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FLOW INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN GUIDE

R.N

PROPERTIES

ORIFICE PLATE

VENTURI

ROTAMETER

PITOT TUBE

MAG. FLOWMETER

VORTEX

MASS FLOWMETER

ULTRASONIC

             

1.An obstruction (Bluff body or strut) located in the flow stream. Low-low : Fluid flow around obstruction. High-Flow: Alternating vortices are formed.(No. of vortices formed are proportional to fluid velocity. 2.These vibrations senses by piezoelectric crystals which convert it into elctric pulses. 3.Vortex meter can not measure zero since it works on fluid velocity principle.It required some flow to work.

Coriolis mass flowmeters measure the force resulting from the acceleration caused by mass moving towards ( oe away from) a center

Doppler Type : 1. Under no flow condition, the frenquencies of the ultrasonic beams and its reflrction are the same. 2.With the flow in the pipe difference between the frequencies of the Ultrasonic beam and its reflection increses propotional to flow velocity. Transit Time : 1.Transit time ultrasonic flowmeter alternately transmit ultrasonic energy into the fluid in the direction and against the direction of flow. 2.The time difference between ultrasonic energy moving upstream to downstream in the fluid is used to determine the fluid velocity. 3.Undergo flow condition time for ultrasonic energy to travel upstream & downstream are same. 4.With flow in pipe time for ultrasonic energy to travel upstream will be greater than the downstream time.

Operates on Faraday's low of Electromagnetic Induction.Conducting material passes through the magnetic field produces avolatge perpendicular to

rotation

This

effect can be

As the flowing fluid passes through the orifice plate, the restricted cross section are causes an increase in

Similar to pitot tubes but with multiple openings, averaging Pitot

experienced when ridinga merry-go- round,where moving toward the center will cause aperson to have to " lean into" the rotation so as to maintain balance. As related to flowmeters, the effect can be demonstrated by flowing water in aloop of flexible hose that is "swung" back & forth in front of the body with both hands.Becasue the water is flowing toward & away from the hands oppsite forces are generated and cause the hose to twist.

1

Working

velocity & decrease in pressure. The pressure difference before & after the orifice plate is used to calculte the f,ow velocity.

magnetic field & velocity of fluids.

 

tubes take flow profile into consideration to provide better overall accuracy in pipe flows.

E=BLV where E = EMF, Magnetic Field, L = Length of Conductor, V= Velocity of Conductor . Therefore E=4.B.L.Q/Pie d²

B=

 

2 Flowrate

Medium

High Flow

Low Flow rate

Wide range of flows

Electric conductivity greater than mS/cm.

5

Measurement with flow velocities ( Re < 4000) not possible.

1.Measures the acceleration caused by vibration by moving fluids towards centers. 2.Amount of twist is proportional to the massflowrate of fluid passing through tubes.

 
 

3 Pressure Drop

Changes

Permanent Pressure drop & good recovery.

Constant Pressure drop

Negligible pressure drop

 

Confirm allowable pressure drop loss while selecting meter size.

   

4

Application

Suitable for most of gases & liquids

Not handles viscous slurries only solids fluids.

Handle almost corrosive services

Utility services where accuracy is not necessary.

1.Conductive liquids such as water,acids, caustic and slurries

Much higher for gases/vapors.

   
           

2.Custody transfer application.

     

5

Characteristics

Predictable

Accurate over long range.

Accurate over small or short range

Wide range flows & pipe sizes.

Bi-directional flow and large size available.

   

Accuracy degraded during low range flow application.

 

6

Rangeability

3.5:1

3.5 : 1

10:01

3:01

10:1, 30:1

10:01

20:01

 

7

Accuracy

2% ~ 4% of full scale

1% of Full scale

2%

±0.5 % to ±1.5 %

±0.5% typically

1% of measurement

0.2 typically

 

2% typically

     

1.Low differential

1.Relatively low in cost.

2.Can

1.Available from 1/2 to 150 inches of pipe size.

 

1.Low installtion cost & calibration not required.

1.Direct mass flow measurement of any liquid flow.

 

1.Low Cost

press.compensation.

handles wide variety of corrosives.

1.Large pipe sizes & capacities.

1.Wide flow range.

2.Available in wide range of sizes & construction.

2. Can be used for slurries & dirty fluids.

3.Especially suited for low flow metereing. 4.Linear output

   

2.Can handles slurries & greasy materials

 

2.Good accuracy of fluids can be as good as ±0.75% of rate for gases &

 

3.Can be used for highly corrosive fluids.

2.Long term measurement stability.

±1% of rate for liquids.

3.Wide

2.Wide rangeability.

8

     

range ( 1/2 " to 12" : 18" on request.

 

Advantages

   

5.Can be easily equipped with magnetic,electronic,induction or mercury switch alarms, or transmitting devices.

 

3. Can be placed in service under pressure.

3.Very small erros in flow measurement.Measurement in both directions. 4.No pressure drop. 5.No obstruction in pipe.

4.Wide temp. range (-200 to

3.Because of the mass flow is measured,hence the measurement is not affected by fluid-density , viscosity, pressurechanges.

 

3.No moving parts

3.Can be welded into pipe lines.

400°C).

4.Immune to liquid chemistry and physics property.

 

5.Can be used for steam, gases or liquids.

   

6.Glass tube version capable of measuring low flow rates. Can be installed immediately downstream of control valve.

7.

4.Negligible permanent pressure drop. 5.Minimum lengths of straight piping runs.

6.Good Linearity over widerange. 7.Unaffeceted by fluid properties such as density,viscosity & temperature.

 

6.Linearity is independent of density, viscosity & pressure.

   

FLOW INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN GUIDE

R.N

PROPERTIES

ORIFICE PLATE

VENTURI

ROTAMETER

PITOT TUBE

MAG. FLOWMETER

VORTEX

MASS FLOWMETER

ULTRASONIC

   

1.Square root relationship.

1.high Cost.

1.must be mounted vertically.

1.Not applicable for dirty & sticky services.

1.Relatively high cost.

1.Not suitable for dirty arabrasice fluid as well as for high viscous liquids.

1.Pressure drop may be high.

1. Susceptible to noise.

   

2.Relatively low temperature limitations. 3.Limited to small pipe sizes and

   

2.Measurement with low flow velocities ( Re < 4000) not possible.Vortex frequency remains constant & independent of press., temp, density in the range of Re> 20,000 that is utilized for measuring volume flow.

   

9 Disadvantages

2.Low accuracy.

2. Square root v/s flow relationship.

capacities unless put in bypass.

2.Operating data still limited.

2.Fluid measured must be atleast slightly conductive.Not Suitable for gas service.

2.cannot measure gas flow with low pipeline pressure.

2.Straight run upstream piping is required.

     

3.Pitot tube doesn't work very well at low velocities because at low velocity differential press. Is very low.

     

3.Integral

3.Accuracy affected by density & flow profile.

3. Big & heavy in larger pipe size.

4.May be used only with relatively clean fluids.

3.Complex elctronic circuitary neede.

3.Confirm allowable pressure drop loss while selecting meter size.

3.Can be costly & should be taken into consideration.

linners(Rubber,Cement,Glass etc.) must be intimately bonded to pipe material.

4.Viscosity affects the flowmeters.

   

4.If support not required then tube strengths calculation & resonance frequency vibration for all services including liquids to be checked.

4.Temperature limit may be depend on insulation materials (usually less than 200°C)

4.Vortex meter is used for steam water , light hydrocarbons and any gases where large turndown is required.

   
   

1.For Reliable measurement fluid must enter the primary element free

1.For Reliable measurement fluid must enter the primary element free of Turbulence.This can be achieved by providing suitable lengths of straight pipe ( Refer Annexure -A).

     

Long staright lengths necessary depending on the type of fitting upstreams.

   

10 Straight Run

Requirement

of Turbulence.This can be achieved by providing suitable lengths of straight pipe ( Refer Annexure -A).

Really not required.

No Straight Run Requirements.

No straight meter run requirement.

Straight Run requirement to be maintained.

           

1.Liner material - hard Rubber,PTFE etc.

When flow is obstructed it creates vortices across shredder bar which in turn creates vibrations flow.

 

Dopper Equation: Vf=K*Df where K = Constant; Vf= Velocity of fluids where ultrasonic energy is reflected; Df=Diff. between transmitted & reflected frequencies.

             

Transmit Time Equation:

11 General

Requirements

2.Electrode material -SS 316,Hestalloy c, titanium,Platinum etc.

Vp=K(Tu-Td)/Tu*Td Where Vp= Average Velocity ib=n fluid path,K=Constant;Tu=Upstream Transit Time, Td= Downstream transit time.

       

grounding : Done by Rings on eithrside or Times grounding by electrode in order to go around spurious voltages.

     

FIELD INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN GUIDE

Plates : Venturi Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass

Plates :

Plates : Venturi Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter

Venturi Meter

Plates : Venturi Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter

Rotameter

Plates : Venturi Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter

Orifice Tappings

Plates : Venturi Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter
Plates : Venturi Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter
Plates : Venturi Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter
Plates : Venturi Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter

Orifice Plate Assembly

Meter Rotameter Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex

Pitot Tubes

Orifice Tappings Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter

Magnetic Flowmeter

Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic
Orifice Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic

Mass Flowmeter

Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler
Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler
Plate Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler

Vortex Flowmeter

Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler Type
Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler Type
Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler Type
Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler Type
Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler Type
Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler Type

Transit-Time

Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler Type

Ultrasonic Flowmeter

Doppler Type

Assembly Pitot Tubes Magnetic Flowmeter Mass Flowmeter Vortex Flowmeter Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Doppler Type

Flow Instruments Comparision Sheet

Sl.No.

Sensor

Rangeability1

Accuracy2

Dynamics (s)

Advantages

Disadvantages

Applications / Remarks

         

-low cost

-high pressure loss

 

1

orifice

3.5:1

2-4% of full span

-

-extensive industrial practice

-plugging with slurries

         

-lower pressure loss than orifice

-high cost

 

2

venturi

3.5:1

1% of full span

-

-slurries do not plug

-line under 15 cm

         

-good for slurry service

-higher cost than orifice plate

 

3

flow nozzle

3.5:1

2% full span

-

-intermediate pressure loss

-limited pipe sizes

4

elbow meter

3:1

5-10% of full span

-

-low pressure loss

-very poor accuracy

 
         

-low pressure loss

-poor performance with dirty or sticky fluids

 

5

annubar

3:1

0.5-1.5% of full span

-

-large pipe diameters

- straight run requirement

         

-wide rangeability

   

6

rotameter

10:1

2%

-

-linear output

-

         

-bidirectional flow & large size available

-temperature limit may depend on insulation material (usually less than

A higher-cost flowmeter, used mainly for water applications. They are limited to conductive fluids. They operate on a voltage generator.

 

7

Magnetic flowmeter

10:1

0.5% typically

-

-No straight meter run required

200°C)

 
         

-high reangeability

-high pressure drop

 

0.5% of

   

8

positive displacement

10:1 or greater

measurement

-

-good accuracy

-damaged by flow surge or solids

         

-wide rangeability

-high cost

 

0.25% of

   

9

turbine

20:1

measurement

-

-good accuracy

-strainer needed, especially for slurries

         

-wide rangeability

   

-insensitive to variations in

These are used as an alternative to differential pressure flowmeters. They operate best with clean, low-viscosity, medium to high speed fluids.

density, temperature, pressure, and

10

vortex shedding

10:1

1% of measurement

-

viscosity

-expensive

 
         

-for high viscous flow such as

   

11

Target flowmeter

-

Typically 2%

-

tars,asphalt etc

-

         

-wide rangeability

 

These twisting meters measure mass flow as opposed to volumetric flow. They are known for their accuracy but their size is limiting. They carry an initial high cost, but a low maintenance cost. They are used for clean liquids and gases flowing at

Coriolis mass

 

12

flomwmete

20:1

0.2% typically

-

-no straight meter run required

-

medium to high velocity, in pipes six inches and under.

 

Ultrasonic

         

These flowmeters are growing exponentially in popularity, mainly due to their effectiveness in use for measuring natural gasses. They are non-intrusive and have no pressure drop. It is essential that they operate on clean fluids.

13

Flowmeters

Typically 2%

 

FLOWMETER SELECTION GUIDE

 
 

TERMINOLOGY

 

G = GOOD

     

L = LIMITED APPLICATION

 

X = NOT RECOMMENDED

 
           

Corrosive /

                                       

Sr No.

Instrument

Clean

Liquid

Dirty

Liquid

Slurry

Viscous

Liquid

Errosive

Liquid

Clean

Gas

Dirty

Gas

Steam

Viscosity

Effect

Full Bore Size Availability

Type of

Measurement

 

Accuracy

( % )

Typical

Rangeability

Reynolds Nos.

or other

Sensitivity to

Installation

 

Straight Piping

Requirements

Typical ancillary Equipments

Other Considerations

Preferred Meter

Orientation

Initial Cost

Installation Cost

maintenance

Cost

Operation

Cost

 

Performance

Stability

Standard or Recommended Practise.

limitations

effects

   
                                     

Pressure

Pressure Tap orientation Depends on the Pipe orientation & Fluid Being Metered

         

* AGA3

Concentric

Square

 

±

2 to ± 4

and/or Temp.

Performanc

* ANSI/API 2530

1

Orifice Plate

G

L

X

X

L

G

L

G

High

 

> 1" >

25mm

root

of full scale ( 0.5% to 3% )

3:1 to 5:1

>10,000

High

10D to 40D- Up 2D to 6D Down

Drain, Vent Blow -off & S/D Valves

Compensation

Low to

High

Medium to

High

Medium to

High

Medium to

High

affected

e

by Edge & Tap Wear

* ANSI/ASME MFC 3M

*

(Square edge)

 

Volumetric

May be

required

ISO 5167 ASME Fluid Meters

                       

Square

 

±

0.5 to ± 2

     

5D to 10D - Up

   

No Limitations on Remote Seal Elements

           

2

Segmental Wedge

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

Low

>

1/2">

root

of full scale (0.5% to 5%)

3:1 to 5:1

>

500

Low

2D to 5D - Down

None with Remote Seal

Same as

High

Low

Low

Low to

GOOD

-

15

mm

Volumetric

 

Version

Orifice Plate

Medium

                                 

Upsteram Runs shorter than Orifice Plate by Factor 2-9 times

               

*

AGA3

Square

Same as orifice plate,air purge & vent cleanners on Dirty liquids

Same as

Orifice Plate

Same as Orifice Plate

Medium

to High

*

ANSI/API 2530

3

Venturi Tube

G

G

L

X

L

G

G

G

High

2" >

>

50

mm

root

±

(0.5% to 1.5%)

1of full scale

3:1 to 5:1

>10,000

Low

Medium

Low

Low

GOOD

*

ANSI/ASME MFC 3M

Volumetric

     

ISO 5167 ASME Fluid Meters

*

                                                   

* AGA3

Square

 

±

1 to ± 2

Same as Orifice plate

* ANSI/API 2530

4

Flow Nozzle

G

L

X

X

L

G

L

G

High

2" >

>

50

mm

root

Volumetric

of full scale (1% to 2%)

3:1 to 5:1

> 75,000

Mod

Same as Orifice

plate

Same as Orifice plate

Same as

Orifice plate

Medium

to High

Medium

Low

Medium

GOOD

* ANSI/ASME MFC 3M

ISO 5167 ASME Fluid Meters

*

                     

1 to 16"(

Square

                           

5

V-cone

G

L

L

L

L

G

L

G

25mm to 400 mm)

root

Volumetric

 

0.5% to 2%

3:1 to 5:1

> 4000

Low

5

to 10D - Up

Same as Orifice plate

Same as

Orifice plate

-

Medium

Medium to

High

Medium

Medium

GOOD

-

                                     

Viscosity

             

6

Target

G

G

G

G

L

G

G

L

Medium

> 1/2 "

> 15 mm

Square

root

Volumetric

±

1 to ± 2

of full scale

(0.5% to 5%)

3:1 to 20:1

> 1000

High

Same as Orifice

plate

-

Affetcs

performace

below critical

Rd

Zero May need

adjustment in

vertical installtion

Low to

High

Low

Medium to

High

Medium

Performanc

e

by Wear of

affected

Target

-

7

Variable Area

G

L

X

L

L

G

L

L

Medium

< 3" <

75mm

Linear

Volumetric

 

±

1 to ± 10

of full scale

10:01

Fluids

under

None

None

-

-

Cn only

beinstalled

Low to

Medium

Low

Low

Medium

GOOD

-

(0.5% to 5%)

3 Cp

Vertical pipe with Flow up

                                     

AC Design may

Electrodees must be in Horizonatal plane.Flow should be Upwards in vertical installation.

           

8 Magnetic

G

G

G

G

G

X

X

X

None

>

1/16" >

Linear

 

±0.5 of rate

30:1 to

None

Low

5

Block valve may be required to Isolate Meter for Servicing

give better Performance ON some Slurries

Medium

Low to

Low to

Low

GOOD

ISO 6817

1mm

Volumetric

(0.2 to 2%)

100:1

to 10D - Up 3D - Down

to High

Medium

Medium

                     

1/2" to 12"

         

Same as Orifice

Block valve may be

Indicates Zero Flow below cut- off

             

9 Vortex

G

L

X

X

L

G

L

G

15

to

Linear

 

±

1 of rate

10:1 to

>

20,000

High

plate with 0.70 Beta

required to Isolate Meter for Servicing

-

Medium

Low to

Low to

Medium

GOOD

ANSI / ASME MFC 6M

300mm

Volumetric

(0.5% to 1.5%)

20:1

 

Medium

Medium

                                                   

* AGA7

10

Turbine

G

L

X

L

L

G

L

G

>

1/4" > 6

Linear

± 0.25% of rate

10:1 to

Fluids

under

High

Similar to

Strainers, Filters, Air Eliminators, steam taps may be required

Viscosity can

affects

Some design

Low to

Medium to

Medium to

Medium

Performanc

e

by wear of bearing &

affected

* API 2534

ISO 2715 ASME Fluid meter

*

mm

Volumetric

(0.1% to 1%)

50:1

Orifice Plate

High

High

High

*

10 CST

Performance

must be oriented as Calibrated

other

parameters

API Manual for

Petroleum Measurement

Standards

                             

Fluids

     

May have

             

11

Ultrasonic - Doppler Type

X

G

G

L

G

X

X

X

None

> 1/2 "

> 15 mm

Linear

Mass

Volumetric

±

5 of full scale

(1% to 5%)

> 10:1

Must Have

Suspensoi

High

Similar to

Orifice Plate

-

problems on

concentrated

Transducers

must bein

horizontal plane

Low to

High

Low to

Medium

Low

Low

GOOD

-

 

ds

slurries

                       

Linear

 

±

1 to ± 5

 

Fluids

     

May have

Transducers

           

12

Ultrasonic - Transit Time

G

X

X

L

G

G

X

L

None

> 1/2 "

> 15 mm

Mass

Volumetric

of full scale

(1% to 5%)

> 10:1

must be

clean

High

Similar to

Orifice Plate

-

problems on

Dirty Fluids

must bein

horizontal plane

Low to

High

Low to

Medium

Low

Low

GOOD

ANSI / ASME MFC - YY

 

FLOWMETER SELECTION GUIDE

 
 

TERMINOLOGY

 

G = GOOD

     

L = LIMITED APPLICATION

 

X = NOT RECOMMENDED

 
           

Corrosive /

                                       

Sr No.

Instrument

Clean

Liquid

Dirty

Liquid

Slurry

Viscous

Liquid

Errosive

Liquid

Clean

Gas

Dirty

Gas

Steam

Viscosity

Effect

Full Bore Size Availability

Type of

Measurement

Accuracy

( % )

Typical

Rangeability

Reynolds Nos.

or other

Sensitivity to

Installation

Straight Piping

Requirements

Typical ancillary Equipments

Other Considerations

Preferred Meter

Orientation

Initial Cost

Installation Cost

maintenance

Cost

Operation

Cost

Performance

Stability

Standard or Recommended Practise.

limitations

effects

                                       

Specific

         

*ANSI / ASME MFC-11M California weights & standards

13

Coriolis Type

G

G

G

G

L

L

L

X

None

< 6"

< 150 mm

Linear

Mass

Volumetric

± 0.4 of rate

(0.15% to 2%)

40:1 to

100:1

None

None

None

Special supports may be required for meters

Entrained air

may cause

problem

orientations vary

with meter

designs

High

Low to

Medium

Low

Low to High

GOOD

14

Thermal Dispersion

X

X

X

X

X

G

L

G

 

< 3" <

Logirithmic

1% to 5%

Upto

None

Mod to High

10 to 20D - UP

-

May need to provide

Some types

require same

Low to

Low to

Low

Low to

Performanc e affeccted by severe Build up on sensor for immersion types

-

75 mm

Mass

100:1

comensation for wide TEMP. ranges

orientation as in calibration

High

Medium

Medium

Level Instruments Design Guide

Displacement type Sl.No. Characteristics DP Cell Ultrasonic LT Radar LT Guided Wave Radar LT Displacer
Displacement type
Sl.No.
Characteristics
DP Cell
Ultrasonic LT
Radar LT
Guided Wave Radar LT
Displacer LT
Float type
The difference in pressures between to points in a vessel
depends on the fluids between these two points. If the
difference in densities between the fluids is significant,
which is certainly true for a vapor and liquid and can be
true for two different liquids, the difference in pressure can
be used to determine the interface level between the
fluids. Usually, a seal liquid is used in the two connecting
pipes (legs) to prevent plugging at the sensing points.
1.By Archimedes principle, a body immersed in a liquid is buoyed by a
force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. ( Thus, a body
that is more dense than the liquid can be placed in the vessel, and the amount of
liquid displaced by the body, measured by the weight of the body when in the
liquid, can be used to determine the level. )
1.Ultrasonic transmitters work on the principle of
sending a sound wave from a peizo electric
transducer to the contents of the vessel. The
device measures the length of time it takes for the
reflected sound wave to return to the transducer. A
successful measurement depends on reflection
from the process material in a straight line back to
the transducer.
Also 2.Time of Flight Technilogy.
3. Short ultrasonic impulses emitted from
transducer. 4.Bursts are created from electrical
energy applied to piezo electric crystal inside the
Radar Technology is a time flight measurement
1. Microwave energy is transmitted by the radar.
2.The Mircowave energy is reflected off the product surface.
3.The Radar Sensor receives the microwave energy.
4.The time from transmitting to receving the microwave
energy is measured.
5.
Guided Wave Radar level measurement
1.Time of Flight , 2.Top Mounted 3.Solids &
liquids applications. 4.Contact Management.
5.GWR is virtually unaffected by
Temperature,Pressure &
The time is converted to a distance measurement and then
eventuallly a level
Speed of Light / Frequency
Radar Wavelength =
vacuum,Conductivity,Dielectric
constant,Specific Gravity,Vapor steam or Dust
air movement, Build ups & Foam.
Principle of Operation:
1
Working
transducer.
5.The
λλλλ = c
/
f
Perhaps the most frequently used device for the
measurement of level is a differential pressure transmitter.
Using DP for level is really an inferential measurement. A
DP is used to transmit the head pressure that the
diaphragm senses due to the height of the material in the
vessel multiplied by a density variable.
Frequency 6.3 GHz
wavelength = 47.5 mm
2.Displacers work on the Archimedes
Principle, when a body is immersed in a
fluid it loses weight equal to that of the
fluid displaced.
The float of material that is lighter than
the fluid follows the movement of the
liquid level. The position of the float,
perhaps attached to a rod, can be
determined to measure the level.
transducer creates sound wave ( mechanical
energy).
6.With longer measuring ranges a lower frequency
and higher amplitude are needed to produce sound
waves that can travel further.
7.The longer the measuring range the larger the
transducer nust be
Frequency 26 GHz
wavelength = 11.5 mm
•A microwave pulse (2 GHz) is guided
along a cable or rod in a 20” diameter or
inside a coaxial system.
•The pulse is then reflected from the solid
or liquid, back to the head of the unit.
•The travel time of the pulse is measured
and then converted to distance.
2
Arrangement

Level Instruments Design Guide

Sl.No.

Characteristics

DP Cell

 

Displacement type

Ultrasonic LT

 

Radar LT

 

Guided Wave Radar LT

 

Displacer LT

Float type

3

Accuracy

   

Typical accuray ± 5~ 10 mm.

1. Typical Accuracy for High Frequency(26Ghz " K " Band) - ± 3~ 5 mm. 2.Typical Accuracy for Low Frequency ( 6.3 Ghz - "C" Band- ± 10 mm.

 
   

1.The primary benefit of DP’s is that it can be externally installed or retrofitted to an existing vessel. It can also be isolated safely from the process using block valves for maintenance and testing.

1.Both floats and displacers work well with clean liquids and are accurate and adaptable to wide variations in fluid densities

1.the transducer does not come into contact with the process material

1.This non-contact technology produces highly accurate measurements in storage tanks and some process vessels. Radar is an excellent, but fairly expensive technology (£1k to £5k per measurement) for continuous level measurements.

   

4

Advantages

 

2.No Moving Parts in this level measurement techniques.

 

2.There are certain measurements such as total level in separator vessels that due to wide variations in material composition of the upper phase DP is the only viable if not ideal option.

2.the process fluid measured must maintain its density if repeatability is required, this is particularly true of displacers

3.a single top of vessel entry makes leaks less probable than fully wetted techniques

2.radar can be highly accurate, is immune to most vapours / physical characteristics of the measured media, other than, in some cases, dielectric constant.

   
   

1.D/P transmitters are subject to errors due to changes in liquid density. Density variations are caused by temperature changes or change of product.

Displacers are affected by changes in product density since the displacement of the body (its weight loss) is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. eg. If the specific gravity changes, then the weight of the displaced material changes, thus changing the calibration.

There are various influences that affect the return signal. Things such as powders, heavy vapors, surface turbulence, foam and even ambient noise can affect the returning signal. Temperature can also be a limiting factor in many process applications. Ultrasonic devices will not operate on vacuum or high pressure applications.

1.It’s primary disadvantage is cost. 2.The pressure ratings on radar antenna are limited and these devices cannot measure interfaces.

   

2.These variations must always be compensated for if

   

5

Disadvantages

accurate measurements are to be made. 3.DP’s are mainly intended for clean liquids and require two vessel penetrations. One is near the bottom of the vessel where leak paths are the cause of the majority of problems. D/P’s should not be used with liquids that solidify as their concentrations increase. An example is paper pulp stock.

This is especially problematic in interface measurements, where both liquids increase or decrease density, while the signal is proportional to the density difference. Because the displacer is emersed in the process fluid it will be vulnerable to particulate deposition. This will change the displacer mass and the effective displacement causing a calibration shift.

3.Pulse radar has difficulty making accurate measurement when the media is in close proximity to the antenna because the time difference between send and return signals is too fast to measure accurately.

 

5

Application

Refer Annexure - 1

Refer Annexure - 1

Refer Annexure - 1

Refer Annexure - 1

Refer Annexure - 1

 

Refer Annexure - 1

   

Fluid density must be stable if readings are to be accurate. If liquid density is subject to change a second d/p transmitter is required to measure density and then used to compensate for any changes. To accommodate the measurement of light slurries, differential pressure transmitters are available with extended diaphragms that fit flush to the side of the vessel. However, if the d/p transmitter diaphragm becomes coated, it may require recalibration, which can be impractical and will add to the

1.

Displacers and floats should only be used for relatively non-viscous, clean

Successful measurement depends on the transmitter being mounted in the correct position so that the internal structure of the vessel will not interfere with the signal path. To ignore obstructions in the vessel, tank mapping has been developed. Tank mapping lets the operator take a "sonic snapshot" of an empty vessel. The transducer transmits a sound burst and the echo is recorded as a signature of the tank. Any obstructions in the vessel will send an echo and create a profile. Later on, this signature or profile is locked into the ultrasonic unit’s memory so it will not respond to echoes created by these obstructions.

In the case of hydrocarbons, an accurate water bottoms measurement must be made for precise inventory control. Typically, another technology, such as RF Admittance is used to make the interface measurement between water and hydrocarbons. Some installations, such as floating roof tanks, require the installation of a stillpipe. Inconsistencies on the internal surface of the stillpipe can cause erroneous echoes, these can have an adverse effect on the accuracy of some vendor's equipment.

Interface Measurement

fluids and provide optimal performance in switch applications and over for short

fluids and provide optimal performance in switch applications and over for short

spans. become prohibitively expensive.

2 .Spans of up to 12m are possible, but they

3.Cost of installation for displacers is high and many refineries are now replacing them due to the inaccuracies experienced under process density changes especially on interface duties.

High quality float switches still provide reliable and repeatable performance.

4.

Even with todays array of level technologies, if a 100% process seal is required under fail conditions for a Cryogenic application the only technique available, other than nucleonic, is a magnetically coupled float switch

6

Practical Limitation

"cost of ownership". Frequently, the measuring device is only one consideration in the total installation of the job. Although a D/P transmitter is often less expensive than other types of level sensors, there is usually considerable additional hardware and labour required to make a practical installation. The implementation of a stable, low- pressure leg and 3 / 5 valve manifolds will add considerable cost to the installation.

High frequency

High frequency shorter wavelength

shorter wavelength

 
narrower beam angle

narrower beam angle

narrower beam angle

more

 

focused signal

focused signal ability to measure

ability to measure

smaller vesselswith more flexible mounting

 

Low frequency

Low frequency longer wavelength less focused wider beam angle
Low frequency longer wavelength less focused wider beam angle

longer wavelength

less focused

wider beam angle

   

signal

ability to measure smaller

ability to measure smaller

   

vessels with difficult application variables.

 

Level Instruments Design Guide

Sl.No.

Characteristics

 

Nuclear LT

 

Capacitance LT

RF Admittance

   

1.Nucleonic level controls are used for point and continuous measurements, typically

A capacitance probe can be immersed in the liquid of the tank, and the capacitance between the probe and the vessel wall depends on the level. By measuring the capacitance of the liquid, the level of the tank can be .As the level rise’s and material begins to cover the sensing element the capacitance

The theory of operation for an RF Admittance level transmitter is similar to that of Capacitance transmitters, but with two important circuit additions. The oscillator buffer and chopper drive circuits permit separate measurement of resistance and capacitance. Since the resistance and capacitance of any coating are of equal magnitude (by physical laws), the error generated by a coating can be measured and subtracted from the total output. The result is an accurate measurement regardless of the amount of coating on the probe.

where most other technologies are unsuccessful.

2.The

radioisotopes used for level measurement emit energy at a fairly constant rate but in random bursts. Gamma radiation, the source generally used for nucleonic level gauging is similar to microwaves or even light (these are also electromagnetic

radiation, but of lower energy and longer wavelength). The short wavelength and higher within the circuit between the probe and the media (conductive

 

1

Working

energy of gamma radiation penetrates the vessel wall and process media. 3.A detector on the other side of the vessel measures the radiation field strength and infers the level in the vessel. Different radioisotopes are used, based on the penetrating power needed to "see" the process within the vessel. With single point gauges the radiation provides a simple on/off switching function, whereas with continuous level measurement the percentage of transmission decreases as the level increases.

applications) or the probe and the vessel wall (insulating applications) increases. This causes a bridge misbalance, the signal is demodulated (rectified), amplified and the output is increased.

 
       
     
       

2

Arrangement

 
     
          Capacitance Type RF Ad mittance Type
   

Capacitance Type

RF Ad mittance Type
RF Ad mittance Type
            Capacitance Type RF Ad mittance Type 3 Accuracy    

3

Accuracy

     

Level Instruments Design Guide

Sl.No.

Characteristics

Nuclear LT

Capacitance LT

RF Admittance

   

1.As no penetration of the vessel is needed there are a number of situations that cause nucleonic transmitters to be considered over other technologies.

 

RF Admittance is next generation capacitance as such it is by far the most versatile technology for continuous level measurement. It can handle a wide range of process conditions anywhere from cryogenics to approximately 850 o C and from vacuum to 10,000 psi pressure. Aside from the electronic circuit technology, sensing element design is very important to handle these process conditions. There are no moving parts to wear, plug, or jam. As with capacitance systems there is only a single tank penetration, usually at the top of the tank, above the actual process level.

2.These applications generally involve high temperatures / pressures or where toxic or

Capacitance techniques are capable of operation at extremes of temperature and pressure. They work well for materials that won’t leave a coating. Usually only a single tank penetration is required.

4

Advantages

corrosive materials are within the vessel. Placing the source and / or detector in wells within the vessel can reduce source sizes.

3.An extension of this is to use a moving source within the vessel; this facilitates the unique ability to combine density profiling with accurate tracking of a moving interface.

 

5

Disadvantages

It would appear that nucleonic gauges provide a truly universal "fit and forget" level measurement technology. Although when the "cost of ownership" is calculated nuclear level measurement is often more expensive than conventional systems. Hidden costs include initial licensing and periodic surveying. These services are usually provided by external authorities or by the equipment supplier, assuming they have appropriately qualified staff. If no longer required, the nucleonic gauge must be disposed of through appropriately licensed, external organizations, which again can be a costly exercise.

Capacitance systems are intrusive. Have problems with varying dielectric materials and those media’s, that coat the sensing element. Thus users are normally limited to water-like media. Even acids and caustics that don’t appear to coat the sensing element are so conductive that the thin film they leave can cause serious errors in measurement.

RF admittance is intrusive. Insulating granular measurements require special considerations, such as the moisture range and location of the sensing element to minimize errors caused by probe movement.

5

Application

     

6

Practical Limitation

From a psychological standpoint, the radiation symbol found on these controls is frequently the cause of unfounded concern with uninitiated plant personnel. Plant Management is usually required to ensure that appropriate education is given to any staff likely to be involved with this measurement technology. Source size regulations can often be met in difficult applications by placing the source and / or detector in wells within the vessel if necessary.

Most users’ realise the limitations of Capacitance level measurement, such as the large errors caused by coatings. This has led to a decrease in the number of these systems in operation. Other technologies such as FMCW radar and in particular RF Admittance have now gained acceptance due to high levels of reliability and accuracy.

Admittance technology and nucleonic measurement provide the only practical methods for level measurement in coating applications. For insulating materials with changing dielectric constants, the measurement can only be made reliably if the material being measured is homogeneous. A reference sensor is added to monitor the dielectric constant and then compensate the calibration based on this information. Smart RF transmitters are available providing superior levels of stability and accuracy as well as remote communication. Knowledge of the approximate electrical character of the process material is key to optimum system selection and performance.

 

In other words

     

Control Valve Comparision Sheet for Reference

SR.NO

   

Globe Body Valves

   

Rotary Valves

 

Properties

Single Seated

Double Seated

3-Way valve

Angle Valve

Cage guided

Butterfly valve

Ball Valve

Eccentric spherical plug valve

   

1. Minimum leakage in close position.

1.Higher leakage rate than Singale seated valve

1.Three pipeline connections provide general converging (flow mixing0 or diverging(flow-splitting) services.

1.For high pressure services

1.Leakage rate is like as Single seat.

1. For High capacity and low pressure drop services.

1.Suitable for erosive and viscous fluids or slurries containing entrained solids or fiber

1.Usually less costly than conventional globe valves and adaptable to ordinary control requirements.

2.Require large actuator force,particulrly large sizes.

2.Required less actuato forces due to balancing feature of plug.

 

2.Usually single port type only.

2.Balanced Plud design permits operation with smaller actuators.

2.Conventional discs provide throttling control for up to 60°disc rotation.

2.V-Notch produces an equal % flow characteristicn,and used for control of above fluids and application where very high rangeability is required.

 

3.Most common body atype & simple in Construction

     

3.Noise attenuation or anti-cavitation type trim available.

3.Typical wafer body design , a lug wafer design and flanged design.

3.Low torque requirements can permit ball valves to be used inQuick manual or automatic operation.

 

1

WORKING

           

4.Full Ball : 1.A complete sphere as the flow controlling member. 2.Rotary shaft design and include aflow passage. 3.Trunion mounted with a Single piece ball & shaft to reduce torque requirements & last motion. V-Port Ball Valve:1. V -Port ball valve utilizes a partial sphere that has a V- shaped notch in it. 2.Notch permits wide range of service & produces an equal % flow charcteristics. 3.Straight forward flow design produces very little pressure drop & the valve is suited to the control of erosion & viscous fluids. 4.V-port ball reduces the clogging when it comes in contact with seal which produces shearing effect.

 

Applicable Codes

               
 

BEST SUITED

         

Exhibits approximately equal % flow characterics.

Quick opening,Linear ; offer full flow with minimum turbulence and can balance or throttle fluids.Best suited for On-off .

Linear flow characteristics through 90° of disk rotation.

2

CONTROL

Linear and Equal %

     

Interchangeability o ftrim permits

1.Actuator selection demands careful consideration,particularly for construction with unbalanced valve plug.

         

3

DESIGN

Valve shall be designed to meet the

choice of several flow characteristics

1.High performance butterfly valve should be sized to control within 15 to 75 range of disk opening.

INFORMATION

design pressure and temperature.

or noise attenuation or anti-cavitation components.

   

1.Efiicient throttling

1.Reduced unbalance permits operation of valves with smaller actuators than those necessary of single ported valves.

     

1.Low cost and Maintenance. 2.High Capacity

1.Low cost.

2.High Capacity.

1.Erosion resistance.

4

ADVANTAGES

2.Accurate flow control

2.Higher capacity than the Single ported valves.

     

3.Good flow control.

3.Low leakage and maintenance

 

3.Available in Multiple ports

3.Many double seated bodies reverse, so the plug can be installed either push-down-to -open or push- down-to-close.

     

4.Low pressure drop.

4.Tight sealing with low torque.

 
     

1.Will not provide same "Shut-off "

     

1.High torque required for control.

   

5

DISADVANTAGES

1.High Pressure drop

as the Single Seated do.

1.Poor throttling characteristics.

2.More expensive than other valve

       

2.Prone to Caviation at lower flows.

2.Prone to Cavitation.

 
   

1.Throttling service/flow regulation

1.Throttling service/flow regulation but not generally recommended because of their maintenance cost

1. Can be used for throttling mid- travel position control either converging or diverging fluids.

   

1.Fully open/closed at throttling services & on-off valve.

1.Fully open/closed, limited -throttling

 

6

RECOMMENDED

and leakage.

USED

         

2.Frequent operation. fluid trapping inline.

3.Minimal

   

2.Frequent operation

4.Big

2.Higher temperature fluids.

lines(Liquid service upto 96").

Control Valve Comparision Sheet for Reference

SR.NO

   

Globe Body Valves

   

Rotary Valves

Properties

Single Seated

Double Seated

3-Way valve

Angle Valve

Cage guided

Butterfly valve

Ball Valve

Eccentric spherical plug valve

   

1.Liquids,vapors,gases,corrosive

1.Typically used in refineries on highly viscous fluids (

 

1.Coking service. 2.Solids carried in supsension. 3.Severe flashing services. 4.Cavitaion services. 5.High pressure drops.

 

1.Lquid,gases ,slurries,liquids with suspended solids.

1.Most liquids, high temperatures, slurries.

 

sustances,slurries

dirt,contaminants, or process

7

APPLICATION

deposits on trim) concern

   

2.Specified for application stringent shut- off requirements.

2.Often used for on-off or low pressure throttling device.

           

8

CONNECTION

(Typical upto ANSI 2500)

As per Piping Specifications.(H-103)

Standard end connections (Flanged,screwed,butt weld etc.)Can be specified to mate with piping design specs.

As per Piping

As per Piping

Std. Raised faced piping flanges.Typical ANSI 600.

As per Piping Specifications.(H- 103).Typical upto ANSI 900.

As per Piping Specifications.(H-103)

RATING

Specifications.(H-103)

Specifications.(H-103)

       

Variations include trim materials selected for high temperature service.

As per Piping

As per Piping

     

9

MATERAIL

As per Piping Specifications.(H-103)

As per Piping Specifications.(H-103)

Specifications.(H-103)

Specifications.(H-103)

As per Piping Specifications.(H-103)

As per Piping Specifications.(H-103)

   

PTFE( Polytetrafluro ethylene widely

             

used because of its inert and has low co-

10

PACKING

efficient of friction. Can be applied to

400°F.

     

Metal-to-Metal seating usually

           

11

SEAT LEAKAGE

Metal-to- Metal saeting surfaces pr soft

seating with PTFE.Tight shut-off achievable.

provides only Class II shut-off

capability,although Class III capability is also possible.

Tight-off can be achieved.

Tight shut-off achievable.

   

Quick Opening:Provides a maximum change in flowrate at lower valve tarvel with fairly linear relationship and lesser flow increase as the plug further opens.(Normally not used for throttling)

 

TRIM

Linear: Provides equal increase in CV for equal increment in stem travel.

 

12

CHARACTER-

Linear one often specified for liquid level control and application requiring constant gain Pressure(

drop is Constant)

 

ISTICS

Equal %:Provides equal% increase in CV for equal increament of stem travel.This characteristic provides throttling control valve at valve close position and rapidly increaasing capacity as the plug is near the open position.

 

Equal% is suitable for pressure control application, or on application where highly varying pressure drop can be expected and pressure drop at the control valve is relatively small against the system pressure drop.

 

13

SIZING

         

The shear Safety factor should be a minimum 150% at the specied Shut- off pressure drop condition.

   

14

Flow Capacity

Moderate

       

High

High

 
drop condition.     14 Flow Capacity Moderate         High High  

WIRE CONVERSION CHART

Wire Number

S.W.G.

American Wire Gauges (AWG) Metric

 

(Gauge)

(Inches)

(MM)

(Inches)

(MM)

(MM

2 )

1

0.3

7.62

0.289

7,348

42.429

2

0.276

7.01

0.258

6,543

33.592

3

0.252

6.401

0.229

5,827

26.694

4

0.232

5.893

0.204

5,189

21.155

5

0.212

5.385

0.182

4,621

16.763

6

0.192

4.877

0.162

4,115

13.267

7

0.176

4.47

0.144

3,665

10.52

8

0.16

4.064

0.128

3,264

8.346

9

0.144

3.658

0.114

2,906

6.605

10

0.128

3.251

0.102

2,588

5.268

11

0.116

2.946

0.091

2,304

4.154

12

0.104

2.642

0.081

2,052

3.3

13

0.092

2.337

0.072

1,829

2.63

14

0.08

2.032

0.064

1,628

2.086

15

0.072

1.829

0.057

1,450

1.651

16

0.064

1.626

0.051

1,291

1.306

17

0.056

1.422

0.045

1,150

1.038

18

0.048

1.219

0.04

1,024

0.817

19

0.04

1.016

0.036

0,9119

0.65

20

0.036

0.9144

0.032

0,8128

0.515

21

0.032

0.8128

0.028

0,7239

0.407

22

0.028

0.7112

0.025

0,6426

0.321

23

0.024

0.6096

0.023

0,5740

0.255

24

0.022

0.55.88

0.02

0,5106

0.204

25

0.02

0.508

0.018

0,4547

0.159

26

0.018

0.4572

0.016

0,4038

0.125

27

0.0164

0.4166

0.014

0,3606

0.101

28

0.0148

0.3759

0.013

0,3200

0.08

29

0.0136

0.3454

0.011

0,2870

0.066

30

0.0124

0.315

0.01

0,2540

0.049

31

0.0116

0.2946

0.009

0,2261