =

E(r,t)eit dt

k E (r , t )
k

E% (r , )
(
)
k
t

And we get: E% (r , ) 2 E% (r , ) = + 0 0 (1) ( ) 2 E% (r , )


c
which can be rewritten as
2

E% (r , )

1 + c 2 0 0 (1) ( ) E% (r , ) = 0
c
2

i.e. E% (r , )

2
c

( ) E% (r , ) = 0

21

21

Theory of Propagation in Optical Fiber


2

c
1
( ) = n + i with n = 1+ [ (1) ( )]

2
2
and =

[ (1) ( )]
cn( )

n: refractive
f ti index
i d
: absorption

E (r, ) = ( E (r, )) 2 E (r, ) = 2 E (r, )

( E (r, ) D (r, ) = 0)
2

E (r, ) + n 2 E (r, ) = 0 : Helmoltz Equation!


2

22

22

Theory of Light Propagation in Optical Fiber


9 Each components of E(x,y,z,t)=U(x,y,z)ejt must satisfy the Helmoltz equation
n = n1 for r a

2U + n 2 k0 U = 0 with n = n 2 for r > a


k = 2 /
0
2

Note: = /c

9 Assumption: the cladding radius is infinite


9 In cylindrical coodinates the Helmoltz equation becomes
n = n1 for r a

2U 1 U 1 2U 2U
2 2
+
+
+
+
n
k
U
=
0
with
n = n 2 for r > a
0
r 2 r r r 2 2 z 2
k = 2 /
0
0

Er

Ez
y

23

23

Theory of Light Propagation in Optical Fiber


9 U = U(r,,z)= U(r)U() U(z)
U(z) =e-jz
9 Consider waves travelling in the z-direction
9 U() must be 2 periodic U() =e-j l , l=0,1,2integer

U (r , , z ) = F (r )e jl e jz with l = 0,1,2...
Plugging into the Helmoltz Eq. one gets :
n = n1 for r a
d F 1 dF 2 2
l

+
+
n
k

F
=
0
with
n = n2 for r > a
0
dr 2 r dr
r2
k = 2 /
0
0
2

One can define an effective index of refraction n eff


such that =

n eff , n 2 < n eff < n1

= k0 neff is the
propagation
constant

24

24

Theory of Propagation in Optical Fiber


9 A light wave is guided only if n2 k0 n1k0

2 = (n1k 0 ) 2
2

9 We introduce

2 = 2 (n 2 k 0 )

2 + 2 = k02 (n12 n 22 )= k 02 NA 2 : constant!

Note : 2 , 2 0

, :real

We then get :
d 2 F 1 dF 2 l 2
+
+ 2 F = 0 for r a
2
r dr
r
dr
d 2 F 1 dF 2 l 2
+
+ 2 F = 0 for r > a
2
r dr
r
dr

25

25

Theory of Propagation in Optical Fiber


The solutions of the equations are of the form :

Fl (r ) = J l (r )

for a

J l : Bessel function of 1st kind with order l

Fl (r ) = K l (r )

f >a
for

K l : Modified Bessel function of 1st kind with order l


with

2 = (n1k 0 ) 2
2

2 = 2 (n 2 k 0 )

2 + 2 = k02 (n12 n 22 )= k 02 NA 2 : constant!

26

26

Examples
l=0

l=3

K0(r) J0(r) K0(r)


a

J 0 (r) for r a
F(r)
K 0 (r) for r < a

K3(r)
r

J3(r)
a

K3(r)

J 3 (r) for r a
F(r)
K 3 (r) for r < a

27

27

Characteristic Equation
9 Boundary conditions at the core-cladding interface
give a condition on the p
g
propagation
p g
constant ((characteristics equation)
q
)

The propagation constant can be found by solving


the characteristic equation :
J l' ( )
K l' () n12 J l' ( )
K l' () l 2 lm2
+
+

2
= 2 2
J
K
n
J
K

)
(
)

)
(
)

l
l
l
l
2
n2 k0
with = a and = a

1
1
+
2 2

For each l value there are m solutions for


Each value lm corresponds to a particualr fiber mode

28

28

Number of Modes Supported by an Optical Fiber


9 Solution of the characteristics equation U(r,,z)=F(r)e-jle-jlmz is
called a mode, each mode corresponds to a particular
electromagnetic
g
field p
pattern of radiation
9 The modes are labeled LPlm
9 Number of modes M supported by an optical fiber is related to the
V parameter defined as

V = ak0 NA =

2a

n12 n22

9 M is an increasing function of V !
9 If V <2.405, M=1 and only the mode LP01 propagates: the fiber is
said to be Single-Mode
g

29

29

Number of Modes Supported by an Optical Fiber


9 Number of modes well approximated by:
10
1.0

06
0.6

n1 n2

0.4

LP01

0.8

neff n2

2 a 2
2
M V / 2, where V
( n1 n2 )

2

LP11

21
02
31 12 41

core

22 32
61
51 13
03
23
42 7104

0.2
0

10

Example:
2 =50
2a
50 m
n1 =1.46
=0.005
=1.3
=1 3 m

V=17.6
M=155

8152
33

12

9 If V <2.405, M=1 and only the mode LP01 propagates: Single-Mode


fiber!
cladding

30

30

Examples of Modes in an Optical Fiber


=0.6328 m

a =8.335 m

n1 =1.462420

=0.034

31

31

Examples of Modes in an Optical Fiber


=0.6328 m

a =8.335 m

n1 =1.462420

=0.034

32

32

Cut-Off Wavelength
9 The propagation constant of a given mode depends on wavelength
[ ()]
9 The cut-off condition of a mode is defined as 2()-k02 n22= 2()-42
n22/2=0
9 There exists a wavelength c above which only the fundamental
propagate
p g
mode LP01 can p

2
n1a 2 = 1.84an1
2.405

2.405 c
or equivalently a =
= 0.54 c
2 n1
n1

V < 2.405 C =

Example:
2a =9.2 m
n1 =1.4690
=0.0024
c~1.2 m

33

33

Single-Mode Guidance
In a single-mode fiber, for wavelengths >c~1.26 m
only the LP01 mode can propagate

34

34

Mode Field Diameter


The fundamental mode of a single-mode fiber
pp
by
y a Gaussian function
is well approximated

F ( ) = Ce



w0

where C is a constant and w0 the mode size


A good approximation for the mode size is obtained from
1.619 2.879

w0 = a 0.65 + 3 / 2 +
f 1.2 < V < 2.4
for
V
V6

a
w0 =
for V > 2.4
ln(V )

Fiber Optics Communication Technology-Mynbaev & Scheiner

35

35

Types of Optical Fibers


Step-index single-mode

n2
Cladding diameter
125 m

Core diameter
from 8 to 10 m

n1

n
n1

Refractive index profile

n2

= 0.001
r

36

36

Types of Optical Fibers


Step-index multimode

n2
Cladding diameter
from 125 to 400 m

Core diameter
from 50 to 200 m

n1

n
n1

Refractive index profile

n2

= 0.01
r

37

37

Types of Optical Fibers


Graded-index multimode

n2
Cladding diameter
from 125 to 140 m

Core diameter
from 50 to 100 m

n1

n
n1

Refractive index profile

n2

38

38

Attenuation
9 Signal attenuation in optical fibers results form 3 phenomena:
Absorption
Scattering
Bending
9 Loss coefficient:
POut = Pin e L
P
10
10 log
l 10 Out = L
= 4.343L
P
ln(
10
)
in
is usually expressed in units of dB/km : dB = 4.343

9 depends on wavelength
9 For a single-mode fiber, dB = 0.2 dB/km @ 1550 nm

39

39

Scattering and Absorption


9 Short wavelength: Rayleigh scattering
induced by inhomogeneity of the
refractive
f
i iindex
d and
d proportional
i
l to
1/4
9 Absorption
Infrared band
Ultraviolet band

4
2

2nd
1.3
1
3 m

3rd
1.55
1
55 m

IR absorption

1.0
0.8

Rayleigh
scattering
1/4

W t peaks
Water
k

0.4
UV absorption

0.2
0.1

9 3 Transmission windows
820 nm
1300 nm
1550 nm

1st window
820 nm

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Wavelength (m)

40

40

Macrobending Losses
Macrodending losses are caused by the bending of fiber

9 Bending of fiber affects the condition < C


9 For single-mode
single mode fiber
fiber, bending losses are important
for curvature radii < 1 cm

41

41

Microbending Losses
Microdending losses are caused by the rugosity of fiber

Micro-deformation
Micro
deformation along the fiber axis results in scattering and power loss

42

42

Attenuation: Single-mode vs. Multimode Fiber


4
2

Fundamental mode

Hi h order
Higher
d mode
d

MMF

1
0.4

SMF

0.2
0.1
0.8

1.0
1.2
1.4
Wavelength (m)

1.6

1.8

Light in higher-order modes travels longer optical paths

Multimode fiber attenuates more than single-mode fiber

43

43

Dispersion
9 What is dispersion?

Power of a pulse travelling though a fiber is dispersed in time


Different spectral components of signal travel at different speeds
Results from different phenomena

9 Consequences
C
off di
dispersion:
i
pulses
l
spread
d iin time
i
t

9 3 Types of dispersion:

Inter-modal dispersion (in multimode fibers)


Intra-modal dispersion (in multimode and single-mode fibers)
Polarization mode dispersion (in single-mode fibers)

44

44

Dispersion in Multimode Fibers (inter-modal)


Input pulse
Output pulse

Input pulse

9 In a multimode fiber, different modes travel at different speed


temporal spreading (inter
(inter-modal
modal dispersion)
9 Inter-modal dispersion limits the transmission capacity
9 The maximum temporal spreading tolerated is 1/2 bit period
9 The limit is usually expressed in terms of bit rate x distance

45

45

Dispersion in Multimode Fibers (Inter-modal)


9Fastest ray guided along the core center
9Slowest ray is incident at the critical angle

n2
n1

T = TSLOW TFAST

Slow ray

Fast ray

with TFAST =

LFAST
L
and TSLOW = SLOW
vFAST
vSLOW

vFAST = vSLOW =

c
n1

LFAST = L

LSLOW =
2

L
=
cos

n
n
n L n2 n1 L
T = 1 L 1 L = 1

1
=
c
n2 c
n2 c n1 n2 c

n
L
L
=
= 1L

ssin C n2
cos
sin
2

46

46

Dispersion in Multimode Fibers


If bit rate = B b s 1
We must have T <
L n12
1
i.e.
<
c n2
2B
or L B <

1
2B

Example:
p n1 = 1.5 and = 0.01 B L< 10 Mbs-1

cn2
2
2n
1

Capacity of multimode-step index index fibers BL20 Mb/skm

47

47

Dispersion in graded-index Multimode Fibers


Input pulse
Output pulse

Input pulse

9 Fast mode travels a longer physical path


9 Slow mode travels a shorter physical path

Temporal spreading
is small

Capacity of multimode-graded index fibers BL2 Gb/skm

48

48

Intra-modal Dispersion
9 In a medium of index n, a signal pulse travels at the group
1
velocity g defined as:
d 2 d
vg =

2c d

9Intra-modal dispersion results from 2 phenomena

Material dispersion (also called chromatic dispersion)


Waveguide dispersion

9 Different spectral components of signal travel at different speeds


9 The dispersion parameter D characterizes the temporal pulse broadening
per unit length
g p
per unit of spectral
p
bandwidth : T = D L
T p
DIntra modal

d 1
=
d v g

2
2

=
in units of ps/nm km
2

c
d

49

49

Material Dispersion
9 Refractive index n depends on the frequency/wavelength of light
9 Speed of light in material is therefore dependent on
frequency/wavelength
Input pulse, 1

t
Input pulse, 2

50

50

Material Dispersion
Refractive index of silica as a function of wavelength
is given by the Sellmeier Equation

A32
A12
A2 2
+
+
n ( ) = 1 + 2
1 2 22 2 32 2
with A1 = 0.6961663, 1 = 68.4043 nm
A2 = 0.4079426, 2 = 116.2414 nm
A3 = 0.8974794, 3 = 9896.161 nm

51

51

Material Dispersion
1

2 d
c
=
v g =
n dn / d
2c d

Input
p p
pulse, 1

t
Input pulse, 2

L
d 1
T = LD = L
d v g

2
L
d
= n
c
d2

52

52

DM
ps/nm/km
m)
Material (p

Material Dispersion
0
-200
-400

DMaterial

-600
600

d 2n
=
(units : ps/nm km)
2
c d

-800
-1000

0@
m

DMaterial=0@1.27

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Wavelength (m)

53

53

Waveguide Dispersion
9 The size w0 of a mode depends on the ratio a/ :

2>1

1.619 2.879

w0 = a 0.65 + 3 / 2 +

V
V6

9 Consequence: the relative fraction of power in the core and cladding


varies
9 This implies that the group-velocity g also depends on a/

DWaveguide

d 1
=
d v g

d
=
where w0 is the mode size
2 2 nc d w2
0

54

54

Total Dispersion
DIntramodal = DMaterial + DWaveguide

DIntra-modal<0: normal dispersion region


DIntra-modal>0: anomalous dispersion region

Waveguide dispersion shifts the wavelength of zero-dispersion to 1.32 m

55

55

Tuning Dispersion
9 Dispersion can be changed by changing the refractive index
9 Change in index profile affects the waveguide dispersion
9 Total dispersion is changed
20
Single-mode Fiber

10

n2

n2
n1
Single-mode Fiber

n1
0
Dispersion shifted Fiber

Single-mode fiber: D=0 @ 1310 nm


Dispersion shifted Fiber: D=0 @ 1550 nm

-10

Dispersion shifted Fiber

1.3

1.4

1.5

Wavelength (m)

56

56

Dispersion Related Parameters

neff
c
1 d
=
= 1 : g
group
p delay
y in units of s/km
v g d

= d1 = d1 d = 2 2c
2
d d d

2 : group velocity dispersion parameter in units of s 2 /km


DIntra modal =

d 1
d v g

57

57

Polarization Mode Dispersion


9 Optical fibers are not perfectly circular
y
x

9 In general, a mode has 2 polarizations (degenerescence): x and y


9 Causes broadening of signal pulse

T = L

1
1

DPolarization L
v gx v gy

58

58

Effects of Dispersion: Pulse Spreading


Total pulse spreading is determined as the geometric sum of
pulse spreading resulting from intra-modal and inter-modal dispersion
T = T 2

Intermodal

+ T 2

Intra - modal

Multimode Fiber : T =

+ T 2

Polarization

(DIntermodal L )2 + (DIntra modal L )2

Single - Mode Fiber : T =

(DIntra modal L )2 + (DPolarization

Examples: Consider a LED operating @ .85 m =50 nm after L=1 km, T=5.6 ns
DInter-modal =2.5 ns/km
DIntra-modal =100 ps/nmkm
Consider a DFB laser operating @ 1.5 m =.2 nm after L=100 km, T=0.34 ns!
DIntra-modal =17 ps/nmkm
DPolarization=0.5 ps/ km

59

59

Effects of Dispersion: Capacity Limitation


Capacity limitation: maximum broadening<1/2f a bit period
1
2B
F Single
For
Si l - Mode
M d Fiber,
Fib T LDIntra modal

T <

(neglecting polarization effects)


1
LB <
2DIntra modal
Example: Consider a DFB laser operating @ 1.55
1 55 m
=0.2 nm
D =17 ps/nmkm

LB<150 Gb/s km
If L=100 km, BMax=1.5 Gb/s

60

60

Advantage of Single-Mode Fibers


9 No intermodal dispersion
9 Lower attenuation
p modes
9 No interferences between multiple
9 Easier Input/output coupling

Single-mode fibers are used in long transmission systems

61

61

Summary
Attractive characteristics of optical fibers:
9 Low transmission loss
9 Enormous bandwidth
9 Immune to electromagnetic noise
9 Low cost
9 Light weight and small dimensions
9 Strong, flexible material

62

62

Summary
9 Important parameters:

NA: numerical aperture (angle of acceptance)


V: normalized frequency parameter (number of modes)
c: cut-off wavelength (single-mode guidance)
D: dispersion (pulse broadening)

9 Multimode
M lti d fib
fiber

Used in local area networks (LANs) / metropolitan area networks


(MANs)
Capacity limited by inter-modal dispersion: typically 20 Mb/s x km
f step iindex
for
d and
d 2 Gb/
Gb/s x kkm ffor graded
d d iindex
d

9 Single-mode fiber

Used for short/long distances


Capacity limited by dispersion: typically 150 Gb/s x km

63

63