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Standard Arabic

An elementary - intermediate course

This book presents a comprehensive foundation course for beginning


students of written and spoken Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), providing an essential grounding for successful communication with speakers of
the many colloquial varieties. This long-established and successful text has
been completely revised with the needs of English-speaking learners especially in mind, and will prove invaluable to students and teachers alike.

step-by-step guide to understanding written and spoken texts


develops conversational ability as well as reading and writing skills
Arabic-English Glossary containing 2600 entries
fresh texts and dialogues containing up-to-date data on the Middle East
and North Africa
includes Arab folklore, customs, proverbs, and short essays on contemporary topics
grammatical terms also given in Arabic, enabling students to attend
language courses in Arab countries
provides a wide variety of exercises and drills to reinforce grammar
points, vocabulary learning and communicative strategies
includes, a key to the exercises
accompanying cassettes also available

Eckehard Schulz is Professor of Arabic Studies at the Oriental Institute,


University of Leipzig. He is an experienced teacher and interpreter of
Arabic and the author of several textbooks in the field.

STANDARD ARABIC

.. JAIl!......
4..
!

111

AN ELEMENTARY - INTERMEDIATE COURSE

ECKEHARD SCHULZ
GUNTHER KRAHL
WOLFGANG REUSCHEL
Revised English Edition by

ECKEHARD SCHULZ
University of Leipzig

leD . \P-I \.,


+;i..

CA5~fC~

\'NA/~110

Editorial Consultants
lames Dickins (University of Durham)
lanet C. E . Watson (University of Durham)
Alan S. Kaye (California State University at Fullerton)

'. . '. . CAMBRIDGE


UNIVERSITY PRESS

PUBLISHED BY THE PR ESS SY N DICATE OF THE U N IVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

The Piu Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK


40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 100 11 ~4211, USA
477 Williamstown Road , Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia
Ruiz de Alarc6n 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain
Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa
http;//www.cambridge.org
English translation Cambridge University Press 2000
Originally published in German as Lehrbuch des modernen Arabisch by Langenscheidt KG,
Berlin, Munchen, 1996 Langenscheidt KG, Berlin, Miinchen 1996
This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published in English by Cambridge University Press 2000
Sixth printing 2004
Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge
Type/ace Monotype Times

[AU]

A catalogue record/or this book is available/ram the British Library

ISBN 0 521 77313 X hardback


ISBN 0 521 77465 9 paperback
ISBN 0 521 78739 4 cassette set

CONTENTS

Introduction ix
Notes for the User xi
Abbreviations xiv
Lesson 1 1
1. The Alphabet (Pronunciation and Writing) 1
Lesson 2 14
1. Article 14; 2. Gender 15; 3. The Equational Sentence 16; 3.3. Agreement in Gender 18
Text 1: 4,1 (The House) 22; Text 2: 4 yili W~ (A Telephone Call) 23
Lesson 3 29
1. Number 29; 1.1. The Personal Pronoun 29; 1.2. The Noun and the
Adjective 29; 2. The Adjective 30
Text 1: ~..wl
(In the City) 34; Text 2:4,1
(In the House) 34

Lesson 4 44
1. Radical, Root, Pattern 44; 2. The Broken Plural 45; 3. Declension and
Nunation 45; 4. Stress 48; 5. Prepositions 48
Text 1: Jy-JI J (In the Market) 50; Text 2: ~~.?JI J-i (How to get to ... ?) 50
Lesson 5 56
1. The Perfect Tense 56; 2. The Verbal Sentence 57; 2.4. The Objective
Clause 59; 3. The Nisba-Ending 60
Text 1: J~ ~I (The Reception) 62; Text 2: ~..wl J (Down-town) 63
Lesson 6 68
1. The Genitive Construction (Naja) 68; 2. Affixed Pronouns 70; 3.
Definiteness (Summary) 73; 4. The Adverb 73
Text 1: ~ Jl ~L.,.,) (A Letter to Mohammed) 75; Text 2: ~I ~ J
(At the Travel Agency) 76
Lesson 7 81
1. The Imp~rfect Tense 81; 2. Demonstrative Pronouns 82; 3. Diptotes 85
Text 1: J~I ~ (At the Greengrocer's Shop) 88; Text 2: ~I
(In the
Restaurant) 88

Lesson 8 95
1. Subjunctive and Jussive 95; 2. The Imperative 96; 3. Negation 97
Text ~: ~~ )l:>-i (World News) 101; Text 2: ~I J (At the Bookshop) 102

VI

Contents

Lesson 9 109
1. The Dual 109; 2 . The Numerals 1 and 2111 ; 3. ~ "How much/many"
112; The Names of the Months 114
Text 1: ~\..:.,. (My University) 116; Text 2: J..L:A.II ,j (In the Hotel) 117
Lesson 10 123
1. Cardinal Numerals 123; 1.9. The Year 127
Text 1: 0 .,... 1 .. 11) i')L" ':jl (Islam and the Muslims) 130; Text 2: ~
~I (At the Registration) 131
Lesson 11 136
1. The Perfect Tense of Verbs with) or c..S 136; 2 . Word Order: 01 and
the Subject of the Sentence 138
Text 1: ~)I a.....1S"" (The Speech of the President) 141 ; Text 2: ~ ~~
(Interview) 142
Lesson 12 149
1. The Imperfect Tense of Verbs with) or c..S 149; 2 . Subjunctive and
Jussive of Verbs with) or c..S 151; 3. The Imperative of Verbs with) or c..S
152; 4 . The Verbs ..;i, ~\..:.,. and c..SiJ 152
Text 1: yLG:.iJ ~ ) ...ul .}:>l:!)I .}:>p (The Riyadh International Book Fair
154; Text 2: jl~1 ~ (At the Exchange Office) 155
Lesson 13 162

Js'

1. The Use of 0L5 162; 2 .


and ~ 164; 3. ~ 165; 4. , ~
o::u:. and c..S...l>-1 / ...l>-i 166; 5. ~i 167
Text 1: 0W')I1 ~ (The Human Body) 170; Text 2: ~I ~ (At the
Doctor's) 171
Lesson 14 178
1. Forms IT, III and IV of the Verb: 178; 2. The Attributive Relative Clause 179
Text 1:~~ J~i (World News) 183; Text 2: ~~I ,j (In the Pharmacy) 184
Lesson 15 194
1. Forms II, III and IV of Verbs with) or c..S 194; 2. The Nominal Relative
Clause 196
Text 1: ~I~I G
(The Climate of the Desert) 201 ; Text 2:Jl4l>.)I
~I~I (A Trip to the Desert) 202

Lesson 16 209
1. Ordinal Numbers 209; 1.6. Dates 211; 1.7. The Time 212; 2. Numeral
Adverbs 214; 3. Fractional Numbers 214; 4 . Numeral Adverbs of
Reiteration 215; 5. Decimal Numbers 216
Text l:Jl...y- or.-" (My Curriculum Vitae) 217; Text 2: 4....a>- )I--4....l:>..J
(Renewing the License) 217

Contents

vu

Lesson 17 224
1. Forms V and VI of the Verb: 224; 2. Word Order 225; 3. Genitive
Constructions with)~ and ul~ 227
Text 1: y..rJI ~ 4....04)1 (Sports and the Arabs) 230; Text 2: ~I .; (In
the Sports Ground) 230
Lesson 18 237
1. Forms VII, VIII, IX and X of the Verb 237
Text 1: ~~.r-JI i f 4.JL.. J (A Letter from Saudi Arabia) 241; Text 2: 6j~1
CJW1 .; (Driving Abroad) 242
Lesson 19 248
1. The Passive Voice 248; 1.4.3. About the Construction of Doubly Transitive
Verbs 251; 2. Some Characteristic Features of the Derived Forms 251
Text 1: ..k...i:JI) y..rJI (The Arabs and Oil) 257; Text 2: 0J~ Jb.!;:....l (Rent
a Car) 258

Lesson 20 264
1. The Collective 264; 1.3. Names of Nationalities 264; 2. The Feminine
Nisba 265; 3. 0i and 0i 266
Text 1: ulJ)\ O)..Li (Symposium on Agriculture) 271; Text 2: J.r" .;
JWz.;.:JI (In the Market of Fruits and Vegetables) 272
Lesson 21 280
1. The Participle 280; 1.1. Patterns of the Participle 280; 1.2. The Usage of
the Participles 285; 1.2.2. Shortened Relative Clauses 285; 1.2.3. The
Participle as Predicate 287; 1.2.4. The False 1qafa 288; 1.2.5., 1.2.6.
Participles and Adjectives as 1st or 2nd Term of the 1qafa 289; 1.2.7.
Impersonal Expressions 290
Text 1: -;...rJ1 ~WI .; ~~I ~~I (Political Systems in the Arab World)
292; Text 2: ~ ~~ (Interview) 293
Lesson 22 302
1. The Infinitive 302; 1.2. The Use 303; 1.2.2. The Infinitive instead of a
Subordinate Clause 303; 1.2.4. Functional Verbs; Functional Verbs instead
of Passive constructions 305; 2. Adverb and Adverbial Constructions 306;
2.3 . The Usage 307; 2.3.3 .3. The Cognate Accusative 309
Text 1:J.;;- Q\I) ~\ (Education and Future) 310; Text 2: Jl c..k;kJI .;
J..,.-JI (On the Way to the Market) 311
Lesson 23 317
1. Subordinate Clauses: A Survey 317; 2. Temporal Clauses 318
Text 1: ~ Jl4.JL.. J (A Letter to Mohammed) 321; Text 2:-..,..JlA>JI a....a.;
o~,.,A-WI (The Story of the Lost Suitcases) 322

Vl11

Contents

Lesson 24 329
1. Verbs R2=R3 329; 2. Verbs with Hamza 330; 3. The Spelling of Hamza
331; 4. Clauses of Reason 334
Text 1: 0-:!~1 .:.r.:: L..~":Ju. (Mesopotamia) 337; Text 2: J"'!~I C1- j>v ,j
(Buying Clothes) 337
Lesson 25 343

1. The Pattern ~i 343; 1.2.1. The Elative as Positive 344; 1.2.2. The
Elative as Comparative 345; 1.2.3 . The Elative as Superlative 346; 1.4.
Common Elatives 347; 2. Specification (Tamylz) 350
Text 1: ~I y.;1)J) ~.rJI oI..L.W 1 (Arab Countries and Their Natural
Ressources) 354; Text 2: 4.k rJI ~ (At the Police) 354
Lesson 26 362
1. Conditional Sentences 362; 1.1. The Real Conditional Sentence 362;
1.1.l.I~t 362; 1.1.2. ot 365; 1.2. The Unreal Conditional Sentence ("J )
366; 1.3. The Concessive Clause ()), Ob ) 368
Text 1: 4..:-:.rJ 1 4..iJJI ,j 01~1 (Animals in the Arabic Language) 370; Text 2:
..l.,... ~I r#
,j aJ,1~...LII (Democracy as Understood by the Lion) 371
Lesson 27 377
.;J

iIi

1. Exceptives 377; 1.1. ':it 377; 1.~. ..k.-O and ~ ~ 379; 1.3. Other
Exceptive Particles 379; 1.4. 0i ~ ,0i ':it 380; 2. Diminutives 380
Text 1: y.rJI ~)..,; r:..r-" (From the History of the Arabs) 383; Text 2: .:f'
(.1))\ (About Marriage) 384
Lesson 28 393
1. The .lfiil-Accusative 393; 2. The .lfa/-Clause 394; 3. Survey of Use of the
Accusative 396; 3.1.1.
396; 3.7. Exclamations in the Accusative 399
Text 1: <.f..y)\ ~ '-:I-~ j.::!~I) j.::!~1 ...:;~ if"':;U,k;:A.. (Linguistic
Anecdotes) 402; Text 2: r~ 'il .:f' (About Islam) 404

la

Arabic-English glossary 411


The numerals 456
The months of the Islamic calendar 460
Tables of the forms of the verbs and the nouns 461
Writing exercises 500
Key 514
Subject index of grammatical terminology (English) 606
Subject index of grammatical terminology (Arabic) 626

INTRODUCTION

This book is based on the well-tried Lehrbuch des modern en Arabisch by Gi.inther KraW, Wolfgang Reuschel and Eckehard Schulz and has been conceived as a
comprehensive course for beginners, in which particular attention is given to a
speaking-focused training. It presents the basic grammar, vocabulary and phraseology of written and spoken Modem Standard Arabic (MSA).
The book centers on imparting the grammatical and lexical basics to enable
the learner step by step to understand written and spoken texts, to hold a conversation with an Arabic speaker independently and, moreover, to translate and write
Arabic texts. A variety of highly different texts (reports, commentaries, interviews, dialogues, letters etc.) together with appropriate exercises have been included in the book in addition to the description of the grammar to achieve these
objectives. Quite naturally, style and vocabulary of the texts in the fIrst lessons
are influenced to a greater extent by the grammar in the respective lesson. If the
knowledgeable user is of the opinion that it would have been better to use a different word or construction in some passages, then he may know that it was of
importance to me for didactic reasons not to keep anticipating morphological and
syntactic structures to be treated later.
When conceiving the texts, particular attention was paid to impart and to consolidate those patterns which occur over and over again in spoken and written
MSA and to provide the learner with a guide to master different communicative
situations and strategies. The book also contains more or less timeless news and
exercises to practice listening comprehension and to introduce the style of the
news in newspapers and in radio and television to the students.
The grammar comprises all substantial phenomena of MSA which are necessary for a good command of Arabic as a spoken and written language. The
teacher might miss some important grammatical topics but he/she should always
have in mind that this book is a book for beginners which covers all grammatical
and syntactic phenomena necessary for a correct and active command of Arabic,
but it can not be exhaustive. The basic grammatical terms are also given in Arabic to enable the student to use the Arabic terminology needed when attending
language courses in the Arab countries.
The book aims at imparting MSA because it is well-known that it is impossible to cope with the numerous Arabic dialects without these foundations. Nevertheless, the dialogues are partially adapted to colloquial usage as far as sentence
structures and vocabulary are concerned. There are also exercises and notes focusing on the dialects to give the students those patterns which are the outcome
of the widespread diglossia in Arabic, i.e. the coexistence of MSA and dialects
and their use according to the communicative needs and circumstances.
This tightrope walk is, of course, not an easy undertaking but I wanted to
build bridges for the students where the exclusive use of MSA would be longwinded and not appropriate to the situation. The endings in the dialogues are
written according to the rules of MSA to prevent the students from complete confusion, although (spoken) reality is different. In this fIeld, the teacher must always decide whether to tolerate the omission of the endings or not.

Introduction

Our experience is not to ask the students to read all the endings of the dialogues but to follow the Arabic language of the educated (~\ 6..iJ) to enable
the students to speak Arabic as soon as possible. In all the other texts and exercises, special attention must be paid to the correct use of the rules of MSA.
The imparting and permanent repetition of stereotype phrases (greetings,
wishes, forms of address, introduction, apologizing etc.), proverbs and sayings as
well as historical facts and cultural traditions (religion, Arabic and Islamic history) and the appropriate terminology do not only aim at illustrating the grammar
of the respective lesson but also at achieving a growing knowledge about this region of the world.
The exercises are subdivided into lexical exercises, grammar exercises and
conversation drills as well as into a final exercise to arrive at a better structure of
the process of teaching, even though a strict separation of these fields is impossible. The repetition exercises systematically deal with topics discussed two or
three lessons before to help the students not to forget basic structures. Some
grammar exercises are repeated as lexical exercises with new vocabulary because
it is assumed that the grammar dealt with long before is now consolidated.
From my own experience, I can tell the student that Arabic with all its peculiarities in morphology, syntax and pronunciation really can be learned as spoken
and written language. You will be able to learn the basics of grammar and the
vocabulary of this book with diligence, a little bit of talent and the help of your
teachers and might soon realize when meeting Arabs that you are a most welcome
partner because of your good command of Arabic. Even educated Arabs encounter sometimes considerable difficulties in using their own language according to
the rules which are valid and nearly unchanged since the revelation of the Koran
approximately 1300 years ago.
This book will be accompanied by cassettes with all the texts as well as a key
to the exercises to help the student work through the book independently.
I wish to express my deep gratitude to Janet C.E. Watson, James Dickins and
Alan S. Kaye, the editorial consultants for Cambridge University Press, who
contributed to this book as editorial consultants and generously provided valuable
observations and excellent advice.
I am deeply grateful to Monem Jumaili who gave the texts, which were almost
completely conceived and written by myself, their fmal shape. I am indebted to
Birgit Bouraima, who rendered valuable assistance to the English translation, and
to Christfried Naumann who took responsibilty for the subject index and provided greatly appreciated advice.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Avihai Shivtiel thanks to whose initiative this English edition can now be presented to the public and to all those
who have contributed to this undertaking.
I hope and wish that this book - like its German predecessor - will fmd its way
to the students. I readily accept comments, suggestions and critical remarks and
hope to incorporate them in future editions.

Leipzig 2000

ECKEHARDSCHULZ

NOTES FOR THE USER

This revised textbook has been conceived as an elementary course for beginners,
in which particular attention is given to a speaking-focused training.
The lessons consist of the following parts: Grammar (G), Vocabulary (V),
Text 1 and Text 2 (except in Lesson 1) and Exercises, which are subdivided into
lexical exercises (L), grammar exercises (G) and conversation drills (C) from
Lesson 4 onwards as well as into a Final exercise in each lesson (from Lesson 2
onwards).
I permit myself to offer the following hints regarding the use of this book to
teaching staff and students, which should be understood as a suggestion:
Seven to eight class hours are planned for each lesson with at least the same
number of hours needed for the students' preparation and further study of the
subject matter. One should see to it that there is enough time (e.g. the weekend)
after the introduction of the new grammar subject and lexical items and that
exercises which were to be prepared by pre-set homework only follow after this
period, so that the students can have sufficient time to internalize the new subject
matter and to learn the new vocabulary.
The subject matter should be presented in the following order:

Introduction to grammar (1 class hour)


Phonetics/calligraphy (1 class hour, only in the 1st semester)
Lexical exercises (1 class hour)
Grammar exercises Cl class hour)
Text interpretation Cl class hour)
nd
Conversation (1 class hour in the 1st semester, 2 class hours in the 2 semester)
Final exercise (1 class hour)

Phonetics and calligraphy


This lecture, which is intended for the 1st semester, centers on imparting the
correct pronunciation and the Arabic script. Reading the texts aloud is of
particular importance; while one student does so, the other students note the
mistakes and analyze and evaluate them afterwards together with the teacher.
Suitable grammar and lexical exercises and particularly the texts marked by No. 1
should serve as a basis for the writing exercises. We have been quite successful
here in Leipzig using dictations in which certain groups of Arabic sounds are
systematically practiced. The students learn step by step to write by hearing and
distinguishing sounds like

.1 /

..:..>

'uP / U' 'U' / j ,~ / .; ,~ / tf 'tf / .k , .. /

which sound very similar at first.


Grammar and grammar exercises
The discussion of every new lesson should begin with the introduction of the new
grammatical subject(s). The teacher should take the passages marked by A (=
annotation) into consideration from the beginning, even if they, in most cases,

Xll

Notes for the user

only comprise elucidations or comments for the purpose of explaining the


grammatical rules more accurately, and although they only refer to colloquial or
dialectal usage in some places.
Only part of the vocabulary contained in the respective lesson is used in the
grammar exercises in order not to overload the students with the requirement of
mastering too many new lexical items in addition to their having to cope with
new grammatical phenomena. Most grammar exercises are transformation
exercises, but there are also fill-in, linking and sentence completion exercises.
The objective here is to obtain the best learning results, while excluding the use
and influence of the mother tongue.
Lexical exercises and text interpretation

The aim of these exercises is for the teacher to elucidate the new lexical items, to
impart them in collocations, if possible, and to clarify paradigmatic relations in
the vocabulary step by step. The translations given in the glossaries of the lessons
only provide the meaning referred to in the respective text in order not to
overstrain the learner. Additional translations we confined to a minimum. On this
basis the texts are to be translated orally and/or in writing by the students, and
possible variants of the translation are to be discussed. It is also possible to read
and discuss the texts marked No. 2, which are always drafted as dialogues, within
the conversation.
The glossaries are arranged alphabetically by root, listing the new words from
the texts of the respective lesson. The exercises only occasionally contain words
which do not appear in the texts. Words used for the purpose of explaining new
grammar, which were not derived from the texts have not been included in the
glossaries. Additional vocabulary imparted in some lexical exercises and
conversation drills (specific terms, proverbs and idioms) has not been included in
the glossaries either.
Conversation

The pre-set conversation drills are to be understood as suggestions; the teacher


should vary them in accordance with the interests and requests of the learners.
Role-play, which has been demanded time and time again, is of particular
importance for the success of these exercises; here the teacher may recede more
and more into the background with the increasing progress of the learners. The
teacher must apply judgement as to whether he should interfere immediately and
correct every mistake the students make, or if he should refrain from constantly
interrupting the flow of speech and only correct the mistakes later in the interest
of breaking down natural inhibitions. The seating arrangement usually found in
school should be avoided particularly in the conversation lessons, so that the
atmosphere can become relaxed. Only 1 class hour of conversation drills per
lesson should be planned in the first semester because the students still need more
development in the fundamentals at this stage. From the scond semester onwards,
two class hours are to be allocated to conversation drills, and therefore the
calligraphy and phonetics exercises should be reduced.

Notes for the user

Xlll

Final exercise
The fmal exercise at the end of each lesson is aimed at checking whether the
students have internalized the grammar and lexical items and is intended to lay
the foundations for translation into the foreign language. Review of subject
matter which was taught in previous lessons is a methodical principle of these
exercises.
The fmal exercises can be worked through in class, and they can form the
basis for holding a written test after each lesson.
I readily accept criticism of the textbook's being "organized on school lines"
by these kinds of checks if they help students consolidate their knowledge of the
subject-matter and make them work steadily with the book. The teacher can also
decide which revision exercises need to be worked through in a particularly
intensive way in the following lessons or whether some can be omitted,
depending on the results achieved in the Final Exercise.
Glossary
The Arabic-English glossary comprises roughly 2600 entries; unlike the
glossaries in the lessons, it has been computerized in alphabetical order, and the
items are only partly vocalized. This system has been chosen in order to make the
book easier for the beginner to use, even if a whole series of important
paradigmatic relations in the Arabic vocabulary become concealed by this
approach.
Tables
Tables containing the essential Arabic verbal and nominal forms as completely
vocalized items can be found in the appendix in addition to tables containing the
cardinal and ordinal numerals.

Key
The key to the exercises gives the solutions in all those cases where only one
solution is possible as well as the translations asked for based on the vocabulary
and the texts of this book. Some of the translations should be understood as
suggestions and not as the only possibility. The student should never resort to the
key before trying to find the answer in the respective lesson(s).
Subject index
The subject index, which is subdivided into two indexes, comprises all essential
English and Arabic morphological-syntactic and linguistic terms which are used
in the textbook. Its purpose is to facilitate fmding the relevant passages for the
student. The page numbers of the pages which focus on the topics concerned are
indicated in bold type.

III

UNIVERSIDJ\D DE S[VILLA
ESTUDIOS AR/\8ES E ISl.i>.MICOS

BIBLlOTECA

ABBREVIATIONS

A
a., acc.
adv.
Alger.
appr.
C

cf.
colI.
colloq.
conj.
def.
dimin.
Ex
e.g.
Eg.
Elat.
EngI.
etc.
f., fern.
fIg.
foIl.
Fr.
G
g.
gen.
geogr.
Glo.
Gr.
gram.
imp.
indef.
interj .
intrans.
Ital.
itsf.
L

annotation
accusative case
adverb
Algerian
approximately
conversation
compare
collective noun
colloquial
conjunction
defInite
diminutive
exercise
for example
Egyptian
Elative
English
et cetera
feminine
fIgurative sense
following
French
grammar exercise
genitive case
genitive
geographical
glossary
grammar of the lesson
grammar
imperative
indefinite
interjection
intransitive
Italian
itself
lexical exercises

lit.
loco
m., masc.
n.
of so.
off.
osf.
pass.
p.
perf.
pI., plur.
poss.
part.
prep.
RI
R2
R3
reI. pr.
Russ.
s.
s.a.
so.
so.'s.
sg., sing.
sth.
Syr.
temp.
th.s.
thmsv .
to sb.
trans .
V
Yem.
<.!.>

C
~

literal
local
masculine
nominative case
of someone
official
oneself
passive
person
perfect
plural
possibly
participle
preposition
1sI radical
2

nd

radical
3rd radical
relative pronoun
Russian
see
see also
someone
someone's
singular
something
Syrian
temporal
the same
themselves
to somebody
transitive
vocabulary
Yemeni
muthannan = dual
jame = plural
mu annath = feminine
I

Lesson 1
1. The Alphabet

(~~'11 J J:,;Jf )

Arabic has 29 characters (J)? <: J?): 26 consonants (~L., J)?) and 3 vowels
"
(~ J )?). Two of the three, however, occur both as vowels and consonants.

1.1. The characters and their pronunciation

The following consonants have more or less similar equivalents in English and
therefore should not present any difficulties.
~

Hamza

Ba:
Ta'

th

..!J

Thli:

like ['a] in arm, like ['i] in inn,like [' 00] in ooze


(initial occlusive element, glottal stop)
like [b] in big
like [t] in tea
like [th] in three

[.

kh

C.

JIm
Kha'

like [g] in gentle


like [ch] in Scottish English, loch

Dal

like [d] in door

dh

J
j

Dhal
Ra'

like [th] in the


like [r] in Scottish English, room
like [z] in zero

s
sh

zay

SIn

ShIn

I
m

J
~

like [s] in sun


like s] in sure

Fti'
Kiif
Lam
MIm

like [ j] infog

IJ

Nun

like [n] in noon

Hii'

Waw
Ya'

like [hi in hot


like [w] in wall

like [k] in key


like [l] in long, live or luck
like [m] in monkey

like [y] in year

Arabic has the following long vowels:


a
I

I
~

Alif
Yii'
Waw

like [a] infar


like [eel in deer
like [00] in school

Lesson 1

~Al The short vowels a (hut, pat), i (lift) and u (look) as well as the diphthongs ay (write) and aw
(like in how, but short) are also the same as in English. Cf. Gr 1.2.2.
The following letters are typical Arabic consonants which do not have
equivalents in English and can only be learned by regular practicing with native
speakers:

IJ
c

gh

C /fa'

t.JP

4
t

J'

~
j;

CAyn
Ghayn

sad
l)1d
Ta'

za'
Qaf

like [h] articulated with friction


like [a] articulated in the pharynx with friction
like the Parisian [r] in renaissance
like [s] articulated with emphasis
like [d] articulated with emphasis
like [t] articulated with emphasis
like voiced [th] articulated with emphasis
like [k] articulated with emphasis

The last five of these consonants are the so-called emphatic consonants. They
normally affect the pronunciation of adjacent consonants, vowels and diphthongs.
Their correct pronunciation and the modifications in the adjacent sounds need
special practicing.

~ A2 The order of the Arabic consonants according to the place where they are articulated:
b, rn, w
bilabial:
labiodental:
f
interdental:
dh, th
dental:
d, t, 4, t
prepalatal:
n, I, r, z, ~, s, :j, sh, j, y
postpalatal:
k
velar:
gh, q, kh
c, ~
pharyngal:
laryngal:
"h
1.2. Writing
1.2.1. Arabic is written from right to left. The letters differ in size, but there are
no capitals. Each of them has a basic form, but modifications in their shapes
occur according to their positions in words.
A number of letters share the same shape and are only distinguished by
diacritic dots:
Examples: ....i Nun, ..,; Ta',"; Tha', -l Ba', ~ Ya'
The letters \ ~ ~ .J j J are only connected with the respective preceding letter,
whereas all the others are connected with both sides. The shapes of Arabic letters
are generally similar both in script and printed form. However, a few differences
occur (see Lesson 3).

Lesson I

This book plans for the student to learn how to read and write the Arabic
characters at the same time. For that reason we suggest beginning the writing
exercises with the characters in their printed shape and to proceed step by step to
script. In this way the prototypes of the Arabic characters impress themselves on
the student's mind both when being read and written. Introducing script already
in Lesson I might result in severe confusion. Nevertheless the way the characters
are actually used in script must be taken into account at as early a time as
possible, i.e. as soon as the student has a fairly good command of the Arabic
characters. This can be achieved by the students reading print type and writing
script from that time onwards.
The peculiarities of script are put together in the form of tables at the end of
Lesson 3. These tables include a number of words previously introduced to the
student which are contrasted with each other in print type and script as examples.
It is recommended that the teacher uses Arabic script from Lesson 4 onwards
when he/she writes examples on the blackboard, and to practice it with the
students as welL
1.2.2. Auxiliary Signs (-.:;.JIS'.rJf)
Since Arabic expresses only long vowels by special characters, a system of
auxiliary signs was developed to distinguish whether or not a consonant is
followed by a short vowel. But normally these signs do not appear in printed or
written texts, since the reader who is acquainted with the morphology of Arabic
will be able to read the words correctly without such signs.
The auxiliary signs are mainly used in the Koran, poetry and children's books.
Texts which contain such signs are called vocalized texts, whereas those which
do not have them are referred to as unvocalized.
In this book these signs are only used when they are essential for proper reading.
The signs may be divided into two main groups:
1. Short vowels (for which Arabic has no characters)
Fatha
a short ~blique stroke ( ') written on top of the letter
~ ba,

fa,) wa
denoting that the consonant is followed by a short a.

Kasra

(Fatha followed by Alif= long ti: C ma)


a short oblique stroke ( , ) written below the consonant
~ bi, ~ li, ~ mi
denoting that the consonant is followed by a short i.

(Kasra followed by Yti' = long i: p$' kahIr)


J

l)amma = a sign similar in shape to a small Wtiw ( ) written on top of the letter
J

0L. mudun, ~ kum, ~ hum


denoting that the consonant is followed by a short u.
J

(l)amma followed by Waw = long u: 0 yJ Nun)

Lesson 1

2. Other signs
Suk'iln = a small circle (
'"

on top of the letter

0 )
'

.:,...;..; talJ,ta, ~ nalJ,nu, u-: min

denoting that the consonant is not followed by any vowel.


Shadda = a small SIn ( ~ ) written on top of the letter denoting that the consonant
is doubled, which is pronounced in a somewhat prolonged way then.
FatlJ,a and l)amma are written on top of Shadda, whereas Kasra may
be placed either below Shadda or below the doubled letter:
""'J.

oJl

J.

IJ/

J. ".".

!l~ shubbak, ~ / ~ mucallim, i~ taqaddum


Madda

a sign on top of Alif(T) denoting a long 'a.


J

0'11 aI-ana, 0T:,;JI al-qur 'an


Diphthongs:
FatlJ,a followed by a J with Suk'iln denotes the diphthong aw, whereas FatlJ,a
followed by a r..,? with Suk'iln denotes the diphthong ay:

C~ lawlJ"

0:'; jawqa, c;. bayt, ~ kayja

1.2.3. Hamza ~ and Ta' marbii(a ;;

Hamza, which has the shape of a small CAyn, normally needs a character to
"carry" it. The characters which carry Hamza are i (Alif), j (Waw) and ts (Ya,),
and they are referred to as chairs of Hamza. At the beginning of a word the chair
of Hamza is always Alif:
0/

~i 'anta, i~i 'umm , 01 'in


(see the rules for writing Hamza in Lesson 24.)
The Ta' marbii(a ;; is a special form of the Ta'. It only occurs when final, and
denotes feminines. It is pronounced as a short a when the word occurs isolated.
However, if the word is the 1st term of a genitive construction, it turns to t (cf.
Lesson 6).
.-~d

1.2.4. Allah (God) is mostly written in the form of illl (in calligraphy: ~.\ ).
The Shadda above the Lam shows that the Lam is doubled here; the small Alif
above the Shadda means that a long a has to be pronounced after it.
This small Alifis also put in the word ralJ,miin (the Merciful) and others, i.e. a
long a has to be pronounced after it here as well. Thus the following image is
produced in a calligraphy, representing the text "In the name of God, the
Merciful, the Compassionate":
~J':.P"l\'oI.lIL

~'!J;,"7

~
,/

Such writings designed artistically are only readable with some experience
and are predominantly in use in editions of the Koran as well as in mosques.

Lesson 1

Here are some more uncommented examples, which you can decipher together
with the teacher:

1.2.5. The alphabet in its traditional order


name o/the
letter

transliteration

isolated
position

final
position

medial
position

initial
position

Alif
Ba'
Ta'
Too'
JIm
!fa'
KOO'

a
b
t
th
j

Dal
DOOI
Ra'
Ziiy
SIn
ShIn

IJ
kh
d
dh

..!.J

I...-

<:

--'

C-

...>.<-

...:>:-

e:t-

-><-

..;-

->--

...>-

..L

..L

..L

..L

.r
.r

.r
.r

C
C

s
sh

if

if

...r
...r-

Sad
J)iid

uP

.r-

cl

uP

Ta'

Zfi'

1>
.1

.k
.h.-

t
t

Ghayn
Fa'

gh

Qal
Kal
Lam
MIm
Nun
Ha'

q
k
I
m
n
h

Wiiw
Ya'

u
y, I

w,

.J

CAyn

----.
----

)
)

.......
.......

....,a..

-.a..k...

..4>

Ji..

..Jt...

.$-

..Jt...

.$-

J
J
.!l

C:
C:
J-

-L

J-!.L

-L

S--

.s-

J-

J..

-"

Lr

.r

.r

<.,?

r..s-

..k

....;
..It>

-:!

~ A3

Lesson 1

1. The first letter of the alphabet is actually Hamza, but since Alif is the chair of Hamza in

most cases, it appears in its place as the first letter. In the granunar part of this book Alifis written as

f when Hamza is vocalized with Fat~a, ifit is not a Hamzat al-wa.yl (cf. Lesson 2, p. 38).
""

0-;'

2. The transliteration system in this book ignores Hamza in the initial position. That is to say, ...:..;\
"' I

~\ , or 01 are transliterated as umm, anta and in, and not as 'umm, 'anta and 'in.

3. Ya' (l without diacritical dots in the final position is always preceded by Fat~a and is

pronounced as the long vowel a.:

J1

ila,

J>-

ca/a,

t..i-"

mata.

Final Ya' ($) with diacritical dots is usually preceded by Kasra:

.j

ft, ~l;:S"' kitabI.

However, many texts do not seem to be consistent in regard to the use of diacritical dots with ($
when it occurs in the [mal position.

Exercises
In the exercises of Lessons 1,2 and 3 (which will take about 3 weeks) the basics
of the Arabic pronunciation and writing are taught. The principle is hearing speaking - reading - writing.
Since it takes a certain time - according to our experience - until the student is
acquainted with reading and writing the Arabic script, we begin with exercises
for hearing and speaking, which are based on a vocabulary of about 80 words
denoting things and persons in the room.
Using the direct method, we start speaking straight away, although the student
does not know yet how the words which are used are written. At the same time
the student memorizes the correct stress of the words without being required to
know the rules.
Since the first exercises are to be read at home by the students after having
been discussed in the lessons, we have added the transliteration of the words
despite some doubts which exist from the methodical point of view.
The arrangement of the exercises in the form of three columns enables the
student to check his way of reading at home with the aid of the transliteration.
Nevertheless, we advise the student from the beginning to uncover only the
Arabic column.
The texts of the exercises of Lessons 1, 2 and 3 may be used as writing
exercises later on. First, however, the student has to do the writing exercises of
Lesson 1 (Ex8), which are composed according to the principle of similarity of
the letters, and are to give him/her a feeling for a certain technique of writing.
All words used in the exercises of Lesson 1 can be found in the vocabulary of
Lesson 2.

Lesson 1

Ex! The teacher should read the following words aloud, and the student should

repeat them after himlher. The teacher will correct the reading and comment on
the pronunciation when necessary, and will make sure that the students
understand the meanings by pointing to the things he/she refers to. The students
are also advised to test their knowledge by covering the transliteration one time
and the English equivalents another, and [mally both the transliteration and the
English equivalents.
as-saliimu alaykum
C

ana

Peace be with / upon you

(one of
the numerous Arabic forms ofgreeting)

I (the ii at the end of

"

"

~J~i
~
i
"t

[;J is pronounced

\.j\

as a short a)
t

anta

you (m.)

~\

anti

you (f)

~\

wa

and (it precedes the following word


)

without a gap between them)


,;

o#-

J!

0't

$.

anawa-anta

I and you

~\)\.j\

anawa-anti

I and you (f)

~\)\.j\

anta wa-ana

you and I

anti wa-ana

you (f) and I

anta wa-anti

you and you (f)

~\) .,:..j\

anti wa-anta

you (f) and you

~\)~\

huwa

he

hiya

she

"

huwa wa-hiya

he and she

"

hiya wa-huwa

she and he

r)~

ana wa-anta wa-huwa

I and you and he

r)~\)\.j\

ana wa-anti wa-hiya

I and you (f) and she

~)~\)\.j\

\.j\) ~\

\.j\) ~\
o~

o~

""

" J

~
" J

~)r
"

" J

"., J

".,

o~

/-;

"t

Lesson 1

Ex2 See instructions for Ex 1!

'"
.~
'"

I am a teacher.

.~

I am a teacher (f).
anta talib.

You are a student.

anti taliba.

You are a student (f).

huwa talib.

He is a student.

hiya taliba.

She is a student (f) .

ana mu calUm wa-anta


talib.
ana mu calUm wa-anti

;;

ui

;;

ui

I am a teacher, and you


are a student.

taliba.

I am a teacher, and you (f)


are a student (f) .

huwa talib wa-ana


mucalUm.

He is a student, and I
am a teacher.

hiya taliba wa-ana


mucallim.

She is a student (f), and I


am a teacher.

hiya taliba wa-huwa talib.

She is a student (f), and


he is a student.

Ex3 See instructions for Ex!!

huna

here

hunaka

there

:!J~

huna wa-hunaka

here and there

ana huna wa-anta hunaka.

I am here, and you are


there.

.:!J~ ..:.,.jl) ~ UI

ana huna wa-anti hunaka.

I am here, and you (f) are


there.

. :!J~ pi) ~ UI

huwa huna wa-hiya


hunaka.

He is here, and she is there.

.:!J~~) ~ ~

anta huna wa-huwa


hunaka.

You are here, and he is


there.

huna waraq.

Here is paper.

:!J~ ) ~
,.

,., J

...

"J

...

... J

,. J

o~

... J

/;'

o~

... J

/~

,. J

0;'

,;'

.:!J ~ .J'b) ~ ..:.,.j I


.-

" /

.'-'.J) .

Lesson 1

hUnli qalam.

Here is a pen.

hUnli kurrasa.

Here is a notebook.

hUnli kitab.

Here is a book.

hunli shanta.

Here is a bag.

hUnli waraq wa-hunlika


qalam.

Here is paper, and


there is a pen.

hUnli kurrasa wa-hunlika


kitab.

Here is a notebook,
and there is a book.

hUnli kitab wa-hunlika


shanta.

Here is a book, and


there is a bag.

hUnli tawila.

Here is a table.

hUnli kursI.

Here is a chair.

hUnli khiziina.

Here is a cupboard.

/
/

Here is a lamp.
hUnli lawl).

Here is a blackboard.

hUnli tawila wa-hunlika


kursI.

Here is a table, and


there is a chair.

hUnli khiziina wa-hunlika


mi~bah.

Here is a cupboard,
and there is a lamp.

hUnli khiziina wa-hunlika


lawh

Here is a cupboard, and


there is a blackboard.

hunli bab.

Here is a door.

hUnli shubbak.

Here is a window.

hUnli jidiir.

Here is a wall.

hUnli bab wa-hunlika


shubbak.

Here is a door, and there


is a window.

hUnli jidiir wa-hunlika bab.

Here is a wall, and there


is a door.

.~\?~

C~~
/

C~~

10

Lesson 1

Ex4 The teacher puts the following questions to the students:


What is here?

~~~

What is there?

~!)~ ~

Who is here?

o ,~~ ,

1 Wz>

if

0'<1, ~~ ,

Who is there?

1.!JWz>

if

and points at an object or a person while doing so. The student should answer
accordingly by using the phrase

... ~ or ... !)~ and adds the word that is

asked for.

~~ ~

Teacher:

What is here?

Student:

Here is a door.

Teacher:

Who is here?

Student:

Here is a teacher.

Teacher:

What is here, and what is there?

Student:

Here is a door, and there is a table.

Teacher:

Who is here, and who is there?

Student:

Here is a student, and there is a student (f).

.Yl!~

0,1 Wz>~~ if
,
,

.~~
~!)~ ~J ~ ~
'"

"'..

...

'"

... "'-,

.4.l J\1 !)lAJ y~ lA


o'<\,~~ . ,

,~~.,

1 .!J Wz>

Wz>

if J

if

.aJu,!J~
.,
J ~u,
., ~

The following words can be used:


/. ..

,.!J~ ,)~

",

'C:,..J

... "

." 0

...

,~ ,~ ,J~) ,yl;:f

/. J

"...

J"

,GI'}" ,4.l ~\1 'c..s'""~ ,d,.jl~ ,yl!


-

yJ

;J

...

~ ,~I:: ,~\1

r-- ....

...

,aJ\1,
." CL.a...... .

Ex5 The teacher should ask the students to read the words and sentences of Ex 1- 4
again, covering the columns on the left and in the middle.
Ex6 (Homework) Repeat Ex5!
Ex7 The teacher prepares Ex8 by explaining the different letters according to the
order given in Ex8. The teacher explains how to do Ex8, which is to be done as
homework, and lays special emphasis on those letters which cannot be linked to
the following letter.
Ex8 (Homework) The following exercise is planned to develop the students'
writing skills; it should not impart new vocabulary items to them. The examples
given for each group of letters should be considered as an orientation for proper
writing. It is very important that the teacher gives general hints with respect to
writing in order to avoid the students using incorrect forms of writing.

Lesson 1

...:l.

. . ..

..:j , '-J L..l...

....l.. ...J ,

11

l 1\ , \
~

~~

<...:JJ.

Connect the following letters which are written in their isolated form:
r..,fo+y (6 \+r..,fo (5 u+0+i (4 \+0+i (3 \+y+i (2 y+i (1
0+y+\ (11 0+r..,fo+y (10 u+r..,fo+y (9 0+i (8 r..,fo+i (7
\+0+0+r..,fo+y (15 0+r..,fo+u (14 y+\+y (13 u+0+y (12
":';+y (18 u+y+\+":'; (17 r..,fo+u+r..,fo+y (16

. . . .

C~~~'C~~~'~~~~
Connect the following letters which are written in their isolated form:

~+\+C (6 ~+C (5 u+C+ u (4 0+C+ 0 (3 \+t+i (2 t+i (1


0+r..,fo+C (11 t+ y (10 y+C (9 0+y+~ (8 y+r..,fo+~ (7

y+C+ i (14 r..,fo+Y+r..,fo+Y+C (13 Y+r..,fo+Y+C (12

~+\+u+C+0 (18 ~+\+u+C+i (17 ~+\+u (16 Y+C+0 (15

~ ~ ~ ~'.J-.J

,> j

'>.J' ~ ~,

.l. J

Connect the following letters which are written in their isolated form:
~+\+~+~ (4 J+r..,fo+y+~+u (3 J+\+~ (2 J+y+~ (1

y+r..,fo+ J+~+u (7 r..,fo+ J+~+i (6 ~+ J+C+~ (5


C +r..,fo+ J (11 y+ J (10 y+~+y+~ (9 r..,fo+ J+~+r..,fo (8
~+~+~

(14 y+r..,fo+u+ J+u (13 C+ J+ J (12

y+\+y (17 u+r..,fo+y (16

~+r..,fo+~+~

(15

J+ i (21 ~+t (20 J+Y+C (19 y+\+ J+y+i (18


<5+ J+ i (25 r..,fo+ J+r..,fo (24 ~+r..,fo (23 ~ +\+~ + j (22
J+y+i (28

0+ J+~ (27 r..,fo+i+ J (26

12

Lesson 1

~~,~~~~, ~~~~
~~~~, ~~~.....t..Q

...lb ~ ,j; .1:a.. ~

jQ ,

.b .h.. ...h. ...b

Connect the following letters which are written in their isolated form:
.)+I+...f' (4 .)+I+uP (3 0+ ,-?+J- (2

~.l+'-?+V"

(1

C+I+C+uP (8 C+ '-?+C+uP (7 V"+)+ )+.) (6 V"+ )+.) (5

uP+t+J- (11 y+y+V" (10 C+I+y+uP (9


y+)+J- (14 y+l+y+V"+i (13 C+Y+V" (12
.)+ ,-?+.)+J-+u (17 C+ )+J- (16 ,-?+..k+ )+J- (15
uP+ 1+<::. +1 (20 y+)+...f' (19 )+.)+ uP (18
y+,-?+y+..k (23 y+ )+..k (22 )+1+.)+ uP+1 (21
.)+...f' (26 ...f'+ )+i (25 0+.1Hi (24

t & ..L..i:. , t tJ J. J.. J , ~ ~ ..s.. ...s , '"' '-'- ..i. .J

W '-.i. ...i. ...! ,

...L ...

~ \.S

...ss J! "Y +

)l

'1

Connect the following letters which are written in their isolated form:
J+ )+J (5 ,-?+J (4 I+.)+t (3 0+'-?+t (2 0+,-?+t. (1
0+ I+J+I (9 '-?+ V"+ )+!J (8 J+,-?+!J (7 J+,-?+.)+ uP (6
J+!J (13 J+<::.+) (12 J+)+) (11 y+J+I+..k (10
J+I+)+ )+i (17 J+I+<::.+) (16 J+ )+J+C (15 J+C (14
J+,-?+.iH0 (20 )+'-?+t +uP (19 )+,-?+y+!J (18
,-?+..k+t. +i (23 J+I+ )+..k (22 J+,-?+ )+..k (21
C +I+y+ uP (26 J+I+C (25 ,-?+!J+C +'-? (24
1+ )+J+t. (29 1+ )+!J+ J- (28 )+'-?+t +J+I (27

Lesson 1

..
o ~'"

13

~+...A' f'r-A-..A

4-l,th~~~~~
Connect the following letters which are written in their isolated form:
J+~ (5 ~+~+~ (4 I+~+~ (3 i+t +0 (2 i+..:.;+0+1 (1
1+0+~ (10 t +($+i+C (9 t +i (8 I+~+l+i (7 0+i (6

0+ )+i+J+t +i (13 i+J+t +i (12 ,!)+1+0+~ (11


C+I+Y+(.}""+i (16 0+0+1+ j+t (15 o+J+ )+1+.1, (14
i+ U"+I (20 0+0+($+~+i (19 i+J+J (18

0+...)+ .J+t (17

(24 0+.1,+0+ J- (23 ..:.;+I+~ (22

0+1+..:.;+...) (21

i+($+~+J

l+y+C +.J+i (27 t +i+ U"+I (26 i+C + .J+":'; (25


o+i+~+i (31 i+~+i (30 0+ .J+i (29 i+I+J+U"+J+I (28
i+I+~+i

See also the writing exercises at the beginning of the key!

(32

Lesson 2
,

1. The Article (~p\ o\~;)

0f in Arabic. It remains unchanged for any noun,


numeral regardless of gender, case and number. 0f is

1.1. The definite article "the" is

adjective, participle or
connected with the following noun, forming a phonetical unit with it. There is no
indefinite article in Arabic.
~t
_. \

the house

/."

house

al-kurriisa

notebook

~\:?

0 ....

~\:,s:Ji

the notebook

.,

al-bayt

A noun which is preceded by the article

bayt

"

kurriisa

J f is called a definite noun.

~ Al Although proper names are definite as such and therefore do not need the definite article,
many Arab names contain the article.
,

"Lebanon", ~ "Mul)ammad", ~~ "Damascus"


0.....
~Joi,..
But
.ill\.
~ "cAbduiHih" ,~
0~ ),\ "Jordan", ;; J~W\
"Cairo"
.... -

0LY

Other possibilities of defining a noun will be taught later.


1.2. If the noun preceded by the article begins with one of the following consonants

~ , ;) , ~ , ...:,;
the J of the article is assimilated, and therefore not pronounced, and the
respective above-mentioned consonant is doubled, i.e. it takes the Shadda:

o , J , l; ,

the friend
the man
the sun
...Il

~A2

.b , uP ' uP ' J" ' i f ' j ,

.J '

.,
' .,

assimilated

not assimilated

J:~f
~)f
~f

~~

The letters the

......

others are called ~.r-'

al-bayt

a~-~adlq

the house

ar-rajul

the room

d.j~i

al-ghurfa

ash-shams

the moon

~f

al-qamar

. , J .,'
J?

of the article is assimilated to are called ~


J.

... \

"sun letters", the

J? "moon letters".

1.3. The Hamza of the article

is only pronounced as a glottal stop when the


respective word preceded by the article introduces a sentence or an independent
part of a sentence. Otherwise Hamza is replaced by Wa~/a i, which denotes that
the \ is no longer pronounced as a glottal stop.

Lesson 2

15

A Hamza that is pronounced is called Hamzat ai-qat. A Hamza that is not


pronounced is called Hamzat al-wa~l or simply Wa~la.
~

~i;'

He is the teacher.

al-mucallim

huwal-mucallim

pronounced:

- LJi e::
//

with the friend

~~f

the friend

(.):1/

pronounced:

maca~-~adjq

Where is the sun?

~~i~
.
J..'f

a~-~adjq

~f

the sun

ash-shams

aynash-shams

pronounced:

./

~i

the teacher

1.3.1. All [mal vowels followed by the article Ji of the next word are pronounced
as short vowels in order to allow smooth linkage between the words:

fi + aI-bayt > ftl-bayt

l -

:J i -i

<

l -

~;if +-i

tJ'",.

(in the house)


"'".,.

cala + a{ -{awila > alar -(awila aJ) UJ i ~ < aJ) UJi +~ (on the table)
C

1.3.2. If a word ends with Sukiin which is followed by the article Ji of the next
word, the [mal Sukiin usually turns to Kasra, which fulfills the function of an
auxiliary vowel:
....

y~ i ~ < .l:,:. "Take the book!"


The preposition:X ,however, takes Fatha as an auxiliary vowel:

. : . ~~i r ~

"from!out of the house"

Some pronouns and verbal suffixes which contain the vowel u take I)amma as
their auxiliary vowel.
~ A3 Wa,rla is not printed in the following Arabic texts of this book; instead, Alif \ without Wa,rla
takes its place.

There are tWo genders in Arabic: masculine (.?~) and feminine (~}.).
Words ending with 0 -a (Ta' marbuta) are nearly always feminine, whereas words
which do not end with Ta' marbii{a are mostly masculine.
/

~ A4 Tti' marbuta is nonnally not pronounced as t, but as a short a when the word occurs isolated
or at the end of a clause or a sentence (see also Lesson 4, Gr. 3. and Lesson 6, Gr. 2.2.1.1.).
~A5 A number of words denoting feminines do not end with Tii' marbuta:
.1

a) words for persons which are feminine by nature:


b) the names of most countries and of all cities

rl

mother,..:....>1 sister, ~ daughter

16

Lesson 2
'"

. ..

~I

c) designations of parts of the body which exist in pairs: ~ hand,.:..r.? eye, 0~1 ear
d) Some words are always used as feminines: ~~i land, ~ sun

e) Some words are used as either masculine or feminine: ~ knife, J;'" market, ~ t:.::... sky
Feminine nouns which are not easily identifiable as such are marked in this book by a (r) placed
behind them when mentioned for the first time.

3. The Equational Sentence (,,; .. ~\

~f)

The simple equational sentence in Arabic language consists of two parts:


the subject (i:I~::O if) and the predicate (;.Jf).
It denotes a general present tense or an action taking place regularly and has
no copula (i.e. derivatives of the verb to be).

3.1. Its subject may be a no~ (~~), a personal pronoun (~) or a


demonstrative pronoun (0 JU,l r--'""~) . Its predicate may be an adjective (), a
noun, an adverb (J~) or a prepositional phrase. (All these parts of speech can
be found in the basic vocabulary.)
The following structures occur frequently:
.~

.... J.

Sentence structure 1 = The subject is a definite noun (J ~ r"~) or a


pronoun and appears at the beginning of the sentence.
a1) Noun

IThe house is big.


a2) Noun

IThe man is a teacher.

a3) Noun

- adjective

.~d.fl
- (indef.) noun

.~~)fl
- adverb

.~pfl

The teacher is here.


- prepositional phrase
....

I
I
I

b1) Personal pronoun

- adjective

He/(it) is big.

b2) Personal pronoun

.,

0 ...

.r.[~ r I.
d

- (indef.) noun

~;I

He is a teacher.

He is the teacher.

J 0

. a.(,iJ\ ~~i

The teacher is in the room.

- (def.) noun

.pI;1

Lesson 2

b3) Personal pronoun

17

- adverb

I He is here.
- prepositional phrase

I He is in the room.
cl) Demonstrative pronoun

- adjective

.r-f\~ I

I This (one) is big.


c2) Demonstrative pronoun

- (indef.) noun

I This (one) is a teacher.


c3) Demonstrative pronoun

- adverb

~\~I

I This (one) is here.


- prepositional phrase

I This (one) is in the room.

~ A6 A demonstrative followed by a definite noun may be ambiguous:


~

~I Ix,. may be translated as: This teacher / This is the teacher.


However, if ambiguity is to be avoided, the personal pronoun must be inserted:
....... ............... .. ........... ............ .......... .. .... .............................................. ....... ................................. ........... ;J .. 0;.

. ~I ; . 1.lA

This is the teacher.

...................................... _............................................................................................................ .. 0..


~

. ~I ~ ~~

This is the teacher (f).

The demonstrative pronouns 1..i...A and ~~ have a small I above the ...Jl> when the words are fully
vocalized, which is to denote the long vowel a : hiidha, hiidhihI. However, in modern texts this I
does not appear in the typeface.

Sentence structure 2 = The subject is an indefInite noun


therefore appears at the end of the sentence.
Adverb
- noun

C.'

(~)

and

I Here is a teacher.
Prepositional phrase
In the room there is a teacher.
There is a teacher in the room.

-noun

3.2. In the 'yes/no' question the word order of the declarative sentence
,

retained, but the sentence begins with the interrogative particle

JA ' or rarely i.

IS

18

Lesson 2

Is he here?

~~\~f
~~\~:y.
,
,

Is this big?

In case of alternative questions the alternative particle

I Is this big or small?

ri must be used:
~ ~ rf -r-f \~ :y.

The interrogatives L.. for ''what'' and ~ for ''who'' act as subjects in wh-questions:

".~~
" / \'.,
...I.P> C

What is this?
Who is this?

~o~

What is here / there?

~!lG.

"

\~:;

/ G. c
~!lG. / G. :;

Who is here / there?

The interrogative pronoun must be followed by a personal pronoun if the


predicate is a noun or an adjective.

I Who is aI(the) teacher?


~ A7 In sentences which are introduced by a verb nonnaIly the interrogative \~c:

is used instead of L..

3.3. Agreement in gender


3.3.1. There is agreement in gender between the subject and the adjectival predicate.
feminine subject =
feminine form of the
ad.iectival predicate
al)

.~ a..;\'~t
.0..
',' \
,

.~'
~

masculine subject =
masculine form of the
adjectival predicate

The cupboard! the


house is big.

.~d.f
,
'

,J

bl)

0 _:

It is big .

.r.?
y.
,

cl)

.o~o~
..., "''''

This one is big.

.r.?
\~
,

3.3.2. Agreement in gender also exists between a pronominal subject and a


nominal predicate:

He is a teacher.
She is a teacher.

Lesson 2

19

3.3.3. The question whether 1.1.A ,o.1.A 'y. or ~ should be chosen as a predicate
in a wh-question introduced by L.. or ~ is determined by the gender of the
persons or objects referred to:
/

YI.0.

What is this?

YIJ.A, :;

Who is this?

Y;:;

Who is he?
when a masculine is asked about,

<: . /

What is this?

.~~

Who is this?

Yo.0. :;

Who is she?

Y~:;

//

when a feminine is asked about.


That is why the personal pronoun which has to be inserted into the whquestion must be y. when the predicate of the latter is masculine, and ~ when
its predicate is feminine :
~I / ~
'r-" / Y.

<:

What is the name?/ What is hislher name?

Y~I~L.

What is the sun?

<:~
JI d /
.
()y.,y

Who is a/(the) teacher?

<:~

Who is a/(the) teacher?

JI /

()~,y

~ AS Agreement in gender is also to be observed between the verb which introduces a sentence and
J.....

J.

J"

the following noun: The masculine fonn ..l..:>.- y.. and the feminine fonn J.>.. j

may be used for

indicating existence, i.e. "there is":


_/ }o

...... JO

J ...

The teacher is in the room.


.o:,;Jl.} r.::::
_1~:"11 J.>..y..
................................................................................................................................................................
...............
...

J 0

...

The cupboard is in the room.


.ofJl ,,.j ~I~I ..G,. j
........................................................................................................................................................ ~ ............................. .
~

..~~.~~. ~~..~.~.~.~.~?~~:..........................._............................................................................................ :.r.!..~.~ . ~. ~;.


..!:.~.~~..i.~..~.:~P.~~.~~:......................._..........................................................................................:. ~.~!.t....~..~i.
/

In interrogative sentences introduced by I~L. the masculine fonn ~;.. is used:

. ... ..... . . ....... . . . . . . .. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . .. . . .;. .


~ofJl J ~;.. I~L.
I

j., ...............................[

What is in the room?


...........................................................................................................................................................................................

Glossaries are provided in each lesson from here forward. They contain all the
words not yet known from the preceding lessons which occur in the texts, the
exercises and some encountered in the grammar. Polysemous words are mostly

20

Lesson 2

only given their respectiv~ current meaning at issue in the text. The vocabulary
items are listed alphabetically by root, i.e. RI is invariably regarded as the fIrst
letter relevant in the order (cf. Lesson 4 about this). In the interest of clearness
Fatha has only been inserted partially.
Identifying the root of every word may present a diffIculty to the student at the
beginning. With increasing practice, however, shelhe will quickly acquire the
skill of fmding every word in the glossary shelhe looks for. This skill is
nevertheless required so that the student will be able to use HANS WEHR's
DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC edited by J. Milton Cowan,
which is most frequently used and which is arranged according to the rootsystem.
Here, another general hint is given, which will facilitate the student's ability
to fInd many words. i (Mlm) as the fIrst letter of a word is rarely RI, but is
"..

mostly a prefIx (____ ,

..... 0

...

, ....A). The word 0 ~ is not entered under Mlm

ID

the

glossa7 nor in the dictionary, but under KM " the word C ~ under Sad, and the
word ~ under CAyn.

V (Including the vocabulary of Lesson 1 and 2)


~~T <: ,. )

father

brother
sister
earth
Allah, God

oo'

I I J.:,:.

oy>-t <: t i
I
..::; Iy>- i <: -.::...>I
J:>I} <: (0 J:>~i
~
illI
;.UI)

by God
(prep.) to

mother
(prep.) in front of (loc.)
I

..

~I

pI
i

you (j.)

Jo
oo '

you (2 nd p.p/.m.)

you (2 p .p/f)

..::;1

<:

~I

also, too

;;'i

where

~,..:U~

Paris
not bad

(41/~) d~ ~

.,

door

yl;'i <: y~

house

..::; y.:!

J}

~Jt

down, downwards
good, "okay"
J J

new
wall

~I

beautiful
apparatus, device

tv-set

<:, ~

(prep.) under

sitting

~ / ~~i

r-:

~T

0~1

now

~ HI-

nd

fig: Hello!

J~

..::;~i <: ri
, Loi
i
\.jl

you (m.)

Miss

~)~i

I l> J.:,:.

Take (it)! (m.lf)

Welcome!

iW

<: ~ +>-01 J :G,. <: )~


~..l>.-

~}>--

0.r<: ~

o~i <: j~
0..#;ili -

Lesson 2

y...y~

video-recorder

21

friend

~,

0)~~

good

~-I..b-

garden

letter, character

r..J

o....b-

~-,

).r-

Thank God!

small, short

. 0

~ r..J

.r-

..:.;L ~ i~
.ill
, ~I

bathroom

friend (f)

table
doctor
doctor (f)

JI;"i ~ Jl>

kitchen

Jlj>- ,..:.;1 ~ tilJf

student

situation
~

cupboard

good
I amfme.
I do not know.

,
o.

.;:.>-

ft>'-J.

IJi

.~)i~

student (f)
long, tall
good

radio

man

teacher

fig: Hello!

teacher (f)

bed

(prep.) on; upon

ceiling

(prep.) at

peace

I have

~~
0

you have (m.lf)


So long!

family

name; noun

room

Mr.

girl

Mrs.

Fiitima

window

(prep.) up, over, on top of

Thank you!

(adv.) above

the sun

up (wards)

bag

(prep.) in

health

old

morning

progress

Good Morning!

short, small

(answer)

pencil

lamp

moon

~~ /!j~
..:.; L ~ ~\.$.

. '" .
~

r..J f

...0 .
~

~ 4.Jf

..:.; L.::a

~ 0b
~\.j

;:;:,;

22

Lesson 2

Cairo

who

big

(prep.) from, out of

book

we

notebook

clean

chair

yes

telephone call

sleeping

how

Hello!

How are you? (m.)


~

(prep.) for

forme

~14l1

table; blackboard

}LA
I~

oJ..,.

"

uLA

Give!

~,

interrogative particle

Maryam

~f

there is

evening

~L..,.

paper

p:>JIL..,.
~

r./',
)

'j J'
J.>...f J.>...J?
J,

(coil.)

J1JJi ~ J J)

dirty

t/')

Japanese

'" 'GG

J.rJI ~L..,.

.Jib

and

J.-o,

!J~

he

0..lo ~ ~:;L-

J J

~J

there

she

(prep.) with

here

(answer)

-' ,

ij

this (f)

when

:./'

I~L..

what (followed by a verb)

Jl

Cl)i ~ C:,J

~
J..kj

they (3 rd p.plf)

L..

Good evening!

J~

':l

what

city, town

if

they (3 rd p .pl.m.)

no, not
So long!

if

this

Y~l>- ~

(f)

.
,.

I.:F . "

Text 1

U.J-)
~

r.r-ill U.J-) J'~ U.J- ~I ~..L>.-f


-

.~) p$' ~I

~ y\rl .~~..l>- ~IJL.t) rl->-)~) J :i..9.J-) ~~


UjJl ~) o~ U.J- ,-:?J....:.>. . ~i ~1.1 L;t) 41.1 ~\rl) ~ r\rl)
j4>--) J~4 ~..y jlg.>.-)

r-:..li ~~I.J) 6,j1j>-) p$' f-.r) ~ ~) ~)1.1


.p$' .!J~) r-:..li L ~ ) ~.b:- J J:!p

Lesson 2

23

~pW~

Text 2

~,!j\..;.)) if ,}~:~
.~/\..;.))

:~/

"
~..:..lll> J-:f ..;::>JI C~ .~ \..;.)) .l:>- /:~

.ill..w.JI ~ \.ji .JyJI C~ :~/


~0~1 ~i 0:!i:~

~ JWI J-:f '~J~

0~1 \.ji :~/

~~I J-:f.~ \.ji:~

~WWI Jl> J-:f) .U"'~ '1 ,I~ :~/


$

"

~y\11 J-:f) .i~ ,~ WWI:~


.ill ..w.JI ~ Y') of\.A.lI

0~1 Y' :~/

~~lj J-:f:~

.ill ..w.JI ,~~ :~/


~~lj 0:!i:~

.4l1 c:

~I

~ :~/

~~J~ J-:f:~
~~l.p 0:!i ."op$') ~ ~..lo ~J~ illl) :~/

.Y' 0:!i '-fJ~i '1 :~


.>-LAJJI

Jl) A.AJL.JI c:'~ :~/


.A.AJL.JI

c: :~

Exercises:
Ex! (Homework) Identify and write all the nouns seen in Text 1 and add in
brackets the appropriate personal pronoun!

Ex2 The teacher reads the nouns:


,Ulj>-

'pr ''-:f"''.? ,aJ)\.k ,~J.>.. 'i~

~) ,J.i.....

,J))

'F 'i.Y ,V"'."k- ,a.;):- ,)...I.>.-'~

'C} ,~ ,~d~ 'C~

,0J:!..rili

'j4>--

'J:!-Y 'J:!~I)

24

Lesson 2

explains the writing and ask the students to speak the words loudly.
Ex3 The teacher repeats the words quoted in Ex2. The students repeat them and

add the definite article

(Jf).

Ex4 The teacher reads the words of Ex2 with the definite article. The students

repeat them and add the preposition t: to them.

-J.
Same exercise with the preposition J>-.

Ex5 Same exercise with the preposition


Ex6

Ex7 Same exercise with the preposition iLoi.


Ex8 Same exercise with the preposition ...1.:>-.
Ex9 Same exercise with the preposition Jl.
ExlO Same exercise with the preposition ~/ J.}.
Exll Same exercise with the preposition J.
Ex12 Add the appropriate preposition(s)!

... J.....->.i . ~~I .. . ~\.j . ~I ... ~..wl . ~I ... ~I .4,1 .. . lii

' i~1

.. .

.Uly=J1 . ..

.J-:!~I}I .wjJI

.. . :U )~I

. 3.k.~ 1\ ....,

J.J}I

. ~I
~

C."..lJI .0f'UlI ... y~1 'u.':UY . .. ~i . ~I . . . J.....,I~I . ~I . .. ~t.kJI


~

.:U )t.kJI ... J.J}I .:U )t.kJI . .. '-.?' ~I .)J.>.JI . . .


Ex13 The teacher reads the following words:
.,
... ~I ,j>--.J ,~~I ,y~1 ,~I.k ,~
and the students form equational sentences by adding the personal pronouns Y',
lii and..::..Ji .
<
. ~~I..::..Ji
<

.~IY'

<

<

and the personal pronouns ~ and pi.


Ex15 The teacher reads the words:

'..r.~1 '.J-:!~I}I

,yL::S:.lI

,~t...WI ,~I 'j>--}I


C ~I ''-.?' ~I

,4,1 'C}JI

'~~I '~I

'C~I ,~\~~.l\

,U"}>.JI 'i)1

,y~1

Lesson 2

25

and the students form equational sentences with the following adjectives:

~ '~'r-?
Ex16 The same as Ex15 with the words:

'i~1 ,0 ~uJI ,~..wl ,;;~I ,WUJI ,Uly:J1 ,L.,I):JI ,UJUJI ,~I ,a;.;JI

.~..wl ':L..(,5:.I1
Ex17 The teacher explains the meaning of the following adjectives

~ J/ ~

~/ J-.,k , ~Jj/--4..1.:>:-

and the students form equational sentences using the words mentioned in Ex15
and 16:
..
. ~ Jj

'-:?' jJ.. 1J

0--4..1.:>:-

.;; ~ 4.:JUJ 1J

J-.,k

a.l J UJ
.. 1

~UJI

.~ J C}JI J ~ a;.;JI
Ex18 The teacher reads the following equational sentences:
~ ~

.~ a;.;JI .~ 4.:JUJI .~ .!Jc;..:;.JI


"

C.,JJI

.;;~..I.:>:-

Uly:J1

'0r-? ~1j>JI

I""""t

.~Jj 4,1.--4..1.:>:- yl.:>-JI


I

.
'"
.~
~I
.~
~LkJI
.~.,k
~I
.
,

.'4.>.-J

J:'.J~I

.~ ~I .;;d,UJUJI .~..u ~I.~ C~I .'4.>.-J a;.;JI.~

.~ j>.-)I
and the students should repeat the sentence and than replace the subject by Y' or ~.
Ex19 The students form questions using

~i "where" and the words given in

Ex15 and 16 and answer the questions.


Ex20 Answer the following questions!

J) a;.;JI
.. J ..I.:>:- y.. I~L.
~ ('-:?' jJ1 Js- 'f-;.JI Js- ,~I j>J 1 Js- ,)..L>.J 1 Js-) a.l J UJI Js- ..I.:>:- y.. I~ L.
,

~(d.,6..~1I

,~Iy:JI

,4,1

Ex21 The teacher points at certain objects in the room and asks the question:
~0..,L" L. ~I..,L" L.

The answers should be a complete sentence!


Ex22 The teacher asks:

the students answer with ~ ''yes'':


... 0..,L"

or with ':1 "no":

'r /... I..,L" 'r

... 0..,L"

,':1 /...

I..,L"

,':1

26

Lesson 2

Ex23 Answer the following questions with ~ or '} and the fIrst personal

pronoun singular as a subject:


/.

'iI

'11

#.

'r-? ,... ~I_ 'j>--.J ,~I


,~) ~\.b ~I ~
'/I"
~(~}:o ,;;~..G:- ,;;~ ';;r-?
~':JI ,;;l:; ,~I ,~) 4\.b pI ~
Ex24 The teacher explains the usage of i.?~ "I have/possess" and ,p~/!J~
~(J.}:O ,~..G:- ,~

t.

"you have/possess" and asks:

~( ... y.JJ ,a.;.J- ,a.....I:,s-- ,4.j I.r=- ,~ ,~ ,~

'J:!.:lI.J)

t..?'.? ,p~/!J~ ~ ~

The students answer:

. .. i.? J.:.>.

,~

Ex25 The teacher asks:

~ ( ... ~ ~ 'J.}:O ~ ,;;~..G:-

a.;.J-) r-? ~ ,pJ.:.>. /!JJ.:.>. ~

The students answer with "no" and the antonym of the adjective:

,,}

...::...>- ~ I i.? J.:.>.

. ~ 4.

i.? J.:.>.

Ex26 The teacher asks:

The students answer as follows:

. .. i.? J.:.>. .~ I i.? J.:.>.

Ex27 The teacher asks the student to give himlher or offers himlher something
and the student should thank:

... JI ~I.A>
... J\~

teacher:
student:

~
~

teacher:

\~

\.#'

student:

Ex28 The teacher explains the forms of greeting and practices them with the
students based on Text 2.
.JyJI /

~I L~
~~I e::

t.

~) ")U.\
J

.;.ll/~ ~i
,..J

...

i~I~)

~~G- / ~G- ~
~~\~

Jl

~ ... J\~

~I,,- ~I

r--~i

~WJI
?
L.;': /
.f"
.J.rJI /

~I ~t........

.ill ~\

. lii
iW lii

LessQn 2

27

Ex29 The teacher asks:


~

~ ( ... ~l.6JI ,~I ,,--:?,.?J1 ,a..\)l.6JI ,d.,6..~.1\ ,~jJI) ~I j:!i

The students answer as fQllQws:

Ex30 Translate into Arabic! (written homewQrk)!


I am big. He is a student. The bag is new. The rOQm is big. The mQther is a
dQctQr. She is a student. I have a Japanese videQ-recQrder. YQU (m.) have a big
garden. Y QU (f) have a nice bag. Ahmed is a student. The table is Qld. The lamp
is new. He is in the kitchen. The windQW is clean. The blackbQard is dirty. The
father is a teacher.
Ex31 All students answer the question:

Final Exercise:
1. CQnnect the follQwing letters!

C +I+y+ uP 6.

1+0+1 1.

)+~+t+J+I 7.

y+J+I+.b 2.

J+~+.!l 8.

~+.!l+~+ )+i+1 3.

.!l+J+I+C 9.

i+I+J+ u"+J+I 4.

o+J+J ~+i+C +J+I 10.

i+.!l+~+J+t.5.

2. Read and translate the wQrds in I.!


3. Translate into. Arabic!
The table is big. The bag is Qld. The student is new. The blackbQard is dirty. You
(f) have a bag. Y QU (m.) have a hQuse. He is in the kitchen. The father is a
teacher. The mQther is a dQctQr. The windQW is Qld. I am a student. There is a
garden in frQnt Qf the hQuse. I have a bed, a lamp and a radio. The lamp is Qld.
4. Replace the subject by the apprQpriate personal prQnQun!
$

vP}-J1 .~ Wl.6JI .~ ~I .~ C~I .~ ~I

'0.r---? a..\)l.6J1

.oJ.:..b:- ~1y:JI .~I iL-i ~..wl .~Jj d.,6..~.1\ .~)


5. FQrm equatiQnal sentences with the follQwing wQrds and the adjectives.r-?
and~.

,yL..::5'

,<.3))

,U)1.k 'i~ '..H~ 'C~

'j4>-- ,J..r ,J.L 'f.-r ,)..b:~ ,y~ ,.!l~ ,~ ,~ '~.J- 'C,J ,4..::.M ''--:?' ~ ,a....I:,s-

6. Answer the fQllowing sentences with "no." and the antQnym Qfthe adjective in
questiQn!

28

Lesson 2

~~ ~ !L~

jAl
~o~ 0.J- .!J~ jAl
~~ C) .!J~ jAl
7. Add the appropriate preposition!

.~~I

...

1 ... Y' .0jJI ...

8. Write the following words in transliteration!

~~I ,t.~1 c:

,ill

~I '~I

.,

~1.4.1 )L.6JI

... yt:5JI

.,

,illl

'~I

,~L.6JI
~

,(jI.rJI

Lesson 3
1. Number (~~f)
Arabic has three numbers as far as nouns, pronouns and verbs are concerned :
J,t

cO,!

singular (~ yWI), dual (~I) and plural (~I).


This lesson will concentrate on the plural of the nouns and personal pronouns.

1.1. The personal pronoun


pl.

sg.
'

he

.Y'
,

she

they (f)

r:f'

~i

you (m.)

0,

you (f)

pI

you (f)

\.jl

"

we

J.

III ,

Jo

0,

~I

you (m.)

they (m.)

~ h$.

~I
J

.lot

~Al The auxiliary vowel for ~ and ~I isl)amma -u (cf. Lesson 2, Gr 1.3.2.).
As to the order of the personal pronouns above see Lesson 5, Gr 1.3.

1.2. The noun and the adjective


The Arabic noun has two types of plurals: the external and the internal, i.e. the
sound plural

(~~\ ~f) and the broken plural (~I ~). The external or

sound plural is formed by suffixes being added.


The internal or broken plural is formed by the structure of the vowels of the
singular form being altered and/or by prefixes, infixes or suffixes being added to
the singular form.

1.2.1. The sound plural has two fonns:


The suffix
(-una) for the .,masculine (~\.....

0;

.f'~ ~) and the suffix <.::.JI -

(-at)

for the feminine plural (~\..... ~:? ~) are added to the singular masculine fonn.
pl.
m.
f.

diligent teachers
mucallimuna mujtahiduna
diligent teachers (f)
mucallimiit mujtahidiit

.,

'
J.
0
J'-;~
uJ~u
,

.-;

..... 0

IJ/ '" J

<.::.JI~<.::.J~
,

30

Lesson 3

sg.
m.
f.

'

a diligent teacher
mucallim mu;tahid
a diligent teacher (f)
mucallima muitahida

o~~
,

1.2.2. The broken plural has many patterns, of which we mention J~ flcal and

JWf alal here (see also Lesson 4).


pI.

Sg.

~'
..)

rajul

~~
~

tawll
qalam

~ A2

rijal

Jt,;,..)

tiwal

J\~

aqlam

i~i

Since there are no specific rules regarding the plural forms, the student must learn each plural

together with the singular. This book provides you with the most common plural forms of the nouns
and ofthe adjectives. In the glossaries of this book the singular and the plural form are separated by
the letter

C for ~ (= plural). If several plurals are present they are divided by a comma. A C in

front of a word will indicate when only the plural form of this word is used.

2. The Adjective

(~f)

2.1. The form: each ~djective has a masculine and a feminine singular form:
,

m.

f.

.r.:?
,
,
o~
..,

J.,k
,

r.?

~.,k
,

o'r.?
.,

~
,
..

"'0

o~
,

as well as a masculine sound or broken and a feminine plural form:


m.
f.
Determining which form has to be used depends on the word which the
adjective belongs to.
2.2. The function: the adjective has two functions, an attributive and a predicative
one (as to the latter cf. Lesson 2, Gr 3.1.).
predicative
The house is big.
The room is new.

Lesson 3

31

attributive
the big house

~\:.
,

:5f

J ",

J 0 ....

OJ.:~\ ~~i

the new room

~ ~

a big house

..,

0 ....

4-

"oJ.:~ ",
~~
}

a new room

~A3

The fmall)amm a in

~\ (aI-bay tu), it~\ (al-ghurJatu), ~\

(al-kablru) and

jadIdatu) and the " (Tan wIn) will be explained in detail in Lesson 4, Gr 3.

~~...L>.J\ (al-

2.3. There is agreement in number and gender between the noun and the adjective
in their singular forms (cf. Lesson 2, Gr 3.3.1.-3.3.2.):
in number

The house is big.

singular

the big house

singular

in gender
The house is big.

m.

the big house

m.

.~
:<~if
,
~\
,
....

The room is new.

f.

the new room

f.

.oJ.:~
..

:. ~~if
J ",

0 ....

a.;~i

o J ",

Jo ....

oJ.:~\ ~~i

If the adjective has an attributive function, there is also agreement in state


(Le. defInite or no article)
the big house

~\
:~~f
,

defInite
J

the new room

defInite

).",

J 0 ....

oJ.:~\ a.;~i

a big house

indefInite

~"

a new room

indefInite

",
"
oJ.:~ ~~

..,

0,

4}

and in case (see Lesson 4, Gr 3.1., 3.2.).


2.4. If the noun and the adjective are in the plural, the agreement between them
depends on whether the noun denotes a person or not. If it denotes a person,
agreement in number and gender applies; if the adjective is used in an attributive
function, there is also agreement in state and case.

32

Lesson 3

predicative:
The teachers are diligent.

...

.uJ~

....

The teachers (f) are diligent.

"

tJI

0 ....

11

0 ....

~ ~i

u
J

.;.J ~ .;.J

~i

.JI~ J~}f

The men are tall.


attributive:
...

tJ

0 ....

yI

0 ....

the diligent teachers

~ ~I~~i
uJ
.
U
,

the diligent teachers (f)

~1~1~~i

...

JIJkJ\ J~}f

the tall men

JI~ J~.J,

tall men

If the noun denotes a non-person, the adjective takes the feminine singular
form both when fulfilling an attributive and when fulfilling a predicative
function.
Strictly speaking, there is only agreement when the adjective is used as an
attribute, i.e. agreement in state and case. Nevertheless we also refer to it as
agreement in gender and number, because the plural of words denoting nonpersons is treated as a feminine singular.
predicative:
The tables are big.
The pens are new.
attributive:
the big tables
the new pens
2.5. If the adjective is used as a predicate, the subject can be replaced by the
personal pronoun.

"",d

.Y'

. .r-:-'
,

....

.0J~~

Lesson 3
,

'JI

.Q~Q

0,,-

~i

.. ,
-~'
r..I!'
..
,

...

...

J'"

oJ

...

. o~ Q'::J)UJi

.0 _:

.o~~

,;

.. I'

r'" 0'" J
.Q~,.:,I'>

33

...

, '"

,;

.o~~ i~\1i

r..I!'

In the last two examples above ~ must be used because

Q~1l1

i~i

and

are regarded as feminine singulars as they denote non-persons.

o ,..

...

meal, dish

Q%I C. ill"1 marmelade

emirate

QIJ~l

C. 0J~l
~~

Daddy

refrigerator

eggs (colI.)

01~..?JI
J

4J,.,......

.AA: Syria

0J

country

01~ / ~~ c.

C'
~

o-I}I)
o

~;

Translate.

...

..u:

QL C. oJ~
<,?w,

~; tea
~

~yJ

Jo

Q~).r-- c.

drinks
J

oJ

cheese

t./~ c.

street

~lyJI right, correct

Algeria

J';'

JI;"i C. (i)

J ....

Tunisia, Tunis

market

. 0,
~ car
0

oJ

a:~~1

Saudi Arabia

(prep.) after (temp.)

o~j

butter

QL C. U"'~ sugar
QI C. 0.:(,: Sudan

bus

~f

t). ~
~

university

..:; L C. ~ I.>.- airport

..:; L C. ) lk.-

diligent

J
0)c.~
...

..:;L C. o.;Lb

C. ~
..:;L C. ~

..:;L

station
shop

p>-

bread
J

C. ~
0!\..:.:.... C. 0,:r-..:;1 ) I)=:. C.
,-",)...l.o C. 4...,.. J...l.o
',y.?'S~ C. 0'S~
y.\..:.:....

shop
vegetables

'

school

shop
I go to ...

JI~I

Iraq

honey

juice
~
J

milk

bakery

air-plane

capital city
great

~
J

~Iyc. ~\s.

~~c.~

0~

Oman
Repeat.

lts..w:.i
.. ........ / ! ~i
,-

...

Jl~~i

~I~

lunch

., J

~aghreb,~orocco

y~1
o.

mistake, wrong

'

.bW-I C. ~

34

Lesson 3

Kuwait

,
~~I

~Lt
clothes
,

~~~

,,

)#

breakfast

~I'
, y

fruits

ul~)~

Libya

few, little

or~ J
-,

for example

..
uL~?
-

o...H-'

coffee
library, bookshop

l!5"
),

many
computer

ft?
-,,
I ~~_.
';;S
,0r

.J\!..

U.........

train

Egypt
Yemen
day
today

Text 1
.o~

~J.JI

od Uy-:!) UJj o~

~) ~

a....::..wl

~ J....>.. j)

Uy-:!

a....::..wl ~ J....>..j .~)

or-? a..::..wl

r.s- ul)L;.... tJrJI -}) ~}:o) ~ t).rJI

ul)~ ~ o~ u~) 0j~) ul..p~ ~I ilJi) ul}...k; ~I


.u~) U~)~) ul)l~ ~\S': y.l>v) )~)

~ 0-" ~ 0~ 01~ 0-" ul)L1 )~I -}) --4.1>.-)


0~) 0b..,-JI)

W) y

(J""!J4.U)

r-? )\1... a..::..wl -})

~I) )lrJI) ~ j) JI.rJI) ~:> ~I) ~I)

.~WI -} ~lk

lii)

a..::..wl o.l.A. i f

lii

4)..,.....)

.~~I) ul)L.)1I)

~IJ

Text 2

:~

.).rJI C~

:i~1

~ -!.ll
, \.:>-

~~\.:>-

..r.JI C~

JS
-

:~

4) .ill ..w.JI ~

:i~1

~~~

j:!i .~ lii

,illl)

:~

.a..::..wl -} Y'

:i~1

~:i..o..b Lt

j:! i

:~

Lesson 3

.4...... J.wl t}

35

i./'

YJ~I J-i :~

.~It}J~i
Yi.".)1 J~I Y. L..

.r.>-)

~)

J.f" ) ~) ~) ~ 0,:)1:).1 t}) <,fw, )

:~

0~ aJ )\.kJI ~

.o ..l!j) 4S"1';)
Y~I)pIJ-i
~

:~

.0,:)1:).1 t} ~I) ~ P I

~i j.A> .i~

:~

Jl ~~I ~I..wl~) 4,1 t} \.jl C WI t} ,~


.~L-.JI Jl w\>.JI t} \.ji

:~

Y4,1 t} i.".)1
~

Y~I) .Jy.JI

"'o&.

.A..A')UI ~
.A..A')UI ~

Exercises:
Ex! The teacher explains the plurals in Lesson 2 and 3 and reads the following
nouns (singular and plural) out loud and the students repeat them:
~

JG,.J - J>--J
u~..l.p -

~..l.p

u~ - ~

u:J )\.kJI - aJ )\.kJI

0~1-~1

J G,.)I - J>--)I

i'jj~1 - ~I

u~-a.,b..:...;.

~..L.,dl

uL:Jlk - ~lk

r-t

u:J)lk - aJ)lk

ul~l-o~1

uL:J\.kJI - ~\.kJI

ul,b..:..;JI - ~I

uW~1 -W~I

u~..L.,d1

i'jji -

V")J..o - 4...... JJ..o

ul':)l:r. - o':)l:r.

~I'; - ~lj
u

')I5"i - 4..lS"i

36

Lesson 3

Jlri - Jr
~

i 41 -iY-

t}";' - t.J u

w l>.-

-.::.> I.Jv l>.- 0...\..0

-~...\..o

-.::.>ll=- - ~

-.::.>I}~~ - (;.J~

-'::'>~4 - ~4

-.::.>I},bj - .J\.,6j

- yl:5'

-.::.>1)1.1. - (;)1.1.

0j~ - 0y;....

-.::.>I},b~

.Jt,b...

tJ,..~JI - t.J WJ1


01~ - ~
This exercise should be repeated several times until the students memorize the
plurals.
Ex2 The teacher quotes the singular of the words in Exl and the student gives the
plural.
Ex3 The teacher reads the plural and the student gives the singular.
Ex4 The teacher reads the following adjectives (singular and plural) and the
student repeats them.
.J~-~

r.s- - r.s-

.JL2 - ~

JI.,k - J..,k

0~-~

0)

0}J.i -

J.:lt

~~-~

,
~l,....u

jlki)~l.Jij

~...u

Ex5 The teacher reads the plural of the adjectives in Ex4 and the student gives
the singular.
Ex6 The teacher reads the singular of the adjectives in Ex4 and the student gives
the plural.
Ex7 The teacher reads a noun from Exl-4 in the singular or in the plural and an
adjective in the masculine singular. The student forms an equational sentence .

. ;;~ a,b.:..;JI

<

~ - ~ ~

.-.::.>~ -.::.>W\k.ll

<

~ - -.::.>Wlb ~

Ex8 The teacher reads an equational sentence from Ex.7 consisting of a deflnite
noun (sg. and pl.) and an adjective. The student replaces the noun with a personal
pronoun.

Lesson 3

Ex9 The student answers the following questions with

37

<

.~J.>--)I ~

<

0J.:..G,.

i"::N'J I ~

or ':}:

Y(ylk ,~ '.ft.,k ,~ ,~ ,~) / . ~i ~


~

Y(~ ,~lk ,~.,k ,o~ ,~ ,o~)

.~

O/. pI

~(0# ,0)~ ,JI.,k ,0)~ 'J~) JLf ~i ~


Y(,.::.A~lk ,..::,..~...l.p ,"::"'I~ ,"::"'I~ ,"::"'I~)

..::,..I/'

~i ~

.~lii'r

<

Y~~i~

. ~lk lii ,,:}

<

~~ pi ~

.0# ~ ,,:}

<

Y0)~ ~i ~

<
ExlO The teacher points at objects in the room and asks the following questions,
and the student should use a noun and an adjective in their reply.
~.!J~ ..G,. y.. I~L. or Yo~ L. ,I~ L.

./ . .!J c;.;. .!J ~

..G,. y..

. ~ '...?' ~ .!J~ ..G,. y.. ~


.J.:..G,. yl..::5' I~ ~
.~..u3..iI? o~ ~

Ex11 The students form equational sentences according to structure 2 (see


Lesson 2, Gr 3.1.) by starting the sentence with the following words

.!J~

Js~I J

J
)J.>.JI Js-

4.jjJIJ
4J )llJ I Js-

~I
....u..JI

3..ilj>J1

and complete it with a noun and an appropriate adjective.


.J.:..G,.

yl..::5'

Ic
CL,a.,.....u..JI

....s-

.0~ i"::Ni ~I
.

~ ~

The teacher repeats the sentence arid the student repeats it again.

38

Lesson 3

It is recommended to the teacher to comment on the sentences formed by the

students with ~ "right", ~ "great" and t.6>/. kli:. "wrong", "mistake". He


asks the students to repeat the sentence with ~i,j ',?~i and to translate it with
~jf ~;.

Ex12 Read
a) all nouns, adjectives and pronouns of the basic vocabulary of Lessons 2 and 3
and pay particular attention to the plurals.
b) the examples in Arabic given in G 2.2 ... 2.5.
Ex13 Copy the examples in Ex.9. The teacher should write the words on the
blackboard.
Ex14 (Homework) Write the following adjectives

as a definite attribute to the following nouns:


)

,vy\.1 ,~\.1

,U.J- 'v:i)L1 ,U)\.1 ''-.?'..? 'i~i ,~


~..\>.JI ~I

<

o~1 v:i)l.6JI

<

,vt.,6..;...;. ,~

'c.::

Ex15 (Homework) Repeat Ex.ll in writing composing at least 12 sentences.


Ex16 (Homework) Repeat Ex. 7 and 8.
Ex17 The teacher explains the usage of the following greetings and forms of
address and the student should practice them orally and in writing.
Ex18 (Homework) Answer the following questions in writing.

,~yJI '~..:l~1 ,~I '~rWI ,a...JI.rJI ,a_:k~l) ~.JJ--II ~WI ~ L.


Y(~~I ,~t-.!I ,~b y-JI ,a .. ..I1I ,~~I ,~;I.rJI
Ex19 Add an appropriate adjective to all the nouns in the vocabulary of this
Lesson. Form first the indefinite and then the definite form.
o...l;:>.-

Ex20 The same as Ex.18 but with the plural of nouns.


Ex21 Replace the adjectives in Text 1 by their opposite.
Ex22 Translate into English.

4..l5"i <

4..l5"i

Lesson 3

39

.~~I ~ ~I .o~1 ~I,j lii .o.r.s- ,.::A.,.,.~!.I~ J.>..y .--4J.>.. ~I


~l ~~i .~Ij) QI)I~!.I~ .~WI,j QI~I QWt,kJI

.'Or.$' 0~1

~I) ~I) ~I) ~I) o~)I .o~ QI}lk J~I ~ ~ .Jy-JI

QIJ~)l1 if QI)lk!.l~

W)

J.>- ~I) (,.>WJI) o~1

. ~)l,6JI

. o~I~I,j ~I)

~..,5:JI) y .;-WI) 0~) JI.rJI) 0b~I) ~~ ~I) yJI.rJI) ~ y)

.~I)~)~Jr)
Ex23 (Homework) Memorize the plurals of the nouns in Lesson 2 and 3. The
teacher should ask the students to prepare for oral and written tests.
Final Exercise
1. Write the following characters to form words .

. o+~+I+ J+y+J+I (,.>+J )+05.

~Q+I+y+)+ J+ J'+i+J+1 0+(,.>+i 6.

. J+(,.>+t +y 2 .

.o+J+ )+I+.k+J+I ~+J+t (">+07.

~!.I+J+I+c. J+(,.> +!.I +) 3.

o+i+ I+J +J"+J+I t +i 8.

~J+ )+.1+J+J+I 0+(,.>+i 4.

2. Read and translate the words in 1.


3. Form the plural ofthe following nouns and add an appropriate adjective.

'J~

,tJ W
/

,~T ,o~l~

,L.. J.,l.

,~ ,~ ,o~ ,~ ,~ ,:tA:~ 'J>-- J


~

,0~ ,oJ~ ,~+-- ,J r ,~)lk ,~ 'iY- 'J~ ,o).lk ,yt::? 'U""~ ,~

t.,?':? ,4..I.)i ,d,....,I:?' ,~lk ,~lk ,~l>.- ,~


"

,.,, )

(#

,0t5'~

4. Form the masculine plural of the following adjectives and add an appropriate
noun.

, ~ , ~ , ~J.>.. , ~ , ~

'J-..,k ,.r.s- ,~ 't:!..lt ,~

,~

,r.$'
~

5. Translate into Arabic.


The students are new. The teachers (f) are beautiful. There are many men. The
bags are new. The new drinks are in the refrigerator. The big airplanes are from
Kuwait. The new clothes are from Tunisia.
6. Write the Arabic equivalents of
Hello. / Good morning. / Good evening. / How are you? / Good bye.
and the appropriate answer.

40

Lesson 3

7. Write the following words in transcription.


..

~,

....:

-J,

,~ ,~ ,O.J~ ,0lS~

,:,p..... ,a...,6.:..... ,~\.rJ\ ,~\


J

#}

~!\..v

't).r-

';;.Au, ,o.JL.l

d.~~

,~ ,;~ ,..:;.J\)\~

8. F onn a sentence with each Arabic personal pronoun using a personal pronoun,
an indefinte noun and an appropriate adjective.
9. Translate into Arabic.
a big table - The tables are big.
a small house - The houses are small.
a diligent student (f) - The student (f) is diligent.
a big man - The men are big.
an old bag - The bags are old.

Lesson 3

41

Peculiarities of Arabic Script


Examples
Script (RuqC a)

Printed type (Naskh)


~

..

)I~

.J/~

4l1j>-

1.J1y;.

..

,
l........U.4.iI

.:J~

~W

c.~

C~

4J Ju,

.1JJ/..b

;ij~

~..;6

yl:S"

ylJS

~~

~fi

J)J

(J.JJ

r:r

jA

...

..

~r~1

#~I

JS'

JS

1JlS"

uLS

jl::.o

.J~

42

Lesson 3

Alphabet in printing (Naskh)

initial position

medial position

final position

isolated position

"

..I

.!..

I!.-

.!J

..:1:

-'!'-

[.

,.;;..

..:;i,..

c.
t

..L.

..L.

.L

.L

J
j

.r
.r

.r
.r

-!

.J
to

...M

...!;,

-:.

I,}"'-

..r

:.
I,}"'-

-P

-=-

vi'

...;p

-.Q....

JI:-

d'

.,1,

.k..

J,

J;

..b..
..liL

j;

.;.

-"-

.s.

t"

.it-

t-

J
J

.L

J.

..1.

J-

5.-

cl.

!l

..L

J-

..0

...i
.A

J
-!

....
.....

+
J...,.

('-

iJ-

4J

A..

J4.F

J
!$

Lesson 3

Alphabet in script (RuqCa)


initial position

medial position

fmal position

isolated position

...J

...J

..

:.

...J

'-l.

:.
W

C
C

..l.

..l.

..l.

..l.

...)

./

./

...)

...)

./

./

...)

-J./J

~
:.

U'J

:.

:.

:.

:.

.
:.

-J./J

U'J

.....w:2

.....a..

U-

U-

U-

U-

....b

.b.
A

.b

....b..
...12.

...c

..&.

tt-

.J

..
.J

...L

t
t.

'--'

...L

...s

.
rJ-

...s..

.J

.J.

-'l

-4..

Jr

...J

'--L

..

u-

.A

"

..}-

...J-

-d

..

4r

if

43

Lesson 4
1. Radical, Root, Pattern
1.1. Most Arabic words can be reduced to a root, which, as a rule, consists of
three consonants. They are called Radicals. We refer to them as RI. R2 and R3.
This triliteral root expresses a certain conceptual content. Thus, e.g. the
meaning "to write" is inherent in the root K-T-B (Y- u - .!.I), the meaning "to
go" in the root DH - H - B (y - () - ~), and the meaning "to drink" in the root
SH-R-B (Y-.J-J').
This conceptual content is specified by short and long vowels between the
consonants and by prefixes and suffixes regarding the part of speech (verb, noun,
adjective) as well as regarding the grammatical category (tense, mood, number,
case, etc.).
One can say by way of simplification that the root consonants (Radicals) fulfill a
semantic function and the vowels a grammatical function in the Arabic word.
E xamp:es:
I

KaTaBa

(~)

KaTiB

he wrote / has written

(~t5')

writing; writer, author

KiTaB

(yL:f)

book

KuTuB

(~)

books

written; letter

library, bookshop

"

Jo

maKTuB

(y

p.:.)

"'"
(~)

maKTaBa

1.2. The Arab grammarians use patterns, which they represent by J for RI
(1 sI Radical),
for R2 (2 nd Radical) and
for R3 (3 rd Radical) in order to
describe the numerous word forms systematically.
Fa', cAin and liim fulfill the function of variable quantities in the patterns, for
which theoretically any consonant can be substituted.

t..

facala

is the pattern used for the perfect (3 rd p.sg.m.):

~~ ,;. ;S--

Jfl;
~

J&

finl

is the pattern used for the active participle:

facJl

is a typical pattern of the adjective:

~t5'
~

,p$'

Lesson 4

J~
o.

Jwl

flca!

is a typical pattern of the broken plural:

ajiil

is a typical pattern of the broken plural:

45

L)

.J '/

r~i

A reliable knowledge of the patterns occurring most frequently is useful for


obtaining a good command of the language.
o

2. The Broken Plural (~I ~)


2.1. The majority of nouns has the broken plural. There are hardly any rules
according to which the appropriate plural form can be derived with certainty from
the singular form. Therefore, the student has to learn (at least) two word forms
for every noun, namely singular and plural form.
~ At Regularities in the fonns of the plural only occur in some groups of verbal nouns which have
the sound plural. Appropriate hints are given in the respective lessons.

2.2. There are numerous forms of theo broken, plural. The ones which occur most
frequently are the following: J~

,Jwi ,J~

The following words have the pattern J ~

\~ J( L \. 1c~ c ~' .Y:' C U-.r'

\/ -~

'.J~

The following words have the pattern J~i

\~ -

~ '.J\J/..;P

L)

~ '.J./

yl;.f C y~ 'C,)f c C} ,JI~)f C J.JJ 'r~f c ~


,

The following words have the pattern J~

~ A2 Other patterns of the broken plural are the following:


'"
""
J
..
0,.
~W ,~;W ,~~I

'"

<MW

'"
,Yw"" 'Jfly;'" ,j;10,. ,~i
,JW ,~ ,j;
0.....

'"

As regards final l)amma, see Lesson 7, Gr 3.

3. Declension and Nunation


3.1. Three cases are characterized in Arabi/c by meru;s of the three short vow~ls: -u =
o /
~
/ .
1
nominative ~)I ~l, -i = genitive (/.JI oLP'iI), -a = accusative (~I ~l .
0

The signs /)amma, Kasra and FatIJa represent themselves in vocalized texts.
n.

the new teacher

0/

0/

~~I~i

g.

of the new teacher

;4~I~i

a.

the new teacher

~~I~i

'JI

al-mucallimu l-jadIdu
al-mucallimi l-jadIdi

0/

al-mucallima l-jadIda

46

Lesson 4
J

n.

the new teacher (f)

o~..bJ\
-,

'/I

0 ....

a.::kJi

.,
a.::kJi

al-muCallimatu l-jadldatu

g.

of the new teacher (f)

a.

the new teacher (f)

o~..bJ\
, -,
""

o~..bJ\
-,

....

;J

al-muCallimati l-jadldati

0 ....

a.::kJi

al-muCallimata l-jadldata

3.2. An -n (Nun) is pronounced after the case endings -u, -i, -a as a characteristic
of indefiniteness. This process is called Nunation (J..J.;J). Consequently, the
endings -un, -in, -an are formed. Nunation is expressed in vocalized texts by the
doubling of the respective sign that represents the vowel:
JJ
or = -un, = -in, = -an
Indefinite nouns in the accusative case which do not end with 0 (Ta'marbata)
terminate in Alif, which, however, does not express a sound quality.
~

n.

a new teacher

~
,
..lI-l>.-,

g.

of a new teacher

..lI-l>.......

a.

a new teacher

n.

a new teacher (f)

g.

of a new teacher (f)

a.

a new teacher (f)

.
-;

mu c allimun jadldun

'F
.

mu allimin jadldin

\..lIk
~
-,

mu Calliman jadIdan

o~k~
-,

.. .

mu allimatun jadldatun
C

o~k~
-,

mu c allimatin jadldatin

o:i,k
~
-,

mu allimatan jadldatan
C

~ A3 Certain Arabic words have only two case endings because of their word structure, some even
only one.
~ A4 A considerable number of words, among them many broken plurals, do not terminate in a
"

nunation, even in case of being indefinite, e.g. ~q ,:Li~i

,:G:U ; cf. about this subject:

Lesson 7, Gr 3.

3.3. The declensional endings of the sound plural of masc. words are: 0 r -una =
nominative and
Ina = genitive and accusative, of feminine words: ~L -atu(n)
= nominative and pL -ati(n) = genitive and accusative.

0:-.-

n.

.,
0~i

g.

~t
. -, \

definite
~

a.

.,

~.
. -, \

indefinite
~

'~
0

(al-)muCallimuna

-,
~
-,
~

(al-)muCallimlna

(al-)muCallimlna

Lesson 4

47

~~

n.

mu c allimlltun

u~
u~

g.

mu allimlltin

a.
~

mu c allimiitin

~~i

n.

(al-) mu allimiitu

u~i

g.

(al-) mu c allimllti

~~i

a.

(al-)mu allimiiti

3.4. The broken plural has the same declensional endings as the singular.

pI.
indefInite
n.

sg.

~ii

aqliimun

qalamun

g.

iii

a.

~ii

aqliiman

w.;

qalaman

~i~f

al-aqliimu

~f

al-qalamu

g.

ri~f

al-aqliimi

a.

~i~f

al-aqliima

defInite
n.

3.5.

~
:.

aqliimin

qalamin

~f
r-Wf

al-qalami
al-qalama

The functions of the cases:


nominative = case of the subject,
genitive = case required by prepositions and case of the attributive adjunct,
accusative = case of the direct object and of adverbs.

3.6. Arabic texts are generally not vocalized, as has already been noted in Lesson 1.
Nor are the case endings indicated by signs expressing vowels for the same
reason. There is no universally valid rule for the pronunciation of these endings,
i.e. whether they are pronounced or not. Whereas they can be fully heard in
recitations, they are mostly omitted in colloquial language.
We recommend that the teacher and the student adapt their pronunciation of
Arabic to the one used on the radio and to pronounce the case endings (and the
other inflections containing a short vowel), except in the last word before a pause
and at the end of a contextual unit (sentence, clause) for the period of training.
The syntactical connections become clearer by the case endings being
pronounced.

48

Lesson 4

4. Stress
4.1. Only the last three syllables of a word can be stressed. If the Nunation is
pronounced, it is included in the count.
4.2. The last syllable that contains a long vowel is stressed:
ki-tab
ki-ta-bun
ja-dld
ja-dI-dun
ma-kha-zin ma-kha-zi-nu
however, the vocalic final sound of the word is never stressed:
hu-na
kur-sI (but: kur-sI-yun)
4.3. If the last three syllables do not contain a long vowel, the second to last
syllable is stressed if it is a closed syllable (sequence of sounds: consonant - short
vowel- consonant):
mu-cal-lim
mu-tar-jim,
and the same applies if the word consists of only two syllables:
an-ta
ra-jul
Otherwise the third to last syllable is stressed, regardless of its structure:
mu-cal-li-ma
muj-ta-hi-dun
4.4. The demand accepted in modem Arabic language that the stress may not
advance beyond the last syllable but two requires the stress to be shifted if the
number of syllables changes, because the nunation is pronounced or suffixes are
added.
{a-li-ba
ta-li-ba-tun
mu-cal-li-ma
mu-"al-li-ma-tun
ku-tu-bu-na (our books)
ku-tu-bun
mu-"al-li-mu-na (our teacher)
mu-cal-li-mun
{a-li-ba
ta-li-ba-tun
ta-li-ba-tu-na (our student (f))
mu-"al-li-ma-tun
mu-"al-li-ma-tu-na (our teacher (f))
In general, the students do not find it difficult to stress the Arabic words in the
correct way. They have sufficient opportunity to impress the stress upon their
memories by hearing and reading the texts and by means of the numerous
exercises. This is why we refrained from putting stress marks in this textbook.
5. Prepositions (f.JI J Jf-)
All prepositions are construed with the genitive.
(11

""

...

""

. ~I JI. ,~I
'. ~~ .;;'.r-;-'
.<:, ~y' ~I
. ~.
f , ..
~ "with / by means of' and

......

(II

. ~ y . ut::$";iJ
. "~ LkJI

...

\;,. ~ ~}

J "for" are written together with the following word.


...

... , 0

Additionally, the Alif of the article is omitted after ,J:. , .~~, ~4


.
......

Lesson 4

~ A5

49

As is the case in many other languages, the prepositions frequently serve to express the case

governed by the verb in Arabic as well. They form an insepar~ble unit together with the ~erb in such
cases and need to be leame~ tog~ther with it. Thus, e.g.
cany out, to undertake" and ~

rumeans "to get up", ~ ru means ''to

ru ''to rise against sb. or sth.".

v
0Wi C JWi

German

rl'

you (f) bought

or

clever

that is

~i medicine (as science)

(prep.) with, by means of; in

~~
number
).

appr.: Congratulations!

! ~);.

- (colloq.)
answer: God bless you.

I~

cSk.
- , / L.
,

bus-stop

~\~ r. ~~
I.;..

J_

~L.,.::,WI ~
J J

lesson, class hour


study, courses, classes

that means

I understood

.J"f?" you (m.) understood

ink
modern, new

some, a number of

~
Arab, Arabic, Arabian
-, ~ ) .~.illl
-

very

leather

road, street

you (f) understood


dictionary

C v"):' about, nearly


~L C d,.....,1)? I wrote

v" )):.

0,....

I went

~:.
...

you (m.) went

you (m.) wrote

0 .....

~:.

you (f) wrote

0,

you (f) went

~:.

writing
writer, secretary

you (m.) saw

~I.J
~--:.J
~r

you (f) saw

,~i
-.J

~ 1ty
lacu

convenient

~!

eraser

I saw

.'

wntten; p . 1etters

~L C ~I).J

left (side)

ruler

}~ C o~

totheleft

tree

.J~i C 0~

right (side)

to the right

~IJl

novel

I bought
you (m.) bought

., '.

~p,

.JL:
.JWI

Jl

50

Lesson 4

~ A6

The Alif in ...::....:p ~ is a Hamzat al-wa~l and is rendered in the vocabulary with ~ . Hamzat
in the interior of a sentence is to be found in the article (See Lesson 2 Gr 1.3.), in the
imperatives (see Lesson 8 Gr 2.) and in the verbs and infmitives of the Forms VII, VIII, IX and X
(see Lesson 18 and 22).
al-wa~l

Text 1

~ ...

Text 2

~..!JJl>-

~..!JJl>-

.J4..... )

J\A i :.4.>- i

Y-.::..Ji) .Jj ~I ~

:t:!f

4) iW'

:.4.>-i

. ~ WWI

:t:!f

YwWI

Y--4~1 4.1

. IJ..:".

Jl ~p\ .;#i

tj-f)

4)

:.4.>-i

~ --4~1 4.1

:t:!f

!.!.I)r.' :.4.>-i

YuL.,.:,L:JI

~l ;;y.UlI tJ w

:.re)

~I ~l .!.I~

~ ;; ~I Jb.....!. ~I ~ .!.Iw)

.~ .!.I ).~.Jjl

:t:!f

~ Jl J:~I.:.r.i

:.4.>-i

Jl 0 i f :t:!f
~I Jl .r.$JI :.f-JI ~) JL--::JI
if)

.r.$JI 4.1 llA

Y~~ .uL.,.:,L:JI

Lesson 4

~I ~l,!}b:r)~1 ~I
~

,!}b) ~I

Ih

51

Jl ~if ~ ,~~~,~ :~i

~l p-$JI ~I ~) .JWI

Jl 0~WI

t.Jw"

if)

. ,.::A..pWI ~ 0p$JI .J k..,.!:. \11


.;'w" ~i .wl) ,~ ~i ,~Ih
.to")LJI

.~Wjl

:t:!/

~ ,i~ :~i

Jb to")LJI ~

:t:!/

Exercises:

Lt

Add an appropriate adjective to the nouns in Text 1 which do not have an


attribute.
L2 What is the root of the following nouns?
,L.,.,I:,s--

"

,yL..::5" 'C..,J ,u.J- ,)J....>.. ,,!}~ 'C~ ,d,jl;>- ,~..l.p ,~\..b ,~


~..lo ,0y:..o '.J1..,b; ,o.J~ ,J.JJ

L3 The teacher reads the following nouns. The student repeats them and adds the
plural:

,~.? ,~ ,~L..b

" 'J->.-.J ,yL..::5" ,L.,.,I:,s-- ,y~


'r-1-

" ,U)\..b
ol:; '.J1..,b; ,o.J~ ,0y:..o 'C~

L4 Add a subject in the plural to the sentence ... ~..wl


the city." Use all appropriate nouns that you know.

,,!}~ ,~

,j ..l.:>:-'; "There are .... in

L5 Insert the correct prepositions in the following sentences. Choose the

prepositions from the list below.

,j ,~ ,J,Y 'i\.Ai '~ 'Jl 'if 'Y


.,!}~ ... ~..L,a.ll ... ~~
.~I

...

1... ~L9..l.p~1 ~i.J

.0~1 ... <.J"':!)}:JI ~~I


~

~~I ... ~I ... ~~jPl

~JlkAJI ... ii o}~....JI ... ,!}~

...

~~

jPl

~aJ )lWI ... ..l.:>:-.J!. I~\.A

~d,jI.rJI ... I ... ..l.:>:- y.. I~\.A

~o ~ QI.J~ ~I ... ..l.:>:-';

jPl

L6 (Homework) Form a sentence with each preposition given in L5. Prepare the
sentences in writing for the next lesson.

52

Lesson 4

Gl Replace in Text 2 - where possible - the subject of the sentences by the


respective personal pronoun of the 3rd person.
G2 (Written homework) Transform the subject which is given in the singular in
the following sentences into the plural. Pay attention to the correct form of the
adjective.

<

.~ ~.!.IGb

.~ ~..lA .!.1Gb

.0 r-:-'c::- a;f ..::....JI


_. r.,I.
.~)..GJI

.p:5' C}JI
. a; jJI ~ ~..l.,aJI
.y~ a;jJI ~
.~

4.J)lkJI ~

.0.4...l>. U")..ul
.0.4...l>. 0 ~ .!.1Gb
~

. ~~..wld

. ) l,k; a.,b....JI ~
.~

;;L::.9Gb

G3 The student reads his homework (G2). The teacher checks the spelling and
pronunciation.

G4 Add an appropriate adjective to the subject of the sentences ofG3 .

-J ...l>.'; < . U y.:l ~..wl ~ ...l>.';


Same as G4 starting with l jjJI -J ...l>.'; "There are ... in the room."
.~..u

G5

y.:l

~..wl

G6 Add an appropriate adjective to the subject of the sentences ofG5.


G7 Same as G4 starting with 4.J )lkJ 1 ~ ...l>.'; "There are ... on the table."
G8 Add an appropriate adjective to the subject of the sentences of G7 as an
attribute.

G9 Answer the question ~4.1 i\....i ~i) I~\"" "What did you see in front of the
house?" with ~I iGi ~i) + undefined object in the plural. Use the plural of
words like

Lesson 4

53

GlO Add an appropriate adjective to the object of the sentences in G9 as an

attribute.

Gll Same as G9. The question is

~}-JI

I~L..

/01$-..ul if ...::...:";:'::'1

"What did you

buy in the shop?"

b~

G 12 Expand the sentences formed in G 11 with ... if

"some, a number of",

in accusative.

G 13 Add an appropriate adjective to the object of the sentences formed in G 11


and G 12. In the sentences of G 12 you have to add an adjective to the noun ~~
and to the object in the plural.

.o.;$' uL...I:? 0~1

.~I i~~1 i f

if ...::...:";:'::'~

i.r.? i~~ 0~1 i f ...::...:..;:.::.~

G14 (Written Homework) Defme the object in the singular or the plural in the
following sentences by adding the article.
~

.~J.j \.j j.:-!

...::...:I J

~~ 00 ~iJ~
~

~bJ..>.. ~ ~iJ ~

~o .<, L5 ~ .. I \ '"
.r--'.
r-" u

~
,. , "
.o...\:J..>.. L.. ~I ...::...:";:'::' ~

I~

.~Jj 0J~ ...::...:";:'::',

.o.;$' Gj.:-! ~.;kJI ~ ~iJ


'I

'I

. I..r,>-) L..~i) L;J)) L... yL; ~..;:.::.~

.o..;k-.-) ol>...o...)

Gl:S' ~..\bJI ~I -J ~rJ

~")Ls. )

J,/ ) ~) u~)? ...::...:";:'::'1 ~


~01$-..u1 -J o.;$' ul)~ ...::...:iJ ~
~uL,l)
J ~
.
u\'"

~L.yL;~ ~

Cl

(Homework) Read Text 2 several times until you are able to run a similar
conversation without using a written text. The students should work in groups
with role-play when preparing the dialogue which will also be asked for in all
forthcoming lessons.

54

Lesson 4

C2 (Homework) Write a short essay about shopping and read your paper in the
next class hour.

C3 Describe the way from the main station or from your flat to the university.
Use the patterns given in Text 2. The teacher checks the pronunciation and the
correctness of grammar and vocabulary.
Final Exercise:

1. Replace the Radicals in the following words by J


respective vowels.

/ t. / j

and insert the

,~ 'r.-::- 'i~ 'C~ 'j4>-- ,yL:S' '.JLk,; " j.JJ 'r-i ,~ ,~ 'if.J~
'~J ,~ ,.r-? ,o.J~ ,a.;.J- ,a.,6..:.:;. ,41:,lt ,6jj~ '41.1 ,~1.1 ,~l5" ,o~

0l5'-~ de;.;. ,~..lA 'C) ,~ ,~ 'J.:~ ,~


2. What is the root of the following words?

~).?

'.Jl>.....::.i

,.r-? ,~ 'J.: ,w, ,y~ , o~ ,~I.J~ ,~

3. Insert the appropriate preposition.


J.J.".JI ... ~ .o~ l,?'""1.? UjJI .. .
.w

J..>..y

'U""WI. .. ~I .. . ~~
~

yI

o~I::r.,.JI ... ~I.J .~I .. . ~~ . ~I ... ~I .~ J\.kJI ... ~I .--4J..>.JI


... J .JWI .. . o.;AL4j1 t..Ju, ... ~~~ .}.:,:......~\11 ...

~I

.o.r.s-

v~Jr-

. .. ~..wl . . . ~I . . . ~~ .~ ~I . .. ~Pi . ~I ... ~I ~I

.~I

...

.!.l~ ... J ~I

.. . }_--::-ll ...

~~

.o};;'..JI

4. Translate into Arabic.


I saw a new train. I bought new books and pencils. I saw cheese, butter, bread,
marmelade, milk and vegetables in the refrigerator. I bought a dictionary, ink and
an eraser. I went to the city. The bus-stop is under the big trees. There are a few
small and many big houses in the city. There are planes from Egypt, Yemen,
Syria, Tunisia, Iraq, Algeria, Libya and the Emirates in the airport.
5. Translate the following words and groups of words into Arabic and add the
proper form of the adjective ~.b:- and include the correct vowels on the endings.
house, in houses, trains, with the teacher, the woman teachers, men, on the
papers, chairs, with the drinks, in front of the shops, by car, in the universities, in
front of the station, in the libraries, with the female students, the friends, busses,
street, in the airplanes, to the tree, in the novel, in the beds, on the apparatuses
6. Write the words you know which have the following pattern structure:

~ ,J~,~ ,J~ '41;~

'Jf1.9

Lesson 4

55

Arabic Ligatures:
Arabic has developed numerous ligatures. We didn't use these ligatures in the
previous lessons in order to avoid additional problems for the students when
reading and writing. Starting with Lesson 5 we will use those ligatures provided
by computer programs and to be found in printed texts.
Common ligatures:

~I ~i irll.r:. ~ ~ ~.J~ ~ ~ ~ W ~ ~
~I ..u--i i rJ.I fi .J: .)- .;>: .J~ J$ J1 ~ ll.

t {-

Lesson 4 Text 1 (without ligatures)

,..:...\}~~ ~..wl ~l ~..,kJI c) ~i)) o--4.A>.JI 0)~~ ~..wl

Jl ~I if ~~

~..,...lj '-,?i ~ ~I:r- ~y:..:..I)? Jl ~~ ~..wl c))

.opS \.:.A..o~)

o~ ) \~ ) L.")I.;i) ~L:5JJ U))) ~I))) ~f - ~Wi ~ ..,...lj) ~Wi - ~f


~ ~I

oiA.

.~I ~ c) ~1.1 wi .a......I)'ill4.:..I.k-~) :..r..J?) o~)


~

.4.!.;...l>-)

0.r-? ~

Lesson 4 Text 1 (with ligatures)

ul};...... ~JJ.I

Jl J-!..,kJI <J

~i)) o~JJ:.I 0)W~ ~JJ.I

~f ~..,...\j '-,?i Gs- ~I if ~p..:;.I) ?


~

o~ ) ol>...() Ip-->" )
o~ ~ ~ ~I

Lo")l.;i) ~L:5JJ

oiA.

U .J))

Jl ~I -.:..r--.o

Jl ~~ ~JJ.I <J)

.ofrS"

~~

uL..o~)

'"
~I).J) ~f _ ~ll.i L.... ..,...lj) ~ll.i ~

(.

(.

.~I ~ <J ~1.1 wi .a......I).ill4.:..I.k- ~) :.r-)~)

Lesson 5

1. The Perfect Tense

(~~f)

1.1. The perfect tense is one of the two simple forms of the verb in Arabic and
basically narrative in function. In most cases it denotes a completed event or
action.

~ Al The perfect fonn can also be used to express actions that (will) take place in the present and
future, like e.g. in conditional sentences and optative clauses, in maledictions a.o. This is connected
with the fact that the perfect tense is actually neutral as to tense and merely states the verbal action.
The Arabic perfect tense corresponds to both the English past tense and
present perfect:
,

He wrote. He has written.


He went. He has gone.
The proper translation will depend on the context.

~ A2 As in the English language, the infinitive of the verb is entered in dictionaries. The Arabic
dictionary entry fonn, however, is the 3rd p. sg. m. of the perfect tense.
In English thus it is: to write, in Arabic:

He wrote.lRe has written.

The vocabulary in this textbook is given according to the common practice in both languages.
Example: ~ ''to write" (instead of the exact equivalent "he wrote/ has written").

1.2. The vowel a (Fat~a) invariably follows RI and R3 in the perfect tense.

R2 is mostly followed by a (Fat~a): ;.~ to write


~
'.
. .r"

often by i (Kasra):

~A3

to drink

~~

to go

to hear

to do

Verbs in which u (I)amma) follows R2 are relatively rare. They are always intransitives, occur

only in literary language and are equivalent to groups gf verbs consisting of an adjective + auxiliary
,J<:,

,J,

verb (e. g.,:..r-> "sth. was [or became] good, nice", To "sth. became big" a. 0.).

1.3. Conjugation (JW~\

~;aJ)
,

The order of persons in the conjugational paradigm is 3rd person - 2nd person 1sI person. This complies with Arab tradition and the practice pursued in nearly
all Arabic textbooks. The persons are expressed by means of suffixes. In the
following paradigm the independent pronoun has been added in parentheses in
order to achieve a clear arrangement and to be able to do without information
otherwise necessary about person, gender and number.

Lesson 5

~(~)

lfo (r-"')

::.. r~ C~Ib)

~(~)

.
.
~(pi)
/

~(~i)

perfect tense

'"
~(~i)

(Form I)

~ (.:;il)

~ .kJ '" /

/0

:.:. i~ (wi)

57

r; J ..

~ (c)-)

The 3rd p. pI. m., i.e. the form I~, is also used to express the impersonal
"one". The Alif in l..,.w is not pronounced. It is omitted in writing if suffixes are
added.

~A 4 The auxiliary vowel in the fonn r-1;~ is u, in :':'1;; it is i; cf. Lesson 2, Gr 1.3.2.
/

'/

2. The verbal sentence (~I ~i)


2.1. The Arabic verbal sentence either consists of only a verb (~)

He drank / has drunk.

.Yf'
/

He arrived / has arrived.


(the subject being included in the verb; the independent pronoun may be added
for the purpose of emphasis),
or of a verb + subsequent subject (Jf-Wi)
The man has drunk.
The friend has arrived.
or of a verb (+ subject) + object
He (the man) has drunk wine.
He (the man) has asked about that.
These sentences can be extended by prepositional phrases and subordinate
clauses.
2.2. The normal word order in the verbal sentence is verb - subject - object. This

word order does not change in the verbal interrogative sentence either. The verb
immediately follows the interrogative J.,J., the interrogative pronoun or
interrogative adverb.

58

Lesson 5

,.

,,~

"'....

,.

.1 JI~~ 11'

. ~I

u-J'

IJ

'. -;"
~ .11
Y r u1 ~ .~

JI~~ 11'
'
u-J'
Yr

The word order verb - object -' subject in fhe declarative and interrogative
sentence is used when the subject is the part of the sentence which is to be
emphasized.
Has M ul)ammad done that?
Yes, Mul)ammad has done that.

~ AS Here the word order depends on the sentence accent. The part of the sentence which is
emphasized is usually placed at the end, but it can be placed at the beginning of the sentence as
well.
The word order subject - verb - (object) is possible as well in the declarative
sentence. The sentence in anteposition is mostly preceded by a conjunction or
"that" for the moment, which
particle. Here we only mention the conjunction
introduces objective clauses (cf. below, Gr 2.4.).

0i

2.3. The following rules of agreement apply to the verbal sentence:


2.3.1. If the verb precedes the subject, there is always agreement in gender, but
not in number between them. The sentence is invariably introduced by a singular
form of the verb. In this connection, the 3rd p. sg. m. form precedes a masculine
singular noun or a plural noun that denotes male persons, the 3rd p. sg. f. form
precedes all feminine singular nouns and all other types of plural.

subject:
m. sg.
pI.

.~~

J1 y,.jl ~~
.~~ J1 J~}I ~~
.~G. J1 o\.:..iJI ~- ~;.~
.~l;.;b J1 u~1 ~~
(pI. of non-human beings).~~ J1 ~Gj\ ~)
...

f. sg.

,.

pI:
like f. sg.

/J

."

,.

//0

","'''

.,-

//

~ A6 The masculine form is also used with some verbs which are construed impersonally or
passively - in spite of occurring together with a feminine subject. Moreover, it can be used if the
(feminine) subject does not immediately follow the verb.
2.3.2. If the verb follows the subject, there is agreement in gender as well as in
number between them.

subject:
m.sg.
pI.

Lesson 5

59

JI
. . ~ :bJI ~Ui ~ /
!J~ JI.~~~:
/ ./ ~ ~I ~Ui ~~
. /
!J~

f. sg.

N
~~O

.f.

~
/

pI.

.f.

like f. sg.

(pI. of non-human beings)

.!J~

J1 ~j J.!c:...) ji ~

(I have heard that ... ) (as to the construction with

ji

cf. 2.4.)

The student is reminded once more of the following rule: The plural of
words which denote non-human beings is regarded as feminine singular.
2.4. The objective clause
We have got to know the normal word order of the verbal sentence in the
sections 2.1. and 2.2. The object in the shape of a noun can also be replaced by a
clause . Such a so-called objective clause is often introduced by the conjunction
ji (~I / ~)I J ..r) "that", after which the noun is in the accusative:
.. . \

The friend has written that


Mul)ammad has arrived in Berlin.
I have heard that the delegation
arrived yesterday.

/1/ ~/ i~
V-)

J/I

<J::' f.

ji ~.

~I; :;-0"d/.

The word order invariably is


subject - verb - (object)
in the objective clause itself which is introduced by 0i . Consequently, a verb
never occurs immediately after ji.
subordinate clause

.0;1f.

Jl

J::.j

verb
objective clause

.";'i
/

J::.j
verb
objective clause

.-;;

I~

main clause

.
01

~'~I
0"d/

;. ;~

subject
subject

:i; )1

ji

..:......

verb
0

..JU:"
/

subject
(subiect +)

verb

~ A7 As a matter of course, the function of an objective clause can also be fulfilled by an equational
sentence. The nonnal word order does not change. The subject follows
case in the verbal sentence. The predicate remains in the nominative:
"I have heard that Mub.ammad is ill."

0i in the accusative, as is the

60

Lesson 5

3. The Nisba ending

(:i~: .:Jf)
~

~~

3.1. The so-called Nisba ending is Y' f~, (in transcription -J,/ -iy'ya, with
Nunation -iY.Yun or -iy'yatun); it is added to nouns and various verbal nouns
()~), but rarely to numbers, prepositions and pronouns, and fonns (relative)
adjectives and nouns.
The Nisba ending is the most productive word forming suffix in Arabic, and it
is comparable to the English suffixes -ai, -en a.o. which fonn adjectives and to
the suffixes -ian, -ese which fonn nouns. The endings 0 and ~ are omitted when
the Nisba is added.
,

~L::J

J- '. >

Lebanese; a Lebanese

Syrian; a Syrian

~)r'"

Lebanon

\S )

Syria

-)r'"
,

c... > Gc...


-,

political; politician

>

~L::J
u
'.

policy

~ -,
~

~~ > ~~

gold(en)

gold

~ AS Details about certain changes of sounds which occur when the Nisba is added especially to
words which tenninate in rather rare endings can be seen from a more voluminous grammar (e.g. the
"Grammar of the Arabic Language" by W. Wright).
A noun followed by an adjective with the Nisba is often equivalent in English
to constructions of the type noun + noun:
school-book, textbook
trade relations
3.2. The rules of agreement given in Lessons 2 and 3 for the equational sentence
(subject - adjectival predicate) and for the attributive construction (noun adjectival attributive adjunct) also apply to the relative adjective.
3.3. Nouns tenninating in a Nisba ending which denote persons and relative
adjectives which are related as an attributive adjunct to nouns denoting persons
mostly have the sound plural:
~ "'0"

..::..>~L:.';l

,.,'"

~ ",oJ

#1

GI

,.,oJ /

..::..>QI.k ,0JiL:.';l y')l.k 'Q~L:.';l

;li

"",oJ

~ ",oJ /

~L:.';l ,0JiL:.';l

,.,oJ

J-L:.';l

~ A9 Some Nisba nouns or relative adjectives have a (collective) endingless plural:


"

Arab (adj.), Arab(s)

y;' / ~;. / Arab students y;' y~.

They have to be learned as vocabulary items just in the same way as some descriptions of
occupations need to be learned which tenninate in the plural ending
have a broken plural, e.g.

J~

pI.

aS~~, "pharmacist", -.f~

pI.

0 , or other Nisba nouns which

.!.lIji "Turkish; Turk".

Lesson 5

lS;:'f /';-T

other (m .lf)

dance hall

J5"i

to eat

_\

_0

~/~~/

U~I
- . , center

Spain

61

21/

P''.rJ

~).J

Russia

0,

(~)

JL

Germany

~WI

to ask (about)

yesterday

~i

I asked him.

"
~L

to travel

)L.....

~ $.

,I'

01

that (+ accusative)

JlA>i ~ ~i

family, relatives

Portugal
J

program

\./

~f.~C:- f.

~~;

Great Britain

Belgirnn

(prep.) among, between

r..f.J~ / o.J~

trade

'"

~J~

to hear so., sth.

...Jt:, ,

0.r~ \"S"""~

political, politician

0'-" r

0t;;

fIrm, enterprise, company

.. 0

"

,
l...>-I

~?

if ~..r>
.!J0.J ~:UI

to exit, to leave
Denmark

~~

disco

~~

that (dem . pr.)

(Jl)

yt... .

.J

~~

~ ~L.....!
~.J

:.

~..r"

.J

!'

..:..J L ~ :is'

J J

$.

~I '.J~~~

talk;
~~~\ ~ ~;l>also: tradition of the actions and sayings of
the prophet and his companions
.J .

...Jt:,u
. ..r"

eastern, oriental

~r

J;

..:..JL~ ~.J~

republic

0'

Switzerland

month
..:..JL ~ t~1
"

meeting

o.4.,...JI
1

Sweden

rW to drink sth.

tired, exhausted, colloq. ill

tf

a......~

,J

.!J1;i ~

Turkish

to dance

~J~

(fem.)

:I )

.JG:.; ~

trader

letter

Sus an

Poland

to go (to)

~~..w
,
. politics

after that

news

!(..li"-i) ~ ~

Regards to (Ai)mad).

Jli;~1 Give my regards to so ...

"

~~I ~ ~~

thing, matter

$.

"

""

appr.: May you be well


!.;::> ~ ~
tomorrow. (parting word at night)
,

~ (fem.)

.;::> ~ ~

~i if ~i)

(answer) The same to you.


pharmacist
meal

~
ll\,o_
'U::,I.::-P ~ '-?::.'~

.1,1

~i ~ ilAk

r-fl6.o ~ ~
J

restaurant
to know so., sth.
to hold (conference);
to make a contract
relation

62

Lesson 5

~~
/ C

sites

~
J~iC~

to work
work

J
0'

Y'

0'

you (m.lf) were

~/~

he/she was

~ l5" / 0l5",
~LJ
I,,)
'.

(prep.) about, over

"'

I was

Lebanon

.:u..u

W'
y! tasty

France

~J.U

to do sth.

"/

.,AI

Hungary
o

) l5:ii C oh once again


ill, ill person
~:?l.;; C J~
o
I..l; wine

idea

0'

hotel

Finland

J.;

~/C~!

y.
,J

~).?I

uL C J\.;;:o,,~ Austria

~I

~I}

I~~

to read sth.

Holland

you (m.lf) said

~:?L..4~ to arrive (at, in)


~~ to put sth.
o.J
oJ
o;.JJ/~ home country

he/she said

~li / Jli delegation

economic

(Jl) ~)

0'

I told him.

~~)

0l1)i C .:;1)
'J

;)jJ)C..Lt)

~~

to write sth.

J~~I

Text 1
'-.r'"

~~

Norway

(prep.) before (temp.)


reception

LS/:-Io/

!~lk.:!f.

l)

~) ~i : u

..:..J.j)

)L6l1

:dL J~I

4 ) WWI 4)..!.lJl>. 4

Jl ~~ .0..G Jl <.f""i ..u--i ~)


Jl J:pl l)) JJ.:iJI Jl ~~ )L6l1
~~liJ...,.::>\II) ~

.~
L-..JI

Jl ~

J..J..I)

~i ~liJ...,.::>\II) ~)

iliWI) #. lii :Jli

~ u;~ .0~1 ~ J--JI :JU) J--JI ~ dL ..!.lJ~~)


.~.

01 ~) 01--lYI ~.u if )~

c: u~~1 ~l:A u~) w;) 1...l:.J.Y') I.r-:!..r" )


d

, .1

~G '-.r'" ~) 4...rJ I 01--lYI) 01--lYI o~ 0!! o~ ~)b::JI) ~;)l..,a;:j'JII uli~1

~..u iWt.k.l1

.~i ~\I1 Jb ~..rJI.:;1}1 l) ul5"~ Jl o.#' yL....)


:...u--i JU) ~ ~ ~w." L:.l.5"i) ~I Jl ~~ J-JI Y' ~...t;ll ~)
.~~I ~~ JS'\I1 ~) . i:b.-

Lesson 5

63

Text 2
.~I ~L.....

!}LA.

:..u--i

Y~ .::...ii ..JyJI ~L.....

Y.!lJl>-

.~I

Jl ~~ , ~

4) 1

Y.!lJl>-

.J-.:lI ,~ wi

C.
P .:r. 1 .~ ~I~
Jl ~ ) 0j.J-" 0i ~ Yc..r-" i ,,;:.,...:S .:r.i Y.::...ii) ~ IJ:.I l) 8 (.)"""i

Y(.)"""I

Y~lh~.J~1

. J~I l) 0'J11

i./"

.~ Ih , ~

:..u--i

Y(.)"""i ~ I~L.)

Jl

~ J

0-'

cJ) J~I cJ 0jy e:: (.)"""1 ~ ,All I)


.~ ~~ cJ C~I Jl ~.J) ~f

y~) J~I ,y l>..;>- ~L...lI

Yl>.;>-i o~ ~~ Y C:""wpJI ~ L. Yi~l)


. ~..ul

Jl J..-:!.;kJI l)

wi 0'J11) ~..ul oh

tL..... c.r J~I cJ 8L i ~I ,":1

.o.#' ~ ~~i .!J~


Y0jy)

~
I:L".~)

J.-:r. ~

.~i ~..ul

.~~ i./" .f-~I l) -t ,1 I)


'f Jl ~~ wi .o~ o.f.:, L..a:i oh
~

c: i~I Jl ~~ wl)
.)':?- J>-~) t~ J>-~) ~')LJI c:
.~')LJI c: .a.L.i ,y .::...ii)

.0jy

J>- J rL)

,~')LJI

:..u--i

Exercises:

L 1 Put the correct form of ~ )

in front of the nouns.


~

.0b.\1 .... y')\,bJI .... 0yo-WI .... ~I ...


~

.uLo.WI .... Jk-)I .... ~';}I .... u~1 .. .

.i:> ... .~ L;~ \'1 ... ..y..L,aJ1 J.j)l .. .


L2 Put the verb in L1 after the nouns. Remember to apply the rules of agreement.
L3 Complete the sentences by adding the verb ~~.

64

Lesson 5

Jl ol:YiJI . . .. ~l;..l...:>~1 Jl Q~I .... J~I Jl ~l;..l...:>~1 .... ..:...:JI Jl J,!..L,aJI ...

t~~I

J10~WI .... djjJI Jl yJ\kJI ....

r-W 1Jl ~lkJI .... ~..L,aJI

.}kJ.I Jl ..u--i .... 0.rJI Jl QWlkJI '" .~I Jl Jl>..)I .. .


L4 Put the proper form of ~) in the following sentences without reading the
nouns and pronouns in brackets.
~
C~I ... (Ui) .U)lkJI ~ ~I ... (Ll.J.I) .(jlj:L1 ;, yl:;5:j1 ... (~lkJI)

... (~) .djjJI;' (jlj:L1 ... (~) .uP.J~1 ~ C~I ... (~i) .~j:JI ~
.~lj~1
. .

L5 Answer the following questions.

c:

~~I..rJI ..u)1 ~) j:i Jl ~~..L,aJI


~l.AI Jl ~~ ~ ~J,!..L,aJI Jl ~~ ~
..w)1 ~ ~~ :.r.. i Jl ~~I..rJI ..u)1 ~~ j:i Jl ~4...rJI ~ ~)I ..::.l...o) j:i Jl
~-WI ~r- if
~4JL..)I ~ J. ~~I ~ ~ ~~I~) j:i ~-}I..rJI

c:

~~Lj..l...:>~1 ~i.J j:i ~.!..U~.:;W ~ ~t ~~I ...w. if ~C~I ~~I j:i if


~I~~ j:i Jl ~.!..U~ JU if ~.Jy.:. ~I Qi; ~ ~~l.AI Jl ~~ if c: ~.!..U~ J f

0-"

~y..rJI ~l;..l...:>SU

cJj

I~~ ~0.rJI if ~~I I~~ ~~l.AI ~i.J I~~ ~I)}L.. j:i Jl

L6 (Homework) Put the vowel endings in the sentences given in L7.


L7 Ask about the subject, the object or the prepositional phrase of the following
se~tences ,by using the the following interrogatives: 'j:i ,I~~ 'if
,~ 'if
j:1 Lr: 'j:1 Jl.

c:

Change the 1SI person of the verbs into the 2nd person.

JU if

<

~Qi; I~~

<

~.!..U~

JU

=J

.~I Qi;

=J

. .M> ~.m

~.!..U~ ~~I j:i if< . 0.rJI if .!..U~ ~~I =J


~l::5"" Qi~ .J,!~ 4JL...J ~ .4JL...J J,!~ ~ '<.If J,!..l...:> 4JL..)I, ~
LJ; 0;->JI 0-" ~~I .0.r-JI 0-" ~I ~~I .},6.11 Jl..u)I~) .I..,\,!..l>.*

~r-t)1 Q~ .u.~1 ~.rJI ~~)I Q~ .J~I Jl..w)1 ~~ .I~..l>.-

;, ~I G.,p) .U)lkJI ~ yL::S:JI~) .J~I Jl 1.r.A~ .opS' Q~k:>.-I


Q~ 4 i.J .J,!..l...:> .!..U~ JU .o..,\,!..l>.- Cy.:.i ~ .~l;..l...:>~1 -WI ~r- (jlj:L1

c:

...L>.-y. uP.J~1 ~ U)lkJI) ~1j:JI...L>.-.f .~I ~ C~I..l>.-y. .Q~


.4..rJI 01-lWI if ~ ~)I ..::.l...o) .)..G:-I ~ C}JI
L8 Add the Nis ba to the second noun.
<

Yf -

01~

=J

Lesson 5

- uU~ ,y ~ - ~ ,L~ ~)~ ,y~ -

uP) ,0W -

65

~~ ,L....)..\..o - yl::5' ,O)\i. - uU~

0~ ,)I~I - y~ ,JI.rJI - ~l1 ,~~


~ - J)?,~ - J ) ? 'Yf-

G1

The teacher quotes personal pronouns and the students add the proper
perfect fonn of the following verbs:

~) /~

/ JS'I/ ~ / JL / ~ / ~ / c:' / yJl>~ /

~)

Ii; / Y?

G2 The verbal sentences given in the 1st person are to be changed into
interrogative sentences in the 2nd person.

~.!.m ~ ~

0i ~

~~:.:...w

<

.)L.y:.~1 ~ .~I ~ .yL..) ~ .4JL..) ~ .4JL..)I ~

Jl yJl>~ ~lkJI 0i ~f .0l:..iJI ~f .J>.-)I ~f .cJJ. Jl ~) JI.rJI ..1.9)1


..u)1 0i ui~ .)y.:.~1 ui; .p:ll ui; .4,1 Jl I~~ y~1 0i ~f . .!.I~

ui~ '~J. Jlj.-P) (tf~1 '~~I ,tf~yt---ll ,tf)I~1 'JI.rJI 'tfJ..,....JI)


~~ .J~I Jl ~~. cJ J. Jl..:...1..o) . .!.I~ Jl..:...1..o) .yL..)I ui; .4JL..)I
" ~l ~~ .J-!..l.,a.\1 Jl ~~ ..!.Ib Jl
.0)WI ~~I .uWI I.::_J) .~I
t
'i:i l ~L.. .0~1~? .~I ~I .~I ~L.. .tfL.:JI~? 'JlkAJ~ u}L..
.\>'~I u~ .0y:J.I l} ~ .4,1 l} ~
I

J.

" $ .

~ All Since}L... "to travel" - although differing in structure from ~ ,~ ,~~ and the other
verbs known until now - is conjugated in the perfect tense in the same way as the verbs mentioned,
we use this verb in the exercises as well as ~i) ,~;-.;.\ etc. which you learned as vocabulary
items.
G3 Same as G2, but starting with the 1st person plural.
~4JL..)I ~ ~
<
G4 Same as G3 but starting with the 3rd person singular masculine which has to

be kept in the interrogative sentence.

~4JL..)I ~ ~

,
(The sentences with

~IJ

and

~p..:;.1

<
.4JL..)I ~
must be omitted in G 4; 5; 6. )

G5 Same exercise, but starting with the 3rd person singular feminine.
G6 Same exercise, but starting with the 3rd person plural masculine.

G7 Transfonn the following sentences into objective clauses introduced by

.)Lkil Jl..u)1 j.-P)

.u---- i ~~)I~)

"
.J.,k ~I

0i.

'r;!-u 4,1 .~ a;jJI


~

~~ .o~ ~)b..:ll u\..j~1 .~J. Jl ~\..j--l.,.:>~I}L... .u~1 ~";)I u~

.o,p ~';)..:...1..0)

.~I Jl ~..l.,a.\I..:...1..o) . .!.I~ Jl y.rJI ~U--l.,.:>~1

66

Lesson 5

Start the sentence with one of the following main clauses according to the
objective clause you wish to form:

~ ~~ ~ .Gi; ~-.::.jf ~
.~4.10i~

.~4.1

<

Do not forget that the word order changes after ji in verbal sentences.

Cl What are the names of the capitals of the following countries?


.~).rJI d.J L1..\.l I d..L.; .,..s!:1 '~).J d..uy. .L.,j} d_~~f. .I..uy" .L--JI

JWpJI d~l:--l .~ '--4y-JI


Answer as follows:
J

.... ~L.-JI~~
C2 Write your name and your address in Arabic.
C3 Prepare a dialogue according to Text 2 for the next class hour (greetings,
questions about past activities, good-bye).

Final Exercise:

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of

J.-"').

.~GpJI .... 0r-W1 .... ~I Jl..u--i .. . . Jl>.-)I .. .. ~';)I .. . . ~...L..a.ll .. .

.I.r--;!Y Jl if"'WI .... ..rU)1 Jl uWl,6JI .. .


2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of y~ .
;;~I ~t;..l.p~1 .... ("SL..::JI .. . uWLbJI ji ..u--i ~ .~I .. . Jl>.-)I ji ~
~

l) IS~ . .. ~f ji ~ . J~I l) ~I ... uL-WI ji

-.::.jf

. j:-JI

c:

.~I c: ;;~I ... i~ ji..u--i ~ .u~).rJ.I ... y~1 ji ~ 'C~I

3. Transform the second noun into a Nisba-adjective to get an attributive


construction.
~

- 0~ .L..~ -

4...,.,~

t. ~~ .~Ij>."
ut;~

.4...,.,.J...l.o -

- ~~

.U-P -

j ) ? .yf

- ~.J~

yl5 .yf - ~) .JI.;JI - ~ .0W

4. Transform the verbal sentences with the verb in the 1sI person singular into
interrogative sentences with the verb in the 3rd person plural masculine and
translate the answers .

.i~ C~ ~ . ~I..::.d- yl::SJI~) .J~I Jl~) .0.r=JI l) ~

t ~ ~ ~L . ~)I l) ~.J .~.riJI 4S'rJI l) ~ .J:.;kJI :f ~L


~

.U~ 4-kL.; ji ~ . ~~ LoW, ~I l) ~i .~.,,14.JL.J ~ .~..ul

.4.J)LbJI"p

W-I~)

Lesson 5

67

5. Translate into Arabic.


Good evening. How are you? I am fme. How are you? I am fine, thank you.
Where were you yesterday? I was in the university in the faculty of medicine with
Al)mad. What did you do there? I read books and drank tea in the restaurant.
What did you do in the evening? In the evening, I was in a disco with Al)mad.
What did Al)mad do in France? He wrote many letters and held meetings with
French companies.
6. Write a list of words in the plural having the pattern structure

Jwi and ~\.;.

7. Write the following terms in Arabic: equational sentence, verbal sentence,


perfect tense, number, singular, plural, masculine and feminine.

Lesson 6
...

.J

J ...

1. The Genitive Construction (lcfafa) (~1 J~IJ J~i)

A noun cannot only be defmed more closely by an attributive adjective, but


also by a subsequent noun in the genitive. The relation of both nouns to each
to an attributive adjunct
(nomen
other is that of a governing noun (nomen regens)
}""
"'"
J/
nd
st
rectum) in the function of the 1 term (0Wi) and the 2 term (~1 0Wi) of
an lcfafa (a genitive construction).
1.1. The governing word is in the so-called construct state; it does not take the
article or nunation.

the house of a man

l~'"

J ..

0..-

U-.J ~

the house of the man


If the word in the construct state terminates in 0, the
'11

into -tu
in the nominative
into -ti
in the genitive
into -ta
in the accusative

J", 0

3:J::J1~
'iI

Pronounce: shan{atu /-mucallimati

.... 0

3:J::J1 3..6:\
'11

Ta: marbu{a changes

Pronounce: shan{ati /-mucallimati

...... 0

3:J::J1~

Pronounce: shan{ata /-mucallimati

By no means does the genitive construction only characterize possession, as in


\:,. ... J
the example U-.J ~, it also characterizes membership or close association:
0..-

the member of an Arab delegation


and a characteristic feature or a quality:
the symbol of a deep friendship

~ Al Inquiring about ownership is also expressed in the form of a genitiv~


construction.
"\ _ _ J
._
"Whose house is this?"

1 ..lA>

if

As there are almost no compound words in Arabic, the genitive construction,


along with other syntagms, is also used to create word combinations with a stable
lexical content, which are roughly comparable to compounds in English.

1the students' hostel

9W 4.'1
1

Lesson 6
,,,:'''''

69

0 ....

In this connection, the translation of the indefinite flk ~ is not "the house
of students", but "a students' hostel".

~ A2 Word combinations like "a house of the man", "a member of the Arab delegation" etc. are
expressed by means of prepositions.
Particularly the preposition ~ (sometimes

J ) is suitable for this purpose:

a house of the man


lit.: a house out of the houses of the man
a member of the Arab delegation

~;1\

;) .. ~i LT: ~

..!.it::.. ~. ~~I!!-.~~~..?~~ .~r~.~ .~.~.~~.~.~~ .~rt?~.~~~.A~!.~Z.~!!.<?~............... _..... ~..:....................:............................... .

1.2. All terms except the last in a genitive construction consisting of several terms
(genitive chain) are in the construct state.
the appropriateness of the policy of the
ovenunentofthecoun
1.2.1. Not more than one noun should constitute the 1st term of a genitive
construction - in good style. Whereas we say in English e.g. "the head and the
members of the delegation", i.e. two nouns followed by a genitive, we only take
one noun as governing noun in Arabic, put the other one behind the genitive
construction and relate it with the 2nd term of the latter by the appropriate affixed
pronoun (cf. below, Gr 2.):

lit.: the head of the delegation and its members


1.2.2. The following rules regarding definiteness apply to the genitive
construction:
a) If the 2nd term of the Icfiifa is definite, the 1st term, which is in the construct
state, is also regarded as definite. Consequently, an adjectival attributive adjunct
ascribed to the 1sI term has to be construed with the article.
However, as the terms of the genitive construction must not be separated (with
one exception - cf. lesson 7, Gr 2.5.), the attributive adjunct must either follow
the whole genitive construction:
the beautiful house of the man
or else it follows the 1SI term, so that a possible confusion with "the house of the
handsome man" can be avoided, and the 2nd term of the genitive construction
which has been dissolved by now is added by means of J:

This type of construction is rather frequent in modem Arabic.


b) If the 2 nd term of the /cfiifa is indefinite, the 1sI term in the construct state is
regarded as indefinite:

I a students ' hostel

70

Lesson 6

An adjectival attributive adjunct ascribed to the 1sI term of Idafa, i.e. to ~,


follows indefInite:

I a new students' hostel


The sound masculine plural drops the 0 if it functions as the 1sI term of Idafa.
the teachers of the student
with the teachers of the student
~J.

'"

...

2. Affixed Pronouns (~I .i~i)


There are affIxed pronouns in addition to the so-called independent pronouns
in Arabic.
2.1. They are:
sg.

pI.
o J

rd

3 p. m.

~~ J

o-

rd

3 p. f.

L/'-

~-

2 p. m.

~,

2nd p. f.

\.j -

1sI p.

nd

!J ,.!.I

r.,fo-

(at the end of the verb


...Jl

J.

rj)

(.S' is -u.

'i'1 A3 The auxiliary vowel after ~ and

2.2. The affIxed pronouns can be added to


nouns,
prepositions,
various particles and conjunctions (a. o. "that") and
verbs.
2.2.1. When combined with nouns, the affIxed pronouns are equivalent to the
possessive pronouns in English.
The noun is to the affIxed pronoun what the 1sI term of a defInite genitive
construction is to its 2nd term. The noun is the governing word and is in the
construct state, i.e. it does not take an article or the nunation.

0i

pI.
their (m.) house
their (f.) house

sg.
o J.

0 ...

~
~ J Jo /

.,

~
J

your (m.) house

0,

his house

her house

~.,

your (m.) house

i
~

~.
,

Lesson 6

your Cf.) house

. ~

~
,
5

your Cf.) house

, J

our house

71

-'

0,

my house

An adjective added as an attributive adjunct must take the article:

~~\ ~
J

I your new house

2.2.1.1. Peculiarities of pronunciation and spelling:


The affixed pronoun of the 1st p. sg. assimilates every short vowel that
immediately precedes it.

~t::f

my book
in my book

l:;S'"

~-, ~

Y~~~i~~

Have you seen my book?

If the vowel -i or -1 (also -ay), usually found as an ending of the genitive case,
precedes the affixed pronoun, the -u of the suffixes of the 3rd person changes into -i:
J

>

o J

~>~
0,

",.......
~~

in his house

.,

",

I'~:"! ~

in their (pI. m.) house

.,

~~

in their (pI. f.) house

The -u or -i following the suffix 0 has to be pronounced as a long vowel:


baytuhU / fi baytih1 . The final 0 changes into..::..> if affixed pronouns are added.

"

a woman teacher
my (woman) teacher

~:i;:

your (woman) teacher etc.

The sound masculine plural does not only drop the 0 when it functions as the
1st term of an 14iifa, but also if affixed pronouns are added.
~

!)~

your teachers

at / with their teachers

,+ ~ I'..
\ ,-'

I have seen your teachers.

...I..:>,

~c.;i'
-,
- .J

72

Lesson 6
The affixed pronoun of the 1SI p. sg. changes into Z$ after the long vowels a, j and 0'.

.:

...Jt
o::J A4

~ AS

tjI

~~

with my teachers
;jj

~,; J

,.

'/fI

<Z$ + [ ;) J~)

J tJ.,. J

Remember: "My teachers" is ~ , and not t.,?~.


....,,.,f "father" and

t f"brother" have special forms when followed by another noun in an kfrifa

or by a pronoun suffix: nominative: his father / his brother =


brother = ~f

~.;. f / ~;f, genitive: his father / his

/ ~f and accusative: his father / his brother = ol>f / ol.,J

2.2.2. When combined with prepositions, the affixed pronouns are equivalent to
the objective of the personal pronouns in English with the personal pronoun
functioning as a prepositional complement.
with him; of I from among them; with us
The English word "to have" is rendered by means of the prepositions ~ ,J ,~
+ affixed pronoun. The preposition ~ "at lwith" is the one most frequently u'sed:
Do you have many books?

~A6

The prepositi,on

($:D

is sometimes used in the same sense as~. It is an upgraded or more

formal version of ~.

The preposition J "for", which mainly serves to emphasize ownership, and the
preposition ~ "With", which is used to express that somebody has something
with him at the moment, are employed for this purpose as well.
,
,
2.2.2.1. Peculiarities of pronunciation and spelling: ,
J takes on the form' J , when it precedes suffixes: ~ , 4J ' 2.lJ etc., except for
fhe suffix of.the 1sI p. sg.:
~
The.) in rX is doubled if the suffix of the 1sI p. sg. is added: ~ .

J..

J1 and ~

take on the forms - ~1 and - ~, when construed with suffixes:

pI.

s;!.

~
,-

~
J

~1

a,

~
This rule applies to the preposition

(S'::J as well.

~\

,-

.
~\
-.
~\
-

d1\
, -.
:)1

Lesson 6

73

2.2.3. If added to a verb, the affixed pronouns fulfill the function of a direct
object.
I have bought the book.

, , ''' ' ' '1

'-'
.I.::>.J
,

0, ' 0

-.::.->-.r-"
-',
J

~, _o.

1
. -.r-",

I have bought it.


You have written the letters.
You have written them. (jJL... )I is regarded as f. sg., this
is why the verb is construed with lA> )
Take the pencil.
Take it.
Have they drunk the juice?
Yes, they have drunk it.
Did you attend the event?
Were you present at the event?

Yes, I attended it (= yes, I was there).


2.2.3.1. Peculiarities of pronunciation and spelling:
The 3rd p. pI. m. of the perfect form drops the Alifif an affixed pronoun is
added:
J //

0 y.~

~;.

nd

. Wiiw is inserted in front of the affixed pronoun in the 2 p. pI. m. :

'"

3. Definiteness (Summary)
A noun is definite if it is construed with
the article:
a subsequent genitive:
an affixed pronoun:

:- ~;ii
~~I~
,
J

0,

4. The adverb (J:,Wi)


There is no specific form for the adverb in Arabic. Adverbial relations are
expressed by the accusative or by prepositional phrases. The adverbial of time
(0L.)I J~) , takes on the accusative case.

74

Lesson 6

l>-~

in the morning

morning

C~
J

(at) noon, midday

1.#

<:0 midday

.#

in the evening

;~

~~

/
rJ;ll- C
rJ;ll-

in the morning of this day = this morning

A prepositional phrase construed with

l.:...~.

/~

in the evening of this day = this evening

~ ~I ~

evening

can take the place of the accusative

In- general, however, the adverbs are


lexicalized. The student cannot form them on his own, but has to learn them as
vocabulary items. Lesson 22 addresses adverbial constructions more extensively.
in some cases:

o~L...i C ~L::.:...i fig..' May I help you?

professor, master

J':JI C

thousand
America

....Ji

~- fi

J:'i i J~i

first (m.lf)

~I

How much is ... ?

~/~l;.:.
~

~I~

(.).r C f..?'/' r- ~
uL C

b.-);)
~

0.r C 1.f').M

C ) ':J)~
~~i0G ticket, card
~Ij; C 0J:;

a...;WI
- i ~'WI president, leader, chairrnan,~L... j) C ~)
ul

dollar

the second (m.lf)


J

foreigner, foreign

~l;.,.1

answer, reply

~;'-i C

/ J

~I

y\..f""

Jo ~

to attend sth.
J

You
~~/~~/o~
(elaborated style of address)

celebration, party, fete

diplomatic, diplomat

J Jo ~

(imp.)

second (m.lf)

lecturer, reader, professor

sincere

JO

if (C.?:) c.;>'

~/

give so. so.'s regards

to go out

i ,-?I class, step, level


Y( ... JI) ~ teacher, lecturer

which (m.lf)

Y4..A-l>- ~i
J

0) C

.Ji:'L>...:.

uL

a.lA,;...

manager
escort, companion, attendant

0.r C ~I;

symbol, sign

jy)

JJ

I want... (sth.)

(Jo) ... --4)

wonderful, excellent, marvelous


J
L...i
week
CfJ
theatre, stage
C) L.....

C J J
government
uL C 4..A~
(stage) play
~
greeting
uL C ~
price
appr. .' Best greetings ...... ~) ~ ~

C y J,

cll)

c t.r.-"
Jo

C C.r-"

~L C ~;..-...

)~i C ~
journey, trip
)u.:..i C ~
(standard opening of a letter)
service
uL C 4..A~ to be on a journey, traveling, 0) C )~

Lesson 6
travel er

75

touristic

\.........

~M'

..::..> 1 C

niveau, level

1..S..r-- '.

c.

~o~

to thank so. for

J>..u.w,

to see; to look at

~~C~

office; desk

.;...JI~

travel agency

>'4

chemistry

(j--u

(prep.) at (loc. a. temp.)

Y~c~

difficult

..riJ:;

midday,noon
J

dear, beloved

>,Ijfl

C Y-j'

my dear

t.$Y-f
, ,

my dear (f)

cjY-f

>,~iC~

member

~Iy C t~

world, universe

~~

international
deep

title; also: address

.y../,~C Jly

>'4~

physics
strong, mighty, powerful

;4}i

..::..>L

language

enjoyable, excellent
~

~Iy

subject

W
o J

er-:iI

O~\...

~~I~~

yesterday evening

!1j: C

king, monarch

waiting for

l,l2:; 1
.J "

like this, this way, thus

I~

there is / are

!1~
~

civil/public servant, officer, J r

C wJ; y

employee, pI. staff


time, period of time

C~;
~ ~.
I1 ~.!l."" )

Text 1

~ t.$Y-f
;L1,
... J..IlJ')'M

UM

Jl ~~ ~i ~ \'::.A~) t..r.---'i ~..!.l:lL.....J ~) ~..!JJl:>. 4


.~..ul ;Sf l) C.;--11 .J..LJ l) ~ c.r11 Jl ~i U""~I >'~ ~~
.4.d) i:b.- ~.,b ~.r11 o:u. .~ ~I 4Jl y , ~ ~ .r-"

Lii .c.;--11
..::..>..u.w

.y..p-5

..:-,.j f )

J.r--" \... }:~ ) J.r--" L.:-- ~) ~ l;.,. ~ 1i f ~I c.r1 1 l) <..:..:! i.J

.~I ~ l) dt;~i ~ wl.J)

6..l. ~.r11 ~ ..::..> ~) .~

Jl ~I.J~ ~~I l) J').J--UI ~ ~ ~4......I.J".l.l1 4) ~..lri) ~/) 4b\j 4


J~I Jl ..::..>.rP-) i:b.- ~ 1..S..r--- ~ oXL.... ~I) J )..rP~I) J r~..ul) o~ J~I
l) r-S~ J').J..u1 4.~ ;Iy !./') >'4p4.l1) >'~\) ~\ l) ofrS' L. ).J;)
~

~
. ..l:>.I..S y...-... 1 if"
.M

\,..

~M
I I
. <Vt..4 ~ 1

76

Lesson 6
~

.~ 1fr5"'

J rL) td.r) ..lri) 41,w .;lj. ~

.~I.Y"" )~I

<J lii

~I~..l.p

Text 2
~4..0J.>. ~i

.~.ri

.J4.....) ~i
JI "O.?j; -4) lii ,~

:d..ik)1
:h.

~~

iy.JI
~-.:;...;)

.~L.J.I

("Si <J

<J }

0~1

~~..l.o ~i
.~)
~~~

Jl
Jl

:d..ik)1
:h.
~

("Si 4~ } J)i a.:.,.)~ :d..ik)1


.J)i a.:.,.)~
.~L.J.I J "O)lk .!J~

~o.?..wl ~ .i~ ~
.)':Jy wJ~

.i~ fr5"' I~
~j:!i if ~~ .I~ )L......,\JI ,~

.0.ri lii
~~)~ j:!i, i~;;~ ~.rJI ~ :~)I
.~.ri <J w~1 <J ~)~
~'..S/i ~f 01..l4 Jl..:...>}L.....

y.

. 4)Y'"'" ) ~~ ~I) ~pJI) y.;1l) )1):.1) ~ y Jl ..:...>}L..... ~


~o fr5"' 01..l4

Jl }L..-. -.:..,ji ~

.6J~ 4S'f- <J --.:J;.y lii ~ I~ ~

c- .i~
.4..0YLJI c-

.4..0YLJI

:h.

Lesson 6

77

Exercises:

Ll

Every student answers the question ~~I / ~I L. as well as the the

following questions: ~ oJ.." / IJ.." r-"" I L. / ~I L. / ~ I L.


L2 A student forms interrogative sentences with the following words

o.J~ ,~}.?

,LI:,.s-- ,~

according to the structure ~U.....A>

r:..r--

,~ ,yl..::5' ,4..lL.J ,~

,4,;./-

,~

~ "Whose house is it?" Another student

answers as follows :
~

/ ~I ~ IJ.."

/ ~ IJ.."

a.o. The predicate should be an Icjafa or a noun defmed by a suffix.


L3 A student asks questions as follows:

Another student answers with "Yes":

or with ''No'':
.~J...,o

4,;./- oJ..",~

.~J...,o ~ IJ..",~

Take the words for the questions from the glossary of this lesson.
}

L4 Add the adjective...\.:.1>.- ( o...\.:J..>.. ,~J..>..) to the following nouns defined by a


suffix as an attribute.

<

,~J...,o ,l;.....r-..A iL.i

,ljJ.:j

l) ,d,j.J~ ,d,j.J~ ,~ ,L;juJ...,oi ,~

,..:G./-

-.if ,~~ '~.J...Lo ,~~ '~.J~ l) '~If


L5 Answer the questions with one of the following adverbs denoting a certain
time.

~WI l)

'c ~I l) 'u-"\ 'iy.ll


~

;L.,.

d.;tk ,l>-~

u-"~I C~ 'iy.ll C~
u-"~I .;tk 'iy.ll .;tk
u-" ~I ~L.,. 'iy.ll ~L.,.
~()I):.\ , ~\~

,Q

Jt ~J...,o )L ~
,;;.,6;h\ 'c.rl l) wlJ:.I Jt ~.) ~

J~ ,~~) 0xl

~(,!)O '4. ,~

78

Lesson 6

~~~I ';';}I

..w. r...?

~ ( ~ \.>.- ~ 1 .!.llu..l.,ai c: ,y.rJ 1.!.ll u..l.,a i c:) .!.llu..l.,a i c: ~ W 1 ~ ~ r...?

~~~.J~ r...?
~(0};,-11 'u..:u\.j:JI ,~I ,ylJI) ~I -.::...:p...::.1 r...?
~(~I..r" ,';';}I ~~i ,.;.;}I) ~u..l.,a~1 -.::...:i.J r...?
~4.kl1 {' ~ r...?
~frLI ~ r...?
~ .!Jj ~ -.::.j./' r...?
~.!Jj~ l.,w r...?
~ ( ... ,~,; '.r--o ,J1.rJ 1) 4.Jr" Jl I);~ r...?
L6 What is the root of the following words?

~ / ~ / ~ / ~ / ~..r" / '..r" / ~.J~ / cr-: / ~


/ o~ / o~ / c~ / ~I; / .d='~ / J'~~ / -...D;j. / ~ / J:?-

/ .JL.,k.. /

~\.5'" / rli / ~lk

Gl

Form genitive constructions with the following words.


1st term

""";..J-

,~~ ,J1.J...l:>.- ,)...l:>.- ,yl.,Y-i ,y~

uP) ,~ ,~~ ,ClI.J...l:>.- ,)...l:>.- ,yl.,Y-i

2nd term (defmed)


~1.

~..J-

2.

~ ,O.J~ ,~ '~..J- ,~ ,yl;;)

J,!..l.,a 3.

~ ,~ ,0.J~ '~..J- ,~ ,~

~4.

~ 'Y~.J ,0.J~ 'V.r-l 'iylji

~ ,Clj\..;;:.

,t)y ,a-\.>.-

'C)\........ 'C.r"'"

~..l.,a

5.

~...l.o

6.

4..0~

7.

Cl j\..;;:. 'v~\>..

't ~ 'v~ 'J')...l.o

o.J~ '~.J ,Cl."..ul..r" ,~I..r" ,~~i ,~

.;.;) 8.

G2 Form genitive constructions with the words given in Gl 1.-7. in which the 2nd
term is not defined by the article but by an affixed pronoun.

~...l.o C.r"'" '~..J- ~~

G3 Transform the genitive constructions of G2, 1. and 2. into the accusative by


forming a verbal sentence starting with -.::...:I.J .
}

. ~ jJI yl.,Y-i ~i.J ,4.1 y~ ~i.J

Lesson 6
G4 Replace the noun after the prepositions
pronoun.

..

.4.J\ -.....A~
.
..Jl,bl\
.~~\

Jl

,~

,J by the respective affixed


.~..l.,d\

<

Jl ..u}\ ~)

Jl

~~

.~W\

c: :~l;..l.pSU ~

.~l;..l.pi

79

.dJ )lkJ\

Jl I~~

Jl}Lw
~ ~\ ..b:-Y

. )..lJ:.\ ~ C}J\ ..b:-.J!

. dJLw .J ~J...,a.lj ~
. dJ Lw . Jd.A.J.J...,a.lj ~
.

c.r.l\ Jl ~~

~.p:l\ C~ :~ ~

!~l;..l.p~1 ~ ~

.~\

Jl

Q\}1~\ ~)

G5 Convert the following collocations into the genitive by preceding them with
the preposition
or l).

c:

<

.\j.J~ ,a..c..uJ\ ~G,. ,~\ b f"""'"


~Wt...G,. 'Q4.J.,...J\ ~~..l.p ,a..c...uJ\ L::... ~ '<:? .Jl>...:J\ ~..u)

,y..rJI .!1 JU..l.pi


L; )1....

,0..L:..lJ:.\

,0--4..lJ:.\~..l.p

,0--4..lJ:.I

~.#\ ~~~\ ,~~\ \.j~';) 'J\.l~1 ~\f ,o~\ ~\,?,

,.;::S01

Cl (Written homework) Write a letter to an Arab friend based on Text 1 in


which you inform him about the reception of mutual friend in your city.
C2 Prepare a conversation based on Text 2 about the topic "Travel Agency"
(greeting, destination: country, city, time).
Final Exercise:
1. Transform the following words into genitive constructions.
1sI term

j.J-

,0)::"""~

,t~~ ,0.J~

'~.J '~\f ,~~i

\.,b.!. ,J..G 'vo).. lo ,~lS' ~ ,4"v G,.

't).""::'

'C.J l....-.

"

~ '~f ,0~ ,YLw.J 'Q~~~ ,~ ,Q\.k.;...:;.

~t5:.... ,~t:;bi ,0.r.-"~ ,~.;) ,~ '~f '0~ Y

r<4 '~...I.>- ,~~

,y\)'!i ,01.J..b:- , j.J-

2. Translate into Arabic.


the old address . of my girlfriend, the old office of the new president, one of the
offices of the civil/public servant, one of the kings of the Arab World, one of the
beautiful houses of the city, the leader and the members of the Arab delegation,
the teacher's new bag! the new bag of the teacher, one of the new theatres of the
capital, the numerous sights of Syria, the staff and the managers of the travel

80

Lesson 6

agencies, the numerous enterprises of the royal family, a member of the


delegation, the offices of the employees of the travel agency, the car of an Arab
student, the theatre and the houses of the city, the lecturers and the students of the
university of the capital, the sincere greetings of the friend, the new plays of the
theatre of the city
3. Replace the prepositional object of the following sentences by the respective
affixed pronoun.

J>:- JI.JJ~I ~ J

J>:- ~i.J .~}?JI J>:- ~.. \...:-'i I~ .~I Jl I~~


.~WI Jl I~J! C~J r-:fJ 4bl; J>:- ~ ... u~~\ Jl \.j}L.. . ..:..>'JIJl,b.!1
.~~~\ ~ Jl ~ J . .J'1..i.::JI J>:- ~~ 'C}JI J>:- ~f ~ J? ~
.4.;1)-1

4. Translate the following letter into Arabic.


Dear Mary
How are you? How is Fatima?
I have a lot of work to do. The courses are difficult and I attended a lot of
lectures. Up until now, I have attended lectures in medicine, physics and
chemistry. The lecturers and the professors of the university are at a good level.
What about the courses in your university?
Did you travel to Mubammad? I wrote him a letter. His reply arrived yesterday.
He wrote that he went to the theatre in Cairo and that he saw the Egyptian
president and a lot of politicians and diplomats there.
I am waiting for your reply. Give my regards to Fatima.
Your friend
Peter

11

Lesson 7
} ,

1. The Imperfect Tense (t)L.ali)


1.1. The imperfect tense i; the second of the two simple verb forms in Arabic in
addition to the perfect tense (Lesson 5).)t almost always indic~tes }~n action or
state taking place in the present (;;pLJ..i) or future tense (~i) and may
express a habitual, progressive, future or stative meaning.

~ Al The imperfect tense can sometimes be employed to express actions having taken place in the
past, as is the case in some subordinate clauses. This is connected with the fact that the imperfect
tense is actually neutral as to tense and merely describes the verbal action in its course.
1.2. It is characteristic of the imperfect tense that RI is vowelless and that R2 is
followed by a so-called imperfect stem vowel, which can be a (Fatha) as well as
i (Kasra) or u (l)amma) . The vowel u or a suffix follows R 3. The persons are
expressed by prefixes.
1.3. The conjugation: imperfect/indicative

.pi.
0fo.l' (~)
..
01;0; (~)

sg.

~(r)
}

~ (</')

. ,

~(~i)

0~ (~i)

..

.,

.
.,
,

~(~i)

~l;~ (~i)

~ (./)

~i (lii)

The imperfect stem vowel in the verbs treated up to now

JU
,

~:>

JL
ij

to do

... o. '"

to go

~--4

to ask

is a,

Jt..i

to read

therefore

i'r:.'

(2 nd p.sg..
f) ~~
'. ""
rd

nd

'

},"

(3 12 p. pi. m.) 0 JJ';;

/ '

}, ' ,

0 JJfi

82

Lesson 7

likewise in
to drink
to hear
It is u in
to write
and i in
to know
to hold

~ A2 Verbs with J as RI drop this J in the imperfect tense:


j.... J > ~ ,t:"J > ~ . Cf. Lesson 11 regarding this subject.
~ A3 The imperfect tense of all verbs will be placed in brackets after the perfect tense in the
vocabulary list of each lesson. It is strongly recommended to the student to learn both forms, as
there are no rules according to which the imperfect stem vowel could be derived. Verbs in which R2
is followed by i in the perfect tense have the imperfect stem vowel a with very few exceptions.
1.4. The particle \,j~ or its abridged form:"" (as a prefix) can be placed in front
of the imperfect tense, so that its future aspect is emphasized:
He will definitely write to you. /
He is sure to write to ou.
1.5. The particle ~ + imperfect tense meaning "perhaps" also denotes a future
action or event as a possibility:
.~

I Perhaps, he will write.


2. Demonstrative Pronouns

~I

(oJ\1i,j/1 ~~f)

2.1. The demonstrative pronoun that indicates what is near with respect to place
or time is:
pI.
this, these

':1~

.. jA
,

sg.

1.lA. m.
~~ f.

Lesson 7

83

The demonstrative pronoun that indicates what is farther or more distant with
respect to place or time is:
sg.

pl.
;

that, those

~~m.

~)i

~f.

~A4 The first syllable in 1.1..1> '0.1..1> '~').Y' and .!J.b , the second in.!.W} ,contains the long vowel
I

ii, which is not expressed by A/if, as is otherwise usual. However, the initial u in .!.W )1 is short.

2.2. The demonstrative pronoun is placed in front of the noun which is defined by
the article:
this man

~)II~

that man

~)I~~
J

"',.,

this girl

ol:A.lI

that girl

ol:A.lI

J.

/ ...

o~

;;

Jb,-}l .. 'Yy.

these men

'"

Jb,-:,JI ~}

those men

","'''

J ",.

these girls

u~1 .. 'Yy.

those girls

u G.iJ
:' I ~
:)1,

"'"

.;

J.

~A5 Note that the fern. sing. form of the demonstrative pronoun precedes the plural forms of words
which denote non-human beings: J ~I 0.1..1>

,..;.J

~I .;lli .

2.3. The demonstrative pronoun follows the noun which is defmed by an affixed
pronoun:
I .;

-;

..u~~

this friend of mine

o~

these books of his

;;

; ;

these friends of ours

))

8-'
.
;

.. 'Yy. \.jj\.;~i
;

2.4. If the demonstrative pronoun refers to the 1sI term of an 14iifa, it follows
the genitive construction as well:

84

Lesson 7

this book of the teacher


those friends of my teacher
2.5. If it refers to the 2nd term of the IcJafa, it precedes it, i.e. its position is
between the 1sI and the 2nd term:
the book of this student
the friend of that girl
~A6 However, it follows the 2nd tenn of the genitive construction if the latter is a noun which is
defined by an affixed pronoun:

.............................................................................................................
the book ofthis friend ofrnine
\..u. ~.:- y\.:f
I...........................................................................................................................................................................................

~ ~ : I

It is consequently possible that a construction of this kind may be ambiguous, as the demonstrative
pronoun may refer to the 1st tenn (this book of my friend) as well as to the 2nd tenn of the 14Zifa (if
both tenns of the latter have the same gender). (Cf. above 2.3 .)

2.6. The demonstrative pronouns do not only fulfill a deictic function, as


described in 2.2. - 2.5., but they are also used as nouns. They can fulfill the
function of the subject in an equational sentence, and of the subject or the object
in a verbal sentence:

"

This is a teacher.

..

..L..J\
'..
,

These have drunk the wine.

.~ \J.P,
~,

';)J<' ;:...., '.


Y' . .r"
,

.~~1~

That (is what) Mul)ammad has done.

Agreement in gender and number between subject and predicate has to be


observed here in the equational sentence; if the predicate is defined by the article,
one should insert the independent pronoun as well (cf, Lesson 2, A 7):
feminine predicate

masculine predicate

"

"
,.~ ~~

" "

,~ \J.P,

,"'O..ft.?
oJ.P,
,. ... ...

,~\~
,

"

,~\ ~, oJ.P,
"

".

,~\; \J.P,

JJ

'
,~\
. r../'
...
J

,U

I'JJ\

.o..IA

;'''''

jI J

,:/' ~

';)J'

.)Jb

"

,0;.w\ ~

:';)y.

Lesson 7

85

Combinations including ~~ occur quite ?ften in the lexical area: ~~


"therefore" , -.!.LJ~ ~. "after that" ,~
~~' I 0:,; "before that" ' \
~~
. .~
. ."yet"
..'
"nevertheless" a. o.
3. Diptotes (J~I ~

"

t.."..:J.i)

3.1. We have got to know the declension of nouns in Lesson 4 which have
nunation and three cases, when indefinite. They are called triptotes. Nouns which
do not have the nunation and which only have two cases, when indefinite, are
called diptotes. We compare triptotes and diptotes with each other in the
following table:
diptotes/triptotes (definite)

diptotes (indefinite)

triptotes

;1',a.:JI JI}-f

;~.. :;1;:,

~~'
.
J

G:.:J
)-'1
... 1JI
,
,

~~.. :;1;:,

~~J

~I';,:JI

~~.. :;1;:,

n.
g.

a.

JI}-f

1-

'"

J,

1-

I~
. yG,.'J
,

Accordingly, the characteristic of diptotes consists in the fact that the fmal
Nun is missing and that the genitive and accusative endings are the same if the

diptotes are not defmed by the article or otherwise.


~A7 Particularly the plural fonus of words containing several consonants (jawffil,facalil,facalll,
fucala' a. 0.) and adjectives of the fonn ajal, fern. facia' (many adjectives of colour have this
structure; cf. the glossary of this lesson and Lesson 25) are diptotes. Diptotes are indicated by a final
I)amma in the glossaries contained in the lessons and at the end of the book:

J
;.
J
t
~\, .. 1.j~1 .

3.2. All place names which end in a consonant and do not have the definite article
"
J
J
I
(except those ending in QI -at) are also diptotes (~\~ ,~ '~.l\":-:J).
I .

3.3. Diptotes which are defmed by the article, an affixed pronoun or a subsequent
genitive consequently change into triptotes by this process:
..,

't

~\.k.H ~lj..L.o1

,. , "

" / I'.I~L..,'
c:
~ J

. / ~G:.:J\
~ ,
.

....

"

. ,(-,!\
0.T'"'

.
~

v
~ A8 Some words are marked with (co/I) as collective nouns which will be dealt with in detail in Lesson 20.
J

to take sth.
and so on, abbr:

J>

(.l;.:.

4) .l;.:.i

~.rf TJl

tl

""

J>

(y~) yf

Q:;.pt. c
J.~)i

European

!'"

~l::.l~ ice cream

certainly, surely, definitely


eat sth.

food, dish, meal

aubergine, eggplant

0'

~.? ~\
(coil.)

0~~~

86

Lesson 7
J

oranges

(call.) JlZ~

onions

(call.) ~

" /~
"
(coll.)~
'~tk.

watermelons
potatoes

(call.) ~

cattle

Ure.

green-grocer

beer

offi
'

"

J....oi

>'~i~

white
'" ,/

among them

.
r-'

uLe. u;'"r
u L e. 4.j Y"'"r
~(~)u--b

to sit, to be seated on

(call.) j~

nuts
... 0

t ~ e. c..?Y"" i
",.

-It>

(V")~)

U)--4

without, under
that, those
to go (to)
to come back to

~l::.-

'Y.>-

e. i.$ Jl>-

;I)--i ~I

life

o~

\.j L.>._'

sometimes

ulj~

u)~

(e-:r.)

~If

e. J ) /
J

>' I.r==:- i

J>.

,.

(t)Y-) t)j

-It>

(call.) u~j

olive
to ask sb. about sth.
question
to live in
knife

(rn. and f)

fish
year
black
haggling about
soup
buying, purchase
apartment, suite

in the following way


fork

~ expression, term

(call.)

L e. :i.;.,.l;.,. j
J

plant sth.

.r==:-I

vinegar

))
J

~~l;.:. form, way, manner

(especially) for
J

'
/

2..4l)1 e.'~ i ~~
(Jl) (~~) ~~
Jl
c:-)

bottle

.;l

'e. ~ e. e.l::.-

red

V")~

~~

flour

u~Y"" salad

0;;;;

i.$ )

J.

~ (J~) JL
~I e. JI~
l)(~)~
0

~\.S:.....

e. ~

hot (also food), spicy ,

plum, peach

to study sth.

"

i j-J

(call.)

waitress

different

(f.>. ~) j>- ~

J.

garlic

green

-It>

JL.;

(JWI)

waiter (Fr. gan;on)

to enter sth.

J ....0

after that

mutton, lamb

J J

~J

following

dessert; sweets

(call.) e.l;.,.~

chicken

~(~) looking up, consulting, review


(call.) C W rice

apples

pilgrim

uA

balcony

hungry

J~

(call.) )~

cucumber

t~

necessary for

4.kJL / a.kL

Lesson 7

~ l.!.JJ I i lAb menu

dinner

weather
J

J.

~ ~" t
r~

tomato(es)

J(j)\

cAbd ar-Razzaq
lentils

necessary (for)

~ .~

Iraqi

:';I~ spoon

~;

J' ~

'. L,.._i ,0~


,c -.s--

to work

0i ,~ (~) ~
(~) Jy

grapes

(call.)

~~

open, opened

(call.) ~

radish

(call.)

please

please (as request) ~ if (i) ~ if

pepper
}

o.

~ljC u~
J ...

~ (~) ~

J}
Q~
. C

beans
hors d' oeuvre

list

(ifi) i;

..x ~.,J

close to, nearby

hall

colour
day and night
lemons
,

\A...

time
;

'...

C~

.. >ii J

~..l.o

o..l.o

QIc:'"
J

J}~I o~

for the fIrst time

(coll.)~

apricots

salt

t.il

forbidden, prohibited
bananas

(call.) j y

water

e~ C ~~

, J

cafe

almonds

.,):..t
~ i J~;' pi

mushroom

to read sth.

friendly, nice

:.P~
period of time
.. 'Jo

normal

to understand sth.

J;.s--

too,also

mineral

cup

C (i) J'~

meat

J'~

(call.)

to know sth., that

J')

0i~~ alcohol

to ask for sth., to demand

thirsty

i lAkJI Wl;
;
\..oS'

as, like, furthermore

0i,~ (~) ~ glass

to order sth.

87

as far as ... is concerned

~~. )~

Jl (,l:2~) )u
J J

to look at

the people

J'IJI

this, these

~ ':1 Y. C ~~ i IJ..,.
;

I hope you will enjoy it.


(the/ood)

QLC ~\,; (answer)


J'I; ,QL
W\'; meal, dish
~
C'

!~f \!... :~
,

.~

!All I .!J~
Q~)C ~)

88

Lesson 7

Text 1

u--k- i .wlJ:.I if

~; ~ l) ~iJ ;;~WI wL>.. l)

t..;l..!JI l) u;VIJ

ul)~.....JIJ v"LJI

Jl

fo J ~

;;:ll 4.."JI ~I v"..;~i

d..:.....

0.A l)

~\j..l..oi t:

C~ p I dJ~ J ~ if ~; J~ ~ if J ;;~ u~ t..;L.:JI

Gl,y-i

1..iJ. l) J.:>..';
\ A: ;\ \ ~

..;'1t'" U- .. .;AJ

J-.:.. ~.r.JI ;;~ ~";J..;-:JI ~~ ~I ~lrJ J~I 1..iJ. Jl JJ ~I ;;~ ~~i


~4 U";J ~ ~ L.

4..:..0

i .r.JI J

~L .o~ l>y:.i ~~iJ u4JrJI J U}/'plll


:JWI

J--!:-o
J"';
a... JWI l) .;kL;. J

,tY"-,~ ,0~ ,0"':;:j'~ 'jy

'r-kLo.k ,~lk.

,cl..ij

:4.5'1"';

'..;l::>- 'i'; ,~ ,0L4~4 :uIJI.#

~ J>-..; J(j)l -- CL:LI J~I 0i y."JI ~\j..l..oi if ~

0-:!i if J Y4.."JI ~I ~ j.A> :.!.UJ Y!.,?~ ~ ,a.....l>- ~i :484 J~ <0iJ


Gb..a

.!1~ y.r=-iJ t..;L.:JI ~LA... if ~ J>-~L .!.U~ ~J

GL.;I...I ~."JI u~1 ~I) ~ y\j .,L.:. TJ

.l>y:.i a.k...iJ Y-.::..ji

1Jl ~) ~ ,!.,?L.:JI if
.u4JrJI J u}/'p1l4

Text 2
?

Ya.....l>- ~i ,~I ~w '~J ~i :~Y"'fil

.u'%\ if .!1~ L. i;i ,0~Y"" ui ,~ if il$.ll W\j uLt '..;.,.01 ~L......


,.

"

$.

..Ho

o/J

.4.";JI u}/.pL. ~IJ t.i.l.::.s!~.r=- u}/.pL. \.j~ !WWI ~,~ :~Y"'fil

.0~

wi Y;;fi ~~ j.A>

:.h!

Lesson 7

tr J~I ,2:u IJ ,,;)

:6..i y):-I

~Y..r!'il~L.J

:H.

J.J"... ~L.J ~ \.j~

: 6..i y ):-1

~...::..>"YS'~I olA. L. J J~ 0 J~ o.t.:-1 Y..r!'i

: H.

.\.j...1..4

cJ

.J~ 0J~ o.t.:-1J ~J

.i:b..

89

o~l>-

...::..>"YS'i

~J 4./ ~i aJ~

ol..A ~ .~~IJ ...::..>IJI~IJ Cl>.-...lll ~J))I

r:::

: 6..i y):-I

~)I olA....::..>L.t.

:H.

...::..>"YS'i

~ 0~ l>- tl5"~ I
~~.Jy!JIJ"'::">~ Wlt ~J ~~~ ~ ,,;) :6..i y
ol..A ~ Lo .o~ o~ ...::..>~I . ~U-I ~I llA.

cJ

~.Jr

J51 ';)

):-1
:~

~...::..>~I

...::..>IJ~J 0~jJ..,6J & J ~


.o?T Jl J}J

iY- $

I:b.. ofrS'...::..>~ \.j~ : 6..i y

j>.JJ 0L4~ltJ

):-1

jy>." J j) J .6'1} J

. .;k.AJI J ~IJ ~I ~ ~i ...::..>~I olA.

.b:.T

\.ji

:H.

~o-*.,i ~\..;. j)~1 ~J

:6..i y ):-1

.~ if

'0-*
~~I r:::

.~ 0J~

:H.
:6..i y ):-1

,,;)

:H.

~~.? ~~I.,i j)~1 ~ LS).>JJ Wlt ~J

:6..i y ):-1

.oJ...:>.- o~~.? ~i
.~..r' It:.A> .j)~IJ o.M1 0 ,J,a.A;

:H.
: 6..i y ):-1

as'r J WJ.. ~ if ...::..>L.t.J 2:u I .!J~

:H.

.~ J

90

Lesson 7

Exercises:

Lt

Define the following nouns by means of the article and put the appropriate

demonstrative pronoun (IJ...,. ,oJ...,. '~~..Y') in front of it.


~IIJ...,.

<

J L:.,.)I ~ ~ ..Y'
~

,~L......

'i.)-!.

,~u')\>. '~W\.k

,0L.:a ,~~ ,0 1.r3i

,yL::S"

,0.r3 ,uj

"JI~ ,~

,yU ,4.....5'"'1';

, j./-

,a.;./-

'~~"pL ,~~)~ ,~I};'-"' ,0J~ 'C~

0~ ''-'''is' ,~ ,~ ,as'Y ,~I)~ ,~) 'J:...l..p ,~t.;...l..pi


L2 The same as L1 preceded by ..!.lI~ , $ ,.!,.W

L3 The following exercise gives you a couple of examples of the 14lifa. Put the
appropriate form of IJ...,. in the way that it refers to
a) the 2nd term of the 14lifa and
b) the 1sI term of the 14lifa.

1J...,. J:..l.d 1 y l::5" / J:..l.d1 1J...,. y l::5"

<

J:..l.d1 y l::5"

=aJ

1J...,. ~...l..p y l::5"

<

~...l..p y l::5"

=aJ

,~I J ~ ,~JJ.I ~L:.,. ,~I ~~ ,0L::A.lI ~t.;...l..pi ,y~1 ~ r.! '0 J~I 0}
~

~I 4.5"'1'; ,.,.lj}1 ~L.a>-i ,~I ~t.;')\>. ,L JJJ.I

.r-1t... ,bt,..L:.,. yY\b

L4 The same examples as in L3, but with..!.ll~

/.!.It or'!"w}.

,~...l..p ~

L5 Form equational sentences by means of the following nouns and collocations


using the demonstratives 1l...A. / oJ...,. or ~ ~..Y' as subject and the defined noun as
predicate.

.a.; jJI ~ oJ...,.


,~ ,ol..;:;

'J-.>.-J

<

a.;./-

.~I ~ IJ...,.

<~
~

'y f

=aJ
~

~t.;...l..pi 'J:...l..p ,~I--4h ~W\.k ,0.J!.JY yY\b ,~

'C~ ,~ ,~..\..o ,~~ ,o~

u./- ''-'''ts ,~

'~h yl::5" ,ajL.. J


. 4.>-t.; ,Wt.;

,~L:.,.

L6 (Homework) Put the nouns and adjectives in brackets into the proper case and
vocalize the endings.

,4...5'1'; ,~i 0~ '~f ~

'r\ r.?'.?

'--4h

JJ)

,~I~ Y i')\.;i) ~'p1


.(~I)I~

&.

tjJ

,.

.(0fr5' O..\..0 'Yf ~t.;...l..pl ,0~I.rJI y~1 ,Uyo-Lv ,JL:.,.J) ~IJ


~

. . Jl ~~

.(l.::.o.1v '0fr5' ~1.,b.. '~~..Y' Ujt.;...l..pl 'Yf ~t.;...l..pl)

Lesson 7

91

.(<-J\.::5'
'0<:"
l~\..... ,aJ\.....)
.
.fr'-' u.J
.J

~
.

. (~ ..D.I Cr--'~ ~ ,,,I.rJ-I ~WI ,~) ~~


.(,,~ Jlj>- ,>,b."...JI a.k.:...!JI) l) ~I ~J

. (~\l1 ~I i f

v"'l5"' ,~I

if

v"'l5"' ,~i ~ ,?i ~) ~.r:

. (~.,JI 01..ll:JI l) 0~1 '0#' -.::.>W ,~.,JI a.illl) ..:;.......J~


~

.(~ y')\1, ,0J)WI ,y.,JI 0.rhl1) ~f

L 7 (Repetition) Ask about the subject, object or the prepositional phrase using
the proper interrogative. Transform the verb from the 1st p. into the 2nd p.
Use the following interrogatives:
.u: i rX ,u: i Jl ,u: i d')\... 'if c: ,~ 'if

JUif

<

~-.::.>i; I,)\...

~..!.m

~~.) ~pl

u: i i f

JU

<

.~I -.::.>i;

<

.0..ri1if~.) ~pl

.~~.)

J>- yt;QI ~J .J~I Jl I~')


.
. .,,\.j~\l1 c:
y.. .-.::.>~ -.::.>~ 4 1.J .-.H~ ill.) ~ .0~J.>.. I.J~I

W,I ~~ .4,jlj:L1 l) ~I ~J .aJJlkJI

..l...>.

..::-t:"

.)~I ~ C}JI J.>..y.. .uP.J\I 1 J>- aJJlkJIJ ~1j:JI J.>..y .J.i..JI


.aJL......J -.HJ...,all ~ '~f ~~ aJ\.....)I ~ .~.,JI 01..ll:JI

J>- C~I

if ~';)I ~ J

r:.;--- ~I ~y.....;.. 1 ..J Lkl 1 Jl ..u)1 ~ J . I~ J.>.. 4\.::5' -.::.> I; .~ J...,all aJ\......J ..::..-.;S

~.,JI ~';}I -.::.>..w .J~I Jl..u)I~') .I~J.>.. LJ; 0..ri1i f ~pl ,0..ri1

.o#,

-.::.>~~I ~';)I

-.::.>..w . ~~I

Gl

Transform the following sentences from the perfect tense (3 rd p. sg. m,) into
the imperfect tense (3 rd p. sg. m.).

.aJ\......J ~

<

.aJ\......J ~

iL...bJI wt;.b:.i .~WI J>-~ .~I Jl ~.)


.(~I

.d,;~I

if C?

,,,\11 ,0p.)1 ,<,?WJI) 0~1 y.r:-

.(4.5'I~1 '-.::.>IJI~I ,j)l) r--U1 j)i

.4,jlj:L1 l) ~J . ~i; .aJ\......J ~


G2 Replace the perfect tense given in G 1 by the imperfect tense 1sI p. sg. and
after that by the 1sI p. pi.

.aJ\......J ~ ',aJ\......J ~i

<

.aJ\......J ~

92

Lesson 7

G3 Transform the sentences of G 1 into questions using the imperfect tense 2nd p.
sg. and pI. m ..

~aJL....) 0'p-; ~ ~aJL....) ~ ~

<

.aJL....) ~

G4 Answer the sentences formed in G3 with ~ or ':1. Use the imperfect tense of
the 1sI p. sg. or pI..

.aJL....) ~i,~

<

~aJL....) ~ ~

.jJL....) ~,~
.o.M 1Y r-i ,':1

<

~jJL....) 0'p-; ~

<

~o~ly?~

G5 Transform the following sentences from the perfect tense into the imperfect
tense and vice versa.

. 0~I uWI

~ 0~ 'i r.:JI ~ ~.rJI ;)~)I ~. i y.ll .}1.rJI .-Lt) I ~


I."...l)i .c:l>.-..ul ~ ~ ~..:;.JI)I~I) rJJI j)'t; ~ .o~1 if G~ y r-i

j rJ ~ . ~..ul r->'Lk.. if ~ ~ 0~ . j)'\I I ~ <,?"WI Yr .y r- L.t,1,


~~~ ~ \s~ ~ ~J>--)l.!.m 0~ ~ ' ~fi,~ ~~\,;~\l1 ~':1y>
ill; ui; .~I ~ ~~) .dJ.} ~i .o~ jJL....) ~ .~~I I)~
.~.rJI ;Wjl V")...u .0U\l1 lj j\,;~i .!.lJ.}

JU

.~I

G6 The teacher quotes the verbs given in the perfect tense in different persons
and the student gives the respective imperfect tense.
, j~

,~ ,~ ,i; ,JL

't:P) 'j-P) 'e::' 'JU 'yr- ,~ 'V");)


J>;) ,~ ,~ ,~ ,j)'i 't)j 'C::"')

''-:-'-'''.}

'C?

G7 Vice versa.

G8 (Repetition) The simple verbal sentences in the 1sI p. sg. are to be transformed
into interrogative sentences with the verb in the 2nd p. sg. m.
~.!.lJ.} ~ ~

< .!.lJ.} ~

'<,?";)~I ,<,?" ...-J I).:. I '~I.rJI ,<,?" J,,-JI) .-Lt} I 0i ..:;.Ji; .}.:>- \11 ..:;.Ji; .p;ll ..:;.Ji;
..!Jb Jl

c..,l.p)

. jJ~ )I..:;.Ji~ .aJL... )I..:;.Ji; .~ f. Jl j-P) (<,?"pall ,~y5JI

Jl~.} . ~..l.,a..ll Jl~.} ..!JlA Jl~.} .J~I Jl~.} '~f. Jl~)


~

.r-hlI...:..JL... .<,?"WI ~r- .}k..QJ~ ..:;.J)L.... .o};,jl ~~I ...:;.JL:;A.]I ~i) .r-WI
..:;.J~ . 0~1 ~ ~ . ~I ~ ~ 'i\ll ...:..JL .o~1 ~r- .p:LI ~i

.) y. \I I ..::.....JtJ:" p--:J- I ..::.....JtJ:" jJL....) ..::-.;S . aJ L....) ..::-.;S .aJ L....)I ..::-.;S .lY~ I

Lesson 7

~lkJI

0i ~f

.o\.::AJI ~ f

93

.j.>.-)I ~f .U;lJ. Jl ~)

JI..rJI ..Y}I 0i ~

.4,1 Jl I~~ y~1

~f .tl~ Jl y.A~

0i

Cl Answer the questions.

~ ,~L..lI <j / ~L.J ,.;-+WI <j / I~) L~I <j / l:>-~ (0:l~)

~ I~lo

Y(i~1 ~ 'i~1

Y(~WI <j / ~~ ,~I <j / I~) L~I <j /l:>-~ (#t;) jS't; I~lo
C2 Prepare a paper to say what you are going to do tomorrow. Use the particle
j.r" or the prefix U".

... <j ~L

Jl y.A~L .l:>-~ 4,1 i f 1:y:-L

C3 (Homework) Write down what you are going to buy for the weekend or a
party. Consult the dictionary and ask your teacher about regional or dialectal
variations for certain foods.
C4 Prepare a dialogue based on Text 2 about having dinner in a restaurant.
Final exercise:
1. Add the appropriate demonstrative pronoun for what is nearer with respect to
place or time.
,..:.;~I ... ,4..,... .J..ul

... ,..:.;t).rJ1...

,..:.;WlkJI ... ,0.rWI ... ,~I. ..

. .. ,L.>..\.>..)I ... 'JL-....)I ... ,..:.;I~I ... ,(..)"""":!)jJI ... ,o.)L..JI ... ,~I
~I ... ,~~~I
2. Add the appropriate demonstrative pronoun for what is farther or more distant
with respect to place or time.
3. Translate into Arabic.
this friend, this book of my friend, that bag of the woman teacher, the new house
of that civil/public servant, the drinks of that restaurant, these vegetables of the
green-grocer, this bottle of the friend, these notebooks of his, these friends of
ours, those restaurants of the city
This is the teacher. This is a school. Those drank the juice. This is the waitress.
4. Transform the verb into the imperfect tense .
..;;..jf

. ~..rJI ~I

L:.........J')

.0./'uJI Jl

..:.;I)~I -.::.J...,) .

i.r.J 1 JI..rJI ..Y}I ~)

..:.;~)? ~ .~yk UA.:.- 0~ .o..\,!...b:- G' ..:.;i; .~lo ~...ul i f ~I


.~~I I)~ .~\ ~.) .4,1 Jl~.J .~I <j ~ .~~ ~i ~i

.~) k:l ~i .U".J...u1 ~

94

Lesson 7

5. Write the following weekend shopping list in Arabic.


Eggs, butter, cheese, milk, bread, mannelade, sugar, juice, honey, fruits,
vegetables, apples, eggplants, oranges, watermelon, potatoes, beer, garlic, nuts,
vinegar, plums, cucumber, flour, rice, olives, fish, tomatoes, lentils, grapes,
radish, mushroom, pepper, salt, beans, almonds, apricots, bananas, lemons
6. Translate into Arabic.
I will study Arabic for a year at Cairo University. He will live in the students'
hostel. She will write a letter. They will drink tea. No, I drink beer. Will you
drink alcohol? No, we will drink juice. I am hungry and thirsty. Do you have
starters? Yes, we have a lot of starters. Is the meal hot? No, it is normal. Hot food
is good with hot weather. Have you got mineral water? Please give me a knife,
fork and spoon.

Lesson 8
0...

,0

J...

J. ...

(~ ~I t~~i) and Jussive (rJ~I t~~i)

1. Subjunctive

The imperfect tense consists of several moods.


The indicative (cf. Lesson 7) generally serves to express an action (an event,
also a state). The same applies to the subjunctive and the jussive, which,
however, never occur alone, but are only used after certain conjunctions and
particles.
1.1. The conjugation
Jussive

.~

.~

.~

..

~
~f

..

\~

y:i
.~

.~

yw(~)
J.

et ...

Jw (CJi)

~
~f

~(~\)

~
J

..

\~
~

;'

..."

g$,

~f (lji)
J

\~

~(~)
J

Indicative

\~

Subjunctive

0~(~)

J;~
..

(:;.)
~

0...

0~ (~i)
o

0....

"'" J

~(~i)
,0.
}""o;

~(~)

~ At Only the imperfect tense has the subjunctive and the jussive. The perfect tense has only one
mood, the indicative.
The sUbjunctive and the jussive differ from the indicative by an a
(subjunctive) replacing the short vowel u after R3 or by R3 being vowelless
(jussive) and by the suffixes -Ina and -una being abridged. In the last-mentioned
case an Alif, which is not pronounced, is added in spelling to the long vowel -u,
which has become final now -like in the 3rd p. pI .m. of the perfect form.
1.2. The usage
1.2.1. The sUbjunctive occurs only after certain conjunctions in subordinate
clauses:
~

tl i "that"

96

Lesson 8

0 ...

",.

Jo",.

0 ""

.;

Jo ""

Jo ",.

'"

.~~~0i~~i
,
, .

I ask you to do that (lit.: ... that you do that).

,.

.~~~0i~~i

(fern.) I ask you to do that.

.;

0 '"

.;

.~~1~0i~~i

(pI.) I ask you to do that (lit.: ... that you do that).


~

'j

0i, contracted ~i

"that ... not"

, :j and ~ "in order that", ,.J:>. "so that, until"

He asked the friend in order


that he would know the way.
He asks, in order to get the answer.
(lit.: so that/until he knows the answer)
The negatives are

'i'll"

0,

~, ~\L

'Yr- u f i ~ u

~ or ~, or ~ .

The negation :)', which negates verbs in the future tense, also takes the
subjunctive (cf. 3.3.).

~ A2
is the conjunction which occurs most frequently among the ones mentioned above. The

f
following applies regarding the differentiation between 01 and 0 , which also means ''that'':
Verbs which state something introduce the objective clause by means of Jf (the subject in the
shape of an accusative noun or of an affixed pronoun is positioned after the verb followed by a verb
in the perfect or imperfect tense).

of

Verbs which express a hope, fear, wish or demand introduce the objective clause by means of 0f
(+ following subjunctive). Only
See in detail Lesson 20, Gr 3.

of ~ "after" and of :G "since" take the perfect tense.

1.2.2. The negative particles

rs and

'j, and furthermore

J , take the jussiv~.

Actions having taken place in the past are negated by means of ~ "not" (cf.
below, 3.2.); the negative imperative is formed by 'j "not" + jussive (cf. below, 3.1.).
The indirect command (hortative) is expressed by the preposition J + jussive.
Let's go.
He shall do that.

2. The Imperative

(;~f)

Forming and conjugation: the 2nd p. sg. and pI. of the jussive is the form to
start from. The prefix /a- is omitted, and the double consonant, which has now
been formed, is resolved by a prosthetic vowel.

Lesson 8

97

The prosthetic vowel is represented in writing by an Alif with Hamza (in the
interior of the sentence Hamzat al-wa$l!). The vowel is i- in verbs of which the
imperfect stem vowel is a or i:

J';l

(~i)

.'.

~f.

(pi)

". \
Yf.

(ri)

)1

(~i)

It is u- in verbs of which the imperfect stem vowel is u:

, ,

I..!.

(~i)

~..:.~i

(pi)

\}>-~i
~ i~l
~~\

(ri)

~~\
, ,
~

~ A3 The imperative of the verbs RI


vowel:

= )

and of some verbs RI

(~i)

i is formed without a prosthetic

i.:. ''Take!'', 1ft ''Eat!'' (Cf. Lessons 11 and 24). Negative imperative see 3.1.

~A4 Another mood of the imperfect tense is the so-called energetic mood to express emphasis. It is
formed by adding the suffix

0- or :;. to the imperative or jussive. However, it is extremely rare in

modern Arabic.

3. Negation
,
w.e have already become acquainted with three types of negation with ~ ,'1
and 0-J. Now a summary follows about the application of all types of negation in
use.
3.1. ~ + imperfect tense = negation of actions taking place in present and future
tenses:
He does not do that / he will not do that.

~ A5

If a verb form having a particle of future tense is to be negated by '), it is only possible to

construe it with J.J-": ..!.1J~ ~

')

J.r-" ''He will (definitely) not do that", but not with the

abridged form <...f' (consequently it would be wrong to say: ~ ') ).

~ + jussive = negative imperative:

Do not do that!
Do (pI.) not do that!

98

Lesson 8

"i + indefinite noun in the accusative without nunation = general negation


"there is no ...":

~ A6 'Y is largely lexicalized in this particular function:


~ :,....u 'Y ''there is no escape from it" = "unavoidable"; (if) ~ 'Y ''there is no way out" = " it is
necessary", oi ~ ~ 'Y "there is no doubt that ... " = ''without doubt" a.o.
~ A7 'Y also resumes a negation already expressed by another negative particle if no new verb is
mentioned: WI 'Y) 0~I y A
''He has not drunk the beer and not the wine." The double
negation is equivalent to "neither - nor" in English.

3.2.

rr + jussive = negation of actions having taken place in the past:

He has not done that.


He has not drunk the wine.

~A8 The auxiliary vowel i-, instead of Sukiln, precedes Hamzat al-waof/. (Cf. Lesson 2, Gr 1.3.2.)
~\

/
r- in connection with the post-positive word Jo
~ produces the meaning "not yet":

He has not done that yet.


3.3.
tense:

::,J +

SUbjunctive = (strong) negation of actions taking place in the future

He will not (or is not to) do that.

~ A9 The construction with 'Y ""';.r-" + imperfect form is possible as well for the purpose of the
certainty of negation in the future tense:
He will (defmitely) not write /(I am sure) he will not write.

3.4. ~ + perfect tense = negation of actions having taken place in the past:

I He has not done that.

~AI0 L.. + perfect form is widespread in the dialects. However, in modem literary language, +
jussive is almost exclusively used. But there are severallexicalized expressions with L.., both of
verbal and of nominal construction, like e.g. (y A) JIj L.. "he has not ceased (drinking)" = "(he)
still (drinks)", r,j> ... 0i L.. "scarcely had he ... when ... ; no sooner had he ... than" a. o.
L.. is the particle in general use for negating the perfect as well as the imperfect form in colloquial
language.

Lesson 8

3.5.

99

:.,...j is the negated copula and means "not to be". It is regarded as being in the
present tense, though it is conjugated analogously to the perfect tense.
Conjugation:
J

'"

to';

0:

...

,;"...

,,0"

~ lil , ~ pI , ~ ..:....il , ~
,;,..

,..

U ~ ,

J.

'"

Jo/

J,,).o,..

,..

'-i'

....

0 ....

,.J> ,

.".

sg.

J;L ~ ~L ::,.:..J ~ , I~ ~

pI.

He is not, you are not ... etc.


The affirmative equational sentence, which does not have a copula (cf. Lesson 2,
Gr 3), is negated by ~ . The predicate complement is in the accusative after ~ :

.1~4.I~

The house is not big.

.Ulb~

I am not a student.

. /

,,::

"

I~"

.j:!~ ~\.>...J
'"

They are not diligent men.

There is no teacher in the room.


(lit.: (There) is not in the room a teacher.)

'"

.~ ~:,JI

"

lJ ~

3.6. "neither ... nor"


The Arabic equivalent for "neither ... nor" is always indicated by the negation.
If there are several verbs, each verb is negated by means of
~

J / / t:
Jo

.~i

I have neither read nor written.

J.

tJ) I;i t
0/

l t

.Jo"

Neither do I read nor write.

.~I~)I;I~

I will neither read nor write.

.~i J) i;iJ

.Jo

If there are several nouns, the first clause is negated by


followed by ~) / } / ~):

,.."

Jo""

.yL.-,!~) / } /~) ~ ~i
1&.tJ

$.

I write neither books nor letters.

.yL.-,.J~)

I will write neither books nor letters.

.yL.-,.J~)

/ }

'"

J / ~ / t as well,
:: JJ

I wrote neither books nor letters.

0.....

tJ

Jo"

)1 /~) ~ ~i ~
? J.J

Jo..."

/~) ~ ~i J

If the predicates are to be negated, ~) ... ~ is used here:


He is neither handsome nor large / big / tall.

.i.fr':'"~~ )

~
/ \
"/
r.r---

100

Lesson 8

v
c

y I~ -I

literature

y~ 'I

1t".(~I~~~_)\.~_
c...sc..r-- u---

to get, to obtain sth.

original

governorate, county

frame(work)

ceremony

many thanks, thanks a lot

law, right

C r-1j...:

conference

..::..01

to hope that

0i (~4) ~i
t

J.

~ \;,.. I

secretary

General Secretary

uy~

..

J.

~I

J.

J.

~\;"'I ~ i~ ~I

A)j I ~w.

God willing; I (we) hope so

particle introducing an equational sentence

democratic

01

synonym

<Y'~

.b*, (J~) J~

simple, easy

..::..oL~ r.
J~W'
~

~ ~

prophet, envoy, messenger ~.J

,.

~~

..::..oL

saleslady, ~clerk

Wl!

C "

.}I):.I (~...lA)

Algiers

effort
award, prize
Nobel prize
tour
field, area, sphere, sector

~ ~

~-*"
~

;!I.J>-"

C -4>.
C o;!G:-

J-j o;!G:..::..oLC~~

(political) party

Russian

r...I').J

C
~

c$").J

..::..01

visit

~I)j

corner

C
C

0.J~!
~)Ij

J/<Y' 0..r <::. J)~

~L..

early, in the past, previously

~~

J;.. C ~
d.3 (~) ~

way, path
allow so. to do sth.

J.J

tl~ C ~.JY

..It>

'Y

explain sth.
~

project

,.

(c..A)
L.!..A

..It>

C:}.J.
,

~.

.~

La);.
~

.k.....:'\l1

the Middle East

C.r--

t)r

Do us the honor!

J~I

..::..oLCJ~ common, joint, mutual


~

negotiations, talks

I J.r".J

J Y.J

~I~~

his royal highness

J.r".J
~

.ul

shelf

'\.Z responsible for


~

~I? C o~!"

0i (~) ,~ (~..I-) ~.J

cultural
newspaper

to wish sth., that

~~Iy.......

..::..oL C

~~. C ~
-, ' fann

(the day) after tomorrow

so that, in order to

~1J..r;!

..It>(~)~ the messenger of God

to search for, to look for

to make efforts

defense

under the leadership of (+ gen.)

discuss sth.

exchange

Khartoum

01

~ \.j

qualification

You are right.

..?..::..oL;~\,:",:, C
~

yl?-i C y~

0..r

socialist, Socialist
~

famous
chancellor

C ~IF~
~

.
.

~L.!..A ,0) C.J~


~

0) C .J ~

Lesson 8

101

factory, plant

not to be sth.

naturally (adv.)

Christian

0J-~~

Tripoli

possibility

-.::.;L~ 4i~1

Taha lfusain

(con}.) since

--'

MalifU~

J;.#

education

NajJb

higher education

advise so. to do sth,


~
to recommend doing sth.

;\~ ~-*
a...;;J\..;;.

Jl (0~)

to aim at sth.

J...\.A>
~

;)J>-' .Y'

existing, available

to meet so.

0 J- ~ L1"~

engineer

holiday

-.::.;L ~

discussion
cooperation

--

.
~

(~) ~

counterpart

Amman

a........~

on the occasion of

worker, employee

-.::.;L~~~

occasion, opportunity

plant, laboratory

/ ..l:..o
.

' .
0\..l:..o

minister

~\.Jj) ~ J..!)

coming from

ministry

-.::.;\ ~ :;)j)

department

widening, extension, enlargement

economy

wide

valuable

clear, obvious

speech

national

in order to

signing, signature

moment

news agency

t:.:" :;;
~\)

&1)

~)

-.::.;L ~ ~~i 4Jl5"j

not (+ }ussive)

u~
"
.) \..;I:oi
.

Text 1

r-j)

..u}\ J-~) L-J\ ~

G;)U 0~

~~\I\ -.::.;~l5")

Jl ~.J.J---"

~;)L"ci\

..u)

~) :IJ..G

' ~\J..j)) ;)L.,a::;~\

~~ l) UJ>-' ~ o)j."J\ l) ~~'il o~ ~~\ ~I J..j) J-u :Oylb\AJ\


JL-J\ ~U J~ l) 0 )W\ ~U f. J......!jhl -.::.;LW~I t.).,;-o) y.L.l-) ~WI

.Lr.=!.r.all ~~I)

102

Lesson 8

i~..u.) i.,?"" ))1 ~)I J-li) ~ Y J1 ~fi ..Lt) ~) :~yo


.(,,>~\...,a;:i)/I 0 )I.A:lI t.).r- a.....1)~ ~))I 4..-P I if ~) u"))I
0)WI t:" y ~ "-..0 ~) ~.;JI o~ t. Lt..ul f.-j) J-li :~I)t
.,!}.P ~U.r. cjy Jl o}~)I J-4-i) .(,,>~I)

U;J)J--lI LJ-A
i.,?""~1

cJ ~~ Jl J~I y

j->"

cJ ~ ~) J~pJI JWI ~I f.-j) ~) :~~

~I JI.>; cJ 0) I.A:l I ~ ~L:1 (,,y-JI o~

J-li) L)~I JrJI cJ d..l.J>-' )U,1


.~lhl

0)WI ~ 4.A,o~) Jll~1 )w..:....J.I a.....lJ..r. Jll~1 ..Lt) I ~I d..lJl.,.

Jli

:~~

cJ\.A!ll) (,,>~I) ,,=p\...,a;:i)/I) '-:f""'~1

..G)I ~) JW) .~)I ~I ~8.Q)/l..A:>-)/1 ~.;JI ..Lt)1 ~ :jl}:-I


J~WI

t:".rJ

~I) b.J--P-" J.L.:; J.J-"" l......i) 01 :o~1 ~ cJ ~.;JI

c: (,,>)t>...:JI
~ i WI ~~I Jli :~J4
.)1):-1

~Y ~ o...G...::lI r~ i WI ~~I JI~y-JI ~)I y

.JWI (..r:u~
Text 2

..

~I ~
.

J4....) J\AI

:MWI

Y~I.,AJI J) tY- .!..ULi 0i J ~~, ).r!1 ~L.....

:~

Y4..-J.>. ~I , ~I ~L..... ,
.~)I)I

.!.lli cJ

,!}L.:..t. ~WI

:MWI
.
Y~rJI QLt~lj-olJ ~ ,!}~ -Y-) I~ , 01
:~
~

.,!}L.:..t. ~) d..(..u)

'

:MWI

.yl;QI I~ .b:.T

:~

a!:..b- ,~ ~lA.. w~

.~)~.l>.- ~ ,~I.!..U~ ~i 0i J. ~1 :MWI


~

~}

0;-->-

4...,b.l4...: I)) ~ ~i YQ41))I ~

j:!i. 0.b:.L.,

d~

:~

..1;.#

:~

: MWI
:~

Lesson 8

103

~~~)14 ~) ~rJ4 ~I o~ ip I~U

l) ~) ~rJI u.lJI -.::,........J~

0i ~ 0':;1)

~~)14 ~L..... .:.A:I))I

.4J...:.~1 ~ ..:..0\.:1))1 o~
~
~I L.
'. \ ..... IL

..:..oi;
i;i 0i
\ I~

~u~~

.. ~i ~i ..:..oi..y o~ ~I; ~y...:;.1 0i b ~) o.#' ..:..oWS" ~i


.o.#'
.4J...:.~1 ~ ..:..0\.:1))1 ip 0i ~ ':1
~~J. Jl c:-) J) ~rJ4 ~I o~ ~ ~i 0i ~T .J>- ~ ~i
. 4J)..li

.\.j~ 0~Y'.Y ~I o~ :W~I


~

.~i ..ulfil O~) ..:..0\.:1))1 o~ .1>.T.~


.j:w,~ if

4.k:l-

c: ,~ J,li
.l>?i of W~ ,t.~ J,li c:

:.H.
:W~I

:.H.

.t.')LJI

:W~I

Exercises:

Lt (Homework) Complete the following sentences:


j.--A> L .. 0i l) ~; , ... 0i l) 0~ J.. ~ ... 0i l) ~; ~ , ... 0i l) ~)
0i l) ~.J ~ L .. 0i l) o\.:AJI 4 . J , ... 0i l) ~lbJI ~.J ~ .. . 0i l) 0~;
... 0i l) ~) , ... 0i l) I~) ~ ... 0i l) ~) ~ ~ . ..
U se the following verbs, nouns and phrases.

.4.1 Jl ~~i 0i J~)

~0~1 if \.jl>....a Yr 0i l)~; ~


.I~ ~~ ~ 0i l) ~lbJI~)

~
~

L2 (Homework) Practice the verb ~ by filling in the blanks:

~ ~ , ... 0iL. I~ , ... 0i~ ~ , ... 0i ~ ~ , ... 0i;" ~


0~ ~ L .. 0i ~ ~ ~ ... 0i ~ ~~ L .. 0i ~ ~ L .. ~i
~ ... 0i \;...
L3 (Homework) Practice the verb ~i by filling in the blanks:

0i U:l-L- ~ .... .:;i J-.-T .... 0i ~L .. .. 0i ~~ ~t .... 0i ~~ ~4


~ .... 0i oL:..J1 ~i .... 0i ~~ ~i ~ ... 0i 0~t ~ .... 0i 0~4 ~ ...
.... 01 ~I .... 01~1
I-

#.

I-

#.

104

Lesson 8

L4 The teacher asks the students to read some sentences from their homework
(LI-L3). A second student repeats the sentence and a third translates it. Request
the students to discuss whether the sentences were formed correctly or not.
L5 Say it in Arabic:
Do not do this! I didn't do this. Why didn't you do this? They did not arrive yet.
They will not come tomorrow. Take the book! Put it on the table! Don't leave the
room! You don't know him. You don't know us. He asked me not to go there.

L6 (Homework) Form 5 sentences using the following phrases:


. I~ ,...vJI e ~ ,...vJI ~ ,...vJI ~l...-o ,~ ~
~

L 7 The teacher asks questions using t?, the students answer them as follows:

. ...vJI ~l...-o e.,....J.I

Jl ~~L

<

'iy.JI e~ ylJI,y- ~L

<

Ye.,....J.I Jl ~.l:..... t?
Yy \.:6:JI,y- ~L t?

L8 (Repetition) Add o.4...l>.- (00.4...l>.- ,~~) or another appropriate adjective to the


following nouns which are defined by an affixed pronoun.
o.4JJ:.I ~ < ~ =a;J

,~~ '~.r-" iLoi ,l.;;..La t) ,4,j)~ ,4,j}~.... ,~djj\j~i,~ ,~):4..ijo! ,~l>.- ,~)...v ,~~ 'r')\.k..,. t) ,~If

Gl Negate the following sentences by means of t.


.~~

~i

.~~ ~

<

=a;J

~ . .!I~~ . .!I~~ .~~~./' .~~ Ij./' .~~ La./' .~~ 8./'


.W~ I).b:.i .~...l:>- 0.w:-4 1yW:- . .!I~ ~ .~..ul ..!J.1; t) 1yW:- .~I ~~ t)

~ ...!.U~ LW ...!.U~

J.d

Iy.~ ..W,I ~~ .u-WI

.~~ (.b:.i .~~ 0.b:.i ...vl):-I U.b:.i .y\.:6:JI .b:.i

Jl I~~

.~I Jl ~~ ..!IL.!> Jl ~~ .~~


I t) l}5'i .~ll\ WS'"i .0.r.-:J I ~r- .o~1
.~I er"::""'=? . .!IL.!> ~i
I if if"'"? .I if l:.?
..!.U~ ~~ .~I L..:1.:.~ .~~ ~ y~

.r-M

.r-M

.~ 'iy-:-ll e~ I~) .~i ~L..... ~.,J)I ~) .~i ..,lj)I~) .~I

I~) .~I ~ ~ er- .~l>.-i y~.!I~ .f)~ .~ .~ .~ .~


.U I~ 0i t) I~) .~~ ~ ~ .~~
I~ .~~ ~ .~I Jl
. , v1..:...lJ. '-'
'",i '-:?..~ ~
,
......-:::
.)

J-.

G2 Negate the following sentences by means of

J ,';} or t.

. 0.r.-:JI y r-i ';}

<

Jl ~~i J

<

.I

4,j

. 0.r.-:J I y r-i

=a;J

Jl ~~L

=a;J

.I

Lesson 8

105

G3 Negate the following equational sentences by means of ~ .

.I. ~LbJI ~
<
. ~ ~LbJI ~
.4 a.e.;JI ~
<
.4 a.e.;JI ~
JL>.-)l .. 'jp .0~ JL>.-)l .. 'jp .U.;JI J 0yo-WI .4 ..:;~I . ~ 4 1
<iJ~ .0..L.:..l>. LI~I o..l..A ...:;Wlb ..:;Yl~} .~ o\.::iJI ~ . 0~

y/

y/

~I ~ .~..l>- o..;p.-i !.I~ .y~ a.e.;JI ~ .ofr$' ~ i..fJ.:.>. .~i lfj) . 4~~
. ~l>.-i 4-b
Pay attention to the fact that in the last four examples the noun or phrase
following the prepositional phrase is not the predicate, but the subject of the
sentence. It is the type of sentence dealt with in Lesson 2, Gr 3.1., sentence
structure 2.
G4 Negate the following imperatives.

~~i k:..~1 .:LJ~ J->-~i !!.I~ Jl0:A~l !!.I~ Jl ~~l !i..fWI Iy.~l !y~l
!.:LJ~ I).l...> !j4h-l.l...> !I~.r:.i !C.r>-i !.:LJ~ J-Ul !W~ l..,wl !0..;><l1 ~~
.:LJ~ I~ !LJ ~i !J ~i !~I o~ I)j}l !yL:SJ1 I~ ill !Iyu:-"l !~l
!6.,b.;..;J 1 ~
G5 Transform the negated imperatives into positive commands .

.:LJ~

J->-X 'j !j4h-1.:LJ~ .b:.G 'j

!~ I~'j !~~ l)w 'j !~~ ~ 'j

!~L....)I.:..Lt" I)J}j 'j !~ if C.J- 'j !~II./.,.::..J 'j !!.I~ Jl I~Jj 'j !~I

!a.ilyll ~ ~~ ~ 'j
G6 (Repetition) Form genitive constructions out of the following words.

1st term

r. I.

,~

~
"

~ ,0j\.;;!

~
'0J
L....
~ ,C-...J
. ,a.e
.F
."

,yL...J '0Jt.;....

'C}.r!'

-~

,~

,..:;.# 'i~i

,A...t..-l>.- 'CJ\......A 'C.r-'


"
0j\.;;! ,..:;t......l>.t...... ,..:;lks! ,U"')J...

't

2nd term (defmed)


~
~ 1.

~...l.,.:o 2.
~J...

3.

4..0...,.:.~

4.

106

Lesson 8

J ~ ,~~ ,01j"'.l>.- ,)J.>.. ,yly.i ,y~

uP)

,uu.....

,~~ ,01.JJ.>.. ,)J.>.. ,yly.i

~ ,o.J~ ,~ ,a.;~ ,~ ,yl:S"

like

5.

a.;~

6.

J.:.J..,., 7.

o.J~ '~.J ,0?1.r ,~I.r ,~~i ,~

Cl

.ti)

8.

The teacher explains the colloquial usage of "I want/would like to have .. .",

y..~/j)~ (Egyptian), ':?~ (Syrian, Palestinian), --4) (Iraqi), ~ (Maghrib)

including their pronunciation and the omitting of the final endings in the
colloquial language. Their usage should be practiced without pronouncing the
endings.
1 would like to have a beer / a book / a white bag / a new car / fork and spoon / a
dictionary / a big room / chicken with rice / tea / coffee / ice cream ...
. ~L. ~ / --4) / ':?~ / oy..~ 'y..~ \.ji
~
C2 The teacher explains the question "Do you want/WouId you like to ... 7" using
the colloquial forms given above and practices them without pronouncing the
endings.

~(I)yl:S" y..~ pi / y..~ ...:..Ji (~)


~,:?w. ~~ / ~~ (~)

.p --4~ (~)

~lS"

C3 The teacher explains the colloquial usage of "I don't want ... " and asks the
question ~ . . . 0y..~ pi!y..~ ~i (~) using the phrases from C2.

"
. (I)yl:S"
oy..~ / y..~ ~

/ J--

\.jl

.yl:S" ':?~ L.

--4) L. / ":1
.(I)yl:S" ~ L. / ":1

~
~

.(I)yl:S"

C4 Put a colloquial variant of "to want" in the places possible in Text 2 (orally).
Pay attention not to mix different variants with the same speaker.
CS Prepare a dialogue about the same topic based on Text 2.

C6 Discuss the meaning of the following sayings and proverbs with ":1 together
with your teacher.

!..)j:.

J1 i y.-ll ~ (postpone)
c)

o ~ "" J

~ y ":1

iy.-ll (egg) ~ (tomorrow) o.J'""" h,.~.:l ci ":1


.(dogs) ~J\f ,y J:>.) (state) 4JJ"'uI if. (to be afr~id of) ~ ":1
. (head) ~i.J ,y (bigger) pS"i (jug) j'p ,y y~ ":1
. (blood) i"'uI

J-.:l

(except) ":11 (religion)

'i lAkJ1 ,J>- (here:

shake hands)

::p ":1

rJl... ":1

Lesson 8
Final Exercise:
1. Negate the following sentences by means of

107

t.

. o~1 I~~ ...uI):.1 u.b:.i .~ .4.lL...... J ~ 0i tj ~J .w.s 4.:.A LYk


J~I if ~) . ~I if C""'>- .~I j!~ .~I WS"i .u--i ~.;)I -:.l..o J
~ ~ .4..J ~ 0i.}i '0.r.-? "I~.J+>." I)~ .~..ul ~ tj I~ . ~I Jl
.4.lL..)I P
.~.s ~ .ofrS' ylj>-~ 0;\s. ~~i ~J .ofrS' J';J tj ~I
J5'l:

d J ~I yA, 0i tj~) .U")..ul ~ .o~~1 ..uI):.1J>-~.f..-:;.

.r--U

2. Translate into Arabic.


You didn't write this letter. The Egyptian delegation didn't arrive in London. He
didn't take the newspaper. They didn't know the Arabic dictionaries. You (f)
didn't write novels. I didn't advise you (sg. f) to take these books. I didn't want
you (pI. m.) to learn Arabic. We didn't drink beer.
3. Negate the following sentences by means of

J,

'j or

t.

'Cw.....)jl ~ 0~ ...!.lJ.s ~ . ~..L:lI oft>.'~~ ~ .~I J10J~


"
~
.~.rJI a....i.UI 0-")-4 . J~I..!.lJ~ ~~ .~.s Jfl .l>~ 4 1if~?

"

~~ . ~lyLI tj ~I ~J . \s.~1 0J~ .ofrS' JL..) ~ 01 tj~;


-:r-i U f ..y.J.I ~~.f"- . ~I tj ~ . ~~.t 0i ~ . ~~ ~
.~i~
4. Negate the following sentences by means of ~.
~

~i ..y.J.I tj ~ .0J~ ~i .~~ ~i . y~ ~ .o-4..l>:- t./' . ~ y.


!JG . ~L:.,.i 4k ~I tj .YLb Gi .ofrS' ~ ~J.:.$. .0~ JL:.,.) ~ .wl.r.):>I...!:. y. . o~lfiJI tj ~I . ~l> J5'~1 ' ~f ..ul..r5. Translate into Arabic.
He is not big. I don't have a lot of dictionaries. She is not in London. You are not
diligent. The students (f) are not tall. You are not a teacher (f). We are not
clever. The wine is not in the refrigerator. They are not in the university. You are
not right.
6. Negate the following imperatives.
0i I~l ! ~l ! ~ jJI if c..r-.f"-i ! yl:QI .b:. !

! C..,..>-i 0i

r--U1J5' ! ~I y ~l

J ~1 ! J-->-~i ! ~~ ~l ! !J~ Jl ~~1 ! 4.lL..)I ~i ! ~i


!o~ ~i! ~.rJI IYJ~i! ~ ~l

7. Translate into Arabic.


The discussions are not long. He wrote on the occasion of the national holiday.
The minister didn't get the Nobel prize. The newspaper didn't write about
military cooperation. The president and the government of the country don't
make efforts to widen trade. The ' German minister arrived in Damascus in the

UNiVERSIDAD DE SEVILLA
_

~.,

I _

,,...

D;h\lnt~(,:1

108

Lesson 8

framework of a tour in the Middle East. The Russian president met his American
counterpart. I didn't know many answers.
8 Fill in the blanks and vocalize the patterns.
Jussive
Subjunctive
Imperfect

J
\

Perfect

'"

Y.Jx

, ,

Lesson 9
I)",' ''''

1. The Dual (~i)

The Arabic language has a third number in addition to the singular and the
plural: the dual. It is used when two things or persons are denoted. The dual is
formed by means of suffixes the characteristic morpheme of which is the long
vowel tt, which is expanded by n in some cases.
1.1. The dual of the noun

Suffix: 0L in the nominative,';': in the genitive and accusative:


,

pI.

n.

s~

0;kJi

g.

0,

~i
-,

a.

"

0,

~
-,
~

.F
:.

0,

~i

~
-,

~i
-,

~f
~:~f

'"
0~

0,

dual
~

0,

0,

0~

0~i

n.

g.

~i
,

a.

~i
,

"

0-.:
,
0-.:.1::
,

1: :

0,

~ Al The genitive and the accusative of the dual cannot be distinguished from the same cases of the
sound masculine plural in the unvocalized typeface.

pI.
~

} ,

n.

~~i

g.

-.::..>~i

a.

~~i

'"

0,

0,

s~
~

..

'/fI

0 ...

>J/

0,

jJI

0 ....

~~

~i

"
.--.: . > ~

~i

"
-.: . > ~

..

"
~

~i

dual
n.

""

'11

0 ....

""

'11

0 .....

0~i

g.
a.

>J/

.~
u-

~i
,

.~

0:{. i;:jf

. -' "
~
,

110

Lesson 9

The ending.) is dropped if the dual is in the construct state, e.g. if it functions
as the 1st term / of an lqa,fa or if an affixed pronoun has been added. The same
applies to the sound plural.

~)I
~(J
/
/f

the two companions of the delegation

;)\ ~(:2

with the two companions of the delegation

~~(J

her two escorts

/f

16'~;\/J

with her two escorts

"/fC::

~A2 The affixed pronoun of the 1st p. sg., if added to a dual fonn, is Zf: my two friends Zf~...L..:>;
(cf. lesson 6, Gr 2.2.1.1.).
There is agreement in case, state, gender and number between a noun in the dual and an adjectival
attributive adjunct:
"'",

'"

u\.j..tJ..l>.

"/

"'", '11", J

.". _ J-;.

u\.j:U~\
",

ul:':'kU

'"

'"

u~

;.;~~\

'11

u\~~\

J.

1/

.;:.:.w\ ~I)
,;

I'

u
-4f.>.- ,U\..o...Ul..A
,

.,

.':U~\
..:r.",
/

'11

J ...

ul.:.Wi
'11

J.

."1::'1\ ~

~
/

Two attributive adjuncts in the singular can also be employed instead of one
attributive adjunct in the dual. In this case each of them belongs to only one of
the two concepts embodied in the dual form of the noun respectively:
the two teachers, the old one and the new one =
the old and the new teacher
J

0 ) /.

U(
_1\
"/ ff.)

The Syrian and the Iraqi government

J.

,.

0 ....

li

~ .~ 11 .)~ C~
"Jr-'
~

1.2. The dual of the pronoun


rd
Both the independent and the affixed pronouns have dual forms in the 3 and
nd
2 p. The suffix is -ii.
affixed pronouns

independent pronouns

them both; both their

~-

both of you/you both; both your

W'-

both of them

both of you

~i

The demonstrative \jJ. has the same dual suffix that the noun has:
m.

f.
n.

g. / a.

.)W~

.)\jJ.

.;.ilA
/

..

J.oU

Lesson 9

111

~ A3 In the feminine dual form of the demonstrative the long vowel ii in the first syllable is also
expressed in the typeface.

1.3. The verbal dual forms

Perfect tense: The suffix ~ is added to the 3rd p. sg.'m. and f. and to the 2nd p. pI. m.
Imperfect tense: The suffix ~i is added to the 3rd p. sg. m. and f. and to the 2ndp. sg. m.:
perfect tense

imperfect tense
rd

3 p. m.
3rd p. f.

~ A4 The ending 0 is omitted in the subjunctive and in the jussive.

Imperative: The dual suffix ii is added to the masculine imperative of the


~ t
singular: L:5\ , ')W1 (appendix: Table 9).
0

~ AS There is no verbal dual form in any modem Arabic dialect, but some dialects have the nominal
dual. Adjectives, however, are not attested in the dual in any known colloquial. This is why we, in
the interest of actual usage, refrained from employing the dual forms in Text 2 of this lesson in the
passages in which, according to the rules of Modem Standard Arabic, a dual form would have to be
employed.
2. The Numerals 1 and 2
2.1. The Arabic words for the cardinal numerals 1 and 2 are adjectives and agree
as such with the principal noun in case, state, gender and number:
2.2.

They are:

m.

.
~\
- .
~\
-.

...

nO

n.

08\

g.

, ...

nO

a.

08\

...
~\
, -.
...

-.

~\
,

f.

m.

O~\J

~\J

...

O~\J
,
~

~\J

O~\J

\~\J

~ A6 The initial Hamza of 0 G l is a Hamzat al-wa~l: ~ ~\ e:-.


...

~\J / o~\J are not employed as an indefinite article (the latter is exclusively
expressed by the indefiniteness of the noun: nunation, no article; cf. Lesson 4, Gr 3.2.),
but are strictly used as a numeral: ~\J yt;f one book.

0G1
/ ,08 1rarely occur as an attributive adjunct (they are at most, added to the
,
noun as an emphasis), as duality is already expressed by the dual form of the latter.

112

Lesson 9

2.3. The ordinal numerals of 1 and 2 are adjectives as well and are subject to the
above-mentioned rules of agreement. They are (if the numerals are deftnite):

2.

1.

f.
~

n.

a.:; t!Ji
" ;

g.

a.:; t!Ji

";

~ ;

a.

a.:; t!Ji
" ;

J)~f

~~

.t!J\

~ ;

m.

f.

m.
~;

~~

.t!J\

J)~i

J~~f
J~~f
;

; t!Ji

J)~i

J~~f

The numeral adverbs "frrst(ly)" and "secondly" are expressed by the indeftnite
~

~ ~

accusative of the ordinal numeral: ~~ , ':J)\ .

3.

"how much/many"

rs-

3.1. To ask about the quantity of people or things,


is used. The construction
is as follows:
a)
+ indeftnite noun in the accusative singular:

rs-

how many books


how many men
how many times = how often

+ deftnite noun in the genitive plural:


b) r~ <' + rX
JJ

how many books, how many of the books

~\:X~

how many men, how many of the men


Uncountable nouns or single concepts (usually designated in the singular) are
treated as follows:
how much time, how long


p)\:X~

how much meat

~\:X~

how much money

~.;J\:X ~

~~.

3.2. The predicate follows the indeftnite noun:


How many books have you bought?
How many books do you have?

Lesson 9

113

The same word order applies to interrogative sentences which are introduced
by ~ + ~ + defInite noun. However, the predicate is set directly after ~ m
some cases:
How many books do you have?

3.3. ~ can be combined with various prepositions. The following noun is either
in the accusative according to the given rule, or in the genitive, in subordination
to the preposition:

for how much, by how much


~~~
,
0,
'0 \ .,
.~
.i~~

F or how many pounds did you buy that?

.. ~

.,;

with how much/many


With how many students did you study
there?

~~ ~
.,

11""

.. /

~~
~!J~ ~ ' ; ~I.k / UI.k ~ e::
'"

."

~.,;

?,

.,

for how long


For how many years have you been
studying there?

'J

~!J\..:.P.

J 0'

(.)")X

"

?',

~ ~

J. OJ

..\..:..A

..\..:..A

3.4. ~ also occurs as a (predicative) term of an equational sentence. The noun the subject of the sentence - which follows ~ is not in the accusative here, but in
the nominative:

~!J~~

How (much) is your age? = How old are you?

~JJo
. ., .F-::" ~

How (much) is its price? = How much does it cost?


How (much) is its height? = How high is it?

~~U;~\ ~

How (much) is the hour? = What time is it?

~~W\~

J,

'

An inversion of the word order is also usual in the last example: ~~ ~wi.
It is possible that ~ or ~ comes between ~ and the subject, especially if

the latter is a noun which is defIned by the article:


How much is the rent?
How (much) is the distance between ... and ... ?
How far is it from ... to ... ?

~A7 L. can be used in the same meaning instead of the predicative

rS':
~.r--JI

L. ~:uL.J. I

r.I" L.

114

Lesson 9

The Names of the Months:

January

, '.~
Syrian/Iraqi <..I,W\0
y

Egyptian ~L:.i

February

J,~

f..A

March

~\~T

'J') (.

April

j~

~of.'i

May

)'w1
0

y..'(.

June

j(;';' , j\~;'

~y..

, ('.

, ,

J,,;

J.

j~

).J.

August

yl

~i

September

J~i

July

,,, ,

'.0
J..r-'-

}')"
f. 0 \

November

W} ,
J..\
J.~

r.-Jj

December

J)~\ jj~

J~ ~\}

October

-.

. ,

}"

}"

.r.--:.~

~ AS All names of months are diptotes. They are regarded as proper names and are definite without
having an article.
The Names of the Twelve Months of the Islamic Calendar:
number name of the number of
number
name of the
of days
month
month
of days
the month

(30)

(30)

(29)

(29)

(30)

(30)

(29)

(29)
11

(30)

th

number of
the month

(30)

(29)

(29)

The last month of the year, which consists of30 days in leap years, is the month
of the pilgrimage to Mecca. (See also the summary in the appendix.)
The days of the week in Arabic are as follows:
....
o .":}
~\
~~~\
~~~~\
~~\ ~ ~~ 1\
~\
~/\
iY}

..

Friday

Thursday

Wednesday

Tuesday

Monday

Sunday

Saturday

Lesson 9

115

V
i
~.!JJ ~ i
) ~T C
t
~y ~1

(interrogative particle)
... , isn't it?
antiquities

oil

ethnologic, anthropological
history; date
Spanish, Spaniard
Asian
African

o~

~).; C ~}.J/ ~)w

~~l

0.r C

T
0.r C c.$ ~
4,j).;i ,0.r C ~}l

As far as (A1).mad) is .: .(~)j


concerned ...
fonn, questionn~ire
(mostly written 0 )~I)
English

. I(-~I

. I(-~I

C c.$ ~.
~4/~

~.

,.

state

~
J)~ C dj)~

religion

04~i C ,y..~

low

C::;U

education

~;

reference book
cheap, reasonable (price)

e-1r C e-

~)

~\,;~i C ~)

number

~~4}1

~I)j

agriculture

wife

~L C h.-)j

to fall (down)

(~)~

0.r C y1y' thick, heavy

(~)

ti

J/ G; L;
JJ

winter

C."t C ~
J~ c .}.>.-

snow, ice
mountain

J /

...Jt; ~)

to collect sth.

e::-

~Iy>.- C ~l>.-

~
./

(~) ~~

sky

0y~ person

thirty

~~

~i
~
vP
C

I
,-,I

oriental studies

..r--::-" /

, J.

to feel sth.

\",.J (

/'

.)

Jl

~l>.-

-J

I~r-

Thank you very much.

(,rWI) j ly>.J J

to order sth., to book sth.

source (for information)

)~ l.,a....

1.fJ;.
J~

north
J

passport

F'-'"

~pJ4 ~

to be cold, to freeze

beside

)..l.,a..o

summer

0}r- Chinese

0.rC~

...Jt; (~) ~

heat, temperature
~L

civilization, culture
suitcase
to carry sth.
servant (f)
autumn, fall

.\.

~ loA>-

...Jt;

O)~

C
C

to comprise

J.'

a....~l>:
~?
/

"

...Jt;(~)~

. .
~

.'

(~)

~L

.
.r

spring

,,0 ..

(colloq.)

belonging to

side

especially

mathematics

porter, doonnan
to belong to so.

(...li'"-i) L:i

~L C 0}..o.~~

~d
tip

specialization

JI 6,jL,oI

in addition to
floor

'. l"k C~. lk


~
,

dissertation

10

~LC h-)~I

116

Lesson 9

J~ hat,cap

moderate, temperate

0J~

twenty

0.1~
,

coat

~, village

J J

i~~r-4

science, studies

scientific

t~)lI~

sociology
biology

coming

glove
how much / many
for how much / many

~~~I~

air condition

uLo~~

to dress sth.

information
J

~~~~ German mark

institute

ul ~ o~l:t to stay

a medical doctor's office


to leave sth.

...Jb

(~~~) )~U:.

minibar

JU:. Indian

expensive
branch

to have to, must

French

I was born

section, paragraph; season

birth(day)

peasant, farmer

daily

Text 1

~l:1:

i fJ ~l>.. ~I y')\,6JI i f ~IJ ~fi i f y')l.1 ~ i f)~J

.~I

o.t:f'J

~...l>- ~l>..

a. <J ~u, lii .y.rJI y~1 ~~~ i f ~I j f iJ .Yf y;U; ~

.ih o.t:f' o~ ~

~~ ~I ~J 4....;:.1))lJ ~~IJ ~~~I u~ ~I tJ~1 i f ~tJ:.I ~ J


~ .;JI J ~~~I a;J)1 '-,?i ,uL;J.\1 a. ~ 4.~~1 tJ.;JI i f Loi .u~4)\J
Jl UL,al ,~.r.-" ':}I J a )!)~I uL;J.\IJ <->.;>- ~I 4.)J ~I uL;J.\IJ a..:-- J)\J ~~ )lI J
~

tlo.>. ~I ~J ~L,a;:j~IJ J ,#IJ 4.jJI utJ$"'


uL..I)..uI.rA \-+,a..~~ J ~~b.U~t!L.:lI

u...u

4JrJI uL....I)..u1 ~ <J ~..l.,.:o if)JJ J


~I~TJ ~)\...:2>- J y .rJI ~}j '-,?i 4..rJ I

ill~ ~L>.- Jl J...>..YJ .l:::...l>- J


~J ~}~~IJ ~jJIJ ~IJ ~..clIJ ~))l1 uL....I)..ill <->.;>-i..u.~ ~I

. ~~I )t;':}1 ~ ~ J 04~ ~I ~}j


~

Jl )~ ~..l.,.:o L..i . ~i o~~ <J ~..ul o~ <J ~

LI)..u1 ~ ~i j

~t::S:J 4..,. j~1 )~L.,a..l.IJ e::-I)I !.I~ ~ J 4..,.~WI a..:--I)..ul UI

<J

~ oJJ. ~

.4:>- J;,i

Lesson 9

117

J~'~

Text 2
$.

ss

-J

#.

#.

tJI

~t..J..>. 4.:1 ,~) ~I d}>-~I d~ 'ft:L1 ~~ :t.~L;l1

.~

4.i..f ~i 0i ~~) wi ..Jy.\1 ~~


:H.
~~ ii 4.i..f :t.~L;l1
~

.W
'~.J o~ JA..!.

:H.

dJ.l5') ~~ 1./') o~ JA..!.lj~ :t.~L;l1


~o ~
. :.' _I 1 ~I t"'''
<:.'
:H.
~

.I.J~)~,J..~ ~ O)--4 0~1 u.::JI :t.~L;l1

'ij~ ~I) I:h:.

.Jl>-

~I ~~IY" ~.J

.h!

~ ,0':;1 ~pJ~ ~:)-) I~l>- ~ ~I~) .I.J~)~ ~~~. :t.~L;l1


~)I ~ \..:..!I o),}-I
JL)...I ~ L,.,l>.)

~ ~ -.:;..ji .aJ~ 0':;1 o),}-I) ~~I ~ ~ 0':;1


.~)-I)~I)
,.
,. ,.
y.. ~I ~ ~.J)I J~ ~ lj~) .dJ~ j f l ljl

.~l"
. :. -11 ;j~. 11 .b:.T lji . p
wt -.:,J~
. . 0~
) . )~..;.kl.

:H.

I: .~

~I..T)

~.J~ j~1 ~ ~
. j ~I -.:,J\"'.J..>. if -.:,J~)rJ.I 1y.l1.; 0i ~ ~ ,~ : t.~L;l1

u-:1 i ,~ Js- ~ 0i J-~ j

~I

Jl -.:,J~)rJ.I ~ ~

,~i wi

:H.

~dJ.l5'

..!ll,a; ,:,;--.0 ~i 'i~UlI

.0}4:.....~1 o~

r.>- ~I) ~ .JJ>-' ~I 'J>-

Js- -.:;..ji

:t.~L;l1

Js- jly4-1 ~.J) ~~I ~);) ~Iy) ~~~I


~4.:~)'~ } ~.rJ~

:H.

~0 ).J~liU d-" .~ if ,4.:~~~ :t.~L;l1

118

Lesson 9

Exercises:

Lt Identify the nouns in the Vocabularies of Lesson 8 and 9. Form the indefInite
and the defInite dual and transform one of the two into the genitive by means of
an appropriate preposition.
j:!~1

01~1 - 01~ - ~

cj -

~I cj - 0~1 - 0~

-?

L2 Answer the following questions using the dual or ..b-I) / o..b-I) .


. o..b-I) as.L!J~ ~

<

~!J~ ~ as.L ~

.~L!J~~:}

~(~I cj ,~I cj) ~I cj ~

as.L ~

~(Ll"j..ul ,Jw~1 o.h ,~) ~I J ~ ~


~(~~ ,!J~ ,as.WI

cj) ~I cj -.:;.......1.,.
~(~I cj ,~I cj ,~ cj) ~I cj ~
~(~I cj ,~WI cj ,..LWI .!.lJ.) cj) ~..ul .!It cj ~
~(!J~ ,WWI ~ cj '4. cj) J~I cj ~
~ (~I l.h cj) :wJI o.h ~ j;) Is-J'~...i ~
~(I.!.blt..l,.::>i ~ ,~~) J~I cj ~
~

~(0yJ.I cj ,~I cj) ~I cj ~


~(~ cj ,!J~

6.Jv

d~) ~1.!.lJ.) cj ~

~(~I .!.lJ.) ,~..ul


~(~Is-

cj ,~..ul

.!It) 4,j jJI .!It cj ~


.!It cj) ..LW I .!.lJ.) cj ~

~(:wJI o.h ,~1l~1 :wJI) ~.rll :wJI ~ j;)


~(~I .!.lJ.)

cj ,~..ul .!It cj) !J~ ~


~(~WI cj ,o-""WI cj ,~f. cj) r)jY cj ~
~~~ (~lll ,~I) ~I if
~

~~~ (,.>L.!JI) o~\ if


~

~~ / ..:.;.l;.:.i (ol>...( dj4>-- ,t...,I:?, ,W;)


~wl:l:-I

.!.lJ.) ,t...,I~1

.!It)

.!It cj

~ j;) (4..:..... )

,yt::5:JI .!.lJ.) ~I l.h C-!~I (j':1 );)


~(j4J:.I

~(~I Jl '~I Jl) !J~ Jl ~.) ~lt..l,.::>~1 if

~
I~ ~

Lesson 9

~(..:;~~\ .~..rJ\ ~\ ''':;\Jt;..J\) ..:;~\ i f

~~ ~ (i,J!.

119

,!)~

.t...r.""i .~\...... ,~) ~

rS

rS L

L3 Same as L2 but the question in the 2nd p. pI., answer in the 1si p. pI.

L4 Same as L2 but using the corresponding verb in the imperfect tense.


L5 Same as L3 but using the corresponding verb in the imperfect tense of the 2nd
p. pI. in the question and the 1si p. pI. in the answer.

L6 Answer the following questions.

~\.u}

cJ W\ J~ ~l.c-"i r../' L.
~lu} cJ ~)I J*' ~l.c-"i r../' L.
~lu} cJ ~\ J*, ~l.c-"i r../' L.
~\.u} cJ ~.J-\ J*' ~l.c-"i r../' L.
~4J} cJ ~t::..:J\ J*, ~l.c-"i r./' L.
L 7 (Repetition) A number of genitive .constructions are quoted in the followin
exercise. Put the respective form of \..u in such a way that it a) refers to the 2n
term and b) to the 1si term of the Itfiifa.

\~ ~~\ yl::5'

I ~~\ \~ yl::5'

~~\ yt::$"

<

<

.~\

~ .~..u\ a-l>.- ..LW\ ~l>- .O~\ ~\.j..l..pi ,y~\ ..:;y.:1 .oJt;..J\ 0}


~
~
"
.sS\..,.; ..u}\ ~~i .J...4)\ ..:;\.j~ ,L.. J..u\ ~ ,~l>.- yJU, .~..l..p ~
j

...LW\
L8 Pratice the usage of

0i (and so on ~

.~ .~ <}~) ~ based on the

following material:

~ I ")\Si) v4)? 0 ~ I -:r.:; ':. ~ / 0:J.r. Jl }\........i I ~Lw J ~i

I ~i o~~ cJ ~i I (JU-\ cJ 0 ~ I ~..rJ\ WJ\ 0;-- JX I J""; Jl ~\


I Jy>-JJ4 .J ~ I d..A j~\ J~W\) C""\)\ 0~ I u:~ o:U ~ Jlu:}W
~\ jS"'t I ~\ y ~ / ~l>.- j.b:.t I ~..u\ Jl C""; / ip L. ~

Gl

Replace the object / the noun of the prepositional phrase by the affixed
pronoun.

.~iJ

<

~lY~

<

.-:r..k)l ..::...:C

~\J1Y~ ~
.0:1t;Q\ (ti; ~ .wi;) ..:;i;
.~\ o~ (i.)j
,i;i ..:;i;

t)

120

Lesson 9

...:..o\...:AJI
(...;:.,i
I ...

\ .Jc..r-

d.,;.,i
.J ) ~i
.J

.~..lll .!..lli l) (~ ,~) ~


.~I if ~t) (~..,.:;. ,l:.r!") ~..,.:;.

e:: !ll.;,p. Jl (I~~ 'Y~) ~~


.A~I e:: !ll.;,p. Jl (0Y>~) ~~
.~\.j~~1 e:: !ll.;,p. Jl (~~ d~~) ~~
.~~I

.~ (J'J~ ,L.. .J~) ~.J~

.0 frS' ...:..oliJ (~.J~ ~ d.r" .J~) ~.J~

.~I l) ~I (~)~)

.j:!j4J=.1 (IJ.b:.i ,lj.b:.i) ...:..o.b:.i

..
I....f'::'"IL.... .J

('.~
,~)
~
.

..::-:S
.

.~I if (IJ>-'.,r>- ,b.,r>-)...::...:>:-.,r>-

.p.:ll Ih (~ ~ 'W") ~
.~WI .!..lli l) (~ ~ d~) ~

.(~I ,4,$"I~1 ,~I) rill (I))i d.a5'i) ~i


.J~I

Jl (~.J ~

'~.J)~.J

...r...ll I (I).f..:;. ,lj.f..:;.) ...:..o.f..:;.


.~l;:ijl ~lA

Jl (...:..0P

'p) ...:..0p

G2 Put the proper demonstrative in front of the following nouns.

J>--)I Ih
J \.>..)1 ~ 'J' ~

0;k-)I j:! h
,...:..ol:).;--!ll ,0l:......... .J..llI
,..y.,JI ,0\>..r.-" ~I

,t.L..::.>.- 'J'I ,a..;Jj1

'.f.J

,01~1 '~';)I ,...:..o~1

,llL..... ~I ,0L:JlkJI ,~\.j~~1

e::
e::

~I

J>--)I

e::
0;k-)I e::

<

<
<

J \.>..)1

,01j4J=.1 ,01.tWI

'cr"'U ,u;::lL....)ll)

,01~1 ,~)..ul

,0l:iljll

'i\'/~I

e:: ,0L4,bJ.I '~.J~l: ,...:..o\.>..\.>..)I ,~jJI l) ,J)..ul


.0J>'~1 ,Jc:.JI ,u-!')UI ,0MI ,~.;JI ,Jw.~'1

G3 Transform the perfect to imperfect tense and vice versa in the following
sentences.

~~L.....J 0ys0 ~

.~IJ1
.,
\>. Lo.:>.-I ...

\>.Lo.:>.-I lj ~

~~Iif ... ~

~ ~I if 0\.>.. fi ~

Lesson 9

~~~ ... I~ll. : Ji ~~~ ... I~ll.

121

~~~ 0~ I~ll.

.
.... j:!1

~0~ j:!i

~ ... I~lo

~~~I~lo

~ ... I~lo :Ji ~ ... I~lo

~0L..)~ I~lo

G4 (Homework) Put the dual in those passages in Text 2 where the context
allows it. (However, pay attention to Gr 1.3., A 5 in this lesson.)
G5 (Repetition) Transform the perfect into the imperfect tense and vice versa.

~ .~JJ.I ~l,b.. if ~

<J

{,

0~ .j5")<1 ~ (.,.>WJI y ~

"".
.\J
f ' loW:. I~I

j-A \$-~~ j-A ~J->-)I ill~ 0~ j-A '~fi ,~~~lj~~1 ~'jJA J rJ


ui; .~I <J ~ C:!'J .~~ ~i .'Op:S' JL..) ~ .~~I IJ..w. ~~~

i.H1 <JI.rJI ..u)1 ~


j-A . 'O~I

"

.4..rJI 4.i.UI I,)"J...li .011.~1 ljjlj~i ~~ ~ .~I.:...Lt

if ljb.a Yf'1 .'O~I ~WI

<J 0~

Cl>.-..ul

i..r.11R

4..rJ 1.:l.,t)1

J.a.i

r..:l ~ ~uIJI~IJ ~I j5"b-

G6 (Repetition) The teacher quotes the following verbs in different persons in the
perfect or imperfect tense and the student adds the verb in the other tense.

,J~ ,~ ,~

J; ,JL

'C:!' J

,J.,.:> J 'C: ,~

'Y ~ ,~ 'I,)").:l ,~~

~ ,~ ,~ ,~

,j5"i 't.Jj

'C::"" J 'C?

Cl Every student answers the question about the month of his birthday.
C2 Have a conversation about your arrival and the check-in at a hotel based on
Text 2.
C3 Create a telephone conversation from your room in a hotel asking the servant
to bring drinks I breakfast I lunch I dinner to your room. The teacher plays the
role of the room service.
C4 Complain by phone to the reception desk of the hotel about the malfunction of
your tv, air conditioner, a telephone call abroad and so on. The teacher plays the
role of the hotel receptionist.
Final Exercise

122

Lesson 9

2. Transform into genitive constructions.


1st term

2nd term
0rhll
~

0t;:; jJI 0~\A ,..::;Ij~1 o.lA. ,..::;\.:.- ).,1i

t.}r;' ,..::;l,6! ,0yili~ ,0l;..\.:.t 'C)..-A

~..ul

~I.:.U~ ,~I o.lA. ,0~~

o.lA.

~~

3. Translate into Arabic.


I have to write two letters. He has to work abroad. She must eat the fish. You (f)
must book two rooms. We must carry the two suitcases to the rooms. They have
to wear coats, hats and gloves. You (P/.) must ask the second teacher.
4. Transform the perfect into the imperfect tense and vice versa.

Le ~ .JUlI ......Q....k.,JI ~ .JWI

Lo.::JL

~0~

.:r.i ~~~

I~t... ~0L...)X I~t...

~Lr:!jlyl:-I ~) LJ-:!i .~;ll) ~)I ~I :; 0L...)x . w:::a~

:; ~pJ~

.e-I)I) .)~l..all 0~

5. Translate into Arabic.


The faculties of the university are the faculties of physics, chemistry, biology,
mathematics, the faculty of languages as well as the faculty of education, the
faculty of law and the two faculties of economics and agriculture. I am studying
at the Institute for Arabic Studies. My institute is small and old. Apart from this
institute there are institutes for African, Egyptian, Indian, Chinese and Turkish
studies and an institute for the history of religions in the framework of oriental
studies.

Lesson 10
(:iy~' .),~~f)

1. Cardinal Numerals

The Arabic numerals are written in the following way:


9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
,. ~
A
V
i
0
t
i
r
,

10

~ Al The numernIs for 2 and 3 differ in writing from the printed signs given above, namely (' for 2 and for 3.
Compound numbers which are expressed by numerals are written from the left to the right as in
English: 1994 \ 0, 'H .

1.1. The numerals are:

~ifr

...\.:>- \ ,

wii~id

0G~

ithniin

~')\;

thaliitha

~)

arbaca

4....-i'-

khamsa

4....::.....

sitta

sabca

~\1

thamiiniya

,.

tisCa

or

cashara

According to grammatical rules the numerals 3 - 10 are regarded as diptotes in


abstract counting. Consequently the correct pronunciation would be wii~idun,
ithniini, thaliithatu, arbaCatu, khamsatu, etc. In general, however, the endings are
dropped in oral usage. Accordingly we pronounce: wii~id, ithniin, thaliitha,
arba Ca, etc.
1.2. The numerals 1 and 2 are adjectives. They were treated in Lesson 9. By
contrast 3 -10 are nouns. Each numeral from 1-10 has a masculine and a feminine
form. The numerals are used in abstract counting as shown, i.e. 1 and 2 in their
masculine, 3 -lOin their feminine forms.
1.3. The rule of so-called polarity applies to 3 -10 in connection with a noun as
the counted item, i.e., a masculine word is preceded by the feminine form of the
numeral, a feminine word by the masculine form of the numeral. The numeral
and the noun are the 1st and the 2nd term of a genitive construction. The noun is
indefInite and takes the genitive plural.

124

Lesson 10

in connection with a feminine noun

in connection with a masculine noun


~

...:."l;:; ...:..>~

~ / Jl>.-.J ~~

/
'/J l>.-.J~)
.'
~

J
~
/
Jl>.~
"/
.J

"

J.

0 (

pt.? tI)

- '../
,

"

...:."t.?-.:,.......

...:." l;:;
" ,
"

...:."l;:;

J~

~
/ Jl>.-.J ~
"/
/

'\1

"

~
/ Jl>.-.J ~
_/
.
,~ / Jl>.-.J 4\1
/

_l;:;'o~

p-

.,

...:."l;:; ~

Jo /
...:."l;:; ~

~/
Jl>.- .J ~. .....
/

~
/ Jl>.-.J o~
_/
/

"

This rule about polarity also applies when the noun does not immediately
follow the numeral or is not mentioned at all.
three men
three of the men
three of them
I have seen three.

1.4. The numerals 11-19 are indeclinable (J:,...JI if

tP) with one exception,

namely the numeral 12. There }s agreement in gender, not polarity in gender,
between the numeral m. ~ , f o~ which denotes ten and the following noun.
The noun takes the accusative singular.

.ob

in connection with a masculine noun

in connection with a feminine noun

o~ l>~l

.
.

~.J~~~

obo~...:..>~

\t
\ 0

~.J ~ ~~i

Lesson 10

125

\i
~

ol;:;

o~ ~

\V
\/\

~ A2 The rule of polarity in gender which applies to the numerals 3-10 also applies to the numerals
13-19 in so far as the masculine numeral denoting the unit is connected with the feminine numeral
denoting ten and, vice versa, the feminine numeral denoting the unit with the masculine numeral
denoting ten. Accordingly polarity in gender exists within the two terms of these compound
numerals. On the other hand, there is agreement in the numerals 11 and 12: a masculine numeral
denoting the unit is connected with a masculine numeral denoting ten, and a feminine numeral
denoting the unit with a feminine numeral denoting ten.

~ A3 The dual inflection already treated occurs in the genitive and accusative of the numeral 12:

. ........................... . .

~.~~~~.~~~;~.~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~:

. . 'Jl.

:~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~

~>~~

..................................................................................... ................. ........ ::O' ............... :; ...


~

... , '

I saw twelve men there.

. p:>ro)

~A4 The numeral 10 is masc. ~,fem. o~, whereas it is ~ and


a component of the compound numerals 11-19.

.rs- ...r /!le.:;. y )


'"

"\

.11. ~

0'\

o~ when it functions as

1.5. The numerals 20 - 99 are followed by the noun in the accusative singular as
well. The numerals 20, 30, , 40J up to 90 which
denote tens have the form of the
/
sound masculine plural (n. 0.r- , g., a. ~). The units compounded with them
follow the rules stated under 1.3. and 1.4., i.e. there is agreement in gender
between the numerals 1 and 2 which denote units and the counted item, polarity
in gender between the numerals 3-9 which denote units and the counted item. The
word order is different from modem English; units come before tens.

in connection with a masculine noun

in connection with a feminine noun

'l;:;'

0)~

0"

..

'"

J. 0

ol;:; 0)~)

ol;:;

ol;:;

ol;:;

ol;:;

'J\>..,)

Jo

,.

~ /

".

...

0)~)..l>-\

~\)

rr

(0)~) "..;,;~

ri

'J\>..,) 0)~) 4.J~

'0y~

~,) '0;~

'0y~) (.,:.b-1

i\

ol;:;

ol;:;

... 0

(.,..l>-1

'0 ) ~)
08\,
,

~,) (0)~

r.

J.

'"

"J

'"
Jo
.,) '"0)~)
0G1

":.

~,)'0;~) ~i

J"

/ ~\)

'0y~) 081

ir

~,) '0;~) 081

'0y~) "..;,;~

ii

~,) '0;~) ~~

126

Lesson 10
,

0';'~i
~t:; 0~
ct:; 0 . .
.r-:"
";;t:; 0~
ct:;

;;t:;

JG,..J 0';'~ i

~.J 0y-J--

~.Ju*

~,

......

~.~

SG...J 0~
JG,..J 0 jll'

JG,..J 0~

0jll'

" 0~
;;t:;

1.6. The whole hundreds (i.e. 100,200,300 ... ), the numerals thousand, million,
billion when functioning as the 1sI tenn of a genitive construction are construed
with the following noun in the genitive singular. The numerals 300, 400, ... 900,
e~ch of ~hich is constructed out of the respective units and the word for hundred,
4J~ or ~ (pronounced mi'a[tun]), as a genitive construction, are written together.
Since the rule about polarity of the units applies here as well, these take the
masculine fonn when preceding UL., and the feminine fonn when preceding

~f ,0~ '.J~. The plural of the three last-named words is ,~~

".:. .I\.J~
j~H. The plural of 4JL. is u~, which, however, is only used in the meaning of
"hundreds" .
U~ is in the singular when the numerals 300 - 900 are fonned, although the

numerals 3 - 9 are otherwise construed with the plural:

~.J~f

\...

"..

a.,"')\;
l~
~
!i:
c.r-.J u.r--

.':H

~.J W\

~.J ~

..

i .

l ..

it ..

t .
~

..

1.7. The order in compound numerals is thousand + hundred + unit + ten, which
are connected by a copulative) respectively. If the units 3 - 9 or the numeral 10
are there, polarity in gender is to be observed.

"..
i .

tAi

Lesson 10

."

127

...

,,...
."

.....

ir o
~A5 With regard to the numerals 101, 102, 1001, 1002, the abstract count differs somewhat from
the construction numeral + noun as the counted item:
},

, 0GI~

but:
~,

4S1..,

but:

~I-,-,~f

but:

,-, ~f

but:

081

..

iD. -' .n Jif

1.8. The numerals are


in the genitive:
after prepositions
after nouns
after the numerals 3 - 10
and the hundreds
and in the accusative:

after verbs (as the object)


after ;Jl and

Jl>.-)

...

;Ji

":.

Oii ~ .I .

... Jl>.-) ~~ 01
/

"t

fl
/

wi 0)~) ~I)

after the numerals 11 - 99

~A6 The declension of the numeral 8 is: n. and g. 0\1,


Cf. also Table 37 in the Appendix.

~~ ~C

a.~,\1

and when definite

J.L...!lf or ~L...!lf.

1.9. The years are in the genitive, namely after the words ~ and iI>- "year".
Polarity in gender, which applies to the numerals 3 - 10, and agreement in gender,
which applies to the numerals 1 and 2 are to be observed again with regard to
them.
in the year 1990

in the year 1991

128

Lesson 10

.' )). '

. ...b-I

,).-....Ji r~

dJ~

in the year 1991

~)

in the year 1992

~) ~ , ) .

.~
'-:?

. . -:':1 dJ~
-....Jf '~ J.
' ,).

;1,).dJ~
' ,).-....Jf r~ J.

. ..

in the year 1992

~) ~

in the year 1993


in the year 1993

~A7 The numerals are also read from the right to the left: -....Jf)

'JL.........;)

~) .,;~ r~ cj .

~ A8 The states of the Maghrib mostly use the same numerals used in Europe and America; and
their use is not restricted to dates. Newspapers from the East are also beginning to use the numerals
of Europe and America in the last few years.
1.10. lfthe word combination consisting of a numeral and a noun is to be definite
(3 men > the 3 men), the numeral follows the noun, as is also the case with the
numerals 1 and 2. The noun takes the plural then in any case. The rule about
polarity is not affected by this.
J.
t I .. ~:" t! J.
J J Jot
'" '" '" "":.
J
(It J
J
Of J:.
J
~ t
~::il ~I , dJ\.l1 0:u.I ' ? ~Y\!JI u"'\.:.:....!;.::il ,...:,;Y\!JI ....::.,J~I ,~Y\!JI Jk)1

~ A9 The construction which consists of a numeral defined by the article + a noun without an article
t
is also frequently found: J l>.) ~')WI ,~ ?
.,;')W I.
;

t1

The numerals are not included in the vocabulary list of this lesson. They are
located in the detailed list in the Appendix.

V
.r.:::-.i to come after, to succeed so .

last

I~i pilgrimage

eventually, fmally
so, therefore, then
basis, foundation

J "

o (~)

~'~LC~

0,)1 according to
~

~\ C ifL..I

et

calculation, account, bill

~LCY~

J>

Sunnites

....::.,JL C
" t....i here: place, square
'-?'
~l:.~IJAi present, current, contemporary

to begin, to start

(f~) i~

basically

beginning

~I~

.!J~
) .

blessed
J J

to amount to

J>

(~)

son
died (pass.)

e.

nearly, approximately, about

JI.J>
J

to succeed to so.

o (~)

J
. J

-.ly >

.~

wJ>.

..J~ C ill>
-,
the Rightly Guided Caliphs 0)~I)I .. ~1
caliph

0~ , .. ~i C J~ administration
,

J,

dinar (currency)

d e 0).:>1
J

' l.;.:l

G.:l
C.J,

Lesson 10

~I.l. e~.l.

school of law

.)-4~I ;,.~i

I beg your pardon.

May God be pleased with him. -.:.s- ~ 1 ~.J

ol5'~i e j~

pillar

06-"

you want (m.)

..

year

..:..>Le~~

majority

'I':
.r.
Lr:

before
estimation

0l5'j

divided by

Zakat

e o.J~
il;'i e i~

building

01 ~j

~I ol5'j calendar

Zakat at the end ofRamaQiin

~r
..:..>L e ..... lj1

stay

plus

'"

..:..>L e ~ I told you.

registration

H')\.... e <~

staircase, steps

Muslim

tongue; language

Islam

faculty of languages

Islamic

cf.

the Sunna

why

.....:,s::ll

,.

(y)

honest, upright
(epithet of the 1s1 Caliph)

rL)

percent

aslll,

~\

Medina

;;.J.r'"
~ ' \I a.:.,..u\

J....

form~)

d~eo~

~I / }:...4.I1 o~
~

midday prayer

.rl-kJI oJL,..

afternoon prayer

~I oJL,..

evening prayer

yjJ.I ;;~

night prayer

,,~\ ;;~

fasting

.
i

equals

'\
u _-?L.U.'

pardon

I~

relying on

i
\~\.l,

o~~1

God bless him and grant


~ 4il 1
him sal-xation! (often used in the shortened

morning prayer

. .

r...S~":)......

including, inclusive of

~~e~
,

0"

e O~
~~I ..;Is--

.!J)~ ~

L..,

. . .>11~

Mecca
~

prayer

~I ,.;.JI

c.?)~

1.%

lift

oJ

J. I)lj,

venerable (epithet ofMecca)

the act of testimony

'"

/2JJ :.:..t;
,

They told me. / I was told.

Peace be upon him.

equals

129

...J\~.

one can (+ verbal noun)


prophet, messenger

'$

,,~I

,Ore ~
.,J

'w

minus

~4!.

end
shining, enlightened
(epithet ofMedina)
to emigrate

o.J~1
(.r:-~) .r:-I.A
o~1

the Hijra
of the Hijra
engineering
(the) finding
corresponding
AD; abbr:

(~) ~~~ Yathrib (Medina)

'

y.?.

13 0

Lesson 10

Text 1
uly......- ~ ~

.JlJ...

JI.J> o~..lJ;.1 ul.r. ilil ~

~) if~:jl 0-:!JJI cJ

J...>...f) .

~~ ~..L.) (r Vi V .u)

~..L.)

(r

G..;Z ~1l4 '\.

...

IJ

t WI cJ ~I

,:?i UI y.i if

;)J.$.

~~) ~

......

f:Y 0 ~~I ~ ~i ~..L. :~) ~L..i ~I..L.

1\" .. U) ~~I ~.J~l


~ ~ ~..L.) (r v'\ 0 .U) u-Sf ~I
...
(r I\OO.U) ~ J.
~f
,
"

,-

4~ I J~.J ~ ~ I ~l ~'Jl 'J~ :~ 0;)~1 ~ L.J-I r~:jl

oJl.aJl) ,

cJ r ~I)

,,,L!...JI) y ~I) ~I) ~I) ~I o~ ,:?i 'iy.ll

~I I..r._:>:.i) 0~.J ~ ~~

0\.5"))

cJ ul~ ~

It. 0l5"')I) ~.JWI 0~.J ~

cJ pi ol5"'j -!..m cJ

,~

.a..:,s:J.I ~ Jl
DJ

IJI ... J

a1

/.

rL) ~ ill I ~ 'r-+~


.,,..~ ~I ~ J. ill I ~ J. ~ Y' r~:jl~)
...

~.J ~I 0 )~I)I

01 ::~) (ri t t
.~

All

"L.i.l;ll L.ib:.)

-- i it)

.;

cJ ~) if r-?~ ~ if Y') (r
~

~L1i1 ~ ~) (ri i t
...

"

~"

- i i")

.u)

~/~I ,~ }.i ~)

J 0

i"

~....

J 0

I~.J 'Cri i ' -- iOi) ~\.k ~I.f. ~) (iiOi -- i t t) u~.f.1


,

~..ul) Y

(0.J:J-J.I

.~

f.. Jl ~ if i"" a.:...... cJ 'rL)


o

"l..J:."'i) L. y:. io t ,:?i

"" rJI

fIJ

,
J
~ ill I ~ ,~
\

rJI

....

J""L.t.)

~.rAJI ~I U"'L..i ~ ,:?~I t:!yi:.l1 ~1-4 ~ UI .,lA.)


:~~~:jI~~1

~.J) ~~'JI ~;~) J)~I ~;~) Jl.!JI ~U) J)~I ~.J)~) i~


,

.~I )~) ~~I )~) JI~) 0~.J) 0~)


~u a)L:lI ~.rJI UI :Jl::.lI yW.1 ~ ;)~'JI ~ ,:?;)~I ~.Jl::.lI ;)~:j)
...It>

.(i"" + - --...It> = r) i"" ..vlj i i ~ a..~ ~.rJI UI


ii
.r " wl}1 , t '" ~ a)L:lI ~~I UI)

~ AIO

Ibn is only written with Alif (.:r.~) at the beginning of a sentence or a new line or if

.:r.~

is the

first part of a name, e.g. \.:".... .:r.~ (0)..0.>..:r.~ a.o.; otherwise the spelling is.:r. :

..,Jt1 ~i .:r. ~

,..,.illl ..y. .:r. 1 I ..y. .:r. ..w=.

Lesson 10

131

Text 2
'"

~4..0..l>- ~I 'ftll C~ :a.ili}1


.~ ~I 0t

J I)lt,~ 'JyJI C~

~io jJUI JIJ) f.yl !.I~

:ft;.

'"

jA ,~Ih : a.ili}I

.~ JIJ)f.y1 ,~

:ft;.

'"

~&I l.A .I~ 0~t :a.ili}1

kft;.
~~JJ) L

~I ~
~

. \ ~ Vi L

~ uJJ)
~01.rJI

.~L6.:..r.

' \ o~

~J '0::.l5"j~ (JL.::. ,0~

:ft;.

'"

~ jI."J:.I ~J : a.ili}I
.\~AViOt

:ft;.

:a.ili}1

~~ 4..olt),1

. \ ~ J.!U:JI ~ J ' \ AV oJL-JI ~ J ,~)I (JL.::.


~~

..:...i 1r.S--" b

'"

:ft;.

'"

: a.ili) I

.~.}.i ~)
'"
~i fJJJ 01 J..:) a.....J.:J.I ()) if ( ) ~I ~ :a.ili}I

~~jS' ~ 1 ,-:r-Jf.yl ~ ~ o)~t oh


J.!LkJI ~ u--Jf.yl ~ ,LJ.:J.I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~.}.i if JL;

u0s- ~ ~ Jt ~) ~I J

..:...il ,2il I) ,'i

t I~ll .Jl!ll

~I t UI) ~L; t ..:...il ,i~

~-:r-J~I ~ J-i .)h'il Y"') .a.....J.:J.I


'"

,~I Jt} ~I Jt ~I Jl ~ if ~i 'Jl!ll J.!U:JI ~ ~ ~ Gi : a.ili}I


~

~ ~ ~J

.4..0~1

4j ~I

c:

Jt

'I~

.4..0~1

c:

:ft;.
'"

:a.ili)1

13 2

Lesson 10

Exercises:

Lt

Form sentences according to the following pattern using the names of


currencies you know.
. .. y ... JI oh / ... JI Ih ~'pI=Q;l
.ul/;})~ ~~ y~1 Ih ~'pI=Q;l
.0';) o~ C>~ C~I Ih ~'pI=Q;l

L2 (Homework) Form equational sentences using currencies and time defInitions


according to the following patterns.
A month consists of 30 or 31 days.
~

February consists of28 or 29 days.

L...J:!

r ~ } r A .b~ k

A pound is 100 cents.

.J'} \ ..

~I

L3 Answer the following questions.

dJ~ ~ ,~ ~ ,L:m~i ..L.:Y ,~I ~) ~I ~ (~ 'P) ~ ~/ ~

~(~r- '~r-) ~r~

~(~ ,~.b:.i) ~'p1 (l>-) ,~

~)

2.L::;.J- ~

~(~I

~I if L.l5"' ~

(-WI)

,1]4>--

,a....I)", ,Wj) ~l::5' ~

J......>..'; (01.J~1 ,yl..H~1 ,~~I ,~L..all) ~I}:JI

.:.r- ~

~(~ ~ ,~.J

~ L:::..v I>.- ~ if.JJ:j (4..:..... 'k) ~.r.-" i ~ L

~(~I ,~lj~~1 ,u\.,6.:..:JI 'i')\j~I) ~I if .!J~ ~

~.!J~ ~
~;~I ,0.Jt;..JI 'j4-J:.I ,~I) yl::5:JI I.!..lb ~ ~
L4 (Repetition) Negate the following sentences by means of ~.
~

.~I>.-i 4k

. 0~ JL>.-)I

. I~ ~t,kJI ~

<

. ~ ~t,kJI =Q;l

.~ ~jJI ~

<

.~ ~jJI=Q;l

J .~.1>-

'

0ft>.-i

.!J~

.y;u,

~ jJI J
;I

.o.#' ~ '-:?~

~':1~ .0.,J, JI>.-)I ~':1~ .~jJI J 0yWI .~ uy,JI .~

;I

~) .~4. ';.J~ . ~U.Jj a....1~1 oh .u~u, ul:=AJI~} .~ ol:AJI.!.it

.~i
Pay attention to the fact that the noun or phrase following the prepositional
phrase in the fIrst four examples is not the predicate, but the subject of the

Lesson 10
sentence. It is the type of sentence dealt with in
structure 2.

13 3

Lesson 2, G 3.1., sentence

Gl Combine the nouns and numerals.


J~~

,0.;)

"i
if.
f.o
oi
iY
YA

~,~L.....

,pN.

"
J-} ,~

i": 'P
<.....i
1.:5'
"
.
.
~
~ 'i":
i":

,0.;)
J 'i)~ 'P

,..

i
Y
A

,.
,""
~

"n.
""
y.

.\

..
i
"".

.
,".." ..
~

f.

pp,~

,i

f.
o
A

~,~
~ ,J,ky

, 0

,~

i
f.

'Y
'A

A~

t),:"""i ,~~

'i
, f.

, "

G2 (Written homework) Add the deftnite article to the following collocations.


~')\!ll JG,.)I
<
JG,. J ~~~

0)~1

i\.d'\I1

~.,: 0)r-~

<

~ ~~ -

yJ\1 or- ~~ ~ - u~ c::' - ~ r. '


0~) ~ - L..,: 0 y ")l.; - ~L...,., 0)~)~) - u~L..... t1) - IJ'i)~ r- ~y o~ - ~~ or- ~ - j:>.-J~ - \pP 0~) J.>.i - ~

..l.>-i - ~1.:5' ~ Gl- J~j 4 V ~ - ~.r.-""'i r- 4.i")l.; - \....,: 0)r~

~~ -

.~l:j\'"

G3 (Repetition) Negate the following sentences by means of


.db ~i
<

t.

.dJ.s -:...W~
Ll>-~ .~..l..,.:> ~ J..>-~ .~I .:r- "j--:>.'? .I if C? .4.1 if ..::...>.-?
c~ I~) .~i ~L....... ~";)I~) .~i ..u}I~) .4.1 dJ.s ~~ .~I
~ ~ c? .~G,.i yJ\1 ~~ J'J~ .~ .~ .~ .~ .~ i.r.!1
. $11.s ~" ~
I I~ ':?
,':' I~
11- .dJ~ 4,.;.. LLb
. -=......JI JI I~ .~I
'-:?.~ I~
~J c.u ~
. .
c.u
..T~.J
.
,

~f

..:.lJ.s I";f

.dJ~ Laf

.dJ~

J>---4 01 :; ~J

-.:,..;f

.~
,

'

. U.

.C .

I~ 01

LW- .~..ul dli :; I~ . ~I dJ~ :; ~ .~~ ~ .~~ ~ .dJ.s

134

Lesson lO

.~~ 0.L.:.i ...ul.):-I u.b:.i .yt:S:JI .b:.i .~~ I).b:.i .~..l> 0ft>.'~ I~ .,!)~

.~I J~ ~~ .,!)b J~ ~~ .~~ ~ .~~ t;h; .~~ ~ .~~ (.b:.i


l) l.rl5'i .~I u.s--i .o~Il:.t~ .o~IIy.~ . .,wl ~f- .~WI J~ I~~
.,!)~~i .~I
G4 (Repetition) Negate the following sentences by means of 'J,

J or L.. /

. o~1

.o~1

f-i 'J

<

.~I J~ ~~i J
.~~~it

<

t.
f-i~

.~I J~ ~~L~
<
.~~~~
"
.~~ ~ .p.:lll~ ~ .l>-~ ~I if~? .,!)~ J~ ~~i 0i.;-- ~

. ~.A;ll 0ft>.'~~ ~ .~~ J~ 4~ .~I J~ 0~~ .oy;S' ~I"'; 0}5'4


ui; .~I -.!D~ cJ.>.,:) .~~ 1.,,1U .yt:S:J1 .b:.i .~~ J fi .~I J10)~

.U;Jy! l) ~ .u~1 0)~ .~~ J ~ .4..r31 4.ilJ1 0r'.J~ .oy;S' ~


.,!)~ Jl ~Jj 0i l)~) .dJI)--Il) ~I~).~ 0~

Cl The teacher asks the students to count in Arabic.


C2 The teacher quotes English numbers and the students give their Arabic
equivalent.
C3 The teacher quotes Arabic numbers and the students give their English
equivalent. The speed of speaking should be gradually increased.
C4 The teacher quotes nouns with numerals fIrst in English and then in Arabic
and the students give the respective equivalent.
CS The teacher asks the students to do calculations as follows:

./\

c.?)~

t ..vlj t <

r
J.>- r

.,~ c.?)~' ~lj


0

c.?)~ i

.r 0

c.?)~

l)

~~ c.?)~

t ..vlj t

r
J.>- r

< ~~ c.?)~' ~lj


<
<

~~ c.?)~ i
~~ c.?)~

l)

C6 Prepare a dialogue based on Text 2 about the registration in a faculty/


university. Use as many numerals as possible.
C7 Prepare notes for a "lecture" based on Text 1 about the most important dates
of the history of Islam.

Final Exercise:
1. Combine the following nouns and numerals.

)7""
~L.b
.J...L.,a..o

..vy

", V

J.J

o}.~

~.i.
~

4...;.....

,,,,,"i

.J 'Jy

to,

"
~

o~

. "
tr.-"I i"

13 5

,.

~.

Lesson 10

.:.r..~

,"
,""

2. Translate into Arabic.


after the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, the Five Pillars ofIslam, the four Islamic
schools of law, the twelve Islamic months, with the three wives, in front of the
seven mountains, the two dissertations, the thirteen chairs, in the eleven
universities, in the month RabIc ath-thanI, in the second year
3. Negate the following sentences by means of 'J,
Laf

J, ~

or~.

.r-L-- ' O~ Jly->- ~I ~~ ~ . , ii i~ l) ~ r~ . ~ ui

~ wL .,,,, i~ l) if~:;1 t::};jl i~ .WI j,Poi if ~\S. .~}:ll ~I.lll


J"'~ .a..........cll ~.J~ .~)l0).J~ ~ .~) r ..}.> ~ ..u---i) ~-;.i
.yT ~ l)

(.?

-;..r

H~

. ~I if

4. Write out in words:

, , ,

,~,/\ ,

Vo. ,

,~to,

" 0,

'''0/\, ,,,,,

,'~~,

5. Translate into Arabic. (Numerals have to be written out in words.)


I was in Baghdad three times. They went to the theatre with five friends. The
registration is on the second floor. He lives in the 2nd room. He entered the 3rd
building. I have 4 brothers. Two million pilgrims travelled to Mecca this year. I
was born in 1414 AH. MulJammad b. cAbdallah b. cAbd al-MuUalib b. Hashim,
peace be upon him, is the messenger of Islam. The four Rightly Guided Caliphs
are AM Bakr a~-$iddIq, CUmar b. al-Khauab, CUthman b. cAffiin and cAII b. AbI
ralib, may God be pleased with them.
6. Write the following Arabic words in transliteration.

.:.r..~

'Cl>- ,0L.,a.....J ' i.rP ,~I o~ ,~ ,2.JI ,~ ,o~ ,0\.5"j

7. Write the names ofthe months used in Iraq and Syria.

Lesson 11
~/

0/

1. The Perfect Tense of Verbs with J and i.$ (~\ ~Ld~;)


Up to now, in dealing with the perfect and thr ynperfect tense, we have only
encountered the so-called strong verbs (~I Jw~i), Le. verbs in which RI, R2
and R3 are full consonants. There are certain peculiarities in the conjugation of
the so-called defective or weak verbs. The verbs in which the "weak" consonants
) (Waw), r..S (Ya') or .. (Hamza) occur as RJ, R2 or R3 are to be understood by this.
The perfect tense of these verbs with) or r..S is treated on the basis of model
verbs in this lesson, the conjugational paradigms of which are to be applied
analogously to verbs of the same structure.

~ Al The weak verbs are often designated by Latin terms in the grammar or textbooks of Arabic:
RI = ) or c.> = verba primae (radicalis) ) et c.>
R2 = ) or c.> = verba mediae (radicalis) ) et c.>
R3 = ) or c.> = verba tertiae (radicalis) ) et c.>

1.1. The perfect tense of verbs with RI


that of the strong verbs.
model verb ~) "to arrive":

= ) or r..S is formed in the same way as

etc. (Cf. Appendix tables 1 and 15)


1.2. RI has the long vowel a in the perfect tense in verbs in which R2
vowel follows R 3
Examples with the model verbs:
I

~~

"to get up"

~:,i

:p) R2

=)

I;'G (~)
II

t l! "to sell" C;;

J~

"to fear"

J;'
/

~ A2
R2

~~ (~)

~) R2 = r..S

I~~ (~)
III

= ) or r..S if a

~)

t l! (r)

~l! (~)

R2 = )

1j;G:. (~)

~~ (~)

J\.:.:.

(r)

Consequently, in these forms it is not clear from the outward appearance whether it is a verb

=)

or a verb R2 = c.>. The dictionary supplies information about this. It is also possible to discern

which group the respective verb belongs to from the imperfect tense (see Lesson 12, Gr 1.2.).

Lesson 11

137

RI has the short vowel u or i in the perfect tense in verbs with R2 = J or I..S if
R3 is vowelless. With this the following conjugational paradigm is produced for
these verbs:

III

IT

,~

~
)

.)

,
~

..
)

Accordingly, the verbs which belong to group I have the short vowel u, the
verbs which belong to groups IT and III have the short vowel i (Appendix: tables
1, 18,20, 22).
~ A3

The same rules apply to the dual forms. Since they are relatively rare in occurrence, they are not

expressly mentioned here nor in the following lessons. They are listed in full in the tables of the Appendix.

1.3. Verbs with R3 = J or I..S


R3 is omitted in the 3rd p. sg. f. (groups I and IT).
Examples with the model verbs:
,

Il~; "to invite" (;.;

~) R3

IT ~ "to walk" (~

~) R3 = I..S

III ~ "to meet" (=~) R3 = I..S


~ A4 tS

~; (r./')

~; (~)

:- '': (r./')

~(~)

~ (r./')

~(r)

which represents R3 has the phonetic value ii when identified in the verbs of group IT

(model verb

~).

We have already got to know tS = ii, called Alifmaq,fiira in Arabic terminology,


t

in such words as ~ I and tS

J~

r--l I.

This final long vowel ii (tS) in some ~ords also become~

visible in writing as A/if (I) if an affixed pronoun is added to these words: ~~, "his cafe" , ";1)
"you see me" (Appendix: table 37).

13 8

Lesson 11

All other forms are characterized by a diphthong after R2 in verbs belonging


to groups I and IT, and by a long vowel after R2 in verbs of group ill. This
produces the following paradigm:
ill

IT

o / /

\~

\~

(Appendix: tables 1,23,24,25)

2. Word Order:

", and the Subject


. of the Sentence
j,).

The normal word order in the sentence is verb - subject. If the subject is to be
emphasized in the main clause, it is placed in front of the verb, and the particle 01
is set in front of the subject. The word order consequently is:

..j,)1 + subject + verb + (object)

~ AS Likewise, first the subject, then the verb comes after the conjunction ~ "but". Moreover,
this word order occurs without employing the particle jl if the main clause is introduced by a
conjunction () ,J).
The word order subject - verb - without a particle in anteposition - is especially common in
headlines in newspapers.

The particle 01 causes the subject to be in the accusative.


(They have told us:) The Arab
delegation visited the city of Berlin
yesterday.
The particle 01 is used after the verb JI,; "to tell, to say" to introduce direct
speech. Since "to tell, to say" is mostly followed by indirect speech in English,
the illustrative sentence is best translated by: "They have told us that the Arab
delegation ... "

Lesson 11

~ A6

13 9

When reading unvocalized texts, the student must observe in the beginning that he does not

read the 01 after J~ as

0f ("that") under the influence of his mother tongue.

A personal pronoun instead of a noun can follow 01; its affixed form is used,
which is also the case after 0i :
sg.
pI.

~ A7

Jj ("perhaps, maybe") is a sister of 01.It may introduce an equational sentence,


with the subject in the accusative and the predicate in the nominative. The subject of Jj may also
be a pronoun. Jj can also introduce a verbal sentence and must therefore receive a pronoun suffix
The particle

agreeing with the verb that would otherwise follow immediately after it.
...... ........ ............ ... .............. ... ........................................ _........... ...... ..... .. ..... ........................... ... ...;0 ..... ...... $ ......: .... ::.

.Y~\ ~ ~l,6J\

Perhaps the student will write the book.

;~~~~;~.~~;~.:~.~~~~~.~~~.~ .~~.~~~.~~~~~:

. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .

:~;t:;;~;

:}J

. S. jJ

.......................................................................................... -..................................................... :;-; .....; ..........'h ............ '$ . :;.

. 3.lL...:,J\ ~

Perhaps he does not write the letter.

'J

.......................................................................................... _...............................................................................................

v
The imperfect tense of the so-called weak verbs is given here as well as the
imperfect of the strong verbs, although they will only be dealt with in detail in the
next lesson.

J>--i ~

for; in order to

; 1-

uL[.

et I-

,. :.A~ jI [. 4..A jI

crisis

meeting, session

~ls;

council

founding

lj

, ,
C:~) ..l$"'t;:;.

nation, people

neighboring

~l

rl [. 4..A1

0'"~1 ~
JJ~

Security Council

to be sure (that)

[.

Lk-

fixed

~,

o...L;-d1, r~1

the United Nations

thing, matter

Jyl [. f l

';i

security

\,.._'

to build, to erect, to set up sth.

..../b

to sell sth.
to let/to leave sth. for so.,

improving

J-U'J. improvement

~ ~

building, construction

"

war

parliamentary, parliamentarian
proof, evidence for

to happen

et I-

I-

J.

.,."
C I.h.p>.;;

C~) ~ dear guests


~~

,,

presence

power, control, rule

J~

J;:,aJ1 ul .
..
~~

,
C
..../b (~) t . regulation, rule, provision
J ..../b (~?) .!.I;

court

,"". 'I [. ~
(-~
il.:>-.:>-

~<'~

C~

140

Lesson 11

J.,b- ~ J>-

solution

the exterior, foreign, abroad


quarrel, argument

(l)

to be afraid of so., sth.

.~) uL ~
.0

Jb

creation, formation

JL>.

u-:

u4j~ ~ i c.Sj~
l

J)L;;.;

consulting

#.

01

(l) <.,?I J
}

(Y"'..I-) l>.- J

~ ~)

I greet / welcome you

~ ~ )~~ ~ ~ ~J
;,..

bribery

0:.

YJ

to refuse, reject, turn


downsth.

.0 (J)y.) )j
J

to visit so., sth.

011

authority, power(s)

Jb

..l.,o

uL~~~
uL ~ ~')l..o,
uL~ ~l,o

>-c.S J l1

extra, extraordinary

ul ~

~L.- ~ aJL

reason, cause

yt.;...i ~ ~
4$-r

Cj.r-"

~
In the name of God r-e-)I ~ )1 ~ 1~
peaceful

the Merciful

'

(l) uL ~ ~~
(~)I) ;;~~
I

J L...

to move (to)

ghost

L~i ~ ~

(~)
J

general, public
to work towards

return

question, case

fast

'J

J:,k.;

uL ~ 4...P J L..V

carrying out, holding (a meeting)

re-,

(.:r-) ~Ij to live, to experience, to see

rising, going up (beyond)

~,

industry

opposition

.~

ur~~

development
~I)
r.....;1
. , J I.:....
,J

salary
to ask so. to do sth.

~
~,

friendly, be friends with

opinion (of, about, on sth., so.)

His Excellency

uL ~ ~

~~ journalist

anniversary of the foundation ~t- c.S..?~

contribution (to)

problem

~ ~

J\("L.;."..

uly~ ~ ;;;.~
declaration
'"~~

religious

speed

(l).!l~ ~ ~

J':kj-

(Jl .J) (;~)

invitation, call

reaction

doubt (about)

undoubtedly, without doubt

~I..ul

to invite, to call (up)on


so. to do sth.

~ ~

~/;ll

if (JLs;)

the interior, inland

memory

aJ\.:.-

uL ~

situation, state, condition

(l) .!ll).l

making so. take part (in)

victory over; overcoming,


surmounting

(J'~l) J'~~

~~

(coordinating conjunction)
period
scandal
law
interview
future

(particle cl Lesson 13, p.163)


able to, capable, qualified
clear-cut

..
J...t

Lesson 11

141

to steer, to drive sth. (to) (Jt)...Jt;

(~~) ~t; success

01 ...Jt; (J~)

to say sth., that

Jt;

(prep.) to (direction)

to get up, to rise


to carry out, to realize
to conceal, to hide
J

(~~) it;
Y it;
JJo
...Jt;(~)~

..::,.; /~ [. ;;.;~ \.5'

catastrophe
sufficient

.j\.5'
J

was (with predicate complement)

election
relating to
victorious, trimnphant
checking, inspection
system, regime

(0~) 0\.5' (him)self


IjJ

therefore, that's why

(particle of confirmation)

:ur

to sleep, to fall asleep


task

0~ [. ~ board, body

committee
urgent

tension

to meet so.

positive

representative

to fmd sth.

alike, similar

situation

carrying on, performing, exerting

citizen

to run, to walk, to go

to stand in front of

past

post, point

to grant, to give so. sth.

representative, agent

result

(Under) Secretary of State,


Pennanent Secretary

to be successful (in)

~')I4.lS'

Text 1

o~WIJ ,..:.A.l::--.JI ~I~

~.;~ ~ rS"~i 0iJ ~ ~~f oi ~..,i J I~t


y.~ ':JIJ ~L:-JI ~I~ yJI 0-'" Ul>. ~1.l1 ~I.r-JI cJ 0 j ~ LS \.j~ J-~
j5'UI 0-'" p..JI J.->- cJ W J .4JL:lI oiA ~ ~I J.>.-i i f ~I ~ Jj J
0-'" \':':"'?J ~I ~ ~}..... [..;t.:lI J j>-I...ul cJ ~WI tl.;:,J~1 0iLS ~':JI
..uJ

.~}I ~

U\i:>.1

.,J..~ ~#I

4... j~1

oiA

~~ .~
.J

~ j

J :A

l '~

.J

._

.J ~J

.~.

~ .~.

\.~ ~
~

'L- ~"~

i~
.

1.

)- ,

~ j

] '.~~. ~

<1)

.....l
N

-.::t

.......

3.:-~"3
. J ]'L-.4
0

.a il -

3"

,,3.'~:i.'( ~

~:~ ~ ~~~.
Jo

o.

.~.

.,

j~'
'. ~

.'

-\'

.~ ~
'~J
,i> .~, -

~~.

1 .::s
\.;:)
.

1-

K:J'J

.0'

"3

,':"'-~:"

-i~.

5-

~
~

"

~
~

~. .) ~':

.~

- . .J'

."'

~J

-:~

.J

.~

~.

. ~

..:l

~ ~
'0,
~

, 3 ~" 7'
.., ~ J
3 .y j.

3.:!l

J~

1 ~ -~
~

~ -'
J
.o.~
.J.'. 41~.

=:3.

,_-

J-' ~~

~.,
'J

A.~:~
'j

-kJ

~
-

l'

1-

J
.~.'j ~

::;,

"

.1

~==i

1"'" J. ~
t

<>

""~

.~~

'l

'

'''-'~.)
-.

"-

E-<

.~.

.~.

-....,

-.:>

5-

tc,.-.-v.

.)

') \Z J. J . ,

-\-"
j"

{
J

c:--.

....,....,

j ~
~

.,.::-

l' B
.).)

7-.

j.

.~.)

.J'
....,.

-\ ~

~"_

J-.J,~-

;~. '~

...., 'l.
~:.""

.~

.",.~
.J

-.:>'

_7'3

.~

;U

,~.~.'y .~. ~

', i i "
.J'

1 ~).~ ~S

.::J

.)

-.

....,.0

.'. -

"l
_'J

.'j.

~ -3
.:3

v._

"j'A

\r,

~l.J

-1),

~ ~.
_ '"
~ ~

o.:J~

-.:>'

"3

11"'" ~
J \{.~. ~ 1~.J { ~ j
J-

,::S.

... __

~JJ

.,. 3'

~
~

].

13~
~.? :~ ~ J. .~
~.. ~.o

~''''''
~ -:l

'~J

.~

~'
.:J

'q ~ ~ .~

.-

">..

:J

~
~

c:--.

.::.
~

'j

_~ "~ "3
17"-:-

'l

1; .~. R<J

'0

j\J

~.

'. J.:5.
-~

_u' '.~.
'i ' ~ .~
i)- ~
j

.J
....,

~J']. ~ ]'~J. ~

~L
. .
i!:!i
, '\

~..::J ~~
' ' 3~ '.)

s::

-:r_

,.

:I

ell

,~'

~~t~_\

..J

oell

~'.=~

}.u ~~ ~0

.......

~.

~
rl

j:

~~

. ' ' )

.:7'_....,

t'}

'0-1k

~.:t

.?).

'0

.~.

J~

U 'L-

41'

~
~

, " "

.~.

'1-

" ']
~ .

.~.....,

~ 5.

'~',~

.oJ

~ ~

-{

....,

~ ,~
v.

......,

Lesson 11

~ ~i t) .~L:-JJ) ~UpJI 0L>...U yWI

o.i.P>

:?- l} ~I ,!j jJ G1

143

:~)I

~ e~ l} W)w'1 0i ~ ) o..L.:..G:- ~~i tiLl I o.i.P> l} 4...P)w'1

!~ ~i~) ~l1 j5"~ .::.-


.p.>-i Jlj-.!

J I~I) 40)1\ u\....).J.I o.i.P> ~ ~~i :~I


!~

~ U~~I)~ i~L.AJI tfr"""~1 l} ~fi J10)}W J

r"

:~)I

~ :~I

~;;~lr~1
.1 I ~w. 01 :~)I
~

.'Yu..? I~ :~I
Exercises:

Lt Insert the appropriate preposition(s).


~

-/L..o..::.,. ':11)

~~I ; pI ... tll> ~I J-~ .tlL....)I ... ~~i

... ~? C)L3-I) J->IJJI ... LWI tW)~1

d ...

d ...

1~1

~ .~UI uly.-JI . ..

... i.HI ~ ... -:-li .~I ~I ... .rk 0i G~l .. ~#I 4..A j~1
U~lj~i U y~ .e;:--? j5"L:... ... LU) .G)l5" ... ~I u~\,; y)-I 01 C~I
~

... U ... J--JI ... ~Y~ '~.r'""'"i ~I ... )y~1 U)L..... .w ... ))WI ...

r-"~I ~

o}:!j ...

~)I ilj .01~1

o.i.P> ...

~~1 ~~) ~ .ulj~1 ~

.u)lk LJ.:". (~) ~\k.j\ ... e..!.:>d\ r~I ... i WI 0::-~\ ~~ 'iWI ~i) ;;..!.:>dl
e~'y .. , ~ .yUI uly:..-.JI ... ~~ CLi. ... tklj 0u. J. Y' WlA::>.1 01

..IS"h. wi .~\))I) ~L:...d\ J~ ... ~\ ~~ ~


t.

,~.

... JAj .~I ... ~~ e/ y)-I

~~ i~L.AJI t.r.---" ~I ... ~f\ ... }L....\ . b jI ... ) L:.l5""~ ... C~ G\ .. .

. tlL....)I o.i.P> ~l::$"" ... )~lj Y' 'C)~I .. .


L2 Insert an appropriate verb.

J-;; er" )I

~~:

.J ...

~~ l} .... ~I l} ~)lJ:.I ul):;1d1 if r--~ y rY' ... 01

oL ... ~ .~I)I j5"L.!J. ~.r" J.,J>- ~~1 ~ ... a.....P I 01

0;;-A.J:!

~4..AP I l} 4...P)w'1 ,!jl.r-ll} ... ~i ~ ~ ~~~i -/' \.... ) j5"L.;J.I


u~~':11 .wl.! j5"L.!J.I J->. l} ~L.J.I ~ ;;)~lj ... 4...P)w'1 01 .;;."s:...JI o.i.P>
.rWI ... G1 . 4..A~W\ c::) ~I uly.-lJ ~I l} P I ~)W u~ J\..,aJI ... ep.>- ~I
... ui

:?-

~~i tlLl\ o.i.P> l} 4...P )w'1 i f ... .~~) ~UpJI 0~ yWI o.i.P>
l}
.4 0~;;1\ uG).J.I o..l.A ~ .... Ul1 j5"~ ~ ;;p; l} 4...P)w'1 ... . ;;~..G:-

144

Lesson 11

~~I ~ uu.~1 .J..,..-.a.J.. i~uJI t.r.-"~I l) ~fi

Jl .... .;,:.>-i JI~

J .~ .

. o..l>d.1
L3 Transform the meaning of the following sentences into the opposite by means
of an antonym or negation.
~ .o}:;......JI t 4 .~I J.>-~ .--4...l>.- j4h1 . ..u)1 ~) .~ )L.. .~)I i U

Jlj-JI J f

.o~ ~~i Jfi .0)~ ~.~

j;-:-.J:i

r+-" ~

.Jly..J1

..;,:.>-~I
L4 Form genitive constructions with the following words.

1st term
/ ~u /(translator/interpreter) 0 yA':" J-- / ~I).J / ~L.,a.; / L~ / ~~).J
~1.Jj) / 0yitlf

2nd term

'~.J '~j) ,L.>-I.Jj


4...P}A,o

,uL,.:. ,(the exterior) ~.JL;LI ,'J......,.~ ,~..,..;) ,01~


'Y..r- ,a..........k- ,o..l>d.1 r~1 ,(the interior) ~I..ul ,uL. ~

L5 Same as L4; but add an appropriate adjective to the 1st term.


o--4...\J:..I ~1.Jj)1 ~I).J > ~1.Jj) - ~I).J

L6 (Homework) Form 10 sentences with numerals and Arabic equivalents for "to
have".

.044 ~ 'iJlJi or J /

J .~ ~ oXY / ,-?XY
.0\.j.J~ ~ / ~

~
~

Gl

The following exercises are mainly to practice the change of persons in the
perfect tense. A sentence is given, and the student has to repeat it and then to
transform it as shown in the following example:
@"

given sentence:

@"

repetition:

Jl ~ ~l9
.J...L:...iJI Jl ~ ~l9
.~I Jl lii ~~)

. J...L:...iJI

@"
completion:
If a clause or a part of a sentence is to be completed by another word or phrase, or
if an additional word should be used in the completion, this addition is put in
brackets after the given sentence.
Thus the example given would be written as follows:
(~I Jl) J...L:...iJI Jl ~ ~l9 ~
rd
The affixed pronouns of the 3 p. have to be changed into the 1st p. if necessary.

Jl lii ~~) ...

.u~

Jl ~ ~l9

Lesson 11

145

In the fIrst place the change of the 3rd p. sg. m. or f. into the 1sI p. sg. is practiced.
(~ )

. 4..,.:.1..JJ ~..l:1;.1

.?)1 J \.>..)1 )j
~

.~ ~~ ~,J...,p Ju

(lazy) (0Yl..S)

. .G.J~ J>.-)I
4.J

t~

~i .0i r.,? )Iftl ~l.kJI \.>...J

. ~I J~ ~u,J...,p~1\ ~
.w~1 0.J~y. o~u,J...,pi ~I)I (to promise)
. ~ljLI

(~)LkJI ~)

(~';)I ~If)

~ ~)

.4.LiJ-I J~ ~ \'1 ~';}I ~P I ~~

iL..i)

(0 y:J.I

0 Jk.,JI

J.>.)

.0y:J.I

0 JU,J...,p1 r-WI ~

' ~.r-! o.Jt;..JI ~I)I ~U


~

.0)l.kJ~ .}-JI if 4WI ~L:.:-

Jfii ~

(J)\'I <J.r)

0 .!J~ ~,J...,p 0\S'

(0 .Jt;..J~)

.}~~ }L..

(I~)

.l>-~ i yll if i U

.U:lJ.

if 0,J...,p ~~
. I~~li

. ~ )l.kJI ~ L..) ~,J...,p ~)

(yJ ).JY

~..v)

. 4..,.:. WI

O.J ~ Y. ~,J...,p ~ l.kJ I

c.r11 J~ ~j; 0i obJl ~.J

(~)
~

(~i)
(~is')

. ~\.>.. ..u}1 )j

0~1) eis' ~.r:- .;~ ~

. (only) .k..O

4. ~,J...,p

(o.}JI o~ J)

-.

Ju

.~L.. ~I J~ .JL..

(l>-~)

J.>.)

.0.}JI ~

t~

0 ..u}1 ~If i li

(~I)

tk::>..':lll ~u J~ J\.>..)I ~
.lli:ll Jl i~ ~.rJI ~,J...,p ~~

(brownlbrunette) (~I/)

.(blond) ~I~ ob ~,J...,p ~

0)

. .!J~ ~L:lI ~I if ..u}1 ~~i JG:.

(~

( .y- J)

v-:

(L:.:- y- )

.0 yoWl
~

0 ..u--i 0\S'

.l>-Lii ~ )l.kJI ~ ~,J...,p ~ )

146

Lesson 11

.~I

cJ

yljl ~lkJI~)

.4.kl1

Jl

~..l.p ~~

.0y:.ll J1 u~lkJI ~
.~ ~lkJI t 4
.
.I~ ..:..J5"'1 ~14lkJI ~l;
~

(a~U)~I)

.4...rJI 01J.WI if b~ ~..l.p )j

.4 (walk, stroll) 0

(~)

fi ~m..l.pi

rl;

.~i ~)I ~~

(r y.ll)

. V':'
'. IJ'.J ~..l.o

(~)

ot::.A.l1 u

.J I'
.J

.~~I ~~~..l.p~)
.uIJlu
.

.J L..

(r y.ll C~)

(~i)
(4J)

G2 Same as G 1. Practice changing from the 3rd p. sg. m. or f. to the 1sI p. pI..
Example:

given sentence:

.Jx..JI J1 ~ ~~

repetition:

. JJ.:.AJI Jl ~ ~~

completion:

.4,1 J1 y-lj~)

G3 Transform the sentences in G 1 into interrogative sentences starting with jA


L2, or 1~L1. in the 2nd p. sg. f. Of course, the noun-subject must be omitted in this
case. Affixed pronouns of the 3rd p. have to be changed into the 2nd p. when
required.

.p)1 JG,.)I )j

.p)1 ~~j 1~L1. / jA / L2

.~WJ ~..lJ:.I

. ~WJ ~..lJ:.I

Cl (Listening comprehension) The teacher reads the following news in Arabic.


The students render the basic contents in English.
~IP...u1 -,f1~~1 y..rJ-I

cJ ~ Y") ~~)'I ~WI ~I f,.j) j-P)

Lr.:-! 0)\.,d1 ~ a...::JW ~I o~ J,l;).k..... )~I J..rJI cJ aJY'"

).11

cJ

. ~lJ..I ~I J~

0)WI ~ ~ ~) JLI.\l1 .JL:..::....lI

a.....u.r.

: ~~

~~

Jl

cJ .:r...tW1

JLI.~I ~)I ~I aJ')k. J,l; :\J~

cJ\.A!ll)

'-:? ~I) ,-:?~l..,a.::j~I) ~~I

Lesson 11

..G}I

u--:!.J

JU) .~}I ~I ~L:..c. u':jU::.>-':j1 ~.;JI ...u}1 ~

147

:}'j:-'

l,?""WI 0)WI ~y ~ ~ J~ L-J) 01 :o~1 ~ cj ~.;JI


.)1y1:- I

c: ~.J k..:lI J;, L:::JI) ~;, l.,a;:J':j I)

J~I y;-:l rWJI ~\l1 Jb..,..-11 ~}I y j-><lJ rWJI ~\l1 J,u
~r..j) ..G}I J,~) L-JI

r:.r--

:r~j-I

.JWI ~).~.Jy ~ J~pJI

L..;,lj 0U J1 ~' ~;,l.,a;:J1 ...u) ~) :1J..L:.l


. 4.>...,.J I) ;, l.,a;:J ':j I

~ o)j.,J1 cj ~'p1 ~I r.-j) J-JI J..j) ~1J..r. ~~'il ...u}1 J,lj : ~y

JlJ; cj 0)WI

~l.i..r.

L!Ju,

uL.6~1

tJr) 4L1.Jt.,. ) ~WI tiL,a.,. cj

~.J>-"

. ~'p1 ~--41') J~I ~G

~)j--ll c:r i;,.u) ~))I u--:!)I J,U) ~ y

Jl -.j.;M ...u)

~) :~yo

.~;,l.,a;:J':j1 0)lA:lI t)? ~I.J;' ~))I toP I if ~) if))I


C2 (Homework) Prepare an interview with the leader of an Arab delegation based
on Text 2. Ask about the reason and the results of the visit, with whom he met,
possibilities of cooperation in industry, agriculture, trade, research and education,
where he will go to after this visit etc. Record your interview with a cassette
recorder and play it in the next class hour.
Final Exercise:
1. Transform the verbs into the 1st p. sg. (perfect tense).

~ .o};_-JI ;,lj .~ cj c.f~ .0UpJl J1 ;,~ .~I J1 o~~ .o~1 r\ll )j

rL..i~) ..1-..)\11 JrJI cj Ufr. rlj ...uWI o).:.r. rlj ..hJlj . ~)..ul~) Jl
c:r JL>. .~ ~~ o;,~~ ru . ~ ul)..~ <.i-! 'J..~I J
. ~J.l I cj~..l.p ~ ' ~.J~ cj 015" .t:!J.i JJ.:.j cj

rli

r-W' J.>..) . ~,

'~.J~ t~ .y)-I o;,y

2. Transform the verbs in G 1 into the 3rd p. pI. and vocalize the ending of the
verbs R3 =) or c.$.
3. Translate into Arabic.
Allow me to welcome you and to thank you for your return. We found a peaceful
solution for those urgent problems. The reactions were positive. Her clothes were
a scandal. We visited six countries. The men said that the minister was afraid of
the opposition. These four neighbouring countries called for an extraordinary
session of the United Nations. We went back to the parliament. The military

148

Lesson 11

government concealed the results of the elections and the success of the
democratic parties. This permanent secretary met with the members of the
committee. The situation at home and abroad (in the interior and in the exterior)
moved in the direction of the improvement of these relations. We came out of
this crisis victoriously. The Security Council of the United Nations called for a
peaceful solution.
4. Put the appropriate verb in the perfect tense .

..:;~~:il W.... JI~ ~ .... J-:lI .)~t ~

.~L..)I o..i...A ~l:5' ~

...

LoP I

0t ~~ cJ

C.)U ... .,..,. .Ut! J5'1...;.,... i~i .... ~l5:JI ..:;~Jl,aJI


<,',I_~"I

.~..l.p 0JI.:!..r.

r?

<,'I("I,II,II-'c"
'J"" L.::...l. ~ ~

5. Translate into English. Give more than one variant where possible.
~

,1..i...A .,kuJI ~LkJI 4. 'C~ C:::J~I o~1 4WI..:;~ ,~I 'J.,..~ ~J


c~ 'J.,..j~1 y~i,~ ~J

,PI Jt....r.J)I I~ o.)y

6. Add the appropriate preposition.


~

... ~I.)u .~I ... ~ .~I .. ~ ~ ... ~ .y)-I o.)y ... ~

~~ 'CJL;LI ... J-l>- .~)I ~ ... ~ .'J.,..j~1 c~

...

b / .~)S
.j4J:.I

Lesson 12
1. The Imperfect Tense of Verbs with.J or ~
1.1. The imperfect tense of verbs with RI = ) is formed with RI being omitted.
"to arrive":
Examples with the model verb
(~ ) has the imperfect vowel i)

J:oj

(jA')

J,a.i
J,ai

(c./')

(~i)

(~i)

(~i)

J,ai

(~i)

(~)

~f

ui

0~

(r--"')

~"
,
/

0~
0

~Al

(r)

"

"//

Verbs with RI = <.S are very rare and occur nearly exclusively in the so-called derived forms

(cf. Lesson 14, Gr 1.). Their imperfect tense is formed in the same way as it is with the strong verbs,
i.e. RI is not omitted. (Appendix: Tables 2, 17)

1.2. Verbs with R2 = ) or r..S have the long vowel a in the imperfect tense if they
belong to group I, and the long vowel j if they belong to group n. Verbs
belonging to group rn have the long vowel ii , when a vowel follows R3.
Examples with the model verbs:
/

fl,;

"to get up"

fJ;

~) R2 = )

J",

i~(~)

,/

r
/

"to fear"

t:! (~)

~ (c./')

,
t;:; (r)
/

~) R2 =
J

)
'"

'"

Jl>...i (~)

~A2 Verbs with R2 =

<.S, e.g.

J~

:0) JCi "to obtain", have the same forms as well.

RI has the short vowel u in the imperfect tense of verbs with R2 = ) or r..S if
they belong to group I, the short vowel i if they belong to group n, and the short
vowel a if they belong to group rn, when R3 is vowelless.

150

Lesson 12

Examples with the model verbs (Appendix: Tables 2, 18,20,22):

.
.

III

.'
~
/

jlt-::!

.
.
~

II

~
/

J/

;;;

c.:.~)

(~i)

Thus the following conjugational paradigms ensue:


III

II
J

(~)

(~)

c:.
/

(~)
J
/

"

"

.. /

J,
/

....

1/. :

<J~

1.3. R2 has the long vowel il in verbs with R3 = ) or r..S if they belong to group I,
the long vowel J if they are verbs of group II and the long vowel a (Alif maq~ilra)
if they belong to group Ill.
Examples with the model verbs:

~; "to invite" ;-;

II ~ "to walk"

~) R3 = )
J

/
=

J.;)

yJ.j

J. /

y~(~)

(~)

R3 = r..S /

III ~ "to meet" (= ~) R3 = r..S

~(J.)

~(~)

Jt (J.)

~A3 Occasionally, we find verbs in group IT, model verb~, which are inflected in the iI?perfect
tense like the verbs in group Ill, model verb~, e.g. ~ ''to endeavor, to strive" ~ ,...;..:.-;..
etc. Cf. also below, Gr 4., the conjugation of ($i).

Lesson 12

151

The forms which have a suffix are characterized by a long vowel following R2
if the respective verb belongs to the groups I and IT, and by a diphthong following
R2 in the verbs which belong to group ill.

IT

ill

Thus the following conjugational paradigms ensue:

IT

ill

~
J 0

't

y~\

(Appendix: Tables 2, 23, 24, 25)


2. Subjunctive and Jussive of Verbs with J or i.S
2.1. The subjunctive and the jussive of the defective verbs are formed according
to the same principles which apply to their formation regarding the strong verbs
(see Lesson 8, Grl.). Tables 3 and 4 in the Appendix provide a complete survey.
2.2. We only show some peculiarities here:
2.2.1. Subjunctive of the verbs R3 = ) or r...S
etc.
2.2.2. Jussive of the verbs R2 =

r: '

.
t--4

2.2.3. Jussive of the verbs R3

or r...S

o .. ...

...

etc.
= )

or r...S

etc.

152

Lesson 12

2.3. In such jussive fonns as mentioned under 2.2.2. and 2.2.3., it is not clear
from the outward appearance in unvocalized texts, which root the respective fonn
is based on. The typeface does not provide us with any infonnation whether the

(t~ > ~~) or R3 (~ > ilj).


~

last consonant is R2

3. The Imperative of the Verbs with J or ~


The imperative is fonned according to the same principles which apply to its
fonnation regarding the strong verbs. The jussive is the fonn the imperative is derived
from (see Lesson 8, Gr 2.). Table 9 in the Appendix provides a complete survey.
N

4. The Verbs ~i , ~l>.- and ~i)


Some of the verbs which are most frequently used in Arabic are doubly
defective, i.e. two of their three radicals are <.S, ) or,:.. As the peculiarities of the
verbs which contain a Hamza are nearly exclusively of an orthographic nature"
there are hardly any difficulties regarding the conjugation of ~b,. "to come", .;i
"to come" and <.Si) "to see":

0- is conjugated like the model verb t ~ ,

.;i is conjugated like the model verb ~ ,


<.Si)

is conjugated in the perfect tense like the model verb ~ , in the imperfect

tense - with the Hamza being omitted - like the model verb ~ :

imperfect

perfect

imperfect

perfect

imperfect

..

perfect

Lesson 12

153

JL.;;., which is conjugated like iL; , is mostly used in place of l5 iJ in colloquial


language.
A4 As to the spelling of the Hamza (chairs of the Hamza) cf. Lesson 24 and Table 36 in the
Appendix.

As to verbs with RI

and R3 = l5, the conjugatio,nal peculiarities of both

types of verbs are to be taken into account. Cf. the verb'd), imperfect tense ~ ,
in Text 2 of this lesson.

(Jl) (~4) JI

to come (to)

~l

(with verbal sentence) since, because


J

~J,....I

Emir

~I

~-1-.
'WI

human

:)1

automatic

dL:-o C ~

sum, amount

J>

..;:!..;...

(l5:r.) l5 iJ

'0

athlete, sportsman,

~4~

Riyadh

J:'4)\
~

here: rate of exchange

it is worth mentioning0i
that ...

1.) ~ C 1.:";'

condition

J:,A

.?.ill;: ..;:!~I if

to take part in

-) (~J~) ,!) Jw,

to be a witness of

J.>- (~> !) ~

o.

pound

(~~) Jw,

will

to come (to)

owner

much better than

~LC h:-~

Jl~~

to need sth., so., to require

0,

..::;L

;...;i

C~

JJ\.>.'~

during, in the course of

o';\)~
~

J)~

Jo

c J.P~
C

(0 )~

His Royal Highness

..::;LCaJ~

J.

child

~)~

/ :):'~

knowledge

0~C JI~
J

huge, giant

(J~) J~

exchange officer

~)~ fair, exhibition

publishing house

y~ic~~
JJllr-1I~~

to change sth.

bank

hall

computer, calculator

'

Ai.l1~
'"
..... .

with the will of God

event

demand, need

colloq.: see

neighbor

discount, reduction

r-'"

provided that

techrUcal

international

to see so., sth.

house

s:.1J'M

(~ ) ~ highness

to stay, to remain

doctor

director

JJL.,a..
,

J ~

..

~
\~L..
Jw,i C~
~

J:'J lA.A C J:'.?

~~lA.A C ~j

154

Lesson 12

~
-J ..r-

reasonable, sensible

i~l

(mass) media; communication

J>- O)~

in addition to

.\
I
His Excellency (the minister) (..r.jyl) C$\""
,

publishing

publisher

0)C ~U

fan, lover; amateur

ol} C )l.b

thinking, thought, ideology

.J~I

~
~
J

uLCL~

proposal

piaster

J J,

v").;J

C J'~
,

J J

promise

~\""'b.M
'/ ~

campus
possible

monarchy, kingdom

8J~
/

::Jy)

.Js-)

appointment, date

~IYC::J~

to keep (a promise)

~ (~)~)
J

(~)

to lie (geogr.); to fall

royal

"

uLC~

meeting point

yo(~).Js-)

to promise so. sth.

. ,

uLCt~

sector

uLC L9~
C

J>.o

women

a.[..j:.

opening

,/'

(~) ~
01~ .o~ .~~

forget so., sth.

u L

currency

~C~

rate, exchange rate

J~
.

house

!JL.u / JL.u

Come here! Let's go! (m.lf)

elite, selection, choice


here: chosen responsibles

place, spot, ground

'I

(!)

~YC~y

C~

Text 1
?

i~ ~l o~ ~ ~\..:.,.) ~ ~~~..l>- ~~~I JJ;. if.. ~~ ~lhl ~

Lb~ . .. .Jp...ul ~t::.....\I1 ~lhl ..r..M J\,....J~


J->-b 0--" ~U

uP.rJ.I l.ho

r:;

..r:!.M

~I

JL>:..J)

~I .,-.JI ~\..p

~ .J~J .~I y\.::S:.U JJ...u1 uP~)I uPjV'

. ~lhl ~JJ.I
UlA!JI) Y::J\lI)

.. fr"\I1

r:;

~~)I 6jL.a.l~ ~~ J .4>--}.> J 4.5:WI

-:J)J--lI)~ 0--"::JJ....>-

1 I 4', c.Lb~I~)

JL- J'roll ~Y J a...-lhl Jl ~~ J ~ ~~I r:;

0 ~ J i~,IJ

.~lh~ -:J JJ-lI .J~ if ~) ~lhl

~I
o.

L:lk)

olA!JI ol~ if J~':J

~.;;) ~I if

J'Y':JI

u~

:.,a. ~lhl 0~ 4..A::JlAJl o..r.JI i~\I1 JJ\>. J


IJ..r.J) J.iWI

~I .JJ::J r:; 6jP

ly.A:J o.rJ.I J

UlA!JI ~
i .J-'""'"'J,
. UI ~~ 'YI J~L..i'JI
U - \ I uu.l,6;~
~
.
)~I
,
,
1.T'"
"-:? 01.;-

uJi

Lesson 12

155

.J':;I ~\.;ll) J.r-ll ~L.,a::j~I) JL.ib~'1 ~ ~ o)":N-I$-.rJI y~~IJ ~')L)l1

.~~I.r-JI i f /.

'0 Jl~1 ~~)

~I ~) Ju; ~L........:JJ ~ ~ o:U <l...!1y.i ~

...?.ril -:;i .?..iJ4 .;:!...LJ:.I if)


.~~IJ

J\~\~

Text 2
~

.~ 'J:>-~i ,p.:ll ~~ :""';I..;,aJI


..;::ili~ J1 6.>.-\>: lii

,)yJI

~~

:'-f},o

~~ ~i ~..w:. :""';I..;,aJI

~~..w:. )~J...ul./-'"" ~ .~~1 ,..:J\..~.::>'J Q\5J)) QI)~y '-f..w:.

:'-f)L.

.) ~ y aJ\.l. )~~ t :""';I..;,aJI

p..Jli~ ~) ~ o..w:. )~)...ul./-'"" 01 Jl; ~I ~ ~)\.:.,. ,i~ J); llA

:'-f)L.

.J-))~J

0i ~) ""';..,......J.I )~i i f

j->"i '-f)lA.....i :.fJ)


. ..l>-I) .k A

,.....; fi ~ ,~ :""';I..;,aJI
i~ i./-'"" dJ ~i
~.k .rJI

.J'b L.

:'-f)L.

.i~ ~ ~rJ ~i.J'b .k.rJI :.....;I~I

~.r-JI~) i)~y ~ '-fi


. ..l>-I)I )~)J..U J-)) O~) .;::ili~~) -:;~ .r-JI) )~)~

.~ )lA.....i <.S)L J -:LI.;:>." J1 ~L

,J.,.w Cp.lll llA

!JW
.-:LI.;:>."

:'-f)L.
:""';I..;,aJI

:'-f)L.

.~ '-f./-'"" ~I.s\.l. :""';I..;,aJI

)lA.....i ~.T'" ~ ~1 ~ yL

:'-f)L.

.~ I ~w. -:;1 :""';I..;,aJI


.~L.WI J1 .~) ~) i f :y.rJI J~ LS' } '-f~y. l)L

:'-f)L.

156

Lesson 12

Exercises:

L1

&. and the words

F onn sentences with the jmperfect tense of the verb (c!)

for north (JL....c!"), south (Y.f->.-), east (J~) and west (y:f). Use the following
nouns and the names of countries you know as subject
~ ,J~ ,01~ ,~ ,a.::...I..o ,~ ,~ ,0j~ ,wl;.,.

cJ

.~...I..o y.f->.~I c}J


lA.J
'1
JLP'~
<.....J:..q.
. ~.
,-?
.i"'"

r::::

L2 Fonn sentences using different imperatives of the following verbs:


a)ca) b)i\; c))j d)~l>- e)~ f)~
Use the given phrases or other prepositional phrases and time markers.
Chose from the following imperatives, nouns, affixed pronouns and prepositional
phrases.

~UAJI

'if)~I

'C lA::JI ,~l;.,.)I


,;)-1 ,~I
iWJI ,4.5'lyiJI
iy0lif

't./';

,~

Iy';

... ~Jd~

4..,.:. WI

'c$-

01~1~,~11~

c.f.J)j '.Jj
0.Jj d).J)j

~~ ,a.::..ul (surroundings) ~I~

~~ ,~I ~~ ,(tower) C~I


C;-il ,~~ ,~I

Jl ,~I Jl
'~1 ,.!J~ Jt,~ Jl
~L.. ...Uu. d~ d.;JI
.
,J~I

.
'~1 '~1
1~1

,~I

cJ

,.!J~ ,~

\.j~ ,J~I

cJ

1~1 '~1

--WI?
L3 Add the definite article where possible.

~l;.,. .. r....I..o .. ...?.rv .. e:-ty .. ) ~b1J ~yP) .. ~ ~~I .. cJ 0~


ol~ ~ J':J~
~l;.,. .. 0~ .Wl;.,. .. y ~)~ .. )--? .. if ~ .. )

:.s-a.

cJ Uy>.""y i~ :U..r- .. )~ .. L:lk .. ) ~~ ..


cJ 01y .. --.AJi .. o. ~..;Z)~ .. if J':JI .. ~\!,. ..

<.Sr.)~" ~ .. .J)~"

~l..Jl .. ~..r- .. ~l>-tk; ..

Lesson 12

J.

157

L4 The teacher explains the colloquial usage of"""'w" (......, ~) "to see" and asks
the students to replace 15'i) in the following sentences with JW", and then to
negate them by means of L. or ':1.
L) ol~ .~I L)~)I I)i) .~I L) l.bl) .~\ L) ~i) .~i) .~\ ~i)
.~Y- ~ 0\) 'i')\,.;~1 0)} .4.,b.;..;J\ 0..l..A. J.,} .o~ ~\ ~i) .011pJ\

Gl

Transform the following sentences (without taking into account the words in
rd
brackets) into the imperfect tense of the 3 p. sg. m. or f .

. J..l:A.l\

J1 ..l:> :; ~

< . J~\

J1 ..l:> ~\.y
.o~y.

.o--4..LJ:.\

..l:> d)

yUd\ ~
'i..J\ ~l..... .ti)1 d i

..:.;L$J\

.~}\ ~

(..:.;\)L;...JI

(~)

..lri ~G,.
. ..:.;\}-:-..J\ 0:r iL.i <l4:"\"":> ..lri 15'i)
.41 \)~ 0i o~u"\"":>i ..l:> G,.)
.~\ ~~ JG,.)I )j

(0~)

.~~l~"\"":>Ju

0:r L))

.dj~~-j>--)I t~

.~\
(4.1 )Ud\ ~)
(0y>J\lL..i)
(L..a:i)

J1 ~u..\..,.:>~\

.) ':1)~ JJ~ o~u"\"":>i ..lri ~)


.~\)-\ L) J.bl\ yUd\~)
.0y>J\ L) Ju..\..,.:>i ~\ ~
.~r. 0)L;...J\~-:;;I)I ~u
.;....J\ if ~\ -.::..j6;.

.o)Ud~

.)l,b.Aj~ ~..\..,.:>

}\.....

158

Lesson 12

i~1 if ~ i\.9

.u:lf.

if ~..l.p ~ \$.
.lA~ Y. ~..l.p ~)
.lA~I'y ~lkJI ~

.~I ~ y\JI ~lkJI ~ ~


~ l>-~ ..\j}1 ~l..,a.yl -JI

(~)
(~ ~l>.-j)
(~~ ~..v)

(~)
(~I)

(~~)

.0J.:..b.- ~ 0..rU 1 J ~ <.Si.J


. 4---- 1~--4 0i lA~\.9..l.pi ~~ "::"'>'-.J
.1frS' uWlkJI ~\.j
~

L.... )? aJ )lkJI ~ ~..l.p ~)


. ~WI 0}:.r. ~..l.p ~lkJI ~)
.c.r11 J1 ~J.j 0i ol::.JI "::"'>'-.J
L:.::..v l>.- ..\j) I ) j

.o.b-I)

. 4. ~..l.p t 4
~;;I ~\.9 Jl Jl>.-)1 ~

(~I)

.t

(~ I/)

.(blond) ~I~

(6Jljll

';1 ~ J\.9

~~ ~.r:-

ob

~..l.p ~

. ~I -J y\JI ~lkJI ~ )
.lliJ-I Jl ~..l.p ~lkJI \$.~
.0..rU 1 Jl uylkJI ~

-J)

~ . ~ ~lkJI

t4

.')llj ~i ~.
. .I c../F'
11 l:..i...l.p J \.9
o

Jl u~1 u~\$.

.~

(~.J)\JI)
(~)

.~.rJI 01..lWI if b~ ~..l.p )j

~
o

.i y.:ll ..\j)1 ~\$.

(~I)

(4----)

' \.9 ..........


\ -i i \.9

~fil../

.'.J.:.J

. 1..1

~..v ~ 7':;;
..j II
0

u .J.J
I

. ~~Y y. 0.r-W1 ,,})

Jl ~I)I

.i~1 ~\.9

(~D
(~)

(i y.:ll C~)
(4J)

~l>.

. :JL::s~..l.p u~ l>..J..frS' ;; l>.-.J ~ w. ~ <.S i.J


.i y.:ll ~\...-. ~\.9..l.p\JI ~)
. 0~lAJI if 0)lkJ 1 u~\$.
~

(~ \...-. )

.0;lkJ4 ~jJI Jl ..\j)1 ~ )


.l>-~ ~\.9..l.p\JI ~\$.

(4----)

.w. Jl ~j}I~)

(0.J4-J4)

Lesson 12

. ...\.t}1

159

v-Jj it,;

.wlj J~ Jt:JI ~
G2 (Written homework) Same as G 1. Write down only the transformed sentences
in the imperfect tense.
G3 The teacher uses the sentences from G 1 but quotes the imperfect instead of
the perfect tense. The student repeats the sentence and then transforms it into the
1st p. sg. using the words and phrases in brackets:
given sentence:
. J~I Jl 0 ~ ~
repetition:
. J~I Jl 0
~~
completion:
.4,1 Jl \.ji ~yi)
given sentence:
.4. Jl 0
~~
repetition:
.4. Jl 0
~~
completion:
.~ Jl \..ii ~ yi)
G4 Same as G3. Practice the transformation ofthe 3fd p. sg. m. or f. into the 1st p. pI.
given sentence:
.4. Jl 0
~~
repetition:
.4. Jl 0
~~
completion:
. ~ Jl :.)- ~ ~ )
G5 The teacher quotes the 1st p. sg. or pI. based on the sentences from G 1. The
or
students transform them into interrogative sentences introduced by d-"
J- i. The affixed pronouns of the 1st p. are to be changed into the 2nd p.
teacher:
.4,1 Jl ~ yi
student:
~4,1 Jl ~ yJ d-"
teacher:
.0yo:.ll iL.i ~I)
student:
~~I; J-i
teacher:
' lf~y. t)i
student:
~ .!J~y. ,..;;

'JA

JA

G6 (Homework) Form 20 sentences based on Gl introduced by an interrogative.


The verb should be in the imperfect tense.

Cl The teacher quotes amounts of money in different currencies which are to be


converted to $ or .
teacher:
student:
0 'j'jy i . ..

" .. .

rS

~
} j 'j)~ \ If)W
.l5'jL. \ V ~.;; If)W j 'j)~ \
,a.:JLk:l op.J \ . , ~y......1 ~" ,~} ~I} \
,~-Jl:j \ .. . ' If..L:Jy. ~}j \ .. . . 'lf~Y' ~I} t '-y')j

.. . lf~ ~ i ,~W;;p.J \ ,~~ j~~

160

Lesson 12

C2 Prepare a conversation with a bank clerk and use the following nouns and
phrases for this purpose.

payment form
)

.!J';' C ~

bank
periodic payment order

Wb ;Uly-

deposit form

~..ul O).40.:.....~
)

fee

i Y"" .J C r--" .J
~

current account, cheque account

J J

.. C ~

~~/~
..
y4J

money; to withdraw money

.Jl>.- y~

,
~L......>- ~ /..::..>LC y~
~

account; to open an account

credit

J..

uP)~

0 ..

uP~

.1Wi C ~

installment
cheque, check; to cash a cheque
traveller's cheque,

~"";~/..::..>LC~
~1..::..>4

check

to pay by cheque

~~~~

..::..>~I;~

cheque-book, checkbook
savings book

~pl fl~

savings depot

.11
~ \0 ..
p
r (7-

to save

(~y..) ~)

to transfer; transfer, remittance


interest; interest rate

..::..>L C ;Uly- /

~"

(J~) J~

..lllr. ~\i ~
. , / ~I
,Y

C o..lllt
'

Final Exercise:
1. Transform the following sentences into the imperfect tense.
)

4..1p.J

.~)11 ~i.J .~I.r--JI ~L.,.:. ~ ~l>.- .~L:lI ~ .o..u:.y. ~)

. ....;~I

~Pl ~~ .~lJ:.I ~ ~.h ~ .01~1

I))j . ..::..>I.J,:;;)..uI"";~ 0i

'~..r--! 4J.J~ ~l9 .yl";:'l ~ .~;, ;UL...J ~~ ..u:.) Cb':;;l Jl ~


1..l...A ~ ~i .~ /'il J.rJI l);U~ W .~I ~ .Jy"~1 "::">.JL.. . I y.!..v

i f L:A.:.:.

Lesson 12

~U..l.,o~1 Gy .)

.Lf:l.J>-" i f u.)~

161

r~ i ~~) .u~L.. , rG .-.J\.A!l1 ~.1J-I

.Jx.JI -.J

~ .lU} -.J J-~ . ~ Gy.1

Ir, .lli.J-I

Jl

2. Translate into Arabic.

The reception was attended by the President of the University and high officials.
The university will be a meeting point for many book-lovers. He will make a
round of the book fair. About 50,000 books were sold at the fair. The opening
ceremony was carried out by H.E. the Minister of Culture. I forgot the names of
the publishing houses. I sold children' s books, books about housekeeping,
technical sciences, Islamic culture and Arabic literature. He kept his promise.
They came two hours after the appointment. I saw him on the campus. He
promised 5 dinars.
3. Translate into English.

~ ~I

Jllf.).Y ! uP.rol l I)))j ! r..r0 1 i f if;; ! ~ )LWI

j-:!i ~ ! ~i i f

J.>- U')y:JI e::P

J;; ! U')J.lI -.J ~ ~

! .;:!j}1 i f ...;d ~ ! ~.r. ~l ! ytWI


!';:yGJ.lI ulA ! ~\hl Jl ~l ! j.>-.)i ! ~I j5" ! ..:..

4. Replace the noun-object or the noun in the prepositional phrase by the

appropriate affixed pronoun.

<.S) . ~J.l.I Jl ~ j
.oyJ.lI

'.r:!J.l.I.:.r- jL:,:.i . ~I ~y...::,l .lli.J-I

J.>- .;:!J.l.I u ~

.~r. ~\hl

Jl ~

Jl ~)I

u y.)

.U')J.lI ~i .uWLWI

5. Translate into Arabic.


I have to reserve two rooms. We must buy drinks. They must keep their promises.
You (f) must invite your mother. You must come tomorrow. He must forget a lot
of events. She must come back.
6. Fill in the blanks.

Jussive

Subjunctive

Imperfect

Perfect
I)\.,;

~
(.J>-")

,~
,

t.S')

Lesson 13
1. The Use of ~~
The verb 0L.5- (imperfect tense 0~) IS a temporal auxiliary verb, which
localize;.s the action (state, event) in a certain tense.

1.1. 0~ in the equational sentence

0l..S"

is the copula in the equational sentence and as such is comparable to the

English auxiliary verb "to be".


The nominal predicate

(0L.5- .;..) is in the accusative after 0l5-. The perfect

tense of 0\5' localizes the predicate of the equational sentence in the past tense.
The student was diligent.
Mul)ammad was our teacher.
,

0\5' is negated by

tJ + jussive, accordingly ~ tJ :

The student was not diligent.


The imperfect tense of 0\5' localizes the predicate of the equational sentence
in the present and future tense.
The student is diligent.

Mubarnmad is the headmaster/ will be the headmaster.

0L.5- is rare in the imperfect, i.e. 0~ = "is", and then merely serves to
emphasize the predicate. In general, affIrmative equational sentences which are
regarded as being in the present tense do not have a copula (cf. Lesson 2, Gr 3.).
~ Al

However, the use of

015- is obligatory when the conjunction::.,f "that" is employed, which is

required to be followed by a verb in the subjunctive:

C::~~~~;;~~.;;;~~;~/a~;;~.~~t;:;~t~. :: :.::"";~.:~~:.~~"~(?'~"~:i.:~0.f.]
oJC'
~ is negated by 'j + imperfect tense, accordingly 'C'
0 ~ 'j:
Abmad is not /will not be the headmaster.

Lesson 13
,

163

0U is also rare in the negated imperfect, i.e. J~ ';} = "is not". In general the
present equational sentence it is negated by ~ (cf. Lesson 8, Gr 3.5.).
,

1.2. 0\5' in the verbal sentence


As is the case in the equational sentence, 0\5'also serves to temporalize the
predic~te in the verbal sentenctJ.,

0L..5' + perfect tense (J-U) and 0\5' + imperfect tense (~) are compound
forms, which are comparable to certain compound tenses in English.
The following forms are compounded with 01S':
(1)

JAi :J iJl.S'

he had done

= Past perfect as an expression of anteriority or of a


completed action in the past which took place prior to
another action also in the past
he did, he used to do
= Imperfect as an expression of a constant, repeated or
customary action which took place in the past
he will have done
= Future perfect as an expression of an action which is to
be expected with certainty to happen in the future

Accordingly, five forms are available to describe the temporal relations: the
two simple forms

~ "he has done", "he did" and ~ "he does", "he will do"

and the three


compound
forms which have just been mentioned.
J
,

J~ / 0\5' is to be understood in these as a temporal determinator, whereas


~ and ~ have their original value which is neutral with regard to tense.
~ and J...;~ are most frequently used. ~ 01S' is often found both in oral
'"

and written usage as well. ~

:u 0\5' and ~ :u J~ are less common.


'"

'"

'"

'"

~ A2 There are difficulties when translating into Arabic, especially regarding the differentiation between
the fonns
one case

~ and ~ 2.!l5'. There are no binding rules which specifY that it is obligatory to use ~ in
and ~ 2.!l5' in the other. It occurs fairly often that both fonns are used as stylistic variants, so

we can ass\Ulle that they are interchangeable. The form ~ 0\5' should be employed if a routine or
repeated action from the past is to be described; it can often be translated by "he used to ... ".
,

:u

is a particle which precedes the verb. If

:u

precedes the perfect tense

(~ ~ ,~ ~ 01S'), it shows the definite execution of the action in the past or the

cJt.t :u J~).
"

execution of the action to be expected with certainty in the future


If

precedes the imperfect tense

(J,;' .i.i ~), it indicates a possibility that the

verbal action is taking place or will take place. (See about the negation of these
verb forms in Lesson 26, Gr 1. 1.1.7. and 1.1.1.8.)

164

Lesson 13

~A3 Verbs with similar fimctions are referred to in Arabic as 0\5' ...:.>Iy>'-f "sisters of kilna n . The
most important verbs of this type are:
_

........ ............... ....................... .................................................... ..... ................................ ... ...... .... .. ...... .. ..... ....... .... ... .... .... .. ..

.. ~~~~.I?:~................................................................................ _......................................................................................... .
not (to be)

............................... .... ........................ .. ..................................... ............ ...................... ....................... .................. ............... .

J(;

still, yet

L. /

01;' ~ / 01;

~ 0\5' /

0; t

..... .... .... ............................. ........................................................ _... ......................... ............ ................... ... ........................... .

to continue to do sth., to go on doing sth.

~/

J1

to remain, to continue to be

. ~.~.~.~.~~~.~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .._. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ~.L.~~. .~. .~~.~~.;.LP.~.


to do sth. no more or no longer

rJ

to be almost, almost, (with negation) scarcely; no sooner ...


}

2. yand~
,

~ and ~ are nouns, which are employed in the sense of the English
indefinite pronouns "every( one )/everybody", "all", "whole". They are always in
the construct state in these cases. They are either followed by a definite or an
indefinite noun or by an affixed pronoun.

:.P ,and ~ + noun


2.1.1. :.p + indefinite noun in the singular = "every":
2.1.

every student
every day

,
2.1.2. ~ + ~ + definite noun in the singular or plural often serve to introduce
enumerations like

the rector as well as the teachers and the students


Syria as well as Iraq and Libya
and should be translated by "both ... and ...1 ... as well as ... ".

2.1.3.

:.p + definite noun in the singular = "whole":

I the whole family

Lesson 13

165

:.p + definite noun in the plural = "all":

2.1.4.

~. ~S:JI ~ I

I all books

if. + definite noun in the plural = "all":

2.1.5.

I all students
J

:.p and if. + affixed pronoun


2.2.1. J.S (seldom if.) in the meaning of "whole" and "all" is predominantly
2.2.

used as an apposition when it occurs in this construction. The affixed pronoun


agrees with the preceding noun in gender and number:
the whole family
~,}

J.S

""

'. 0'\/

~J

:.p and if. are in the same case in this context as the

Like every apposition,


antecedent is.
2.2.2.
and
affixed pronoun:

""

o ~ 1<' /," 0 {'I


'r-r~\.3~':J

I have seen all friends.

if. also occur without an antecedent, when connected with the


t+f~

all of them
all of us

L:..lS"

all (of it)

as--

..n

'

;,

.-

~A4 Additionally, remember ~ I = "all (people)" and ~ = "all of them", "altogether" which
is post-positive as an apposition.

~A5 .,jl5' in the meaning of "all" is used less frequently; it is either in anteposition, or postpositive,
taking the accusative:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. ,; l5'. . . .;.. . . .; . .;:./.y;J..1.\1


. . . . . .'i...................................
j
/ y;J..1.\1 .... l5'
I
~

:J .....j:; .......

....
..:.>~tkJI
,~~It,6J1
............................. .......... _..................................................................................................................................................
all students

~A6

The noun ~ must not be mixed with

'YS (gen. and acc.;)f) fern.

Jf (gen. and acc.~)

Jf / 'YS are always followed by a dual noun in the genitive or by a dual pronoun suffix.
If Jf / 'YS receive the pronoun suffix they must be inflected for case:
"both".

They both went to ...


................................................. ........................................................................................................................................
We know both of them.
'~
.O::i('" /'~
.0,(", J .T'
<
,
,
,
..........................................................................................................................................................................................
Used before nouns,
are not declined:
~

df / '.Y..S. . .............................. .................... ............ ....;,;.........;..................:.................... . .



I know both students.
.~t,6J1 8f / ;..Jt.6J1 'YS J ).i
,
,
I...............................................................................................
..........................................................................................
.
~

~I

166

Lesson 13
0,

3.

0,

'"

~~

The noun ~ (pI. ~i 'v"'..,...v) is employed in the sense of the English words
of identification "the same, himselflherself/itself" and "the same" - in addition to
its being used in its original meaning "soul". It is always in the construct state. It
is either followed by a definite noun or by an affixed pronoun.
0,

3.1.~+noun

on the same day


I bought the same book.
3.2.

+ affixed pronoun
0,

3.2.1. The appositional construction in which ~ + affixed pronoun follow the


noun has the same meaning as 3.1.:

on the same day


I bought the same book.
0,

3.2.2. ~ + affixed pronoun also occur without a preceding noun. The English
pronouns "he (you, I - ...) himself/yourself/myself" are expressed by this
construction in connection with the preposition~:
0,

0,

~,~
""
,,"
""""
....

he himself, she herself

0,

(~

0,

(~i ,~i)

~,~
"".
""

you yourself

",'

".",

'r)

0,

I myself
they themselves
you yourselves

JOt

"w

~/.'
,~
~o,
~~

...

;;v-,

(lii)

.tOt

(~ ,~)

.';' W
"

"w",' ,,~'
"w,,0
"
0

,..

we ourselves

(~i ,~i)

JOt

~w
,
"

(~)

I have done that by myself.

~ A7 c..r--..i.i

+ affixed pronoun are also employed as a reflexive pronoun (oneseWhimselflherseW


I) ....

itself, yourself, myself etc.) in Arabic: Help yourselfl

J 0

0"

.~~..l>1

':

Lesson 13

4.

167

~,~~and~~l / ~f

The nouns o..Lf , ~ and


English indefinite pronouns:
,.t;:jj

,..

lS~l

..

~I are used in the sense of various

/..

~ means "some", o~ "several" and lS~l / ~i "one".

~ and lS~l / ...G-.f are followed by a definite noun or an affixed pronoun; ;;~
is followed by an indefinite noun.
4.1. ~ + definite noun in the plural = "some (of)":

~IJ/
~

some of the teachers

-/

with some friends, with some of the friends

:lj~~1 ~ c:

...0.

with some o( them

~c:
J J

The reciprocal ~1 ~ means "each other" and is mostly used with a prepositional
object, more rarely with a direct object.
!j A8

4.2. o~ + indefinite noun in the plural = "several":


several teachers
after several days
'"

....

4.3 . ...1.>1 , f. lS...I.>l + definite noun in the plural = "one":

J
/
~I~i
~

one of the teachers

~~f

one of them

"J
..;;kWI lS~1
J
~jJI lS~ll;

one of the woman teachers

in one of the rooms


/

5. ~i
/

..

The interrogative pronoun ~i, f ~i means "what/which". It is always in the


construct state as the, 1sI term of a genitive construction.
5.1. ~i + indefinite noun = "what/which":

I in which month?

168

Lesson 13

.....

~a..;,,~
.;; .. ""

which city?
'"

Which city did you visit?

"J

""

..,

'i'u
. ) ). "a..;"..lA
-/

J J

which delegations?

J,.,.",

a:i-

/~

4.JI-

J. ~t

~;;) ~I

The following construction with ~i is possible as well:


5.2.

~f +:X

+definite noun in the plural:

which one of the friends?/ which one of them?

~ A9 The interrogative pronoun


which has the meaning "Le.".

~i

must not be confused with the indeclinable particle

~i,

.
}

01~T ~ (i) 0~i in any case, anyhow

ear

i'iT ~ f i

pain

cheek

0WI, here: stool

man
JJ

nose

Jji ~ Jji dangerous

belly, stomach

0..,k. ~ ~

some

urine

Jy'
}}

forehead

0f"" ~ ~

forehead

uL~~

iki~~

body
all

if"

fig.: Everything okay,


God willing?

>-L..; ~ i:>

blood

~)~i ~ >-1):>

medicine
arm

t.~1i C.(i) t.1)~


}

chin

op~

,0lj~i ~ .}~
}

beard

J....

uy:>
}

...

J:>

holiday

ul ~ 0).;>:-1

penis

)'~ ~ ~~

sick leave

~ f 0).;>:-1 lungs

uL ~ ~)

Yr,>- ~ ~

~I~~~l>}.'I~

main

~)

0;;

truth; fact
analysis
fever
pelvis

i/

J' ) j ) ~ J'I)

tablet, pill
eyebrow

head

JJ.

JdLi ~ J#

knee

.
uL~~~

(i)~

neck

uL~ ~)

./.

leg, foot

~ }

J:'1~i ~ J:'~

~~i ~ (i)~)

arm

~Ir" ~ ~L...

Lesson 13

tooth
hour, watch

thigh

0~i

c::. (i) ~
uL c::. ~L.....
0~ c::. (i) JL.....
--4~

violent, fierce, heavy, furious


hair
lip

fmger; toe
chest

'"

(::::p,

J J

" '

J)..J....p

...w\.j
,

2J.;

~~\~\
JL~\~\
o\)i c::. ~

uLc::.~

c::. J..J....p

mouth

~\.,;

use

t\..J....p
" J

photo

J~

c::.

...

heart

0 J~

c::. o~\.j

i\~i c::. (i) i-u


~;n -...it
.
c::. ' $_"

foot, leg

headache

I vomited.

(prep.) against

shoulder (blade)

guest

all

J~i c::. (i) ~


a.;t5'

JS'

Live long!

place

~i ,0?L..i c::. 0~

::.

o-lf

several

uP\;i c::. uPf

illness

offer sth. to so.

nurse

upper arm (also m.)

stomach

organ, part of the body

self; soul

canned (meat)

important

medical treatment
~J).ra

not necessary

0...

examine

c::.

c::.

(i) ~

JJ

'" 0

....

in what follows

J;

to come after

(~)~

hand

~i

(:) ;)))
J

~J

..

to prescribe sth. for so.

o~

r-r

.r.? occurring (in)

~~
I.

open sth.

~\ 'V"~

"

;).rso
J~\ c::. ~
U ~ c::. (i) .:.r.?
(~) c?
",I

eye

J. J

o#,

more important
J....

!Ill

a...or-J

throat, neck

I~~-

ul..::-'l.J

limbs

spine

jaw

lower ~

J I _'\
C:!
'-'P c::.

J.

spoiled; bad

,c::. ~

c::. )..1 c::. c::...1

vagina

upper ~

oli..;:.

).

U"'~ 1;:. ~

examination

(coli.);';'

hospital

169

J;.J

'

(~) ~)

(~)

J.)

~ ~

;4i c::. (0 --4

170

Lesson 13

Text 1

~)I .sjl.;kiJ dj~i ~ t: 0W)l1 ~ 0.Jro ~I..,..a>- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~


iw}JI I~ .o.J..,......JI J
oo:l).,rJI I.:,A...;...l,b...al1 ~t; tj ~.rJI lJ~~i 0J~J
!~I 0lSJI tj WuJI tj Oo:l))1

.:r.:-JI

(0

0~~1 (t

0L..Jj1 (\

a.A...:J1 (~

0\..:.....~1 (\ t

...uL1 (\r'

t I.).lll

~I

Cl"

~I (r

J"i)i (\

~I(A

Jj~1 (V

'-:-"" L:l1 ('i

j.lll (\ r JA...-~II ~~I 2..W1 (\ \

(\ A

~I (\V

....6J1 (\\

.)J....a.J1 (r r'

~~I(n

..yl (r \

.?'.lll (rA

.)'yll (rV

~I (r\

r..l.iJ1 (r'r

~)I(n

<..>pl ~~I (\
~UI (r

d..f)i

~I(\~

(r 0

..,....wl (r t

JUI (r'.

C.;AJI (r ~

Lesson 13

171

~\
J.:S.
*

Text 2

.)'p~ Lt ~I C~
,

-;

-;

-J

'~f

\.ji

:C~

~Ail I ~w. 01 lfi>" '~f) ~) ~i ,)yll C~ :~I

rJ) o..wl rJ i"}!) --4-.W tl..L.,.:. r..?~

,).p~ Lt ,-I

.jl;'~1 e::r. rJ)


~t.?- ,!j~

i~ (i t ~) ~ r..?~~) ~y.

0:\.1.

rJ

:C~

Js-- ~

j.A ~ b

:~I

i"}~1 o~ ~i..:;. :C~

.~I iy-.lJI er ~ ~i

:C~

.o..l...u iy-.lJI o.Lt 0.J0..u :~I


~ ~ i ~I ~ er J5'i ..u 0\5" ~i:.fJ) ,0.J0 ..u , jfi "} :c ~
'i"}! ~~
~~)~~I } y y.J-I ~
.0..)Ju 0)~

u..i..>i j.A>

:~I

:.fJ) J..~ ~I er Y.r.>- o~ u..i..>i

:c ~

.~ ~ c.>j ..u

i..ul

J..Li ~ Jl>- ~\ Js- :~I

~~I J>-~i 01 ~ ~ j.A ~ CJWI).r.:k>- uP)1 j.A>


Lp.rJ,1 i ~ ) ~)I ~ 0~~1

rJ

\.j~ ~

-.::.JI 'r..?)).rP .r):- 1.Lt

:c~
:~I

) ~I ...I..P ~y~\ ~ .!.ll ~L) ~ C)jLI) Jy.JI) i..ul ~

0:'" ~y\ 0i ~ ~ j.A>

:c~

Js- 'i~\..i!1 ~~)~I iy.. JW,~

:~I

~c.>?\
0:LI. ~ f OjL>.-l .!.ll..:.-:S Jl>- ~I

'i ldi ~~
.)'p~ Lt ,0fr5" ~ ~Iy r..?~:.fJ)

:c~

.~I)I er ~i ~ 0\ ~ "} :~I


..~JLJI

c: ').p~ Lt ,!j~ Ju,


.~')UI c:

:C~
:~I

172

Lesson 13

Exercises:

Ll

The teacher points to parts of the body using a poster or a picture on the
blackboard and the students give the Arabic equivalent.
L2 (Written homework) Form 10 sentences with the Arabic words denoting time
(~ ,~L.. 'C ~ 'iY- ,~\..... ) preceded by
. o~1 i f lil>.,.:.; C~
y.r:- I
~

JS'.

J5'

. b.M
a...::S:...
JI t
.

i I<' , ,...::..,.i

~cJ"'y

L3 Form sentences with ~ and the following nouns:

~...lA,~ ,~,~ ,yL::.S" 'iY- ,t~i,~ ,~ ,J~


Written homework: appositional construction
oral performance: genitive construction
written:
~~I~..:...S
oral:
~I~~..:...S
L4 Add the Arabic equivalent for "he / she, ... himself / herself" .

. ~ 4J\.....)I y5 > .4J\.....)I y5


.4J\.....)I

.y\.....)lI~

~ };'..J1<.::-J..u

...!.lJ~

J.'"

J.'"
~..!.lJ~ rW J.'"

~..!.lJ~ ~

!..!.lJ~ ~1

!..!.lJ~ ~1
!..!.lJ~

1;";1

L5 Form sentences of the type 0l5"" + adverb or adverbial phrase + oJ,y. Use the
following time markers after oJ,y:

!i~ ,~\.....i 'J* ,<.::-Jly:..... '<.::-JI:'"


.<.::-JI:'" oJ,y .!J~ ..:...S ~
'i~ oJ,y ~~ 4:; ~..:...S ~
L6 Form sentences with the verbs y.r:- ,~~

,..b:-i

'(..$';...::.1

,i; ,0l5"" ,y5 in

which oJ,y and one of the nouns in the plural become the object of the sentence.
nouns: t~i

'iY-

,0l>.,.:.;

.U"l5" .~~ .o...l:.r- .yL::.S" .4J\..... J.


'~f

oJ,y <.::-Ji;

. 4:~ ~I ~ i(i o~ 0l5""

y5

Lesson 13

173
~

L7 Form sentences in which one of the following nouns '~'J:...l..,.:>,~

~j

,.;--:!..\..A

,yL1 'W~,~ ,..w)

'J--9I."..-

subject of the sentence.


Use the following verbs: t:'" j ,~ ,,:)\.>:. ,~

,oL:a precededby~

isthe

,.;i ,,,l>.-,~

.~~I "l-.A lli;LI ~t:t...l..,.:>~1 ~ ~


~l y..,JI "t:t...l..,.:>~1 ~ "l>.-

~
~

L8 Transform the following sentences into questions introduced by

~i

/(,foi Jl ,~i /(,foi lJ ,~i /(,foi if


~cJi ~ (,foi if
< ''-,?U} ~ if lii
~
~ ~p..:;. I y l::5"' (,fo I
<. ~ f ~ l::5"' ~p..:;. I ~
''-if ~ if lii
.0W ~ lJ u..u)
~

$.

Jl u)L....
~l>.- lJ c....... j,:)

.,:)I~ ~..\..A
.~,:)

11 _1

",11

u~

C 'I _ .~

'-'...I..atJ~ ~

.JW ..u) li~ 0l5'


.~I

J..ri j>:-':)

.0frS' ,:) jJ) lli;LI

u ~

Gl Transform the following sentences into the past tense .

. I~ ylkJI 0l5'

<

.~ ylkJI

.0)~ yJ\kJI

.,:)j~~1
4o~1

.yl1 ..u)1 -':;';1."... --4.J.>.. ~I


.,:).J.>..

~~~I

.~y~1
.~."..- 4.ijJI

.~i~y~1

a..L.r-.~tl
- ' 6...p r-"

.~...\.>-~I

.~."..-

J..ri

174

Lesson 13

.(good) ~ 4.:ll>-

.~J,j U""WI

.~\,;:.~y~1
G2 Replace the past tense in the following examples by ~ 0\.5"'.
Add one of the following time markers:

.~ ;;JJ. c-al I tJ

i y.. :?
~I ~ i y.. :?

t.r.""'i ;;JJ.
0':?.r.""'i ;;JJ.

t.r.""'i:?
~ :?

~ ;;JJ.
-:r-~ ;;JJ.

~:?

~;;JJ.

~L....:?

~;;JJ.

J-: J>--)I 0\.5"'

c-al

< .
I tJ J>--)I ~
~
.'p ))y ~.M tJ ~J...p ~
. I Jl ~lkJI ~
.4.....)..u1
~i ~
.~..uI~~lv
..
)I'
)

tJ

.;;..l>-I) ~L.. ~)I ili


.:UL..) ~J...p ~

.~..ul t}"";' tJ .u-.i ~


.0;l..r. ~l>.- tJ ~I ~ (,.)");)
.~.rJI ~J...p li)j

.4, Jl";;I)1 li~;)


.~I if ~ts' ~f'
G3 Same as G2, but with the subject in the plural.

.i y.. :?

c-alI tJ 0yl-: J l>.-)I 0\.5"'

c-alI tJ J l>.-)I ~

< .

G4 Transform the subject/object into the plural preceded by Y"all".

Pay attention to the fact that agreement in gender between the verb and subject is
not based on the masculine:? but on the 2 nd term of the genitive construction .

J..o)
.J)~I U-- i ~J...p J..o)

. (before yesterday) J)~I U-- i J:..L,a..l1

.I

. 0...\;.\ ~.M

tJ

~lkJI ~

Jl ;;l:.i\1

v)L..

Lesson 13

. UAJ-\

175

Jl ~ li y;)

. !J~~I~
.yt;;S:j\ ~

. ~\)\ ~i.J
.yt;;S:j1

..:;.Ji;

.~..u.\ ..:;.J.Jj
. (to open) !J~\ ~

JS

G5 Same as G4.
is to be replaced by
person is the subject or object.
G6 (Written homework) Use
position.

JS in the

e::r. in those sentences in which a

sentences of G4 in its appositional

G7 (Repetition) Combine the following numerals, nouns and adjectives.

--4...G:-

t:! ..u
'-:I'lli
!Jp
'..j./'

, 'I'

!J.J L.

t)?
~)

~\.J;)

yl::$"

~\.b

.J>--) l) i'j Tr..f J.:.>.

j>.-.J

~...l.>-

c}.~

~\

~ );)

~fi

.J 'j y~

r..fr-"

r-L-

.c..w.1 l) i 'jT r..fJ.:.>. .~


c..w. \ l) i 'j Tr..f J.:.>. ..::....-.:J 'j

C3 Create a form in Arabic to be used to obtain a medical history as follows:

176

Lesson 13

last name, first name:


age:
weight:
sex:
childhood diseases:
operations:
etc.
Use the dictionary, your list of common diseases, and the following words and
phrases:

blood pressure
i..ul~

i ..ul

to take so.'s blood pressure

(~")

i fu

. e 11 L....i
i ..ul r.J~
. ,
J

blood sugar level

diagnosis

~I~

electroencephalogram

tL.~I~

electrocardiogram

..

weight

uJ)
JJ

aJ yikJI J:'1;i

childhood diseases

~I?~

operation

;"'''Yu.

plaster, band-aid

i f ~u)

prophylaxis
J ",

I)

tIJ

tIJ

~(~)~

pulse / to take so.'s pulse

menstruation
to X-ray
X-ray picture

Final Exercise:
1. Transform the following sentences into the past tense.

cJ

'~f .J-'b .o~

LS A

.".

..t.....\..;

y.J-I . J~

<lA,:)

cJ

.J..,,1 ~i .0li~ o\j~i .~ ~~

tl .0~.,,1 ouL... .~ ~ .~ ~~I .~..L::.

t ~I .~ 0Lw.i w

~I .~lk .ti)1 ~I/ .t:!JJ uPWI .~/ :ujJI .u~ u~~1 .~..l;o,.
.0~lA~

Lesson 13
2. Translate into English.
~l5' .;U..i.;ll JI ' ,.J-L..u
.~..ul
_
_

,~
~ L.>

..

':i'

177

I. . --......k.ll
~\(" J"
\("i..u 0l5'
r...r--:. _. 0l5' .rJJI J"

"

.J~ 'j..u _)J-I J~..u '~r.--'i oJJ. i.Jd)) ~I ~ Jl~.l; a..o.WI

.<\j'~~ if C? ..u 0~

.J

~I J~) ~ Js-- ~I

f- ..u 0l5'

3. Translate into Arabic.


He has got the same illness. Her brother ate the same canned meat. All students
came. They sold the same book. They sold the bOQk themselves. The whole
family was at the doctor's. You wrote this yourself. Do it yourselves! He took
some pills himself. One of the sick persons had already gone several days ago. He
asked some of them about the treatment. One of the nurses was very pretty.
4. Put the numbers into the picture according to the given list.

~L:lI (i

~\l1 / ~\l1 2.1iJI ("

~I (' i
..l)1 ('"

0~\l1 (t

.r-:JI (i

~I (" v"i)l ('

0LJJI (,.

u..:JI (~

~I (/\ Ul.i\ll (V

u:JI (0

~I ('

..lYLJI (".

0\..;....,\11 (' t

~I (' ~

...ull (' i

t. I)..ul (' /\

~..ul ('"

LSp I ~.,.-JI (' V

~I("i 4J)I("O ~I("t )..L,aJI("i ~'il(""

Lesson 14
1. The Forms of the Verb
1.1. The base fonn of the

(JW~I IJljjf) : IT, ITI and IV


Arabic verb ~ / ~), as we have got to know it up to

now, can be extended by gemination of consonants, prolongation of vowels,


prefixation or infixation, or a combination of two of the possibilities that have been
given. The extensions of the base fonn, like the base fonn itself, are called Fonns.
There are 15 Fonns, only 10 of which, however, are in common use. They are
referred to by Roman numerals in European grammar books and dictionaries:
base Fonn = Fonn I, derived Fonns = Fonn IT, ill, ... X. Theoretically all Fonns
can be fonned out of every verb. Practically speaking, however, a verb rarely
occurs in more than 4 or 5 Fonns, and in fact it often occurs only in its basic
Fonn or a derived Fonn.

~ At

Originally changes with regard to meaning correspond to the formal extensions of the base form

as well. Thus e.g., an intensifying, causative and denominative meaning is stated for Form IT, a reflexive
meaning for Form VII. As, however, every individual verb is lexically fixed and the original "value of
the Form" is often not identifiable any more, we refrain from stating the basic meanings of the
individual Forms at the moment. Cf. the smnmary in Lesson 19 with respect to this subject.

1.2. FonnIT
Characteristic: doubling of R2

~
~
~

Perfect tense:
Imperfect tense:
Imperative:

~A2 The quadriliteral verb has the same vocalization of the imperfect form.
Pattern:
Example: ''to translate"

r-"" r. ' r-"" J'


..

'

.. "

".".0

..

............................................................................................. _..................................................................::'........................ .

Table 35 in the Appendix supplies information about all forms of the quadriliteral verb.

1.3. Fonnill
Characteristic: prolongation of the vowel that follows RI

Perfect tense:
Imperfect tense:
Imperative:

~\.j

~Ci;
Jf~

Lesson 14

179

1.4. Form IV
Characteristic: prefix a- i, vowellessness of RI
Perfect tense:

~f

Imperfect tense:

~.,
~i

Imperative:
~A3 The prefixed Hamza of Form IV is a Hamzat ai-qat".

1.5. Forms IT, ill, IV have the same succession of vowels in the imperfect forms:
u - (a/aJ-) - i. We group them together for that reason.
Here is the summary once more:
imperative

imperfect tense

perfect tense

Form IT

Form ill

Jf~

Jf~

~
,
J$-u

Form IV

:bf

~f

(Appendix: Tables 5, 6, 9, 14)


~A4 The imperfect tense of Forms IT and IV are neither distinguishable from each other nor from
the basic Form without auxiliary signs.

2. The Attributive Relative Clause

(~\J u:aJf)

Not only a word or a group of words, but also a whole clause can be added to
a noun as an attributive adjunct. The relative clause is the form of the attributive
clause that occurs most frequently.
2.1. There are two types of attributive relative clauses:
a) relative clauses which are employed as attributive adjuncts related to definite
nouns Cu,.:,).
b) relative clauses which are employed as attributive adjuncts related to
indefinite nouns C~).
2.2. If the relative clause is the modifier of a definite noun, it is preceded by a
relative pronoun.
~ AS There is the same agreement in state between a noun and an attributive clause as there is
between a noun and an adjectival attributive adjunct. If the antecedent is definite, the adjective is
defined by the article J i, the relative attributive clause by the so-called relative pronoun. The term
relative pronoun is therefore not quite correct, because it expresses, above all, the definiteness of the
attributive clause in addition to characterizing gender and number. The relative pronoun does not,
however, indicate the syntactic function (of the modified antecedent) in the relative clause.

180

Lesson 14

2.2.1. The relative pronouns (aJ~:,.tl ~~~f) are:


~,

,-?~i

after a masc. noun in the singular


after a fern. noun in the singular and after plurals which denote
non-persons

~,

::r.~i

after a masc. noun in the plural which denotes persons


t

aJ

dJ

J:I}JI 'J:')\jl after a fern. noun in the plural which denotes persons

01.wf
~

after a masc. dual

01.ill1

after a fern. dual

~ A6 Whereas the four first-mentioned forms are neutral as to case, the two dual forms are inflected.
,_

When following a noun in the genitive or accusative, they are J.illl / ~I.
,

~ A7 Note the different spelling:


with one

~ A8

J: ~.lI1 I JI I J..lII; with two J:

The article

JI is

J'')IJI

IJ'I}JI I ol.ill I I 0l::D1.

the first component of the relative pronoun, therefore the initial Hamza of

~.lI1 'JI etc. is Hamzat al-wa:jl.


~

2.2.2. ,-?~I '~I etc. are equivalent to the English relative pronouns "who, which,
that" in the nominative. The noun which is modified by the relative clause is the
subject of this clause at the same time.
the student who came from Iraq
the student (f.) who came from Iraq
the students who came from Iraq
the students (f.) who came from Iraq
the two students who came from Iraq
the two students (f.) who came from Iraq
A literal translation of the Arabic examples makes the difference in word
order in the Arabic and in the English relative clause clear to us. In Arabic:
normal word order of the verbal sentence, accordingly "the student who he has
come", in English: inverted word order, consequently "the student who has
come".

Lesson 14
~

181

2.2.3. ~I,

'-:?+J1 etc. are also employed in sentences when the subject is not

identical with the antecedent. In English, the relative pronoun is in the genitive or
objective (as an indirect or direct object or the complement of a preposition) in
these cases.
In Arabic the affixed pronoun in the relative clause makes the connection with
the antecedent.
Jo

....

".

the friend whom I have met

d;t;
J. ..l:,.Ji
. '-:? ~jJ I ~~

the (girl)friend whom I have met

~t;~I~~i

k...

oJ)."

Jo....

/.

'"

rp

""

~'~'I!t; ::r.+ll ~t;~~i

the friends whom I have met

Jo

...

,.. rp

...

/.

....

/.

...

/.

,-

~t; oI.ill I 0~~i

the two friends whom I have met

....

~ ...

.,..

~ /

. ~

~G.J
~ ...

the (girl)friends (to) whom I have written a letter

rp

......

rp

J ...

~G .J ~ ~
~I
~..l:,.Ji
.
~
.~

the (girl)friend (to) whom I have written a letter


the friends (to) whom I have written a letter

,;...

~ ~
JJI J ..l:,.Ji

'-:? ~ ~ ~

dJG .J

the friend (to) whom I have written a letter

,;....

r-tJ

rp

....

...

~ ::r.+ll ~t;~~i

/.'"

... ""

rp

~G .J ~ ~
.
....

...

/.

...

/.

""

/.

'"

<./-'~I ~LQ.,..l:,.Ji
.~
0

rp

....

the friend whose doctor I have met

t..J:,:.:..Lt;
J. ..l:,.Ji
.,.
. '-:? ~jJ I ~~

the (girl)friend whose doctor I have met

~8!t;~I~~i

...

....

~
..

the friends whose doctor I have met

...

~I

.
~

the (girl)friend at whose house I was

r:P

....

~. JJI ~Jt;..L.:,~i
,J.. ~
~

0...

~~

the friends with whom I have been


with the two friends from whom I
have received the books

....

:.:..Lt;
.

J....

,-1P

....

/.

...

/.

....

~ ~ . .lit; 0WJI 0~~i

the two (girl)friends whose doctor I have met


the friend with whom I have been to the
theatre

rp

0....

)J 0

oJ

oJ

rp

....

...

::r.+ll ~t;~~i

0 ...

rp

JJI J..l:,.Ji
'-:? ~ ~ ~

.... '"

....

/.

~
~I ..:;..JJ.>..,J..
J. . . i .illl ~
..l:,.JI
~
.~ .'
~
~
~

~
~.

~. d

oJ

rp

J....

/.

....

~I
~..l:,.Ji
~.~

~ A9 Of course fonns which are defined in a different way than by the article could also be
employed in place of ~..l..<J\ , ~\,;..l.,.::o~ \ ,~..L.,a.\\ etc. which were chosen as an example, e.g.:
~..l.,.::o , ~

J...l.,.::o a.o.

2.3. If the relative clause is the modifier of an indefinite noun


pronoun is used.

(~),

no relative

182

Lesson 14

~ AIO There is agreement in state here, as well. The antecedent is indefinite, consequently the
attributive clause does not get a sign of definition either.
Word order and the affixed pronolUl are just as they are in the syndetic
relative clause:

I have read a piece of news in the


'I '"
'"
2 ... ~ ~t,;,. I;':' il;'~I ~~;.. r.) ~I)
newspaper al-Ahram, in which it says: ...
I have met a friend today who came
. ~ i~'J.~
~ , i'~I
. 0. xJ ~
. ~ij
.
from London yesterday.
o
J
There are delegations in the hotel
. ~;JI ~14l1
~J ~.,;j ~~I ~
who came from the Arab cOlUltries.
0

Cl

:x

, 0 ,.

J;)) (Minister of) Foreign Affairs ~ )\j..1 (.l-j)

enterprise, firm

uLC

J...-....y
I ~I ' 1

Israel
"

"

",;

J:I}JI) J:J'JI

r.r--.r"

0L.i

2il 1 0L.i ~
(0l5') ()~) 1-4
uL C 0lk:.

to seem (as if)


ticket, card

d.'. .

conSl'derable
b Ig,

to translate sth.
from ... to

Gi C ~ G~

'0

to welcome, to greet so.

~ (~ ..1..) ~)

'"

J.

J-'

J> 0 (-:...~) -:"'-l>-

II

Jl (~) ~i IV

probably

J / Jl J>

(~:;) J.--~i IV

sth. to so.
high

~)

to accompany so.

at any rate

Jl>
J

JS' ~
'

J.

Cl

(~) p>-I

....

IV

~'i" \.::.:.:.
,

(~I..I..) ..;il) III

c~~~

satisfaction

to hand over, Jl
to bring sth. to so.

,f

drink

to take part in
people

(~) ~ilv
J '#

/ J / J> 0 (~)

I hope you feel better soon.


diarrhea

II

uL C ~!

trip, journey
to send so.,

.)

Jl e::-)

to go back to

(~ll-) ~i)
kH k

0:! ( ..1-)

bilateral

to inform so. of sth.

J>

to connect between

L':iU
to produce sth.
-, C ~
-"

pupil, student

to bring sth. along to

,J ,
,0 (}'~) .?~

M,'

' " ,
J 1.. . 0" J> (~fi) r->';

to say sth. to so. y

J>

to mention so., sth. to so.

."

9l::U',; i 91.ill'." -:...

with the protection of God

building

~I..ul (.l-j)

(Minister of) the Interior

i j:!~1 C ~I i ($~I to lead, to head so., sth.

security, protection

fmal

,,I

- ~..AA
~'i
- .J ~,

..Lp
~,

" ,

Jordanian

rel. pr.

'"

' JI

a present which I have sent to my friend

o} Cl

...

r-L
Of

II

.;.~/~~
JI.~"1

Lesson 14

wl
'",
J'

brother (having the same


father and mother)

-.

r:..~

health, hygienic
newspaper

~r:..~

edited, published (by)

(../ 'if) )~L..,.,

~anca'

(Sanaa)

.,;...L

pharmacy

:W~

r:.. - -

~~

exactly
J ~ J.

;;i

../ (~) r. II

to express sth.
many, numerous

dJur:.. o~

piece

~r:..~
~r:..~

top, summit

I~ y5"

cholera
bitter

ji '0 (~) ~i

to be able to
he/she is able to ...

...

IV

I~
V~

'. 'I

I'

.C"

J ./' J

~
"

outstanding
0J

."

ji ,0

~\..;.. r:.. :; ;;6:;,

region, district
ji~

according to
C}i IV
~ i. present
r:.. ,r- duty, task

I)}

J I Jl J> '0 (r~) i~ II

to present, to submit sth. (to so.) ...A (.0) i~

../)\A;

(cA)
'-ii

at once, instantly, immediately


to introduce so.,
sth. to so.

drop

to accomplish, to carry out...A (~) ~I IV

he must

film

dr:..)}

resolution

J.

to give so. sth.

to please so., that

183

41~

r:.. -"::l'"

.,;...Lr:..~IJ

";"'~Jr:..~J

prescription

...A (~I;') j...:>I J III

to continue sth.

";"'YJ r:.. oUJ

death

Text 1
~

.. \
01 ~II 0) j ) :; 0:I).J---"
~ ~ ~I' 0).}~I WI ~I ..,:.J.?~ - s,lA.;..p

.. , " '"

.:.r-- ..y.kll OU) ,j-S' ..,:.J.;.......i ~I ..,:.JLWls! r:.r-- .}~ :; I)~I) J~ 'jl ~Ifi
.~ y~i J1 E'" J.. ~}I Ih 01 ).}WI ~l:t) ..,:.J\J:ij~1 oh :; ~I}I
~ 0)~j :; ~1J""""1 ~)\.;.:. rU) i.}LA.\1 ~~I i Y- 0~WI J1 ~ - 0yAlllI
:; ~}I ..,:.JI)~ t u...lll r.-j)) ~ )\.:J-I J..j) if ~ ~ u.~ ~) 0~
*
. ~ f'11 J=l 10.4..1..>.- ~)r i~ d )~) . ~I
J I~l : a .Pl)'i l U ~L::::lI a.....J.h1 :; ~ :; ~~I~)I Jl:t - oyAlllI
;~i ('.ri.i ~i i:u.. r:,r- fl,) ~\.... ~I ~I ..,:.JI)~ t:\WI ~\.;j) ~ ~i 0i
~

oft

.ll..WI
.'~ ~
. iG'~I oh ~.

184

Lesson 14

~L...j)

0)

u)~~) ir ~ ~l::.i,r- <.::J.;......i ~I WI J~i

<J

.!l}_!.)

.~)~) \t)<.::J\..A~

W.-..U 4...,j).:j i~1 ~)L:lI r.,j) ~if- ',?..ul ~/~I ~)I ~I):! - J'lt)1
..u}1 ~)

0i .?..u~

r.,..8.:-1 U---) . ~~ L,a;:.;"~f\ t:!}..!.il) <.::J L....::.. JlI ~

<J

~~

.Jl:!ll 0)\.d1 ~ 4...!J1J. ',?~~I ofo J.~ ~/~I

Jl4...JrP ) ~ 4.....! ~)) J~)~I JWI ~I f-j) ~I~ J1~) - ~I~


~I j-:!.1W1i.P.:! o;'4- t l <.::J\,;')WI 01 ~ e!-~ <J f-j}1 J\,;) ~1.rJI ofo
~ i.P.:! ~f- ',?..ul ci)l 0 )\.dl c..S.r-- ~ &\,; 0~f. ~ JWI ~I Jls; <J
.:.r-- ~ ~L....) ~1.rJI ~)I ~ J~) ~I f-j}1 0i .?..u~ f-..8.:-1 :.r) .~ )~ )
)Lbll

..!..ill 1 ~ J\.>..
4~1 ~

Text 2

.~I~\""""
.
JU,I ,)..,.01

:C~

jJ> '~1 ~ )) 4.....Q...p}1 oL J ~)) '. _.kll J$. i y.:ll ..::-:S'..uJ

:C ~

.~)

'

~\......,. :J~I

~~)~ ~I o..lA. .!lJ$.


.~

ti .!l~ j-J ,t.I~1 ~ y

y:>-)

:.r

,~}I <.::J~ :J~I

.~ :C~
o.M..o.U <.::JI~ ~I ~ ......A...o)..uJ : J~I
~o..wl

<J

.<.::JI~ ;;~ <.::Jl;Z ~i W" ,;;~..w. i~T ',?J$. ,~~

:c~

~i'i'JI o..lA. ~ ~I .!ly.->i ~ :J~I

.H ~i

',?..ul ..l.NL.iJI

~I rJJI J1 ~ f-

..(;

~I 01 ~I ri~

:C~

. rY.:-):!
J

-J

~ .y..~) I~ o~ ~)~~I o..lA. ,Jl>.:P ~ d~ ~ 1..lA. :J~I

t:!r
~~)~~I o..lA. .b:.T

4)

:c~

Lesson 14

185

o~ rf4) JS'\JI ~ ~ i~1

lJ ..;:.;I~";;~ y.r,LI o~ if <.,?J:,:.. :J~I


'iyJI j;t) Jpl..l.A.! L~I lJ o):U J..r- ..;:.;Ipl
Yo~ ..;:.;Ipl o~

.):-JI if

~ c:

:L~

j.A>

0i~) ~ o~ ~l :J~I
(~I.;.:. ii <.,?~Is- ~ :C ~

4-;J:,:..l;

.<.,?~Is- ~
. 0~\JI

'.

.~ 10~1

lJ ' ~.r-

J)
.

,,:}

:J~I

I;:";'

:L~

~YL ,1.# :J~I


.

Exercises:

Ll Transform the following sentences into imperatives (2nd p. sg. m.lf. and 2nd p.
~

pI. m.) using the verbs: ~ '~J ,)l,.,

, L-:S:JI
.y
.

'i::U ,.)..i 't>-';

t>-'

ill'.
~~
f

!y L-:S:JI -!..lb </";


!yl:6JI ~~ Iy.;

<

,
' ....... '1
.yt.::N

~It

~~

...

<

<

!~~J\JI i~ .!.\J~ y) Jl .. .
!y.!j)~ .. .
!0'11 ~ .. .
!~':}I i ~ ~ Jw.\JI .. .
!4..rJ1WJI Jl..;:.;~1 .. .
!~li...L,o\JI Jl L ...
!o~..b,. d......1:?" lA. ...

!}1J.I

lJ

J ~~ ...
,.
' . . . . '1 .
. 4 l N o...\...b
~

! I~..b,. Is-)? ~ ...

! ~ 4Jl,.,)I -!..It
!},61j~ .!.\~

Qj .. .

Jl .. .

!i~1 J-JI I~ ...

L2 (Homework) Insert the proper form of the verbs )l,., ,..;;~ ,~)
<

,.)..i 'J-li.

~~~J\JI i~ ~ ~ ... 0i ~j.A>

186

Lesson 14

Y~~}~I iy..? ~ ~ 0i ~.~ "'>


Y!k.oo Jl i~ ... 0i ~.~
Y4l>. )I :f'

0i ~i

<L

d'-"

.J~I e:; ~ ... 0i ~i


.llA.:lI l) ~ ... 0i ~i

o.:u. ~l .. . 0i ~.

.~~ ~I

.0J..J

Jl Gv

t""

... 01 ~I

Y~~I) ... 0i ~

t I~ll

Yd ... 0i ~.J.i
L3 Insert the relative pronoun.

Jl ;~ ... ..lj}1
Jl ..::....L,.:.) ... ~';}I

0J..J

).,kll

i~

G )))y-

...

~t;...\..p~1

~I) ... ";;1)1

4..rJ1 a.;JJI 0\.....)--4


)~.J.:"> ~

... 0Wl.bJI

0\.....)X ... ~l.bJI

e:;

e::

llA.:lI Q ~ ... o~1


llA.:lI 0 ~ ... Q~I

ofrS' Q~I) 0)~ ... ~JWI


~

~lll if \.....($"

J i::U

...

~...\..p ~

;;J\.....) ~l~) .. , ~i
L4 Insert the relative pronoun and the affixed pronoun in the following clauses.

U. .. 4

... y\.....)I

u-- i .. ~ ... )~~I


0.rJ.I ~~ if .. ~j..!;.1 . .. ~I

~I

~\.....i a;~

i y.. .. ~t;

o..u .. ...:Ajl)

~lY

...

... 0.r-""L:-JI
($) k;j I ..lj}1

Jl .. ..:L) ... ;;J\.....)le:;

as.r. .. fii .. . Q~I}I


~...\..p J .. ...:..::U ... ~..u.1
Wl ~...\..p .....::U ... j ~I
~I

i y.. ... ..uL!..i ...

~I