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Airport Development Reference Manual 9th Edition Effective January 2004 International Air Transport Association ais Sao, IATA Airport Development Reference Manual 9th Edition Effective January 2004 International Air Transport Association Montreal — Geneva NOTICE DISCLAIMER. The information contained in this Publication is subject to constant review in the light of changing government requirements and regulations. No ‘subscriber or other reader should act on the basis of any ‘such information without referring to applicable laws and. fegulations and/or without taking appropriate professional advice. Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, the International Air Transport Association shall rot be held responsible for loss or damage caused by errors, omissions, misprints or misinterpretation of the contents hereof. Furthermore, the Intemational Air Transport Association expressly disclaims all and any Viability to any person, whether a purchaser of this Publication or not, in respect of anything done or omitted, and the consequences of anything done or omitted, by any ‘such person in reliance on the contents of this publication. Opinions expressed in advertisements appearifig in this Publication are the advertiser's opinions and do not necessary reflect those of JATA. The mention of speciic ‘companies or products in advertisement does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by IATA in preference to others of a similar nature wich are not ‘mentioned or advertised. 'No partof the Airport Development Reference Manual may be reproduced, recast, reformatted or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including Photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission from: Director Airports and Infrastructure Consultancy Services International Air Transport Association 800 Place Victoria, P.O. Box 113 ‘Montreal, Quebec Canada HAZ 1M1 ‘Airport Development Reference Manual Ref. No: 9044-09 ISBN 92-0195-086-6 © 2004 International Air Transport Association. All rights reserved. Montreal — Geneva = TATA TABLE OF CONTENTS ‘Acknowledgement Chapter A — Introduction Section A1: IATA's Role Section A2: Purpose of the Manual Chapter B — Planning Section B1: Major Planning Processes .. Section B2: The Planning Process Chapter C — Master Planning Section C1: Principles Section C2: Forecasting Section C3: Land Use Planning .. Section C4; Control Towers Chapter D — Airport Economics Section D1: Airport Management ....... Section D2: Airport Cost Structures and Revenue Sources Section D3: Airport investment Decisions and Financing .. Section D4: Aeronautical Charge Policies Section D5: Intemational Cost Variations Chapter E — Environmental Issues Section E1: Main Issues .. Section £2: Social and Political Considerations. Soction £3: Noise Section E4: Emissions Section ES: Waste Management... Chapter F — Airport Capacity Section F'1: Capacity and Level of Service .. Section F2: Capacity Definitions... Section F3: Airport Systems Section FA: Planning Schedule Section F5: Runway Systems Section F6: Taxiway Section F7: Apron .. Section F8: Aircraft Stand .. Section F9: Passenger Terminal Facilities . " 37 43 88 98 103 109 114 116 120 130 137 144 146 152 165 159 161 162 165 166 71 173 174 178 2. Vara Airport Development Reference Manual Section F10: The Airport Scheduling Process Section F11: Computational Fluid Dynamics .. Chapter G — Airport Flight Operations Issues Section G1: Aircraft Characteristics ........0 Section G2: Visual Aids Section G3: Non-Visual Aids .. Chapter H — Airport Security Section Ht: General Principles Section H2: Passenger Operations Section H: Cargo Operations .. Chapter I — Airport Access Section I1: Roads ‘Section 12: Rall. ‘Section I3: Intermodality and Airport Access Chapter J — Passenger Terminal Section J1: Outline of Principle Functions Section J2: Categories of Passenger Terminal .. Section J3: Small Airport Terminals Section J4: Common Systems CUTE & CUSS .. Section JB: 1e Communications Networks .. Section Jé: Passenger Processing Facilities Planning .. Section J7: Concession Planning Section J8: Maintenance nnnnnn Seetion J9: Check-in ... Section J10: People Mover Systems Section J11: Passenger Boarding Bridges . Section J12: Signage ... Chapter K — Passenger Facilitation Section K1: Principles .... Section K2: Roles and Responsibilities of Governments/Airiines Section K3: Immi Section K4: Customs Processes. ion Processes Section KS: Simplifying Passenger Travel... ‘Section K6: Disabled Passengers and Staff Page 213 216 221 234 239 245 246 260 269 or 282 289 301 318 385 388 388 392 396 400 Tara Table of Contents Page Chapter L — Aircraft Parking Aprons Section L1: Current and Future Aircraft Types .... 407 Section L2: Physical and Functional Requirements 409 ‘Section L3: Gate Stands and Remote Stands 419 ‘Section L4: Ground Handling Equipment 426 Section L5: Service Roads & Storage Areas 433 Section L6: Distributed Electrical Power & Air ...... 438 Section L7: Aircraft De/Anti-Icing Facilities .. 445 Chapter M — Aviation Fuel Systems ‘Section M1: Safety Issues 453 ‘Section M2: Delivery to Apron 456 Section M3; Storage Distribution Facilities & Processes 458 Chapter N — Contingency Management ‘Section N1: Aviation Crisis Management 463 Chapter © — Cargo & Separate Express Facilities Terminal Section O1: Planning Prin 469 Section 02: Forecasting and Sizing ....». 47 Section 03: Flows and Controls 487 Section 04: Expedited & Express Cargo Processing ... 492 Section OS: Perishable Cargo 501 Section O6: Mail Faciltities 507 Chapter P — Airport Support/Ancillary Facilities Section P1; Aircraft In-Flight Catering Facittes ....... ee 513 Section P2: Aircraft Maintenance 516 Section P3: Hotels and Business Centers 519 Chapter Q — Landside Facilities Section Q1: Road System and Curb Arrangements 525 Section Q2: Traffic Studies & Parking 530 Chapter R — Airport Commissioning ‘Section R1: Checklist for the Successful Opening of a New Airport 537 Chapter S — Future Technologies & Miscellaneous Section S1: Future Technology Systems ......... 549 Section $2: Developing & Adopting Future Technology . 581 Section S3: Interfaces — People & Cultural Issues 553 @, TATA Airport Development Reference Manual Chapter T — Airport Processes Section T1: Terminal Processes Section T2: Apron Processes ‘Section T3: Support Processes Chapter U — Airport Baggage Handling Section U1: Baggage System User Requirements Section U2: Departures Systems .. Section U3: Transfer Systems .. Section Us: Early Baggage Processes Section US: Arrivals Baggage Systems Section U6: Control Systems Section U7: Management Information Systems (MIS) .. Section U8; Oversized Baggage .. Section U9: Sort Allocation Computer (SAC) Section U10: Baggage Halll De Section U11: Hold Baggage Screening Section U12: Passenger & Hand Baggage Screening .. Chapter V — IATA Airport Project Process Section V1: Concept/Feasibility/Detail Design/Commissioning/Handover .. Section V2: Project Cost Management .... Chapter W — Anti-Terrorism and Police Facilities Section W1: Terminal Building Considerations Section W2: Pier Area Considerations Section W3: Airfield Area Considerations Chapter X — Airport Fire Services Section X1: Fire Response Category Section X2: Fire Response Services & Equipment Chapter Y — Networks Section Y1: Frontline Operational and Security .. Section Y2: Building Services Page 557 560 867 573 613 618 631 634 638 et 647 651 659 677 685 688 690 2 eo 699 705 710 we IATA ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IATA gratefully acknowledges the technical assistance and input provided by IATA Members and the organisations and individuals listed below. IATA Members Document Review Panel: Air France American Airlines British Airways FEDEX KLM LOT Polish Airlines Northwest Airlines Qantas Swiss International Air Lines Ltd. Text and Diagram Contributions: Airbus Industries Airport Design Associates (ADA) ‘APS Aviation Ino. ARINC Boeing Aircraft Corp. Davis Langdon Everest Fabricom Airport Systems HOP Group International Air Rail Organisation Mott MacDonald Consultancy Netherlands Airport Consultants B.V. (NACO) Norman Shanks Associates International Ove Arup & Partners SITA ‘Swiss Intemational Air Line Ltd. ‘Sypher Mueller Ms, Catherine Lafond Mr. Eduardo Juranovie Mr. John Conlon Mr. Jim Sartin Mr. Hans Smeets Mr, Dariusz R.Sawicki Mr. Bob Lamansky & Ms. Yasuko Hashimoto Mr. Derek Sharp Mr. Davor Frank Mr. Sebastien Lavina Mr. Rick Stevens & Mr. Alan Clayton Mr. Jean Valiquette & Mr. John D’Avirro Mr. Edward King Mr. Brad Bachtel Mr. Tony Potter Mr. David Reynolds & Mr. Chris Owens Mr, David Langlois & Mr. Jeremy Hill Mr, Andrew Sharpe Mr. Chris Chalk Mr. Huib Heukelom Mr. Norman Shanks Mr, Graham Bolton & Mr. Tony Barker Mr, Graham McLachlan & Mr. Peter Dalaway & Mr. Rene Azoulai Mr. Davor Frank Mr. Gordon Hamilton vil 8, ara Airport Development Reference Manual viii Be TATA Chapter A — Introduction Section A1: IATA’s Role A1.1 IATA. A1.2. IATA Airports Activities 1.3 Other IATA Airports Activities Section A2: Purpose of the Manual ‘21 Scope of the Airport Development Reference Manual ... A2.2 How to Use the Manual ... 2, ar Airport Development Reference Manual ie TATA CHAPTER A — INTRODUCTION SECTION A1: IATA’S ROLE ALA IATA International air transport is one of the most dynamic and fastest-changing industries in the world, It needs a responsive, forward-looking and universal trade association, operating at the highest professional standards. IATA is that association, Originally founded in 1919, IATA brings together approximately 280 airlines, including the world's largest. Flights by these airlines comprise more than 98 percent of all international scheduled alr traffic. Since these airlines face a rapidly changing world, they must cooperate in order to offer a seamless service of the highest possible standard to passengers and cargo shippers. Much of that cooperation is expressed through IATA, whose mission is to “represent, lead and serve the airline industry’. Continual efforts by IATA ensure that people, freight and mail can move around the vast global airline network as easily as if they were on a single airline in a single country. In addition, IATA helps to » ensure that Members’ aircraft can operate safely, securely, efficiently and economically under clearly A12 A124 defined and understood rules. IATA is pro-active in supporting the joint industry action essential for the efficient development of the air transport system. IATA's role is to identify issues, help establish industry positions and communicate these to governments and other relevant authorities. ‘The Airports and Infrastructure Consultancy Services section of IATA, positioned in the SO&! Division, works to put this theory into practice. IATA AIRPORTS ACTIVITIES IATA Airports and Infrastructure Consultancy Services is responsible for influencing airport planning and development projects worldwide to ensure that airline requirements are met with. respect to appropriateness, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. It produces guidelines on airport planning and design, such as this manual, and actively promotes airline user requirements to airport authorities through Airport Consultative Committee (ACC) activity and commercial airport consuitancy services on altport projects worldwide. The section works to assist airlines in the development of airport facilities that will meet airline requirements in a cost-effective manner. The mandate of the section is: To take a leadership role in influencing airport planning and development worldwide in order to achieve safe and efficient, capacity balanced, cost-effective, functional and user-friendly airports. Major activities of the section are defined within subsequent clauses A1.2.1 through to A1.2.3 inclusive. Airport Consultative Committees Consultation with airport authorities via the Alrport Consultative Committee (ACC) mechanism brings together the airlines’ airport planning expertise, together with the IATA secretariat, in meetings with airport authorities worldwide. ACCs serve as a focal point for consultation between airines and airport authorities concerning the planning of major airport expansions or the development of new airports. ‘The airports selected for such intervention are determined by Regional Airport Steering Groups in Asia/Pacitic and Europe. we IATA Airport Development Reference Manual A1.2.2 A1.2.3 A13 Airport Consultancy Services IATA offers a wide range of Airport Planning and Development Consultancy services. It brings @ global perspective to the projects it undertakes, drawing on its extensive in-house expertise and its unique access to airline experts and other specialists. Typical clients include airport authorities, private airport owners, airlines, governments, manufacturers, suppliers to the industry, consulting firms and other parties involved in airport infrastructure decisions, IATA can act as an independent consultant or provide a review of detailed work undertaken by specialised consulting firms. International Industry Working Group ‘The IIWG brings together IATA, Airports Council International (ACI) and the Intemational Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Associations (ICCAIA). The IIWG was founded in 1970 and its main goal is to review airporvaircraft compatibility issues which might improve the development of the ait transport system. OTHER IATA AIRPORTS ACTIVITIES {In addition to the Airport Planning and Development activities of IATA, which this Manual addresses, IATA |s active in many other Airport related areas such as User Charges, Fuel, Ground Handling, Security, Passenger Services and Environment. For more information on the full range of IATA’s Airport related activities, please visit www. jata.org/airports. htm Consulting enquiries should be addressed to: airportdev @iata.org 2, wee 7 IATA Introduction SECTION A2: PURPOSE OF THE MANUAL A2.1 SCOPE OF THE AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT REFERENCE MANUAL, The IATA Airport Development Reference Manual (ADRM) is the industry's most important guide for airlines, airports, government authorities, architects and engineering consultants who are either Planning new or extending existing airport facilities. The ADRM's information is an invaluable ‘consolidation of best industry practice with respect to the development of world class airports through better design. Its content represents the consolidated recommendations of world-renowned specialists and organizations seeking to promote the development of world-class airport faci The ADRM has been completely revised since the previous (8th) edition. These revisions and new content additions reflect recent changes within the civil aviation industry, and include entirely new chapters dedicated to security and anti-terrorism issues in particular. In addition to this, specific commercial issues have been discussed and recommended practices for running alrport projects have been developed. These address the need for authorities to run projects efficiently as they seek to create unique airport environments through world class design. Environmental issues have also been updated, primarily to promote savings in operational costs for airports which would then be passed-on to IATA’s member airlines. This latest evolution of the ADRM also incorporates IATA Recommendations (IRs) at the end of each content section. These recommendations have been included to focus the airport operator and designer on IATA-determined best practice design principles, and to help convey the expectations of the world’s major alrfines with respect to the development or refurbishing of alport facilities. To foster overall ease-of-use and help the airport planner to locate key information within the ADRM, the six chapters of the previous edition document have now been divided into twenty five more concise content sections. ‘The following new chapters with multiple sections have been included to broaden the coverage and scope of the publication and provide further essential alport planning guidance: inport economics. ‘© Contingency management. ‘© Airport commissioning. ‘© Future technology & miscellaneous items. © Aiport processes. © IATA airport project process. © Antiterrorism and police facilities, © Airport fire services. © Networks, &, ara” Airport Development Reference Manual A2.2 HOW TO USE THE MANUAL, ‘This ADRM should be used by airport planners worldwide as the primary source of best practice airport design guidance. In certain instances specified within the relevant clauses of this ADRM, itis advised by IATA to refer to further external supplementary international or national publications to aid the airport planner. Seeking additional guidance from the sources listed below will help the airport planner to ensure that best and safe practices are adhered to and built into the airport design and that national standards are observed and implemented where appropriate, IATA recognizes that national standards will vary from region to region across the world. While the ‘ADAM should be the intial source of design guidance for airport developments, the airport designer ‘should seek to clarify national mandatory standards and decide appropriately on any potentially conflicting standards. Professional engineering and architectural guidance should be used to assess and resolve areas of conflict between the ADRM standards stated herein and any supplementary national standards. In the event that professional guidance is not sought and used for this adjudication, which is not a recommended course of action, then the designer should seek to use the higher more onerous standards in areas of uncertainty. Particular reference should be made to national air transport and nationally recognized design standards, as well as to any pertinent national legislation or construction codes, as deemed applicable within the region. ‘The ADRM should be used in conjunction with the national legislation pertaining to the country where the airport resides. Examples of typical national legislation for consideration for the countries of Canada, United States of America and the United Kingdom include: ¢ Intemational and national government aviation and security authorities, to include (but not limited to): International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) Federal Aviation Authority-Transport Security Administration (FAA-TSA), United Kingdom Department for Transport (DIT) and Transport Canada-Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA). ‘© National and intemational legislation defining best design engineering practice to include (but not limited to) standards published by: ‘American National Standards Institute (ANSI) , British Standards Institute (BS!), International ‘Standardization Organization (ISO). ‘© Engineering Standards Codes of Best Practices published by: Architectural: Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). Engineering: Institute of Civil Engineers, Institute of Structural Engineers (IStructE}), Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE). Building Services: The Chartered Institution of Bui 19 Services Engineers (CIBSE). Fire Mitigation Engineering: Institution of Fire Engineers (United Kingdom/Canada). we , IATA Introduction For general information regarding the standards defined wi Mike O'Brien Director, Airport Development and Infrastructure Consultancy Services Intemational Air Transport Association (IATA) 800 Place Victoria, P.O. Box 113 Montreal Quebec Canada. airportdev @ iata.org Fax +1 (514) 874 2662 For consultancy assistance please refer inquiries to: Chris Mirfin Director, infrastructure Consultancy Services Intemational Air Transport Association (IATA) 800 Place Victoria, P.O. Box 113 Montreal Quebec Canada. airportdev @ iata.org Fax +1 (614) 874 2662 this manual please refer to: e, ‘Vara. Airport Development Reference Manual we TATA Chapter B — Planning Section B1: Major Planning Processes B1.4 B12 B13 B14 B15 B16 B17 B18 Airline Participation .. Airport Consultative Committee (ACC) . Key Planning Items “World-Class” Airports Typical Features of World-Class Hub Airport... IATA Global Airport Monitor IATA Facilities Planning Questionnaire . IATA Recommendations .... Section B2: The Planning Process B2.1 B2.2 B23 B24 B25 National Planning Considerations ... Regional Planning Considerations .. The Airport Master Plan... Local Community Issues ... IATA Recommendations ... WW "1 15 23 24 31 32 36 37 38 38 39 39 &, “Vara” Airport Development Reference Manual 10 we TATA CHAPTER B — PLANNING SECTION B1: MAJOR PLANNING PROCESSES B14 B1.2 B1.2.1 AIRLINE PARTICIPATION As airlines are the primary users of airports and are a major source of revenue for airport authorities, it is essential that their requirements in respect of airport development projects are met effectively and at an acceptable cost. Experience has shown that the most useful and mutually beneficial course of action when considering airport development projects is to establish full, joint consultation between the airlines and an airport authority and its consultants. This should be undertaken as early as possible in the planning and design process, in order to allow operational impact assessments and/or cost benefit analysis to be determined and, if required, alternative solutions to be presented and discussed, The IATA forum for this consultation is the Airport Consultative Committee (ACC). IATA has forecast that passenger traffic will double in the next 12-15 years and it is estimated that over $400 billion will be spent worldwide to expand and upgrade airport facilities. The IATA ACC process is effective in ensuring that as many new airport faclities as possible are efficient, capacity balanced, cost effective, functional and user-friendly. In 2003, about two dozen ACCs were active mainly in Europe and Asia Pacific. IATA strives to obtain information as soon as possible regarding any proposed intemational airport development projects from Airline Operators Committees (AOC), Board of Airline Representatives (BAR), and other sources. Upon receipt of such information, IATA will contact the national airline and the planning specialists of the major airlines operating to that airport to determine if there is sufficient interest in the proposed airport project. If there is sufficient interest, IATA will endeavour to obtain the agreement of the airport or government authority concemed for consultation with the airlines on all aspects of the proposed development. Once the principle of joint consultation has been agreed, ‘an ACC will be established. Ifitis not practicable to establish a formal ACC, the principle of airline and airport authority consultation ‘on a local level are stil valid. In such consuitation, the principles and practices outlined in this manual should still be followed. AIRPORT CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE (ACC) ACC Objective ‘The objective of an ACC is to consolidate airline views and to provide a focal point for consultation between the airfines and the airport authority concerning the planning of a major airport expansion or a new airport in order to input airfine functional requirements. ‘The ACC will consolidate airline views and provide a focal point for consultation between the aitfines and airport authorities concerned in the planning of major airport expansion projects or new airports in order to input aitfine considerations. When considering proposals for new or additional airport facilities, ACC members must constantly bear in mind that capital and subsequent maintenance and operating costs of airport developments will be ultimately reflected in user charges. Furthermore, airline operating costs are often adversely affected by inefficient airport design or terminal construction. In the analysis of an airport development project, the ACC will ensure that it provides additional capacity to meet present and projected demand in a cost-effective manner. aa we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual B1.2.2 B1.2.3 12 ACC Formation ‘An ACC will normally be formed under the guidance of IATA in consultation with the Regional Airports ‘Steering Group (RASG) and the Regional Co-ordinating Group (RCG — where flight operations related matters are concerned, e.g. a new runway or new airport). If there are only one or two airlines interested in the development of a particular airport, an ATA Mission may be conducted to the specific location instead of convening an ACC. Normally, [ATA will participate directly in ACC meetings and will maintain close contact with its activities at all times. It should be noted that ACC activity must be separate from AOC aetivity because of the scale of the projects involved and the facility planning expertise required, ACC Membership Membership on the ACC is open to all airlines serving the airport involved. Airline Headquarters will be invited to nominate either a suitably qualified planning specialist or their local representative to participate in ACC meetings. The level of expertise required will be dependent upon the scope of the project concerned. If the number of airiine representatives attending an ACC meeting is very large, the Committes may elect a limited number of delegates to meet with the airport authority and act on behalf of all carriers. Today, nearly all airlines are engaged in some form of partnership, code share, or marketing agreement. These have led to the formation of alliances among the world’s major carriers. Four or five global alliances dominate the alline industry, each with a need to rationalise its requirements to create the most efficient airport operations possible. In order to best achieve their needs, global alliances may consider the appointment of a single representative to oversee the needs of that alliance, To ensure that local airline views and requirements are included in the ACC proposals and effect appropriate co-ordination, the AOC will be invited to nominate a representative to participate in all ‘ACC meetings. It will be the duty of this AOC representative (usually the AOC Chairman) to keep the full ACC informed of all ACC deliberations. At airports with multiple terminal operations, individual terminal AOC Chairman will be invited to participate. ‘The local Board of Airine Representatives (BAR) will be invited to nominate a representative to participate in all ACC meetings. Because the ACC is the primary forum for consultation with the airport authority on all aspects of airport expansion programs, it may be necessary to obtain participation of airline representatives from other related disciplines where specific problems exist, as follows: Facilitation — Facilitation representatives may be requested to participate regarding Customs and Immigration matters that affect airport terminal design and passengericargo flow. © Security — A security advisor is assigned to an ACC early in the terminal planning process to provide input on security matters, which may affect terminal design. ‘¢ Flight Operations — If ACC discussions are likely to involve flight operations matters (e.g. new tunway, taxiways, docking guidance systems, etc.), the respective IATA Regional Coordinating Group will be requested fo nominate a suitably qualified representative to participate in ACC meetings. A specialist working group of the ACC may be formed to undertake detailed studies Of fight operational matters. © Fuel — Efforts in this area are directed at monitoring jet fuel costs world-wide and trying to secure reductions — particularly in cases where costs are inflated by local supply or handling monopolies, or by government taxation. = ; IATA Planning ¢ Cargo — Expertise is available pertaining to all air cargo areas. @ User Charges — As airport development projects normally Impact on airport user charges, a representative of the User Charges Panel (UCP), may be requested to participate in the early planning stages of major airport projects. Airport Development and User Charges staff jointly liaise regarding locations where UCP participation is appropriate. © Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) The Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) is a coalition of organisations from the air transport industry, formed to press for economically beneficial aviation capacity improvements. ATAG is a leading proponent of aviation infrastructure development, advocating the economic benefits of air transport, the industry's excellent environmental performance, and the need for major improvements in airport surface access and ait traffic management capacity. ATAG's worldwide membership includes airlines, alrports, manufacturers, air traffic control authorities, airline pilot and air traffic control authorities, chambers of commerce, tourism and travel associations, investment organisations, ground transport and communication providers. Recognising that its goals need to be consistent with environmental expectations, ATAG: @ Emphasizes the air transport industry's progress in minimising environmental impact. © Promotes the environmentally responsible growth and development of air transport. B1.2.4 ACC Scope ‘The ACC is mainly concerned with airport infrastructure developments, strategic planning issues and the associated capital expenditure (CAPEX) programme of the airport. These include, but are not limited to: ‘© Airport Master Plan — includes airport layout and land use. © Aircraft Parking Apron — aircraft layout and related docking guidance systems, © Passenger Terminal — planning and design of new terminals or major expansions of existing terminals, © Airside and Landside Infrastructure & Surtace Access Systems. ‘© Cargo Terminal Developments — air freight and air express facilities. ‘© Airport Support Facilities — e.g. cargo terminals and flight kitchens. ACs will concentrate on achieving a rational balance between: ¢ The level of service provided for both passenger and cargo in their respective terminal areas and fields of operation, ‘¢ The long term facllty footprint and land area requirements for all parties operating at an alrport. ¢ The need for efficient, cost-effective ground handling operations and the increased facility, resource and equipment requirements to support multiple handlers. Increasing demand and airport capacity improvement programmes. ‘® The impact and need to allocate global airline alliances within a single operating area or terminal. ‘@ The proposed capital investment and the resultant operating cost to airines over an agreed period. ‘© The need to increase concession areas and resulting revenues, and the potential impact on passenger flows and airline operations. 13, we IATA Airport Development Reference Manual B1.2.5 B1.2.6 14 ‘© The differing needs of international carriers compared with those of domestic carriers, charters and emerging low-cost carriers (LCCs).. ‘ACC activity will include an assessment of the capacity of existing facilities and a comparison against current and projected demand. The ACC will seek as much financial information as possible to facilitate an economic assessment of various planning options in terms of layout, space requirements, labour, equipment, etc. ACC Method of Operation ‘Once consultation between the airlines and airport authority has been agreed, IATA will request copies of the proposed airport development plans to circulate to participants in advance of the first ‘ACC meeting. If this is not possible, then the intial ACC meeting with the airport authorities includes a detailed presentation of the proposed pians. ‘The ACC will then meet independently to analyze the plans and develop an airline position including altemative proposals regarding the proposed project. The ACC recommendations, which reflect the majority point of view, are presented verbally to the airport authority following the internal closed session. Every effort is made to resolve airline differences of opinion and to agree to a joint unified position. Presentation of the airline position is made by a suitably qualified spokesperson orif desired, by the IATA representative. The ACC recommendations are subsequently confirmed to the airport authority in writing by IATA. ‘ACC meetings normally take place at the location of the proposed project. In certain circumstances, it may be preferable for a working group meeting to be conducted at an alternative site, which is convenient to a majority of participants. The dates of all proposed ACC meetings are usually co- ordinated to ensure adequate airline representation. ‘The ACC shall decide if and when specialist ACC working groups, and/or sub-consultants should be ‘employed to study and resolve detailed problems. This is particularly important where very large airport development projects are concerned (i.e. new airports) and specialist expertise is required for specific subject areas (1. terminals, apron/operations, baggage handling and cargo working groups). Each working group is expected to develop its own routine and procedures, however itis responsible to the full ACC and must report to the ACC through the Chairman and IATA . IATA will only participate where this is felt to be necessary to progress activity. If working group proposals vary significantly from that approved by the ACC, details and reasons for such must be substantiated by the group to the next ACC so that they may discuss and resolve differences of opinion. These WGs willbe dissolved when a solution is found or when a satisfactory answer to a problem cannot be found. IATA can employ ACC Project Managers on behalf of member aitfines to more effectively monitor airport authority Capital Expenditure programmes. This position recognises the need for continuous airline consultation, as distinct from what may be limited consultation provided by formal and infrequent ‘ACC meetings. The airlines may request the creation of an ACC PM position through the ACC, who will discuss the arrangements for airine funding and the budget to be allocated for the position. Regional Airports Steering Groups (RASG) IATA Regional Airports Steering Groups are multi-disciplinary bodies of airline representatives established in Europe and Asia/Pacific. They meet twice a year to review airport developments within thelr regions, The review includes: ‘© Review of airport development activity in the region. © Updating the Core Document, which contains a profile of the main airports in the region. © Status report of ACC activity within the region. © Review of proposals for new ACCs. © Determining the need for an IATA Mis ion as a first step in establishing an ACC. B1.2.7 B13 Planning © Deter ing the need for airport traffic forecasts. © Setting the priorities for future ACC activity in the region. Membership of the RASG meetings is taken from active participants in the regions’ ACC activities. ‘This includes representation from airport planning, operations and scheduling disciplines. In addition, the RCG Chairman, User Charges Panel (UCP), Facilitation, Fuel, Environment and Security disciplines, and selected industry working groups such as ATAG, may also be invited to participate. Co-ordination with Other Groups ‘The User Charges Panel is responsible for representing the IATA airlines in negotiations with airport authorities regarding the charges for the use of the airport, including but not limited to landing fees, terminal building charges, passenger-related elements, lighting charges, air traffic control and monopoly-type user charges. It is therefore very important that the activities of ACCs and the UCP. are closely co-ordinated so that the UCP is fully aware of costs emerging from ACC discussions to assist them in future negotiations with airport authorities regarding user charges. Airport authorities often misunderstand the difference between an ACC and an AOC. For information on the establishment of an AOC please see the guidelines for the establishment of the AOC in the JATA Airport Handing Manual AHM 073. These committees are concerned with the day-to-day ‘operation of the airport for which they are established. Usually, information concerning a proposed airport development is first received from the airport authority at AOC meetings Liaison between the AOC and ACC is continuous and therefore the chairman or a representative of the AOC is invited to be a member of the ACC and participate regularly in all ACC meetings. ACC representatives must ensure that their local airport managers are fully briefed regarding the work covered at each ACC meeting and the planned action for future meetings. KEY PLANNING ITEMS This section provides an initial overview of the main considerations in any airport planning and development activity. Further detail on each of these elements is provided in later sections of the ‘manual, These items impact the airport layout and the passenger terminal design and are considered to be of major importance by the airlines, These key planning Items include: 1. Runway/Taxiway Layout. Road/Rail Access. Terminal Design. Check-in Hall. cure. Aen Signage. Security. exon Baggage Handling System (BHS) including Hold Baggage Screening (HBS). 9. Airline Offices. 10. Airline CIP Lounges. 11, Terminal Retail Space. 12. Departure Gate Lounges. 13, Baggage Claim Hall. 15 we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual B1.3.1 B1.3.2 16 14, Meeter/Greeter Hall. 18. Apron Layout. 16. Aircraft Servicing Installations. 17, Location of Support Facilities. Runway / Taxiway Layout Runway capacity is the most critical component at an airport. It largely depends upon the number of runways and their layout and spacing, the runway occupancy times of successive aircraft and the approach spacing applied by ATC to successive aircraft in the traffic mix. The key items that affect runway capacity are a combination of: ¢ Availability of exit taxiways particularly Rapid Exit Taxiways (RET) to minimise runway occupancy times. ‘© Availabilty of a dual taxiway system, © Appropriate taxiway, holding bays and access. © Aircraft mixperformance. © ATC procedures and wake vortex approach spacing. ‘© Availabilty of A-SMGS systems during low visibility operations. Where there are two or more runways, capacity is critically dependent upon the following aspects of the utlisation and configuration: © The spacing between parallel runways. '® The mode of operation; i.e. segregated or mixed. ‘© The intersecting point of intersecting runways. Access to the Passenger Terminal ‘The public road system and the non-public or service road system should be planned carefully in ‘order to avoid congestion near the passenger terminal. Traffic for the support facility areas of the airport should be handled on a separate road system so that truck traffic can be kept away from the main road to/from the passenger terminal. All public roads should be clearly signposted. Clearly visible signs should be positioned on the roads and on the terminal curbside areas well in advance of desired destinations to allow drivers to make the necessary adjustments without abrupt changes. Signs should be properly lighted for night use and lettering and background colours should enhance clarity and visibility. Messages should be concise, quickly identifiable and easily understood, Colour coding for mult-terminals, aiines, car parks, etc. is recommended. Car park locations should be close to the passenger terminal, The connection between the car park. and the terminal should have weather protection and provide a safe environment wih adequate ighting. Antival and departure curbside should provide large weather protected areas for passengers getting ‘out of and into vehicles. It should provide dedicated areas for taxis and buses. Curbside check-in faclities may be required in some airports. 2, ke TATA Planning B1.3.3 B1.3.4 High speed rail systems should be considered for airport access. The increasing use of rail systems should be encouraged by making it as widely available and as attractive as possible in terms of relative speed, reliability, price, convenience, safety and comfort. The airport rail station should be above ground, if possible. If the airport is located close to the city centre and the city already’has a subway system, then consideration should be given to extending it to connect the airport to the existing public transportation system. Basic Considerations of Terminal Design ‘The design of passenger terminals mustbe related to the runway/taxiway system, apron configuration and the airport access system. The extent and location of these areas are governed by the master plan of the airport. Certain basic criteria should be observed in the planning of passenger terminals and the selection of a terminal concept. All terminals should be interconnected to allow for horizontal passenger flows, and where walking distances may be too long for fast transfers then provision of powered walkways or other people mover systems should be considered. Provision for multi-alliance hubbing should be respected, allowing for different alliances to be located strategically under a one-roof terminal concept. As alliances are not a stable element in planning, an appropriate factor of flexibility will need to be incorporated into any terminal space planning. In situations where future growth or even the diminution of a terminal's size can be accommodated, tremendous advantages in operational continuity will be seen. Other terminal design criteria include: '® Easy orientation for the travelling public approaching the terminal and within the buildings (self- explanatory traffic flow and human dimensions). © Shortest possible walking distances from car parks and rail station to the terminals and more importantly, from passenger/baggage processing facilities to the alfcraft and vice versa. @ Minimum level changes for passengers within the terminal buildings. © Avoidance of passenger cross-flows. ‘© Shortest possible distance for the transportation of passengers and their baggage between the terminals and the aircraft parking positions when walking is not possible. © Compatibility of all facilities with existing aircraft characteristics and built-in flexibility to accept future generations of aircraft, as far as possible. ‘© Design should be modular to cope with future expansion of each subsystem, or to allow evolution in regulations and changes in the nature of passenger flows and alliance groupings. ‘© Terminal design must meet all regulations for handling disabled persons. Check-in Hall ‘The passenger terminal layout is largely influenced by the check-in concept, which is designed and installed by the airport authority. tis essential therefore that airlines and handling agents be consulted at an early stage in the planning process. The aitfines’ acceptance of passengers and their checked baggage takes place at the check-in facility, which consists of a number of check-in counters with appropriate outbound baggage conveyance facilities. Check-in counters may be elther of the frontal type or of the island type. Within each of the ‘two main types of counters, several variants exist. 17 ler IATA Airport Development Reference Manual B1.3.5 B1.3.6 18 Frontal type counters may be arranged in an uninterrupted, linear layout or be spaced so as to allow passengers to pass between the counters after check-in (pass-through layout). Island type counters ate suitable for centralised check-in. Each island, the axis of which is orientated parallel tothe flow of passengers through the terminal concourse, may consist of up to 16-18 individual check-in counters. The number of check-in counters per island can be doubled if two main baggage Conveyor belts are installed in parallel back to back. Normally 26m separation (face-to-face) between adjacent islands is recommended. ‘The distance passengers must carry their baggage to the closest terminal check-in point should be kept to a minimum. Baggage trolleys should be available on the curbside, in the car park and at the railway station. Departure flight information displays must be available within the check-in area as well as information Kiosks. Consideration should be given to the latest automatic self-service check-in kiosks with a view to maximising security, using biometrics, and minimising passenger check-in wait times. CUTE (Common Use Terminal Equipment) Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE) is an airline industry term for a facility, which allows individual users to access their host computer(s). The basic idea of the CUTE concept is to enable airlines at an airport to share passenger terminal handling facilities. This includes such areas as check-in and gate counters on a common use basis, enabling airlines to use their own host computer applications for departure control, reservations, ticketing, boarding pass and baggage tag issuance, etc., at such counters. CUTE may also be installed in airline offices (if cost justified). CUTE provides potential savings to the airlines and airport authorities by increased utilisation of check-in counters and gate space, thus lessening the need for airports to build additional counters and gates. It may also permit an airline to automate its check-in and departure control functions when costs of installing its own equipment would be either too high or precluded by another system or equipment already installed, or not permitted by the airport authority. ‘The CUTE vendor should be selected in cooperation with the ailines. The system may be provided either by the airport authority or directly to the airlines. ‘A Flight Information Display System (FIDS), connected to an Airport Operational Database (AODB) should be provided and should be connected to the airlines host computer in order to provide all the users at the airport with accurate real time information. ‘A powerful Local Area Network (LAN) infrastructure should be provided to allow data, video and voice transmission in both public and administrative areas of the passenger terminal. Signage A well-concelved signposting system will contribute considerably to the efficient flow of passengers and traffic at the airport. Itis therefore essential to consider the signposting system in the early planning and concept evaluation stages. The signage system may be a combination of fixed (boards, Panels) and dynamic (monitors) signage. The signage system should be clearly separate from advertising, Airline brand name and logos should be clearly visible, allowing passengers to easily find the airline check-in or ticketing facilities. Ideally, the passenger terminal building should incorporate self-evident passenger-flow routes through the building, but where signs are required they must provide a continuous Indication of direction. we IATA B1.3.7 B1.3.8 Planning ‘The primary purpose of an airport signposting system is to move the travelling public through a myriad of roadways and corridors using a concise and comprehensible system of directional, informational, regulatory, and identification messages. Consistent use of standard terminology in airports (including pictograms) will simplify the process of making the transition from the ground mode to the air mode (and vice versa) for the travelling public. It is important for signposting systems to adhere to a basic guideline of copy styles and sizes, consistent terminology, recognisable and universally acceptable symbols, and uniform colours for standard functions. Message content must be understandable by the unsophisticated as well as the sophisticated traveller. Signposting should be in “mother tongue” and English. Security Security requirements must be taken into account in all new development, re-development and refurbishment of airports, as stated in ICAO Annex 17. To do this, it Is necessary to have clear ‘goverment security standards which can be used by altport planners in such a way as to maintain the integrity of the local security programme, yet allow sufficient flexibility for them to be matched to the circumstances of each airport and its operations. Security requirements must be realistic, economically viable and allow for a balance to be made between the needs of aviation security, safety, operational requirements and passenger facilitation. Aiines and airport authorities should take note of the latest information on this subject in the IATA Security Manual and should ensure that due allowance for the related requirements, including costs, is made in all airport terminal and apron development plans. A centralized or semi-centralized passenger and carry-on baggage security check point design is favoured. They must be properly sized, and manned, in order to avoid long queues. ‘The design of the outbound baggage handling system must account for 100% Hold Baggage Screening (HBS). Baggage Handling System Baggage handling has become such a significant element of passenger processing that the baggage system is of major importance to a smooth airline operation at the airport. The baggage handling ‘system must be able to sort large numbers of bags quickly and with a high degree of performance reliability. With larger capacity aircraft anticipated in the next few years, the automated baggage system will become the most critical system in the airport terminal. The baggage system to be installed must be considered early in the passenger terminal design process. Certain terminal concepts may require highly automated and costly systems, while others may need only simple conveyor belts. Where automated distribution and sorting systems are ‘contemplated, it is generally desirable to select the baggage handling systems supplier early in the project. This will enable the baggage handing supplier to participate in the system and facility design process, thereby avoiding expensive redesign and time consuming delays during construction and ‘commissioning. ‘The following principles will contribute to an efficient baggage handling system: ‘© Baggage flow should be rapid, simple and involve a minimum number of handling operations. ‘® Baggage handling arrangements within the building should be consistent with apron arrangements and with the type and volume of traffic expected. ‘¢ Baggage handling systems should incorporate the minimum number of tums and level changes as is practicable within the terminal design. ¢ Baggage flow should not conflict with the flow of passengers, cargo, crews or vehicles. 19 wae TATA Airport Development Reference Manual B1.3.9 B13.10 B1311 20 ¢ Provision should be made for the forwarding of transfer baggage to the departure baggage sorting areas. ¢ Flow on the apron should not be impeded by any form of physical control or check. © Space for 100% HBS should be provided. © Facilities for oversized baggage must be provided. © Check-in take away conveyors should be provided at each counter. Plans for fallback handling in case of failure should be provided with all baggage handling systems. Airli Airline passenger processing support offices are required in close proximity to the check-in counters, ‘The amount of space required by each airline and/or handling agency will vary depending upon such factors as volume of traffic or type of handling service performed, Airlines will also require administrative ‘and additional offices located in other areas of the terminal with convenient access to the passenger processing areas. Airline support offices are also required in the airside concourses close to their aircraft operation areas. The individual airline space requirements may be obtained using the questionnaire and procedure shown in Figure B1.3 at the end of this section. e Offices Airline CIP Lounges ‘At many intemational as well as domestic airports, the airlines have a marketing requirement to provide special lounges to accommodate their Commercially Important Passengers (CIP). This airline requirement has grown significantly in recent years to become a major customer service element in the way airlines handle their CIP passengers and set themselves apart from their competitors. Most ines will require generously sized spaces for thelr exclusive use lounges. These lounges should be located on the airside of the terminal building and preferably on the departures level, with convenient access to the airlines’ departure gates. Larger airines will tend to combine their exclusive requirements into multiple function rooms differentiated by passenger categories (First Class, Business Class and others). These larger spaces normally require their own exclusive tollets and showers, and access by elevators and/or escalators. Also it should be noted that with the growth of aitiine alliances many future CIP mega-lounges will be shared by several aires. Details of the airline space requirements for such lounges at a specific airport may be obtained using the questionnaire and procedure shown in Figure B1.3. Terminal Retail Space Recent surveys on airports show that passengers want, and expect to see, shopping facilities at airports where they can browse when they have sufficient time. At some larger airports up to 10-12% of the terminal area is now dedicated to airport shops. With passengers willing to spend large amounts of money on alrport shopping, concession revenues can provide the airport with up to 50-60% of their total airport revenues. The airlines suppor the airport authorities in their plans to expand airport concessions provided: © The commercial revenue eamed by the airport authority is used to reduce aeronautical charges. The accessibility and accommodation for these facilities must be arranged so that maximum ‘exposure to the passenger and visitor can be accomplished without interfering with the flow of passenger traffic in the terminal. 70-80% of retail concessions should be located airside. IATA Planning B1312 B13.13 B1314 Departure Gate Lounges ‘The departure gate lounge area should be an open area, allowing passenger circulation. There should be seating in the area for 70% of passengers. This includes seating at F&B (food & beverage) concessions, It should be a quiet environment, with an apron view, where passengers can relax, ‘work or enjoy themselves. It should include facilities such as working positions with modenvinternet and power connections, TV sets, smoking areas, children's play areas and retail and food concessions. Baggage Claim Hall ‘The baggage claim halls the area in the terminal where passengers reclaim their baggage off arriving flights. Claim units of a re-circulating type allow the passengers to remain stationary, while their bags are delivered to them, Separate claim units should be available for over-sized baggage. Passengers have high expectations that baggage delivery will be efficient and they will not have to wait an unreasonable amount of time to collect their bags. Once the first bag is delivered on the carousel or racetrack, passengers expect a steady flow of bags until the last bag is delivered on the claim unit ‘An 11-13m separation between baggage claim units is recommended to allow enough space for passengers, trolley storage and circulation. A sulficient number of baggage trolleys shouldbe available at the entry to the baggage claim hall. When passengers off international lights leave the baggage claim hall, they will pass through customs inspection. Customs should use red/green channels to speed up the flow of exiting passengers. Meeter Greeter Hal ‘Once passengers have claimed their bags and passed through Customs formalities, they enter the Meeter/Greeter Hall where they can get organized before leaving the terminal. A well-designed entranceway of corridor out of Customs in to the Meeter/Greeter Hall is required to allow arriving passengers to avoid the congestion of greeters around the exit doors. Once in the hall, arriving passengers may purchase local currency before proceeding to the curbside, car park or the train Station. Many artiving passengers are welcomed on arrival by friends or family and a meeting point should be part of the design for the meeter/greeter hall. Important features of the meeter/greeter hall include: © Meeting Point. © Toilets, © Currency Exchanges. ‘© Food and Beverage (F&B) facilities. ‘© Car Rental counters. © Hotel and Tourist Information counters. ‘¢ Bus and Rail Information counters. © Clear signage to taxis, buses, rail station and car parks. a 8, Vita” Airport Development Reference Manual B13.15 Apron Layout The key aspects of aircraft stand availability are: © The number of stands provided for different typesisizes of aircraft. © The availability of these stands as influenced by occupancy times. ©The flexi ity of stands to handle different typesisizes of aircraft throughout the day. The ease of aircraft circulation and manoeuvring, including push back. Other important issues, relating to service standards, are: © Which terminal(s) are served by the aircraft stands. ‘© Whether the aircraft stands are terminal contact or remote. Increasing importance is placed by airlines upon terminal gate stands because they provide for more rapid and comfortable handling of passengers, avoid the need for buses, and enable faster tumarounds and shorter connection times. Service roadways should be clearly marked, with the width of each lane able to accommodate the widest piece of ground equipment. ‘Areas such as equipment staging and parking must also be clearly marked. B13.16 Aircraft Servicing Installations Fixed aircraft servicing installations reduce apron congestion and permit shorter servicing periods. However, where the apron is used by a variety of aircraft, and with wide variations in aircraft servicing points, itis recommended that only the basic Services catering to the majorly ofaoraft be provided. Initial installation cost and the difficulty in adapting to changes in alrcraft design preclude more comprehensive installations, except possibly in the case of certain aircraft stands used exclusively by one airline. Hydrant fuelling systems are preferted over mobile tankers, as they permit faster tumarourids. However, a decision to install any fixed aircraft servicing system should take place only after a careful and comprehensive appraisal of the economic (return on investment) prospects has been made. The economic viability of such systems depends on a large variety of operational factors and should be assessed only in close co-operation and agreement with the headquarters specialists of the airlines serving the airport. The following is a list of fixed aircraft servicing installations: © Hydrant fuelling system. ‘© Electric power system (400 Hz). Electric power system (50/60 Hz). © Preconditioned air system. © Aircraft docking guidance system. 22 ee IATA Planning B13.17 B14 B1.4.1 B1.4.2 In the provision of fixed installations, the following should be borne in mind: © Cables/hoses between the aircraft and the installation should be as short as possible and should ot cross one another. © Operation of the fixed installations should in no way impede other aircraft servicing functions. © Pits, hydrants and other facilities connected with the fixed installations should not impede the flow of apron traffic, © Fixed service installations should, as far as possible, be located close to the corresponding outlets on the aircraft and there must be close liaison between the airlines, the airport authority, the fuelling companies and other suppliers conceming all aspects of design and installation, Location of Support Facilities Cargo terminals, flight kitchens, and aircraft maintenance facilities should be located close to the terminal apron area so that service vehicles will travel relatively short distances. The location of support facilities must take into account future expansion plans of the airport as shown in the airport master plan. “World-Class” AIRPORTS ‘The IATA Global Airport Monitor (see section B1.6) and several other Passenger Surveys, which are published annually, show how passengers have rated major airports around the world. The top rated airports usually have airport layouts that allow for efficient airine operations and passenger terminal designs that are passenger-friendly. These airports are called “World-Class” Airports. Key Characteristics of a World-Class Airport A world-class airport should mest the needs of its customers — the passengers and the airlines. The following lists show the items that passengers and the airlines consider important when rating an airport. A Passenger Viewpoint 1, Easy access to/from the airport by road and rail. 2. Short walking distances from curbside to checkin and from check-in to aircraft. gate, with no level changes. Similarly short walking distances from the aircraft to the baggage claim area and then from Customs to the curbside or the rail station. Attractive architecture and landscaping to provide a pleasant, relaxing atmosphere. Short queues at all check points such as check-in, security, passport control and boarding. Good aircraft on-time departure performance. Fast baggage delivery and ample baggage trolleys. Clear and concise signage. Good variety of retailers. Senenae Altractive CIP lounges conveniently located near the aircraft gate. 10. Good selection of moderately priced eating establishments. 23 Ze TATA Airport Development Reference Manual B1.4.3 An Airline Viewpoint: B15 B1.5.1 24 1. A master plan that optimises the location of key functions on the airport and allows for orderly expansion, 2. A runway layout that maximises runway capacity and allows adequate space for apron and terminal expansion. ‘Arrunway and taxiway layout that minimises aircraft taxing distances. An apron layout with energy efficient aircraft ground support equipment, sufficient and well-located staging areas for baggage, cargo and ground equipment with enough space for several ground handlers, and no cul de sacs (dead ends) that impede aircraft manoeuvring. 5. An attractive work place for airline staff, but with a terminal that doesn't put architectural di ahead of an efficient airline operation and a terminal that provides sufficient and suitably located airline accommodation space including the needs of alliance airlines. 6. Appassenger terminal building with an efficient outbound/transfer baggage sortation system that also supports short MCTs (minimum connecting times). 7. A passenger terminal that allows 90% of passengers to use passenger boarding bridges, with aircraft parking on remote stands using buses to meet peak demand, and short walking distances for commuter aircraft. 8. Excellent airport shopping for airline passengers that doesn't interfere with passenger flows between the check-in area and the aircraft gate, and yet provides the airport with commercial revenues that help reduce airline user charges. 9. An aitport with reasonable user charges. 10. An airport authority that can see the mutual benefits of working with the airtines in planning major ity changes. TYPICAL FEATURES OF WORLD-CLASS HUB AIRPORT It should be noted that for an airport to become a world-class airport more than just good facilities are required. The airport staff should be friendly and the public areas of the passenger terminals, especially toilets, must be clean. Also, airline and government processes must allow passengers to move quickly through the terminal building, from the departures curbside to the aircraft door and from the aircraft door to the arrivals curbside, To guide airport authorities towards becoming a world-class hub airport, the following is a checklist of generic criteria that must be met: Geographic / Political Location ‘© A medium to large sized airport with international, regional and domestic traffic. ‘© Regionally competitive in terms of costs, facilities and convenience. © Geographically situated along a major world air-route, or at the cross roads of more than one ‘world air route. © Geographically located in a catchment area of substantial O8D trattic. ¢ Healthy regional and national economic growth. © No political restraints to commercially acceptable bilateral agreements. © No environmental constraints on aircraft operations. we TATA B1.5.2 B1.5.3 B1.5.4 Planning Airspace / ATC (Air Traffic Control) © No restrictions on airspace capacity. © No confict with cther close alrports or military traffic restrictions. © No threat to schedule integrity or reliability from airspace or ATC issues. Airfield and Infrastructure ¢ Runways and other airfield facilities able to handle all trafic demands. @ Runway capacity routinely in excess of 75 movements per hour. © No limiting curfews. ‘© Allweather operations. ¢ Regular and reliable transport links to closest major clty; a rapid rail service is the preferred option, if economically viable. ‘¢ Adequate private car parking at reasonable cost — including long-term parking with shuttle bus service. ‘© Capacity to handle large traffic peaks with high activity during the peaks. ‘© Reliable airport services/utilities such as power supply, water supply, fuel supply. © Spacing of runways, taxiways, taxilanes to allow Code F aircraft operations. © Dedicated locations for competing ground equipment parking and container storage racking. Passenger Terminals ‘© Sufficient airport and terminal facilities to allow airlines to meet their own airline service standards at a reasonable cost (see Figure B2.1 for airline service standards that need to be converted into physical airport facilities). '* IATA Level of Service C or better should be attained (subject to acceptable capital cost and resultant operational cost limitations) — Refer to Section F9.1.2 ‘¢ Apron configuration and capacity to not inhibit scheduling and to allow airline alliance proximity pparking for hubbing operations. ‘@ Apron services available — aircraft fuelling, ground power. ‘© Competitive MCTs (Minimum Connecting Times). MCTs must be competitive with competing regional airports. Adequate facilties to allow single airlines or alliance airlines to complex flights within published MCT. ‘© Sufficient aircraft stands to meet peak demands — buses to remote stands. 90-95% of passengers (on an annual basis) should be served by a passenger boarding bridge. ‘© Terminal facilities to accommodate complex peak demand. ‘¢ _Inter-terminal passenger and baggage transfer systems. @ Intra-terminal walking distances minimized. 25 we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual ‘A choice of competing passenger, baggage, ramp and engineering handling agencies. © ~ Abily to allow airlines to sel-handle if required. Government agency processing times to world standards. Automated baggage sortation systems with high peak hour reliability and flexibility to cope with high levels of transfer baggage. In-line HBS system is preferred option. FIDS systems throughout terminal. CUTE systems at check-in areas as well as at the boarding gates. Airside and landside retail outlets at High Street prices, or better. Sufficient terminal space to allow airline alliances to consolidate their space requirements. Logical flow and proximity between check-in counters, airline CIP lounges, and departure gates. Sufficient space for airlines to lease administrative offices, CIP lounges and staff amenities. B1.5.5 Air Cargo & Air Express Terminals A choice of competing freight and catering handling agencies. Direct access ftom the cargo and express terminals to the cargo apron. Sufficient freighter parking positions, with tether pits (nose wheel tie-down to maintain aircraft balance during loading and unloading). B1.5.6 User Charges 26 Sufficient airport and terminal facilities to allow airlines to meet airline service standards at a Feasonable cost. Transparent pricing mechanisms on “single til” basis (refer to Chapter D). we IATA Planning B1.5.7 Conclusions Itis a challenge for an airport authority to meet al of the planning criteria required to become a 'world- class’ airport. Nevertheless, its important that airport authorities and their airport planning consultants, are aware of the airline industry's views on airport servicelplanning excellence. The following tables on Airport Passenger Terminal Planning Standards summarize airline requirements for a ‘world-class’ passenger termins Paint antoer Famstanr main rian eTOUIE ascertain eueletanioes ‘Planning Element Planning Standard ‘Recommended raseeara ee I Se eos eemmcsyne em | Beet ae, pa eo can power Sasi= nse Gog |e ea ened eres fora coh ee eee ee acces eure erterioasycae | 0 Konya "bert nt ‘Maximum Queuing Time of 25-30 min. CUTE (Common Use Terminal Equipment) SUT Conan ve Ter Ean For addtional information on minimum and | implementation is apparent. Tapp neater | specatcarne tx torarg mst Seer Nepean spec: gaan agen? 2° | Frum ere ae. passenger. 1.3 m* for domestic In-line HBS (Hold Baggage Screening) prone eae ng | hiearas giana Some coro pc imme ort, | Beem eee fae eaeeen eee at ening tenn Tenaya, ee ee acaioas are ae ——— ens ong ease = eee ‘minutes. 1.0 m? per passenger, eocuae a omar ca cere cee Se ane Space - for passengers waiting up to 10. Processing, minutes, 1.0 m* per passenger. area CIP Lounges 4m per passenger Preferred location for lounges |s airside in. tonrcen enema neal foe ee seer, Seeat fone ee Seago nome dang a aaa Roeser Senin fe pe as eee pe 27 we iATA Airport Development Reference Manual FIG. B1.1 Continued: AIRPORT PASSENGER TERMINAL PLANNING STANDARDS ‘AIRPORT PASSENGER TERMINAL. PLANNING STANDARDS Planning Element Planning Standard {for Typical Busy Das Recommended Practice Departure Gate Lounges ‘Space ~ 1.2m? per passenger standing & 1.7 m'per passenger seated ‘Seating - 70% of passengers should have ‘access to seating, including seating at F8 (food & beverage} concessions. Walking Distance Maximums of 250 ~ ‘300% unaided & 650m with moving \walkweys (of which not mae than 200m unaided). APIs for travel ever 500m WB alrraf should be parked close to the ‘main PTB to reduce the walking distances {or largest numbers of passengers. ‘Gate lounge should inude pedium counter lose entrance fo PBB & Include CUTE ‘system with 2 boarding pass readers for alert larger than type, a document printer & boarding pass piter. Shared baggage facil (shutestight elevator to apron level at the gate lounges. for excess cabin baggage, srobers & vwneeicnars. Passenger Boarding Bridges {90-95% of passengers (on an annual ‘bass ll be served by a passenger ‘boarding bridge, 98 juttiod with minimum of 46 arora ‘operationsiday. ‘Apron drive bridges wth 400 Hz fied ‘Tound power, ai condoning & potable Water atached. Gaass-walld brige preferred Coda aera - one or to bridges NLA’ slreaf~ one bridge fo upper deck 8 coe bridge to main deck, Alreat docking guidance system, Ramps (wih slope not exceeding 1:12) should be used to connect the PBB with the ‘departures gate lounge (upper level) and wit th arvals comido (ower lovl). ‘Airerat On-Time Performance ‘Sulfcent land for twin independent (1,800- 2,000m separation) staggered parallel runways (3500 ~ 4000 length x 60m for 2 addtional cose Dual taxways & dual taxlanes. Inbound Passport Control ‘Maximum Queuing Time of 10 min, ‘Space ~ for passengers waling up to 30, minutes. 1.0 m per passenger Rear to Section F9.102 Introduction of biometrics wil speed up Processing. 28 >= TATA Planning FIG. B14 Continued: AIRPORT PASSENGER TERMINAL PLANNING STANDARDS "AIRPORT PASSENGER TERKINAL PLANNING STANDARDS. ‘Planning Element Planning Standard Recommended {or Typical Busy Day Practice ‘Baggage Claim Hall ‘Wheel stop to Last Bag — Business Class NB—15 min, We -20 min. Economy Class NB =25 min wa- 40 min ‘space 1.7m? por passenger (excusing baggage dim unt) Reler to Section F9.108 ‘Sufficient numbers to be provided to allocate atleast one 85m baggage claim Unit per 8747 fight. Referto Section US Separate device(s) for handing oversize beggane ‘An 11-13m separation between baggage claim unis Suffcient baggage trolleys to be avaliable ‘on ent to the baggage claim hall [ATMs (Automated Teller Machines) located In baggage cam halt Left luggage storage faites should be located tandside Inbound Customs Recommended use of ReaGreen Channels Meeter Grester Hall ‘Space - 1.7 per passenger & greeter. 201% of space for seating Reler to Section F9.10.7 Easy accesso train station Passenger Arrival Wheel stop to Curbside ICAO recommended practice 5.45 minutes Business Class passenger on tho curbelda 20 -25 minutos after alrcrat arta Economy Class - passengers on the ‘curbside 40-45 minutes after airrat rival, Wayfinding ‘The PTB should incorporate self-evident passenger fw routes through the Buldng, Dut where signs are required they must provide a continuous Ineleation of direction, Signposting system should use a concise & comprehensive system of drectonal, infermatona, regulatory & satiation messages. should adhere toa basic guideline of copy styes & sizes, consitont {erminology, recognlzable & universally acceptable symbols & uniform colours. Signpostng shouldbe in “mother tongus” & English. ‘Airline Offices “Om por staff member Rule of Thumb — 4 checkin countors x 100 mi? ‘Sulfcent space to lease to altines & Alianees, Located lendside reasonably lose to checkin, Cleat signposted, 29 2, are Airport Development Reference Manual FIG. B1-1 Continued: AIRPORT PASSENGER TERMINAL PLANNING STANDARDS: ‘AIRPORT PASSENGER TERMINAL PLANNING STANDARDS. Planning Element Planning Standard {or Typical Busy Day Practice sssengers with Disabilifes ‘Apo faites must comply wth national laws and regulations, RetaliConcessions ‘Airport Autry should obtain 60 — 60% of {otal airport revenue from retal/concassions. 70.80% of retail concessions should be located arta, Retal/concession lactis ehould not interfere with passengers flows between checlcin and the departure gate lounges MCT - (Minimum Connecting Time) ‘Domesti-Domestic ~ 95-45 min, ‘Domestic-international ~ 35-45 min. {nternational-Domestic ~ 45-60 min, International international ~ 45-60 in, Refer to Section U1.2.6 for specif baggage connecting times. insfer Counter «Maximum Queuing Time of 10 min, ‘Space - for passengers waling up to 30 minutes. 12 m* per passenge, inl inter ‘queue space and baggage trolleys. Reerto Section F9.13. Seating for 5% of passongers. 30 &, ee IATA B16 Planning IATA GLOBAL AIRPORT MONITOR ‘The Global Airport Monitor is a customer satisfaction benchmarking programme that analyses the perceptions of international, domestic and transborder travelers and provides an up-to-date marketing index to measure the service quality of participating airports. This benchmarking tool explores passengers’ ‘on-the-day’ experience of an airport on a wide range of service elements on a worldwide basis. ‘The questionnaire is distributed to passengers in the departure lounges (airside) 30-45 minutes prior to departure, Each airport receives approximately 350 questionnaires per quarter. If an airport needs ‘a more robust sample by segment, e.g. Transborder/Domestic or per terminal for more detailed analysis, an increased sample size is constructed. The survey Is carried out according to a precise sampling plan constructed with the airport management, ensuring the sample is representative of the airpor's traffic mix. The questionnaire covers 24 airport service attributes and 4 aitline service elements as well as demographic! travel and connecting passenger profile. The 24 airport service attributes include: 1, Ease of finding your way through the airport’ signposting. Flight information screens. Availabilty of flights to other cities, Ease of making connections with other flights. Availabilty of baggage carts. - 9 eee Courtesy, helpfulness of airport staff (excluding check-in). 7. Restaurant/ eating facilities. 8. Shopping facilities. 9, Business facilities ( . computers, internet). 10. Washrooms. 11. Passport and Visa inspection. 12. Security inspection. 13. Customs inspection. 14, Comfortable waiting! gate areas. 18. Cleanliness of airport terminal. 16. Speed of baggage delivery service. (previous experience). 17. Ground transportation to/ from airport. 18. Parking facilities. 19, Senso of security. 20. Ambience of the airport 21. Overall satisfaction with airport. 22, Value for money for restaurantieating facilities. 23, Value for money for shopping facilities. 24, Value for money for parking facilities. 31 =, te IATA Airport Development Reference Manual B17 Each year IATA publishes the results of the Global Airport Monitor surveys conducted at major alrports ‘around the world, Figure B1-2 shows the rankings of the Top 10 Airports from 1998-2002. Figure B1-2: Rankings of Top 10 Airports from 1998-2002 ry 1998 Ty em Singapore Copenhagen Singapore Dubai Dubal Helsing Singapore Sydney Singapore Singapore Manchester Hels Holsing! Copenhagen Hong Kong ‘Melbourne ‘Vancouver Hong Kong Seoul Incheon Copenhagen Geneva Manchester Copenhagen Helsinkt Kula Lumpur Zari Kuala Lumpur Minneapolis St Paul Sydnay Seoul Incheon ‘Amsterdam Cincinnat Manchester Athens Athens Copenhagen Perth Vienna Hong Kong Vancouver Montreal Mirabel Amsterdam Birmingham Cincinnati Sriando Hong Kong Vancouver Syne For information on the IATA Global Airport Monitor contact bis @ iata.org. IATA FACILITIES PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE ‘At an early stage in an airport project, specific airline space and facility requirements must be determined. The recommended document for obtaining this required information is the IATA Facilities Planning Questionnaire. See FIG. B1.3 at the end of this chapter. {It must be anticipated that the contents of the questionnaire may not be completely applicable at all airports, but itis expected that the basic document can be used at all locations, with suitable notes indicating items which should be ignored, deleted or possibly added. Therefore, before circulation, the airlines and the airport authority should agree both on the sections to be used, and any variation in their content. IATA will arrange the circulation of the questionnaire to all airlines operating at that airport, and to non-airfine handling agencies (where applicable) requesting completion in as much delail as possible and retum to IATA for consolidation and subsequent presentation to the airport authority. Responses from each alline are kept confidential. Estimates of rental rates for leasing space should be available to the airlines early in the planning process. The rental rates usually affect the amount of space that an airline will request. If rates are high, the airline may reduce its space requirements. ‘At airports where more than one terminal building is involved, it may be necessary to complete separate questionnaire sections for each building. Requirements associated directly with staff numbers should be based on the maximum number of staff on duty on a particular shift. Care should be taken not to use cumulative figures of total staff employed, although provision must be included for shift changeover, when assessing car parking requirements, locker room areas, etc, we IATA Figure B1-. Planning : IATA Facilities Planning Questionnaire Estimates for planning purposes only — not a commitment to rent the required space 1. HANDLING ARRANGEMENTS 1 Do you intend to perform your own passenger baggage handling function? Passenger Baggage Handling Planning Years to YES/NO — If "NO state name of handling agenoy/airline now used, — If "YES" indicate whether in full or part. FULL / PART — If “PART indicate which functions you intend to perform and which are to be performed by the handling agency/airline: Function Peformed by Handling Agency itself if Yes Name of Handling Agency! Function Tick (¥) Tick () Airline Ticket Sales Passenger Check-in ‘Seat Allocation Load Control Passenger Boarding Control Baggage Sorting Flight Operations, ‘Crew Briefing 1.2. . Apron Handling Do you intend to perform your own apron handling function? YES/NO — If "NO" state name of handling agency/airine now used. — IF *YES" indicate whether in full or part. FULL / PART —If PART" indicate which functions you intend to perform and which are to be performed by the handling agency/airline: Function Peformed by Handling Agency If Self Handling ives Name of Agency/ Function Tick (Y) Tick (Y) Ai Baggage/Cargo Loading/Untoading Aircraft Push-back A\roraft Catering Aireraft Cleaning Aircraft Toilet Service 33 we IATA Airport Development Reference Manual 1.3 Cargo Handling Do you intend to perform your own cargo handling function? YES/NO — If "NO" state name of handling agency/airine now used, — IF YES" indicate whether in full or part. FULL / PART — It "PART" indi handling agency/ai ite which functions you intend to perform and which are to be performed by the Function Performed by Handling Agenc, Itself. IfYes ‘Name of Handling Agency! Function Tick (¥) Tick Airline Export ‘Goods acceptance/paperwork Cargo processing Container/Pallet build-up Airoraf loading Import ‘Airoraft unloading ‘Container/Pallet breakdown ‘Cargo proce: ‘Customer contact/papenwork 2. SPACE/FACILITY REQUIREMENTS, 2.1. Passenger Terminal Planning State your existing facilities and requirements for the forecast years specified above. Airlines intending to be handled by third parties should only specify those requirements which would not be provided by the handling agent. Staff Desired Function Location Existing Facilities No, Check-in Counters Requirements Year, Requirements Year, No. Self Service Counters No. CUSS Kiosks, ‘Check-in ‘Support Offices 3 No. Ticket/Sales Counters (not included above) ‘Administrative Offices. Operations Offices VIPICIP Lounge ‘Communications Facies (specify) Line Maintenance Offices/Stores Ground Equipment Parking al al alalala Bl 3) ARIS al al alalais ‘Other (spacifyy Joint Use of Facilities Indicate below whether your airline is prepared to share any of the facilities below with another airline or agency. ‘Check-in Counters Tick (v) if Prepared to Share Yes No Ticket/Sales Counters Departure Baggage System. VIP/CIP Lounge 35 “Yara, Airport Development Reference Manual 2.2 Support Facilities Staff Desired Requirements Location Year, ‘Arora Maintenance Ground Equipment Maintenance Offices/Workshops Aircraft Catering ‘Other pect 2.3 Cargo Terminal (Exclusive Airline Space Only) Staff Desired Existing Function Location Facilities Storage Area Office Space Bonded Area ‘Other (spe B1.8 IATA RECOMMENDATIONS We A TATA Planning SECTION B2: THE PLANNING PROCESS B21 NATIONAL PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS Itis advisable for national governments to develop a strategic planning objective for the medium and long-term development of airports within their national jurisdiction. The strategic proposal should look at existing air traffic control as well as runway and terminal capacities and then should define strategic objectives for the phased expansion or development of new or existing airports. ‘An example whereby this holistic strategic approach has been well adopted can be cited by the British government (Department for Transport), which created and developed The South East and East of England Regional Consultation Document. This specific paper was based on the results of the South East and East of England Regional Air Services (SERAS) Study. This document included proposals {or different amounts of new runway capacity as well as options that limit development in the South East of England at a strategic level. While the SERAS document is specific to the region in question, it does demonstrate the necessary level of governmental strategic thinking that is required and represents an excellent benchmark in this regard for governments worldwide. Generally the formal planning sequence which is followed is denoted by the following stages. It should be noted that national government planning sequence variations are likely to occur: ‘Stage 1. Review of Governmental National Planning Strategy for ATC/Runways/Airport Infrastructure. Stage 2. Preparation of Initial Master Plan for Proposed International/Regional Airport. Stage 8. Review of Local Community's Sensitivities. Stage 4. Refinement of Master Plan. Stage 5. Planning Application. Stage 6. Planning Appeal (as necessary). Stage 7. Planning Decision, The national plan should be developed in consultation with all airport operators, national and international commercial interests, airlines and IATA, and should address the following issues for the perceived 30 year development period: ‘¢ National commercial and political objectives where government and financial institutions seek to expand regions within a nation for development or continued expansion ‘© Existing airline routes and the viability of new routes. ‘® Ecological and environmental impact of airport and flight operations to new or expanded existing airports. ‘© Commercial impact studies on existing airports, aitlines and handling agents, including those pertaining to cargo operations. ‘© Rail and road impact studies. ‘© Impact on existing and future aircratt traffic movements. ‘© Commercial impact on local businesses and employment rate variations. ‘© Social impact on residential areas surrounding the airport. © identifi tion and impact on areas of natural beauty, historic sites and religious monuments. 37 we IATA Airport Development Reference Manual ‘Methods that may be employed to access the national airport planning document should be published in appropriate press and government information sources. The document itself should be a realistic interpretation of the facts developed by a wide cross section of the airport and aitline industry, as well as local community representatives. The document should include but should not be limited to the following detailed sections: ‘© Statement of airport development needs for the nation, ‘© National and regional business development needs. Social needs and relevant impact statement. © ATM national development pian. ‘© Airport to rail and road national development position statement. © National airport development plan. ‘© High level funding options for national airport development alternatives. © List of contributors to the text. B2.2 REGIONAL PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS The regional planning paper should be a more regionally focused and detailed derivation of the national planning document. Typically, a regional area would contain no more than two large or medium sized airports within its boundary. The concepts presented need not be detailed construction solutions, although expert civil, structural and specialist engineering advice is still required so that any solutions proposed can be realistically developed when need be. These might include: ‘© Statement of airport development needs for the region. Regional business development needs. © Regional social needs and impact statement. ‘¢ ATM regional plan and national overview. ‘¢ Rail and road infrastructure solutions to aid airport development plan, ‘@ Regional airport development plan and study (concept options). © Airport regional development plan objectives and option recommendations. ‘Regional airport development funding options. List of contributors to the text. 82.3. THE AIRPORT MASTER PLAN 38 ‘The airport master plan is an airport-specific document which fulfils the objectives and requirements of the national and especially the regional airports plan. The concept option recommendations with the regional plan are produced for a specific airport, and should technically be more developed and expanded upon. Typically, the master plan document should be developed as a 30 year forecast of development options which would include the following topics: ‘© Airport development ong term phased objectives. ‘© Concept variations (normally 3 or more sub options developed). Social and environmental impact statement and recommendations. © Runway development plan and recommendations. &, we IATA B24 B25 Planning ‘© Cost plan restraint objectives. ‘® Construction programme constraints. ¢ Energy consumption targets. The airport master plan should be used as a tool in the earlier stages of negotiations with the local planning authority to explain the level of impact the various options would have, and to help generate a forum for the authority's concems as well as those of the local community. The document should support the subsequent formal planning application produced during the ensuing feasibility design stage. LOCAL COMMUNITY ISSUES The local community will be concemed with a variety of issues and lude groups in favor of and less than amenable to future airport development. It is important that the developer addresses and listens to the concerns and issues raised by the community. The developer should endeavour to reduce uncertainty and misunderstanding by engendering regular and clear communication channels with local community groups. Often the local community can make valuable suggestions which, although simply a fine detail to the airport master planner, may be very important to the local community as a whole. Indeed, detailed suggestions can and often are put forward by community ‘groups which might have fttie cost impact, but which can also dramatically improve living and working conditions in the area. The following issues should be addressed via regular discussion with local community groups: ‘© Confirmation of night flight movement schedules resulting from proposed development plans. ‘* Development of further runway plans. ‘© Development of terminal and infrastructure facilities. ‘© Noise reduction plans. ‘© Environmentally sensitive land issues. ‘© Construction period strategies to minimize disturbance. IATA RECOMMENDATIONS 39 wk Airport Development Reference Manual Se ATA Chapter C — Master Planning Section C1: Principles 1.1 Introduction 1.2. The Master Plan — Ten Step Sequence 1.3 Step 1 — Stakeholders and Objectives . 1.4. Step 2 — Site Evaluation 1.5 Step 3 — Airfield Configuration 1.6 Step 4 — Runway Orientation .. C1.7. Step 5 — Aprons . 1.8 Step 6 — Taxiway Systems .. C1.9 Step 7 — Passenger Terminal/Apron Complex Configurations... €1.10 Step 8 — Alignment of Terminal Building and Piers to Service Stands C1.11 Step 9 — Alignment and Provision of Support Processes C112 Step 10 — Aircraft Maintenance ... C142 Step 10a — Cargo ... C113. Master Plan Deliverable — Preliminary Land-Use Layouts .. C114 IATA Recommendations .... Section C2: Forecasting 2.1 Introduction and Forecasting Definition .. C2.2 Objectives of Forecasting ... 2.3 Forecast Data .... 2.4 Segmentation .... 2.5 Demands and Trends . 2.6 Forecasting Methodology 2.7 IATA Recommendations Section C3: Land Use Planning 3.1 General Introduction ... 3.2. Long Term Vision 3.3. Assessing Noise 3.4 Land Use Within Noise Zones . 46 47 47 51 67 68 70 74 76 7 78 78 86 88 88 89 1 92 94 97 98 98 99 99 41 &, ara Airport Development Reference Manual 3.5 Land Use Management .. 99 3.6 Land Use Control . 100 C3.7_ Airport Land Use Planning .. 101 3.8 IATA Recommendations 102 Section C4: Control Towers C4.1 Purpose Overview 103 C4.2 Design Characteristics .... 108 4.3 Control Tower Position .... 105 4.4 IATA Recommendations 106 &, Se TATA CHAPTER C — MASTER PLANNING SECTION Ci: PRINCIPLES ct. C14 C1.1.2 INTRODUCTION ‘The airport master plan is created to guide the future development expectations of alports and to ‘establish their ability to expand and develop in a logical, sustainable and cost effective manner. Aitline market forces are discemibly linked to the master plan development proposal; i.e. as airport traffic increases the facility's development and operations should be phased to provide the appropriate airport processes and sized infrastructure. Should an airline's operations fluctuate, then the master plan should also contain the flexibility to be able to respond accordingly. Master plans can be created for new or existing airport locations and should be considered as active, live documents which should be systematically reviewed at least every 5 years. This regular review and update process should address variations in market forces and the operational requirements of the facility's airline clients, Existing master plans can be revised to accommodate unforeseen commercial variations to the airport’ or airine's operations. ‘The master plan will provide a detailed and accurate assessment of how an airport should deliver its services to its airline and ground handling clients in an effective and controlled manner, with due consideration for safety, development costs and the resultant realistic cost and profit recovery mechanisms. In this section the major attributes and details of an airport master plan are discussed. The master plan ten point staged sequence is also provided for planners who may find themselves faced with ‘blank canvas’ airport development proposals. This sequence has been compiled to help airport planners systematically construct the master plan, giving due attention to the primary and secondary facilities being proposed and their subsequent placement on the airport site. Development Restrictions There can be both natural and artificial restrictions which may limit the extent of future airport development. These need to be determined at the beginning of the planning process so that all parties are aware of any constraints that may impact on future capacity development. Restrictions may cover environmental boundaries on over-fight of neighboring countries or towns, Political limitations on adjacent airport growth that may adversely distort or influence development, Planning conditions that may limit airline and aircraft operations, restrictions that may determine aircraft type or time of operation, or limits on noise and quantity of emission levels that should not be exceeded. ‘There may also be topographical or man-made features that restrict operations or impose payload limits on certain aircraft types. Such restrictions can be removed but this usually comes at a significant cost. Capacity Constraints and Developments It is important for airport operators to know what currently constrains their airport capacity. If the constraint is an operational process deficiency or an infrastructure provision deficiency orboth, itneeds to be understood fully before the decision to expand or change the airport process or infrastructure is. made. If no constraints currently exist then they must look to the future and predict when individual facilities or support infrastructure will fail to provide the required level of service. The reality is that improving and expanding facilities can often be very costly. As airport operational costs will ultimately be cascaded to the primary business partners of the faciity, aitport development expenditure should be justed witha detaled supporting business case defining the reasons why alor growth should provided. we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual C113 C1.1.4 C1415 Planning Horizons Traditionally, the long-term planning horizon for airports extended no further than 20 years. IATA now views this as being too short-sighted. Airport authorities should always endeavour to look to the ultimate development potential and capacity of their site. Ultimate development potential may be determined when the runway system is saturated, though in other instances stand availabilty or the capacity limits of passenger terminals, support facilities or land-side access systems may be the determining factor. Local considerations may confine development ambitions within the boundaries of the airport perimeter. Airport authorities and companies must determine the maximum or ultimate capacity possible that can be adequately served by the existing and potential future apron and terminal provision. This knowledge should be at the core of the airport master plan for each airport. Improving Operational Efficiency and Flexibility Airport operators and airlines should in the fist instance look at the extension of existing faclites rather than the construction of separate new facilities that may duplicate all or part of their current operations, The design of new facllties should be as flexible as practically possible, with a building's layout and construction techniques promoting variations in the operational usage of the building at some point in the future. The design of building envelopes should aid the expansion of the facility, which is almost inevitable, through the use of modular design solutions where practical. Modular design solutions can allow airports to modify their operations with minimum impact on airport clients, and the benefits of this approach should be explored fully. All new airport facilities should be planned with future expansion in mind to support the ultimate development potential of the airport. Base carriers generally need to have a single point of operation in order for them to provide an efficient and effective hub. By operating from one base, the base carrier can increase ls percentage of the transfer market by maximising the number of city pairs served. Any situation where they are coerced into operating from two airports will weaken their ability to compete, as two operational bases will result in unnecessarily duplicated costs. Airport authorities and companies should liase regularly with the relevant airlines to establish their operational and business objectives so as to align the design of their airport accordingly. Multi-airport systems may only exist where there is no possibility of operating from a single base. A ult-airport system needs to have sufficient traffic volume (20 to 30 mppa) to support entirely independent operations. Success will be heavily dependent on each faclty securing the support of a major network carrier or an alliance grouping, and many high-volume individual routes operating to both airports would be needed. Political Considerations Itis often the case that local political interests will seek to manipulate market conditions by restricting ‘or forcing airlines to fly certain types of traffic from particular airports. This is principally apparent in cities where a new airport project would likely cause the closure of an existing facility, and is generally practiced to appease a local populace fearful of losing the economic conditions and benefits that are associated with large airports. The serious operational and financial implications that this course of action can have on the airlines In question should be fully appreciated by airport authorities and companies, as these factors can ultimately impact on the basic viability of the region's air travel market. we IATA Master Planning C1.1.6 C1.4.7 C1.1.8 Financial Considerations For all airport developments large or small, the eventual benefits to the various stakeholder groups must be positive and outweigh the cost of the development; e.g. a thorough cost benefit analysis, should be undertaken to support all capital expenditure (CAPEX). A financial model should be established which shows the proposed method and time scales for cost recovery, which will in turn allow the airlines to determine what the proposed impact may be on their yields and operating costs. Where relocation of the entire airfield is being considered to a new ‘green-field’ or ‘biue-sea' location, financial support will be required from governments to offset the political costs of re-establishing infrastructure at the new site. This is particularly true of large-scale developments that include surface access system provision, primary utility supply and distribution networks, and preliminary site preparation works that may be essential to support operations in the new location. It should also be Noted that any proceeds accruing from the sale of land or facilities at the former site should be used to offset the cost of new facilities. For further information on financial matters pertaining to airport development, please refer to Chapter D, Sections D1 to Dé inclusive. Existing Airports No two existing airports are identical. While there may be similarities in certain facilities created by particular runway configurations, each will possess several unique characteristics — often created through compromise. ‘The main problem with existing airports concerns how to expand facilities that have run out of room. to develop in their present locations. A common operational dilemma may arise in these circumstances ‘whereby the aitfines using an existing airport will usually want to continue to operate from that location, and yet this in turn may prevent the facility from sufficiently limiting its operations to allow for the required expansion and redevelopment. Airport operators in this case tend to take the view that the existing operation should be expanded towards its limit, while in parallel a process is begun to develop a replacement facility. The existing airport is then capable of possibly being redeveloped at a later stage for a different aviation market, or indeed sold off as general real estate once decommissioned. New Airports At ‘green-field’ or ‘blue-sea’ sites the planner essentially has a blank canvass upon which to compose their airport master plan, which should ideally follow the ten step sequence defined within clause C1.2 below. This sequence defines the primary and logical steps that all airport developers should follow when creating a master plan. As with existing airports, the travel distance and acces: the new airport site are primary requirements, and the apron area tends to be the central pi of a balanced design approach. Refer to the development zones identified within Figures C1-1 to C1- 6 inclusive for further details in this regard. ‘The primary business functions and markets of the airport will need to be clearly identified and balanced so that the correct functional emphasis can be placed on their development. Each proposed function of the airport should be ranked and this should in part dictate the positioning of the process within the airfield. It sounds obvious, but passenger processing functions should be highly ranked within passengers airports. Similarly, cargo and mail processing functions should be highly ranked within predominantly cargo and mail aitport operations. ‘There are various permutations on how these functions can be aligned but the solution has to be operationally viable from day one through to the ultimate phase. This may result in some master plans, particularly in their early phases, looking somewhat generous in their approach to land use planning. All other non-essential activities can then be positioned so that they do not interfere with either the circulation routes or expansion zones of the primary facilities, 45 we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual c1.2 46 THE MASTER PLAN — TEN STEP SEQUENCE The following sequence should be followed when developing a master plan for a typical international or domestic airport passenger terminal and apron airport operation. Step 7 and step 10 should be exchanged in sequence when a predominantly cargo and express processing facility is proposed, as the commercial and provisional bias switches accordingly. ‘Step 1 Determine the peak aircraft movements and resulting peak passenger movements required in the final master plan design year (Refer to Section C2 for Forecasting Techniques). Step 2 Collect via survey: geographical, geological, meteorological and environmental data pertaining to the proposed airport site location. Step 3 Select the runway configuration(s) which best matches the aircraft type and movement requirements, ATC capability, geological limitations and meteorological conditions, and hich satisfies the environmental requirements as closely as possible. Step 4 Align the proposed runway(s) to coincide with the prevailing wind directions. Step 5 Determine and locate the number of aircraft stands required and the stand type (remote or gate serviced) needed to meet the service standard. Step 6 Provide the correct configuration and quantity of taxiways, ensuring that the runway(s) and stands are serviced adequately, with due consideration to the dynamics of the aireraft on the apron. Step7 Size and position the ultimate terminal building(s), pier(s) and control tower within the appropriate development zone(s) (refer to Figures C1-1 to C1-6 inclusive). The space requirement for the terminal building will be heavily dependent on the processes required as defined within Chapter T, and the functional space requirements defined within Chapter F — Aiport Capacity, Section F9 — Passenger Terminal Facilities, and Chapter U— Aiport Baggage Handling. Step 8 Align the ultimate terminal building and piers to service the aircraft stands accordingly. Position fire services within the apron complex appropriately. Step 9 Size and position airport support processes such as (but not limited to) rail, bus, coach and passenger car access and parking facilities. See Chapter T for potential processes to be considered and included. Step10 Position secondary Cargo and Separate Express Facilties Terminal and stands, aircraft ‘maintenance hangars as required within the surplus development zone(s) (refer to Figures C1-1 to C1-6 inclusive). Historically, few airports worried about running out of space. Airfields were often located in relatively solated countryside positions and had multiple runways occupying vast tracks of fand. The jet age placed a reduced need on crosswind runways and as a resuit runways made way for aprons, small finger piers and terminals. Development tended to be piecemeal and lacked co-ordination Terminal buildings and airport support facilities merely spread out as required, with litle or no thought for the future. Expansion of existing facilities was not normally considered, so newer, multiple terminal solutions were added. This situation, rather surprisingly, lasted until the late eighties. It is for these reasons that the ten point master planning sequence described above should be adopted by airport developers, so that logical airport developments can be designed and implemented in the most appropriate and efficient manner. we TATA Master Planning c1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 C1.3.3 C14 c1.4.41 Al airports, regardless of thelr size, can no longer ignore their impact on surrounding communities, who unfortunately in some instances may have been allowed (by the lack of land-use controls) to fenoroach upon the airport's boundary. Sustainability now needs to be considered and a greater ‘emphasis needs to be placed on the airport as a junction for modal interchange. ‘A master plan is required so that all air-side, land-side and airport support facilities can develop, expand and improve the operational flexibility and efficiency of their business in a structured, balanced and orderly fashion, without adversely impacting on the business of their neighbours on or adjacent to the airport. In so doing, the potential of the available land and the capacity of the airport's runway system can be maximized. STEP 1 — STAKEHOLDERS AND OBJECTIVES STEP 1a — Stakeholder Consultation Meaningful and effective consultation with all interested people, community groups, and organisations (airlines, major tenants, the travelling public, surrounding communities, Civil Aviation Authorities and support agencies) that may be impacted by the airport development is essential For further details on what groups should be consulted and what staged please refer to Sections B1 and V1. STEP 1b — Background Statistical Data {All successful master plans are based on a combination of robust assumptions and facts. These must be assembled and recorded with great care in order that they can stand up to extemal scrutiny by those who may or may not wish that airport development should take place. Of particular importance will be the forecasted data pertaining to relevant airlines and the base carrier(s). This will serve as ‘a sound base from which aviation market forecasts can then, at a later stage, be extrapolated. STEP 1c — Future Demand Aviation Market Forecast {A forecast of future aviation demand is required in order to determine if and when additional capacity should be developed. It should not be used to determine the overall scale of the airport required, as facility requirements should be closely matched against the chosen site's ultimate development potential so that all facility development is geared to reaching the ultimate level while maintaining balance within the overall operational system. For further details on forecasting please refer to Section C2 for Forecasting Techniques. STEP 2 — SITE EVALUATION STEP 2a — Data Collection and Analysis (site visit) ‘A thorough study should be made of either the existing or proposed sites to determine their suitability to accommodate future traffic. All relevant and available facts should be recorded. This should include & cover ‘© Utility Provisions — primary supplies, the position of end nodes and transition point of supply responsibility. Retrieval Systems — sewage, surface water and effluent retrieval systems. '* Adjacent primary and secondary surface access systems. ‘® Location, size, capacity, condition and age of all air-side, land-side and airport support facilities. ‘© Condition of runways, taxiways and aprons, 47 ie IATA Airport Development Reference Manual C1.4.2 C1.4.3 C1.4.4 48 ‘* Meteorological conditions. * Geology and topography. © Obstacles and terrain. ‘© Surrounding development & land use. In this way, later stage evaluations can be cartied out should existing faclities be considered for refurbishment, expansion or demolition to make way for development as foreseen in the master plan. STEP 2b — Geology and Topography Significant variations in site levels will need to be recorded as these will determine the amount of material that wil be required to be excavated, transported or filled in order to produce a graded site capable of supporting aircraft operations. Soll conditions, particularly the ability of the site's various terrains and substrata to safely and ‘adequately support the loads imposed by aircraft, vehicular traffic movements and building structures need to be determined. ‘Some terrain may be of low bearing quality and may influence the planner’s choice as to where best locate a major runway without incurring additional construction costs. Runways, if not constructed property, risk early cracks due to structural damage and resutting high maintenance costs. Soll analysis and borings willbe very important to determine which areas to map out for runway development. Soil composition quality plays an important cost factor in determining the type of construction materials required. The presence or absence of water on the site is also an important element to take into consideration. STEP 2c — Surrounding Development & Land Use {tis important to determine what use is currently being made of the surrounding land, what development plans are proposed and what zoning procedures have been set in place to ensure that incompatible developments are not permitted adjacent to the site. Particular attention should be paid to noise sensitive developments, especially if these are located in close proximity to the airport and/or on the line of existing runways and their respective aircraft approach and departure paths. For further details, please refer to Section C3 of this manual. STEP 2d — Site Selection Criteria The following site selection criteria should be considered by airport planners: ¢ Financial considerations. Adjacent airports, ATC, airspace and routes. ‘* Environmental considerations. ‘© Operational & technical considerations, ‘© Social considerations. we TATA 1.4.5 C1.4.6 Master Planning STEP 2e — Methodology ‘There are a number of basic steps that have to be taken in tum to determine which site offers the most potential to satisfy the growth requirements of both airlines and airport authorities alike. The following need to be determined: 1. The size of site required to satisty forecast demand. p ‘Which site(s) fulfil the basic area requirement. 8. Data collection and analysis from each possible site. 4, Review of site selection criteria that affect alrport location. 5. Operational relationships. 6. Preliminary land use layouts. 7. a Evaluation of criteria, Recommendation of which site(s) should be considered in the second stage evaluation process. STEP 2f — Site and Facility Sizing For existing and proposed airports, the land available for development either between or adjacent to the runways, when coupled with the annual capacity of the runway system, will determine the ultimate capacity of the airport. If land availability is not an issue then runway capacity is the factor that determines ultimate capacity. The total area available for development is fixed by the site's existing (r proposed boundary. In order for airport planners and airport authorities to understand the scale of the site required for airport infrastructure development, the following tables have been assembled. These cover the primary facilities exclusively and should be used for rough estimation purposes only. 49 2, Vara Airport Development Reference Manual C1.4.7 STEP 2g — Approximate Land Area Requirement The following table highlights the land availability at 25 airports throughout Europe, North America and the Asia Pacific regions. LAND AREA REQUIREMENTS o0e. 4 [sizesr [aes | rsr0408 [3.238 LHR, 3 [ests | 642 [1,402,000 | 4,117 (001) FRA, 3 | asaza1 | 493 | 4,613,292 | _ 1,500 AMS. s | 432.400 | 992 | 1.222506 | 2,678 BRU, 3 | seeoso [215 | os7se4 | 1,265 ZRH 3 | sesex2 | 224 | 05,403 | 763 Muc 2 | soa4i2 | 229 | 14s.018 | 1,500 FCO. 4 | 283,449 | 282 | 202,400 | 1,600 ARN. 2 | aresea | 132 | 120835 | 3,100 Low 1 | 260058 | a19 | sae.246 | 683 ony. 3 | 2a3se6 [253 [120698 | 1,530 ost, 2. | aoaz7s | 142 | 2383 | 1,300 MAN. 2 ro1se6 | te4 {122143 | 28a ATH 2 [ 125058 | (2000) 13:31 123,367 [1,700 North America ATL 4 | os4s4 [aot | esso0s | i510 ‘ORD. 6 | cogseo [71.6 | 1.469559 | 2,699 DEW s__| esz770 | 604 | 04008 | 7,658 Lax. 4 | 70303 | 685s | 2038766 | 1,443 vz, 4 | 42506 | 280 | 344c63 | 1,510 JFK, 4 | 245.004 | 328 | 1,864,423 | 1,995 Asia & Pacific: ‘SY 3 | 307.058 [257 | svaee0 [087 HKG 2__| vese05 | 327 | 2.240.505 | 1,255 SIN 2__| 184503 | 286 | 1,680,000 | 1,300 NRT. 2 [133306 | 273 [1932604 | 1.084 KIX 1 _[iz016 [19.4 | 909,602 | s10 50 we TATA Master Planning C1.4.8 C1.4.9 C1410 C15 C1.5.1 C1.5.2 STEP 2h — Social Considerations ‘The placement of airports within populated areas will have a significant social impact which must be fully assessed by airport planners. Please refer to Sections £2 and S3 of this manual for further details in this regard, STEP 2i-Environmental Considerations It is almost essential and certainly recommended for airport developers to create a detailed environmental impact study for a proposed new airport development site. The considerations which should be taken in account are detailed particularly within Sections E1, £3 and Eé of this manual. STEP 2j — Economic Considerations It will be essential for airport planners to consider the economic viability of the proposed site in terms of the constructions costs associated within the region and resultant payback period for the development. Additionally, the regional stability of the country where the airport is to reside will be important to understand. ‘Inflation and cost of borrowing within the region may preclude certain desirable development options from being considered for the proposed airport. Some countries provide special economic zones where major developments may benefit from less governmental taxation. ‘These factors need to be explored and considered fully STEP 3 — AIRFIELD CONFIGURATION STEP 3a — Airfield Configuration Overview ‘The alrport authority and the airport planning team must have a comprehensive understanding of the airfield configuration options that exist. There are essentially six airfield configurations for airport planners to choose from, all of which are defined within the following Clauses and Figures C1-1 through C1-6 inclusive. These all have various operational advantages and disadvantages, and it should be noted that while six airfield configurations exist to choose from, only four are deemed recommended by IATA for green-field or blue-sea situations. Please refer to the table within Clause 1.5.8 for further information. Airfield configurations are determined by the number, position and orientation of existing and proposed runways and their support taxiway networks. This factor will greatly influence the position of all other primary and secondary support facilities. When determining the position of new runways, several related factors need to be assessed in order that the new infrastructure can make best use of the existing or proposed new site's unique conditions. STEP 3b — Adjacent Airports, ATC, Airspace & Routes Each airport has to coexist and operate within much larger national or international air traffic systems. Individual airports utilise vast tracks of airspace in order to accommodate the procedures required to allow aircraft to approach, hold, land and take-off. As a result, any extensive growth plan should be discussed and carefully co-ordinated with the relevant air traffic control authority, such that feasible recommendations can be developed and impractical concepts eliminated. Other factors may also come into play, including coordination with military controlled airspace and aircraft movements. 51 &, we IATA Airport Development Reference Manual 1.5.1 C1.5.2 C1.5.3 52 STEP 3c — Meteorological Conditions and Runway- Wind Orientation The main criteria for the orientation of runways are the prevailing winds. Historical data will have to be retrieved to determine their direction, frequency and strength. As a general rule, the principal traffic runway at an airport should be oriented as closely as practicable in the direction of the prevailing winds. ICAO specifies that runways should be oriented so alrcraft may land with crosswind components of 2okmihr or less at least 95 percent of the time for runways of 1800m or more. Optimum runway directions are determined by using a wind-rose. STEP 3d — Visual Conditions Visibility and ceiling heights are very much affected by weather conditions and will influence the choice of runway operations; e.g. whether to select for operations under all weather or visual conditions only. Fog, turbulence and abnormal rainfall may at times also reduce the capacity of runways. In order for airlines to maintain regular schedules during adverse weather conditions, airports are equipped with approach aids. The category of these aids depends on both the sophistication of the equipment installed at the airport and on board the aircraft. This determines the minimum visibility required for an aircraft to be able to land. STEP 3e — Li ns Of Instrument Approaches — Summary Minimum Decision Runway Visual Range ‘Type of Approach _| Height Visibitity (RVR) Non-precision (800 ft) Precision Cat | 200 ft ‘800m >550m Cat il 100 ft >350m Cat INA 50 ft >200m Cat IIB <50 ft >50m Cat tic <50 ft <0 The minima herein are acceptable only when full facilities are installed and no objects penetrate obstacle clearance surfaces. Category Ill requires much more sophisticated equipment, which is not ‘commonly installed at airports or in the aircraft using them. Given the small benefit that Category Ill gives compared to its costs, it is usually not installed at most airports. Cat Ill is most prevalent in Europe where itis a necessity for the airlines to maintain normal schedules in poor weather conditions. we TATA Master Planning 1.5.4 C155 C1.5.6 C1.5.7 STEP 3f-Average Temperature and Altitude Considerations In general terms, high temperatures will impact on the length of runway required, the rapid exit taxiway positions and the distances that can be traversed by aircraft while taxiing. High temperatures result in lower air densities which in turn cause lower engine thrust. When determining runway length a correction factor needs to be applied on temperatures above 15 degrees C or 59 degrees F. ‘Airports that experience excessively high temperatures during the day may find that their operations are restricted due to insufficient runway length being available to support maximum possible take-off weights. In these instances, cargo volumes and/or passenger numbers may be restricted or operations may only be cost effective during cooler early moming or late evening periods. Attude, and its resulting effects upon air pressure and other temperature factors also plays an important role in determining the most effective runway configuration for a given facility. STEP 3g — Obstacles/Terrain Obstacles offen represent serious constraints to an optimal layout of runways or may in some circumstances have a negative influence on the operation to/from a runway. ICAO Annex 14 specifies that airspace around airports should remain free of obstacles so as to permit the intended aircraft operations at the airport to be conducted safely and to prevent the airport from becorning unusable by the growth of the obstacles around the airport. Criteria for evaluating such obstacles are contained in the ICAO document Procedures for Alr Navigation Services — Aircraft Operations (PANS OPS). Features within the natural landscape may also influence the orientation or length of proposed runways. While small obstructions can be removed, cost and the subsequent additional benefits obtained will be the determining factors when considering removal. STEP 3h — Obstacle Limitation Requirements ‘The requirements for obstacle limitation surfaces are specified by the intended use of a runway (i.e. takeoff or landing and type of approach) and are intended to be applied when such use is made of the runway. In many countries all approaches and departures are conducted under Instrument Flight Fuules (\FR) and limited straight-in approaches and defined departure routes. STEP 3i — Runway Configuration Options Where figures are stated in this chapter outlining possible aircraft movement rates per hour, itshould be noted that the figure quoted is heavily dependent on the composition of the aircraft mix, meteorological conditions, the navigation aids available, and ATC separation standards of the country in question. For more information on runway capacity please refer to Section F5. 53 we 1aTA Airport Development Reference Manual C1.5.8 STEP 3j Runway Configuration and Movement/Capacity Assumptions Runway capacity is fundamentally driven by three factors these ‘are defined as follows:~ 1 Aircraft type and mix This influences aircraft spacing on final approach or departure where wake vortices occur, as well as runway occupancy time, where aircraft weight and stopping distances are important factors. Runway design Includes the length available, access to taxiways for entry and exit from runways, the availabilty of high speed exits and entrances, etc. ‘Aerodrome design Considers the support infrastructure, including terminal design and access to gates, and taxiway design, which can influence the ability to get to or from a runway, or to change runways when weather or other conditions require. This factor also includes access to Precision landing or departure guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, etc. Engineered Runway Capacity This is the number of movements (landings and/or departures) that can be expected to occur on a particular runway, or set of runways, assuming that there are ‘no physical or practical constraints to accessing the runway(s). This means that aircraft are able to vacate a runway at a stopping point, or roll directly onto a runway without stopping. It does, however, factor the predicted wake vortex spacing for a known or assumed tratfic mix, and assumes known or assumed runway occupancy times for landing or departing aircraft. It is an Ideal figure, and cannot generally be achieved or sustained. Operational Runway Capacity This is the maximum number of movements that a runway can achieve and sustain in normal operating conditions. Note: “Mvts/Hr" denotes Aircraft Movements Per Hour. Runway Configuration Assessment Table Configuration Runway Operational Runway | Layout Runway Configuration| Figure _| Configuration Advantages __| Configuration Disadvantages _| Capacity ‘Single Fig Ct-1_| — Lessor impact on = Airport capaci restfcted by | 96-55 MviaHir Purway environment due to reduced | single runway trafic movements ‘apron area and reduced alveratt | capably. ‘movements por hour Runway emergencies and ‘= Runway utilization often high. | maintenance more dificult to = Recommended choice of | manage. IATA (abject to capacity = Cross wind take off and requirements), landing can prosont problems. Qpen"v"to | Fig G1-2 | = Increased runway Miisirir | — Not a recommended choice of | 05-0 Musi *U' Runways yllds increased airport utmate | IATA. ‘capacty = Open “V" to“ has larger = Varied runway orientations | impact on environment than a ‘can overcome seasonal singlo runway and some parallel prevaling cross wind problems. | runway configurations, = Runway emergencies and | ~ Open °V" to "layout ‘maintenance easier to manage | occupies largar apron plan area. (subject to case), = Open 'V" layout doas not = Both runways can be used | naturally lend itself to eficiant simultaneously (subject to ATC | apron expansion. control imitations) = One runway wil always be ‘mare compromised to prevaing wind decton. = Airoraft crash at apex of °V" to “U" can rend both runwaye inoperative, we TATA Master Planning Runway Configuration Assessment Table (cont'd) Configuration Runway ‘Operational Runway | Layout Runway Configuration) Figure | Configuration Advantages | Configuration Disadvantages_| Capacity Tntersecting | Fig C1-3 | — Varied runway orientations | ~ Not a recommended choice of | 70-75 Nvis/Hr Funways ‘can overcome seasonal TATA, Quaitication: prevallng cross wind problems. | - Both runways cannot be used | Movements per "Runway emergencies and | simultaneously hour based on Tmaintenance easier to manage | - Intersecting runway layout has | two intersecting larger impact on environment} runways. ‘than parallel runway as apron area increased. = Intersecting runway layout ‘ccupias larger apron plan area than single runway or paralll runway configurations. = Inersecting runway layout ‘doos not naturally lend itself to ‘efficient apron expansion. = One runway will always be ‘aro compromised to provaling ‘wind direction. nterafterash at intorsoct point can render two runways inoperative. ‘Staggered | Fig G1-4 | — Runway utlization canbe | ~ Cross wind take off and Go Nasir Funways high. fanding can present problems. = Runway emergencies and ‘maintonance easier to manage. ~ Dedicated takeoff and dicated landing runway ‘operations promotes safer ‘multiple runway operations. = Runway layout naturally Tends itso to efficient apron ‘expansion. = Recommended choice of IATA (subject to capacty requirements), [ear Paratet | Fig G15 | — Runway utlization can be | — Cross wind take off and 4-108 Masher high. landing can present problems = Runway emergencies and ‘maintenance easier to manage. “*Decleated takeott and ‘dedicated lanéing runway ‘poraions promotes safer ‘utile runway operations. = Runway layout naturally lends Risel to offclant apron expansion, = "Recommended choice of TATA (eubject to capacity requirements). 55 =e 1ATA Airport Development Reference Manual Runway Configuration Assessment Table (cont'd) ~ Runway emergencies and ‘maintenance easier to manage. = Dedicated takeott and dedicated landing cunway ‘operations promotes safer ‘multiple runway operations, = Punway layout naturally Tends itset o efciant apron ‘expansion, = Recommended choice of TATA (ubject to capacty requirements). Runway Operational Runway | Layout Runway Configuration] Figure _| Configuration Advantages _| Configuration Disadvantages _| Capacity ‘Multiple Fig 1-6 | — Runway utlization can be | — Cross wind take off and 120-168 NiisTHr Parallel high, landing can present problems 1.5.9 STEP 3k — Runway Use Runways and their supporting taxiway connections should observe the following characteristics: © Be linked to an efficient airspace system. © Be supported by an air traffic control service provider that can maximize the potential of any given runway system. Reduce, to a safe working minimum, runway occupancy times through the provision of strategically positioned rapid exit taxiways. * Provide for the shortest possible taxiing times between runways and aircraft parking positions for both arriving and departing aircraft. ‘© Avoid the need for aircraft to cross active runways. we IATA Master Planning 1510 STEP 31 — Runway Elements Runways are made up of seven elements, all of which perform a different function. The table below provides the formal ICAO definition of the stated apron elements. Runway Elements Definition Table ‘Apron Element ICAO Annex 14 Definition Runway ‘A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeot of aireratt. Shoulder ‘An area adjacent to the end of the pavement so prepared so as to| provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface Taxiway strip ‘An area including a taxiway Intended to protect an alreraft operating on the taxiway and to reduce the risk of damage to an alreraft accidentally running off the taxiway. Movement Area “The part of an aerodrome to be used for the take off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area. Manoeuvring Area “The part of an aerodrome to be used for the take off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding the aprons. Runway Holding Postion 'A designated position intended to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS/MLS critically sensitive ‘area at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop and hold, unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower. ‘Stopway ‘A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of take run avalabie prepared as sutabo area in which an aircraft can be stopped Inthe case of an abandoned takeott. 57 &, Vara Airport Development Reference Manual 15.11 Definition — The Single Runway Figure C1-1: Typical Single Runway Zone Diagram 58 &, =a TATA Master Planning (C1542 Definition — Two-Runway Configuration — Open “V” To “L” Shape Note: () Capacity changes downward when a mixed mode configuration is adopted. The main constraint is the need to protect the possible overshoot or missed approach area for a landing aircraft in relation to a departing aircraft on the second runway. (i) With respectto the table within Clause C1.5.8, the capacity estimates for this runway configuration assume that the terminal facities lie between the runways within the development zones defined within Figure C1-2 below. Figure C1-2: Typical Open “V” To “L” Shape Runway Zone Diagram ZZZZ) OENOTES PRIMARY DEVELOPMENT ZONE (EI oenores Tommay system GEES _penotes secONOARY DEVELOPMENT ZONE MME DcNoTES TERMINAL OR CARGO INFRASTRUCTURE, (>) deNoTES LIKELY DEVELOPMENT EXPANSION DIRECTION 59 @, “Vara” Airport Development Reference Manual 15.13 Definition — intersecting Runways Note: () Intersecting runways are necessary when relatively strong winds blow from more than one direction, resulting in excessive crosswinds if only one runway is provided. When the winds are strong, only one runway of a pair of intersecting runways can be used, reducing the capacity of the airfield substantially If the winds are relatively light, both runways can be used simultaneously. (i) The capacity of two intersecting runways depends a great deal on the location of the intersection (e.g. midway or near the ends) and on the way the runways are operated. The further the intersection is from the takeoff end of the runway and the landing threshold, the lower is the capacity. Figure C1-3: Typical Intersecting Runway Zone Diagram Cr fF < a \ J ~. WSR Ug SS N 7 DENOTES PRIMARY DEVELOPMENT ZONE ‘DENOTES TAXIWAY SYSTEM DENOTES SECONDARY DEVELOPMENT ZONE DENOTES TERMINAL OR CARGO INFRASTRUCTURE DENOTES LKELY DEVELOPMENT EXPANSION DIRECTION 60 we A TAT Master Planning C1514 Definition — Staggered Runways : Note: ()_ In many circumstances it will be advantageous from an aircraft operational viewpoint to stagger the thresholds of parallel runways in line with the requirements defined within ICAO Annex 14. Airports that do not possess the capability to lay out widely-spaced parallels may opt for a close parallel alternative. In these situations the minimum amount of stagger is predetermined by recommendations as laid down by ICAO in Annex 14. The distance between the runways should, if possible, allow for aircraft to manoeuvre and hold prior to take off or to cross the other active runway. This type of staggering may be necessary because of the limited land available for runway construction. (i) From an operational point of view, the staggering of runways is only required when the separation distance falls below 760m. For segregated parallel operations to continue ICAO recommends that the specified minimum distance may be decreased by 30m for each 150m that the arrival runway is staggered toward the arriving aircraft, to a minimum of 800m, and should be increased by 30m for each 150m that the arrival runway is staggered away from the arriving aircraft. For ‘more detailed information please see ICAO Annex 14, Figure C1-4: Typical — Staggered Runway Zone Diagram SS 222, ores me OEE ZONE ———— IE coxores nem cn caRcoNERAETRUCTIRE ) serores en aeetornent emsen RESTEN 61 Ge TATA Airport Development Reference Manual 1.5.15 Definition — Parallel Runways 62 Note: ()) Provided parallel runways are spaced by at least one nautical mile, they may be treated as two independent runways. Runways closer than 1NM apart become “dependent” — i.e. the operation ‘on one runway affects the operation on the adjacent parallel. Procedures and equipment [such as Precision Runway Monitoring] can allow the runways to operate seri-independently up to 1034 metres apart On the condition that runways are spaced by at least 1034 metres, and are not staged by more than approximately 1000 metres, they may be treated as independent or semi-independent. Runways closer than 1034 metres are effectively the same runway in IMC — however, in VMC, may be used to achieved capacity higher than a single runway —i.e., land on one runway, depart on the close spaced parallel. A displaced instrument approach procedure and landing threshold on a close spaced parallel runway can achieve a slight increase in arrival rates. Figure C1-5: Typical Parallel Runway Zone Diagram [DENOTES PRIMARY DEVELOPMENT ZONE. EEE osnoves ray aveTeM DENOTES SECONDARY DEVELOPMENT ZONE IME ochores TenunA on canco neRASTRUCTURE > cwiores wer ceveLornen anon DmemEN Se “ara Master Planning 15.16 Definition — Multi Note: le Parallel Runways () The capacity of muttiple parallel runway configurations depends primarily on the number of runways and on the spacing between the runways. (ii) Airports with more than four parallel runways will represent the exception, a few locations can generate the demand to match the capacity of five or more parallel runways. Furthermore, the ability of the air trafic control systems to supply five or more runways at the same time becomes progressively more difficult, and the airspace requirement becomes very large. Figure C1-6:Typical Multiple Parallel Runway Zone Diagram See ce DENOTES TAXWAY 8vSTEM 108 DENOTES Tan OR CARGO NERASTRUCTIRE >) vevores une DRvELOPUENTEXPANSON DRECTIN 63 B, ara Airport Development Reference Manual C1517 STEP 3m — Runway Capacity The following table can be used as a basis for comparing differing runway options. There are a umber of factors that can impact on an airport's ability to reach its theoretical maximum potential. ‘These can include operating restrictions (night curfews or environmental limits), infrastructure deficiencies (insuticient or poorly positioned Rapid Exit Taxiway (RET) and/or holding bays) and airport layout weaknesses (crossing of active runways). Hourly and Per Annum Movement Capacities of Runway Combinations Realistic 70% | Theoretical 100% Runway Configuration Realistic Mvts/Hr_| Mvts/Annum __| Mvts/Annum Single runway, segregated 48 202,000 289,000 mode Single runway, mixed mode | 55 232,000 391,000 Dependant close parallel, 4 384,000 506,000 segregated Dependant close parallel, mixed | 97 409,000 ‘584,000 mode Independent parallel, 105 442,000 632,000 segregated 3 runways — 2 segregated, 1 | (105+55)=160 675,000 ‘964,000 mixed mode '3 runways: all independent, (65x3)=165 696,000 994,000 mixed mode “4 runways; 2 pairs of close (84x2)=168 708,000 7,012,000 parallels Notes: '® | Mixed mode is assumed to add ~15% to segregated mode capacity. ‘© Actual achieved runway capacities vary with aircraft mix. A large proportion of large aircraft or a wide range of aircraft sizes will reduce total movernent capacity. ‘©The inability to clear runways to allow following aircraft to land (insufficient or poorly positioned RETs), to reposition aircraft prior to take-off (inadequate holding bays) and the need to cross. active runways will significantly reduced assumed movement maximums. ‘© Mvts/Hr denotes aircraft movements per hour. ‘© Mvts/Annum denotes aircraft movements per annum. ‘® Annual movement figs. derived by taking realistic hourly movement assumptions. '* 16.5 hour operating day (06:00 to 10:30), 365 day operation assumed. © The theoretical annual maximum figures stated are based on a 100% take up of slots over each day and throughout the year. 100% take up of slots is not possible or desirable. A more realistic design expectation level would be 70% as stated within the table. S- “ara Master Planning C1518 STEP 3n — Spacing between Runways ‘The spacing between parallel runways dictates the mode of runway operation under IFR and VFR and hence the capacity that can be obtained. The following table summarises the separation distances of parallel runways: Separation of Parallel Runways Minimum Separation Distance (Between Centrelines) Simultaneous Use Of Parallel Instrument Runways. 1,035) Independent parallel approaches 915 Dependent parallel approaches 760 Independent parallel departures 760) ‘Segregated parallel operations Minimum Separation Distance (Between Centrelines) ‘Simultaneous Use Of Parallel Non- Instrument Runways 210 ‘Where the higher code is 3 or 4 150 Where the higher code is 2 420 ‘Where the higher code is 1 All dimensions in metres Note: (Asa design consideration, to sustain independent parallel approaches in all weather conditions the runways should be separated by at least 1.035m. If this cannot be achieved then dependent approaches or segregated operations have to be applied, thus offering lower runway capacities, (i) Runways may be operated in mixed mode (e.g. artivals and departures on the same runway) or segregated mode (e.9. arrivals on one runway and departures on the other runway). Segregated mode is a simpler operation with parallel runways, but because of wake vortices from heavy jets it achieves less capacity. Mixed mode has to be used on single runways. On widely spaced parallel runways it produces an increase in capacity providing independent approaches and departures can be established. (ii) Data sourced from ICAO Annex 14, 15.19 STEP 30 — Runway and Taxiway Systems ‘The land area required to support the movernent of aircraft on and around an afield can often be in excess of 50% of the total area requirement for an airport. The following table outlines the approximate area required given twin parallel taxiways with associated clearance to object (with code F separation) for a single runway of varying lengths: Runway Length [___ 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Area Required (ha) | 104.9 129.6 154.4 179.1 208.9 Note: () The above table excludes the areas required to support RESA, approach/departure & missed approach surfaces, glide slope area & airside roads. 65 ©, Yara, Airport Development Reference Manual Runway Length Requirements o 2.686 AS10300 D 184021 2.480 A310 c $4,000 2.080 720-200, ¢ Tri 2.108 7 C 3,000 2.286 E x ee Lee His es eee E 233,019 2.580 = 223,013 2657 = 278.016 3.260 7340-500, = 215,016 3.250 er ee ee aes SENET ee eae 7980-000, F 592,000 ‘AS80800, F 390,000 er ae ee eee Ey 3717-200, ¢ 54,05 8737-600 c 65,091 8737-700, c 70,080 BYS7-00 < 73.016 3737-900, c 73018 Eee ECS epee cee 3757-200, . 118,686 1757-300 D 123.651 2.820 B7E7-200(200E RY a TSH (179,169) 00 (2.60) BTST-3GUER . 66,880, 2990 B767-400ER D 204,117 3.580 z ES aoa 8777-200 € BTTT-200ER € 8777-300, 3.500 BI77-S00ER 3.160 ae 877-200, BTA7-400 B77-4O0ER en aeaT D¢-10-90, MD Notes: () MTOW, ISA +20°C/Sea Level, no wind & a dry runway, FAA add 15% for a wet runway. ** MTOW, ISA +15°C/Sea level. When considering new runways at existing airpors, itis important to consider the existing land projected trafic mix. In this way the proposed runway length can be tallored to sult the predominant traffic type so that planned capacity enhancements sult the largest percentage of forecast movernents. (i) Bosing aircraft data courtesy of Boeing Aircraft Company Inc. Alrbus data courtesy of Alrbus Industries website, via published Airplane Characteristics Manuals, (ii) The runway lengths listed do not consider the effects of aerodrome elevation, runway slope, wind or obstacles. Airport planners should refer to the document types listed below, which are provided by the relevant alreraft ‘manufacturer(s), and which also details the recommended landing and departing runway length data: 1) Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning Document. 2) Airplane Fiight Manual for the specific aircraft Oe IATA c1.6 Master Planning STEP 4 — RUNWAY ORIENTATION : Runways also need to be orientated (see figure C1-7) so that aircraft may land at least 95% of the time while experiencing varying crosswind strengths. Varying crosswind conditions can be accommodated but these are dependent on the Aerodrome reference field length available. A low visibility wind analysis should also be undertaken. ‘The number of runways required is dependent on the peak hour number of aircraft movements to be accommodated, the mix of aircraft types and the anticipated annual volume of passenger to be handled. Wherever possible, land should be reserved and protected to allow airports to extend thelr runway systems $0 as to avoid imposition of aircraft operating restrictions (max, permissible take-off weight) and to accommodate changing fleet mix and traffic type, without having to impact on surrounding communities. Figure C1-7: Generic Staggered Parallel Runway Configuration (rotated to prevailing wind direction) aaa Prevailing Wind Directions: 8 ‘The layout in figure C1-7 also provides an indication of the large areas taken up by the primary infrastructure systems. Here the runway separation is 2,250m, the runway stagger is 1,500m and the total site area is 1,297.5 ha. The cross-over taxiways are separated by 195m. This dimension allows a further code F taxiway to be inserted between the two shown at some later date. In this example the area required to support the movement of aircraft represents approximately 53% of the total area available. 67 &, we IATA Airport Development Reference Manual C17 1.7.4 1.7.2 68 Cross-over Taxiways ‘The area required for a twin parallel cross-over taxiway system with associated clearance to object (with code F separation) between parallel runways with varying separations is approximately: Runway Separation [____1800 1750 2000 2250 2500 ‘Area Required (ha) [172 22.5 27.8 33.1 38.4 STEP 5 — APRONS ‘An apron is an airside area intended to support an aircraft as it loads and unloads passengers and cargo or awaits entry into an aircraft maintenance facility. It also serves as a platform from which all ground support vehicles, including refuelling, catering, baggage conveyors, toilet service, ground Power units, cargo loaders and transfer platforms can operate from. STEP 5a — Apron Sizing The size and extent of aircraft aprons is dependent on the forecast fleet mix. Examination of the fleet- mix by type of traffic (charter, domestic, international, etc.) will provide guidance as to the number and type of aircraftto be accommodated in the peak hour, their principal dimensions and the clearances required. Gate occupancy times will also have to be factored in at this stage. Flexible-parking configurations or Multiple Aircraft Ramp System (MARS) aircraft stands should be used, as outlined in Sections G1 and L3. A degree of flexibility also needs to be built into the depth of the stand dimension to accommodate unforeseen expansion of the terminal/pier/satelite in later stages. STEP 5b — Apron Po: In airport planning, apron areas and passenger terminal facilities go hand in hand, both heavily dependent on the other. As such, both must be planned together. When considering the location of aircraft aprons the following factors should be considered: joning © Aprons should be located as close to the runways as possible in order that taxling distances and the amount of time an aircraft spends on the ground is reduced to the absolute minimum, ‘© The apron should allow for clearances and separation distances as indicated in ICAO Annex 14. © Aprons should provide maximum flexibility to accommodate varying raft types at differing times of the same day. * Aprons should be sized to allow for differing aircraft types on individual routes as a result of ‘seasonal variations in demand that require increases or decreases in capacity. '* Aprons should be planned such that the largest aircraft are positioned as close to the main Passenger processing complex as possible. '* Aprons should be laid out such that alrcraft always have one route in and one separate route ut, thereby reducing the need to stop and hold to allow aircraft to enter or exit parking positions. ¢ Aprons should be capable of accommodating all associated ground equipment, aircraft servicing vehicles and forward staging areas for baggage and cargo. we IATA Master Planning C1.7.3 STEP 5c — Apron Servicing Aircraft, when parked on stands, require quick and efficient servicing by a wide variety of ground fhandling equipment, services and vehicle types (refer to Section LS and Fig LS-1). All vehicles must be able to manoeuvre around aircraft on and off stand, between stands, and between stands and terminals. As such adequate service road provision is essential In order to reduce delays and the potential for accidents between aircraft and vehicles traversing behind stands, IATA recommends that service road locations should be restricted to the head of stand. 1.7.4 STEP 5d — Aprons Areas ‘The area required for alrcratt aprons, both contact and remote, with associated taxiway clearance to ‘object for aircraft with varying wingspans Is approximately: ICAO Ret. Code B c D E F ‘Area Required (ha) 0.22 0.41 0.75 1.14 1.50 Contact ICAO Ref. Code B c D E FE ‘Area Required (ha) 0.19 0.37 0.69 1.07 1.42 Remote C1.7.5 STEP 5e — Aircraft Stand Dimensions ‘The table below provides the generic space requirements which should be typically allowed on an apron to accommodate the indicated aircratt types. tsmupont 8 hetincideg CRI zero 211 2000 3380 280 300) 3000 28-35 3.00 2am 2amopond Asia Be a0 © fotindudng 320-200 ©3787 34102000 4400 mao s80D s000 28-35 480 Som Bravaoo 3080 3490 ‘Semupont asioaoo gee 43.90 D —hotinchdeg “B7s7-200 © S733 $808 2000 e880 EO 50D 30005-35750 Sam Brovaooen $494 4787 Semupent assoso 7620 63g © hotinctdng ‘Brr7-200 © «GS73—««BO8S | zoo w00D a7sD ND 9002-95780 sm erro Tos? ease eSmupont F petineideg A220 7aco 79m 2000 75D S750 B50 200028495750 em All dimensions in metres form. 69 2, ara Airport Development Reference Manual Figure C1-8: Generic Apron Stand Reference Dimensions These areas are based on the recommended separation distances for taxiways/aprons as outlined by ICAO, and head of stand dimensions as recommended by IATA. It should be noted that IATA does not recommend that a rear of stand service access road be provided for either contact or remote stands. This aids in avoiding the potential for collisions between ground support equipment and aircraft is removed. 1.8 STEP 6 — TAXIWAY SYSTEMS ‘The principal function of taxiways is to provide access for aircraft moving between runways and passenger terminal areas, cargo areas and maintenance hangars. Taxiways should be arranged so that arriving aircraft do not obstruct and delay departing aircraft. ‘The extent of taxiway layouts is determined by the volume and frequency of traffic to be handled in the peak hour. Should peak hour movements not require a full parallel then a partial parallel layout ‘can suffice. In so doing construction costs can be minimised. ‘Taxlway layouts should not be unnecessarily complicated and should provide easy to follow, shortest possible routes between runway ends and aircraft parking positions. Simulation models will assist planners in determining exact taxiway system requirements. For more information on runway capacity please refer to Section Fé. 70 we IATA Master Planning 1.8.1 STEP 6a — Taxiway Minimum Separation Distances The following diagram and tables highlight separation distances as recommended by ICAO Annex 14, ‘Taxiway Minimum Separation Distances Table (All Dimensions in Metres) Ret, ICAO Annex14~ Table 3-1 Notes: ()_ The separation distances shown in columns (2) to (9) represent ordinary combinations of runways, and taxiways. The basis for development of these distances is given in the ICAO's Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2. (i) The distances in columns (2) to (9) do not guarantee sufficient clearance behind a holding aircraft to permit the passing of another aircraft on a parallel taxiway. See the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2. (li) For further information pertaining to Code F aircraft taxiway clearances please refer to ICAO New Large Aircraft Circular (Published Dec 2003). ‘Separation Distances Table TEmupte nat 5 enpent cr ara 2121 870 33.50 21.50 saa co Mmuptwbutrat — gsma09 aT 3440 1080 4400 2800 no erreoy ss) 2420 sos00 aa 10 . Smibigptnst — erez-200 47.33 38.08 1780 66.50 40.50 ing S2 im B767-300ER 5494 47.57 T Bawpwnan A408 Ba sg eno 780 including 65 m_ 8747-400__70.57__ 64.94 mapte mate F ing 80m, A380, 73.00 79.60 190.0 97:50 57.50 All dimensions in metres. val &, Vara” Airport Development Reference Manual Figure C1-9: Separation Distance Reference Diagram C1.8.2 STEP 6b — Taxiway Capacity The following table provides broad guidelines as to the range of hourly movements that can be achieved from taxiways. Taxiway Capacity Table Number of taxiways TTaxiway capacity (movements per hour) ° o—15 1 16—20 2 Maximum capacity of the runway system would be the limiting factor. If runway was not imiting then capacity would be approximately 40 — 45 ‘anding only 50— 55, “Take-of only 20 72 2, Se TATA Master Planning 1.8.3 C1.8.4 C1.8.5 STEP 6c — Exit Taxiways Exit taxiways allow landing aircraft to leave a runway so that it is then clear for use by other arriving and departing aircraft: At airports with peak traffic periods and continuous flows of arriving and/or departing aircraft, the capacity of the runway is dependent to a large degree on how quickly landing aircratt can exit the runway. An aircraft that has landed delays succeeding aircraft unti it has cleared the runway. Taxiways at right-angles are possible but this geometry restricts the speed of exit and hence increases runway occupancy time. A RET, with exit angles between 25 and 45 degrees, permits higher exit speeds. This in turn allows succeeding landing aircraft to be more closed spaced in terms of time, or it might allow a takeoff to be sandwiched in between two successive landings. ‘The precise location of the Optimal Turn-off Segment (OTS) should be determined after considering: ¢ For which operational conditions runway capacity should be enhanced; i.e. peak period, special weather conditions, particular group of aircraft, mixed mode. ‘® The representative fleet-mix that the exit is intended to serve after eliminating those with less than 5 or 10% of the total. ‘© The separation distance between runway and taxiway; i.é. on_non-instrument runways the separation distances may not allow for design of a satisfactory RET. © The characteristics of aircraft conceming threshold speed, braking ability and tum off speed for differing wind conditions. Should the above highlight more than one OTS, it may be necessary to consider construction of two or more rapid exits. Note that a distance between exits of approximately 450m should be observed. ‘The OTS position should be closely related to the position of link taxiways. Reference should be made to Annex 14 to determine the precise geometry required for radi of turn- off curves and fillets, straight distance after turn-off and the intersection angle of the rapid exit taxiway. STEP 6d — Dual Parallel Taxiways ‘When planning new runways, sufficient space should always be allowed for a dual parallel taxiway system to be located adjacent and parallel to all runways. Where availabilty of land does not permit dual parallel taxiways, the airport planner should note that the capacity of the single taxiway could then be the factor that determines runway capacity. Dual parallel taxiways, unless constructed for replacement airports that will assume all existing movements, should be constructed in phases, as demand requires. The absence of full dual parallel taxiways would not prevent individual airports from functioning to their fullest potential. It would merely reduce the efficiency of aircraft movements on the ground. Dual parallel taxiways should also be incorporated into a master plan to cross between two widely spaced parallel runways. The number of crossover taxiways should be related to the ultimate development potential of the site and should be checked using a simulation model. STEP 6e — Taxi-lanes ‘Taxi-lanes are routes, bounded on either one or two sides by aircraft parking positions, by which aircraft can only gain access to these parking positions. It should be noted that for taxi-lanes the separation distances as outlined in clause C1.8.1 are less than those for the equivalent taxiway separations. When planning new airports, aircraft stand layouts that allow for only a single entry/exit taxi-lane or cul-de-sac should be avoided. The resultant delays due to constriction of free movement would place unnecessary financial inefficiencies on airline operations. 73 @, we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual C1.8.6 C1.8.7 c1.9 74 STEP 6f — Holding Bays Holding bays are designated positions intended to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface of an ILS/MLS critically sensitive area, where aircraft hold. ‘At runway ends a holding position allows queuing aircraft awaiting take-off to be re-ordered as determined by ATC. This optimised re-sequencing of aircraft (with airline approval) can assist in relieving climb and en-route ATC constraints. The holding position should be designed to accommodate {wo to four aircraft and allow sufficient space for one aircraft to bypass another. The area allotted for a waiting aircraft will depend on its size and manoeuvrability. Holding aircraft should be placed outside the bypass route so that the blast from the holding aircraft will not be directed toward the bypass route. Whenever possible, runway end holding positions should be orientated to permit aircraft departing them to access the runway at an angle of less than 90. These runway access points can allow aircraft a rolling start to their take-off and thereby reduce runway occupancy time. For aircraft operating at (or near maximum take-off weight, the entry point should be as close to the end of the runway as possible. Small and medium sized aircratt that do not require the full extent of the available runway's length may be permitted to access the runway at intermediate access points leading up to the runway end. This provides another means by which ATC can re-order departing aircraft. Such access points should also have intermediate holding positions with all the associated and required clearances. Peak traffic volumes at many airports may exceed the capacity of a holding position, resulting in aircraft queuing on the taxiway leading to the runway end, ‘STEP 6g — Holding Aprons Holding aprons can be placed at a convenient location on the airport for the temporary storage of aircraft. These can be required at large airports where the number of gates is insufficient to handle demand during peak periods of the day. If this is the case, aircraft are routed by air traffic control to the holding apron and are held there until a gate becomes available. Holding aprons can also permit a departing flight to vacate a needed gate and to wait near the runway without obstructing either the arriving aircraft onto stand or the departure flow, pending receipt of ATCIATFM (slot) en-route clearance. They can also be used for aircraft with long tumaround times, where staying on stand would unnecessarily te up capacity. This is particularly tue of airports where contact stands are limited. Holding aprons are not usually required if capacity slightly exceeds demand. However fluctuations in future demand are difficult to predict, and therefore a temporary holding facility may be necessary. ‘STEP 7 — PASSENGER TERMINAL/APRON COMPLEX CONFIGURATIONS The area avaliable for the passenger terminal/apron complex is heavily dependent on the runway configuration, the land available between or adjacent to the chosen runway configuration, and the ability to handle the forecast mix of aircraft anticipated to use the airport. At existing airports, terminal/ apron options may be restricted by the type of development that has gone before or be limited by the nature and extent of support infrastructure. The choice may be limited to a few basic concepts governed mainly by the ability to park as many aircraft as possible in a limited space and still allow {or aircraft to manoeuvre on their own power to and from contact stands. ‘Atnew airports this should not to be the case, with the chosen configuration having been determined by the requirements of preceding sub-sections in this chapter. To understand what has happened to later generation ‘green-field’ and ‘blue-sea’ airports requires a careful analysis of the genesis of these concepts. Some new airports have adopted generous and flexible concepts of various types, with ‘scope for built-in changes. & 1A er TA Master Planning ‘Green-field’ or ‘blue-sea’ airports have emerged in the past few years and most have the ability to become ‘mega’ airports. These new alrports are sized in the 400,000 sq. m range and will generally ‘open with an initial capacity of approximately 30 MPPA. Each airport has been designed to be a hub airport and to grow in a modular fashion, with some planned to eventually handle up to 100 MPPA. The size and extent of the terminal/apron compiex will be determined by demand and, in the later stages, by the capacity of the airpor’s runway system. All facilities on site should be developed in balance so that the capacity in one facility is not disproportionate to others within the overall airport processing system. The airport will be capable of expansion until one of the primary facilites within the system fails to satisfy the demands imposed upon it. There are many differing types of passenger terminal/apron complex concepts. These are explained in detail within Section J2. Figure C1-10: Hong Kong Master Plan Layout 7 we IATA Airport Development Reference Manual 1.9.1 STEP 7a — Passenger Terminal/Satellites 1.10 76 Experience has shown that, when designing facilities for purely domestic or charter passengers, the corresponding maximum sq. m/PHP figure should not exceed 25.0 sq. m and 30.0 sq. m respectively, To determine approximate building footprint requirements, the tabulated values below can be reduced by 50%; e.g, where two floors are required. Historical Airport Floor Area / Passenger Data (iste Paciie Ragen as car aan SSPE ad asta [itv resend ASE | Sau wan) ot | ar Ea xk =a [Shenvang Taam a 35.009 a] Ts B75 = [ongsing Jarba CRA al 00 337 7.730 3123 3 fant ta Tea] e009 75,00] 7500) 500 ei FAP as ToT hn Paseonge 0.0095 [seo 150] a] TI] EF FOTO a freer za] ——asap00] 70 a 70000 ee PETE ra] ——— soa ooo] Ta] a Fro a a zo] ——as00n0 700 Bi 200,09 a] fre Bio] za 09 00 Sr] 200000 3 sas zo] 350.0 7.50 Bri 00009 ai Fae wor arma Passango 0.003 sa Hal rar Tara] ToD FASO 3 fanz Bal ——ssa009 88 5 78 335 a fax Za] as 00 10.359 200 SBR 3| PERT Fal ——sen.09 7,657 309 315,09 3 fer Za] —— 500 18379 Es) 315,009 3 io $50]_—_—aa0 000 rari] aK 08:39 a axe “of s5000] Yaa 7500 S00 3 xo al 99 Tara 758 Sas33 3 PER corDy 50 730,09 a7 e333 ea 667 7) PEK cary 0 mE 1325 Ze ESS a PEK core) an] 100,09 72500 87 355333 zi es ea Bra] 1.95, Ts ex) 715000 Ea) Tenge Fe 3.7 a] STEP 8 — ALIGNMENT OF TERMINAL BUILDING AND PIERS TO SERVICE STANDS (Once the desired runway configuration has been selected and the runway has been aligned and orientated correctly, the primary terminal and pier infrastructure should be located. The processes that are required which will influence the size and proximity of the terminal and pier buildings will typically included those defined within Chapter T. Section T1 deals with the terminal processes and, section T2 deals with the apron processes. All of these activities need to be considered, applied and. accommodated where appropriate within the correct zone as identified within figures C1-1 to C1-6 inclusive. The piers should be sized and positioned to facilitate efficient aircraft movements and passenger and baggage connection times. It will be important to ‘timeline’ parallel processes, which are inherently dependent upon one another. The objective should be to ensure the synchronisation of walking distances and connection times for passengers, passenger baggage movement connection times, as well as the movement times for aircraft to and from the stand. = IATA Master Planning C111 C112 In practice the distances and the location of core terminal and pier functions can be 90% accurately located within a master plan proposal without the need to perform simulations. It is however far more effective to analyse the true dynamics and obtain the 100% confirmed best position of infrastructure elements by using simulation tools at the eartiest possible stage. While simulation activity has a cost, the long term advantages of having the correct infrastructure placed in precisely the most effective position can be very significant. The multiple parallel processes that interact within one another should ‘be dynamically understood and then the terminal buildings and piers should be aligned and sized to achieve the optimum configuration, giving due consideration to the service standards that should be observed. ‘The control tower and fire services provisions should be positioned to align with the recommendations defined within ICAO Annex 14 and with Section C4 and Section X1 respectively. ‘The ground transportation processes need to be very carefully assessed within the master plan and the facilities required will need to balanced against the requirements of locating the terminal building and stands. The cost to provide links from national rail and road infrastructure should be of prime concem to the airport planner, as these will have a dominant cost and environmental impact. With a sound business behind it and the rail and road processes correctly matched to an efficient terminal and apron layout, the result is likely to be an airport which is favoured by both passengers and airlines alike, which should be the primary objective, STEP 9 — ALIGNMENT AND PROVISION OF SUPPORT PROCESSES Airport planners should also take into account the numerous associated and inter-related facilities that support the operation of the passenger terminal building and the apron services. Section T3 of this manual defines some of the typical airport support processes. ‘The location and provision of general services can have a significant impact on airport master plans. The ability to provide the correct quantity and location of electrical power, gas, water and telecommunication infrastructure can often steer airports planners to develop a terminal and piers in a particular manner. This is because of the very high costs associated within expansion of these fundamental services. ‘The airport planner will need to understand if the existing services have the capability to provide the capacity which would be required for a new or significantly expanded airport. Major airports can be ‘compared to small towns in their ability to consume power, water and to generate sewage and general waste. The airport planner will need to establish if the national supporting networks have the ability to mest the capacity and processing challenge. If the national supporting networks do not have the capacity, then the airport planner would need to assess the cost and practicality of installing the necessary support infrastructure. ‘As another example, the seourity management systems used within airport complexes are vital to the support and effective operation and resultant planning of most airport terminals and pier facilities. ‘The airport planner will need to account and plan for the inclusion of these systems within thei designs both at a master planning level and during the detailed design stages which shall help locate and shape the final proposal. STEP 10 — AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Airports and aircraft maintenance bases have a relationship of interdependency. The maintenance ‘capabilities of an airport play an important part in determining i's attractiveness to aircraft operators. To build up these capabilities, airports depend on the services provided by airline maintenance divisions and independent engineering companies who in tum rely on the airport's infrastructure to gain access to the aircraft that need servicing. At large airports, with widely dispersed terminal locations and apron positions, there may be a need to strategically locate smaller line maintenance facilities in more central areas to reduce the time required for towing between operational stands and maintenance areas. 77 Se IATA Airport Development Reference Manual C112 C1413 78 The scale of the required maintenance operation is dependent on several factors. These can include: ‘Ifthe operation is restricted to a single carrier or open to others. The availability of certified engineering statt. ‘© Access to spare part holdings. ‘¢ Ifthe facility is to offer a one-stop service including engine test and paint spraying. ‘© Fleet composition in busy hour, percentage assumed to be maintained, number of aircraft maintained per maintenance bay, annual utlisation rate, level of maintenance check performed (A.B, Cor D). STEP 10a — CARGO Itis important that the need for a strategic link between cargo facilities and aircraft parking positions is established at an early stage in the planning process. While at larger hub airports dedicated cargo aircraft may be accommodated on a frequent, perhaps daily basis, itis normal to find a high percentage ‘of cargo transported solely on routine passenger fights. As such there is a strong interdependency between cargo handling and passenger processing faclities, as well as a need for the two areas to be located adjacent to one another in order that transfer distances are reduced to a workable minimum. However this adjacency requirement creates a dilemma in so far as each requires significant land to expand and exploit their full potential. Therefore for smaller aimorts, with less than 1.0 MPPA or ‘50,000 tonnes of cargo throughput, the individual facilities should be positioned apart such that each ‘can expand without restricting the growth potential of the other. In the short term this may result in separation distances between the two being somewhat greater than appears necessary. However airports should allow for unrestricted expansion to the ultimate stage wherever possible. ‘The distance between cargo processing facilities and dedicated cargo stands should be less than 1 km. The distance between cargo processing facilities and passenger stands (where passenger aircraft will be used for the shipment of cargo) should be less than 2.5km. Itis also important to note the differing types of cargo that may need to be accommodated. These can include general freight, express freight, airmail and freight forwarders. Please refer to Chapter O, Cargo, for further clarification. MASTER PLAN DELIVERABLE — PRELIMINARY LAND-USE LAYOUTS After the altport perimeter has been established, either for a new airport or for an existing airport (where the perimeter has been redefined), itis important to double check that all major components and airport support facilities can be properly located and accommodated within the overall airport boundary. Each facility should be able to expand through to the ultimate phase of the airport. The land use layout proposal should be balanced and the development strategy should be focused on optimising the land use in the most efficient and logical manner throughout the various expansion phases. Prior to assessing individual functional requirements within an airport master plan, it is necessary to subdivide the overall area into optimal sub areas, each capable of supporting an individual facility's growth towards the maximum capacity of the airport. Its important to note that detailed layout information pertaining to individual facilities is not required at this conceptual layout stage. All the individual pieces of the development jigsaw need to fit and be correctly assembled and have the right interdependencies within the operational area, However at this stage the detailed operational characteristics of each facility are not required. Airport characteristics, as shown on the Airport Land Use Plans, should be the guiding tool for local and regional authorities when determining the suitability of development on land surrounding the airport. wae IATA 1.13.4 1.132 Master Planning Master Plan Deliverable — Weighting Factors And Points IATA uses the following method when carrying out evaluations of olther the Master Plan or Terminal Development Options on behalf of altport authorities or member airlines. The weighting factors and points are defined in a table entitled the “Master Plan Deliverable-Weighting Criteria Table". When this table is completed it shall reflect the airport planners assessment with regards to their optimum site, 1. Assign weighting factors to all of the evaluation criteria (column 4). Factors are assigned such that the total adds up to 100. Each factor can then be viewed as a percentage of the total. The size of the figure allocated reflects the importance of that criterion within the overall evaluation process. 2. Assecond subset of weighting points is then assigned to sub-criteria (column 5). IATA uses the following range of weighting points: Weighting or Importance (scores 1 to 10): 1 (minor); § (important); 10 (critical) All of the above figures are specific to the criteria and sub-criteria and should not be used in order to compare one set of criteria to another. As the importance and number of sub-criteria vary, the total score possible (column 6) for each criterion will also vary. From the example given columns 7, 10, 13, 16 & 19 reflect the basic score given to each site. If Possible the score should reflect the ranking of each site as given by the evaluation team for each sub-criterion, Sites can be given equal scores. The scores given cannot exceed the maximum given in column 5. Using site A as an example, the weighted score is obtained by dividing the figure in column 7 by the sub-total in column 6 multiplied by the weighting factor for the criteria in column 4. This exercise is repeated for all scores and for all sub-critetia, Individual scores for each sub-criterion should be explained within the evaluation report. This is necessary as the evaluation process can: © Be time-consuming (2 to 4 weeks on average); i after the scoring has been determined. . the reasoning should be recorded immediately ed teams wit ‘* Involve multi-disoi individual members working in relative isolation. © Bo open to question and scrutiny by clients, site owners and competing airport planners. Master Plan Deliverable — Land Use Report This interim report should be submitted such that base assumptions with respect to facility sizing, ‘surrounding land-use and operational relationships can be reviewed and tested. The report should be concise & give a clear indication of any outstanding strengths & weaknesses, Recommendations for future actions should also be given. Itis important to stress that information at this conceptual stage need not contain high levels of detail. ‘The information provided need only be sufficient to allow comparative analysis; ie. to determine which option moves forward into the next stage. AS such, hand drawn information is acceptable, providing the concept is easily recognised and understood by a broad, perhaps non-technical review team. In this way preparation time and costs can be minimised. 79 &, ara Airport Development Reference Manual 1.133 Master Plan Deliverable — Land Use Concepts 80 Airport Land Use Plans drawn to scale should depict existing and phased development (including intended land uses) up to and including the ultimate development stage. These should include: © Airside infrastructure, including runways (all runway elements, taxiways, holding bays, aircraft aprons (including de/anti-icing)), engine test enclosures, location & specification of navigational aids, vehicle parking areas, staging areas, access roads, runway lighting & markings, primary utility routes, segmented circle, wind indicators and beacon and associated buildings. ¢ _Landside infrastructure, including passenger and cargo terminals, ground transport interchanges, hotels, primary and secondary access roads and parking structures (at grade and multi-storey), rail lines, vehicle fueling stations. © Airport support infrastructure, including in-fght catering, aircraft maintenance, G.H. maintenance, alrport maintenance, police and security facilities, administration buildings, meteorological ‘compounds, rescue and fire fighting facilities, general aviation, fixed base operations, helicopter ‘operations, containment & treatment facilities and aircraft refuelling facilities. © Areas reserved for aviation related revenue producing development, such as industrial areas, duty free zones, etc, © Non-aviation related property and land with the current status and use specified, Facilities that are to be demolished. ‘* Airport site boundary or perimeter, facility and property boundaries, security fence lines and control post positions. Runway clear zones, associated approach surfaces. True azimuth of runways (measured from the true north). © North point. © Pertinent dimensional data such as runway lengths, parallel runway and runway-taxiway ‘separation. © Prominent natural and man made features such as wooded areas, rivers, lakes, coastlines, rock ‘outcrops, protected areas, etc. Master Planning Master Plan Deliverable-Weighting Criteria Table TATA we eo wee ue seven er sant @ MRD [ mr [orgs ton aoe dese 0 ANGELO ren Kung Agee = Same eel — ler = SesaenseD ES| —[T = “arpa eeaaeiol — or o ‘Patan eae] |e [aeeteeg gneve ree [pas memo any oPaTIR pied Hower = Tes § fag Bunter oy ls aang wan S| = en par yng BuEInS| Ieereder 9 Riera = ani separ] — fp = amano em — fe ie are lz jeer Ie ico a Taaenaseo ea 81 we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual C1134 C1135 82 Master Plan Deliverable — Airport Layout This stage sees the development ofthe preferred concept into a detailed, workable master plan. Here the optimal layout is established. All users and stakeholders will have been consulted at regular intervals as the plan developed from the initial pre-planning period to this final stage in line with the IATA Project process requirements defined within Section V1 The continuous process of reviewing and testing assumptions should continue after the plan is Published. It is essential to do this, as no master plan should be viewed as the perfect solution. The changing nature of the airline business will ensure that the current solution will soon become outdated, ‘As such, master planning must be viewed as a near continuous process, with fundamental reviews undertaken at regular intervals. The maximum assumed period between reviews should therefore be no more than 5 years, however itis hoped that the main backbone assumptions hold true and stand the test of time. Master Plan Deliverable — Phase 1 Operational Cost {tis important that all users or air service providers of the airport are provided with estimated rental rates for the facilities that they may occupy or use in phase 1. In order to do this, the airport authority or the cost airport planner working on its behalf must possess a robust financial model that contains and defines: © How overall project financing is resolved, ‘© Allterminals and other primary and secondary revenue and cost centres, their breakdown revenue targets and cost estimates for each cost centre. © Final estimated airport capital, maintenance and operating costs and related pricing policies for airlines and other user space requirements. Income from non-aeronautical sources. Existing airports should possess a 10-year CAPEX document that shows their intended programme of works over two consecutive 5-year periods. The programme should be reassessed annually after consultation with the airline/lATA airport development specialists. The resultant impact of the development programme on user charges should be discussed and agreed with IATA’s User Charges Panel. In so doing the users can see that charges are: © Cost related, taking into consideration the operation of the ‘single tl, ¢ Transparent and justified. ‘© Fairly and equitably applied, without discrimination or cross-subsidisation. © Agreed after consultation. Airlines, the principal users at airports, willbe particularly interested in rental rates for land-side offices, ramp level accommodation, gate hold rooms, check-in positions, common user terminal equipment facilities, baggage handling systems, airline service desks and information counters. Security costs should be assessed and accounted for. In many instances airport security costs should be borne by the state, = TATA C1136 1.137 Master Planning Particular attention needs to be paid when new or alternate methods of operation are proposed. As an example, when a new airport proposes to switch from a 100% remote stand operation to one where 100% contact is possible, airlines, particularly if they operate within the charter or low-frills markets, may have difficulty in accommodating the additional ground handling charges resulting from the need to push back and perhaps use air-bridges. Airport operators must therefore be subject to the discipline of assuring that user charges do not drive away carriers working on the margin of profitability. Should the review of proposed operating costs indicate that the proposed development has substantially reduced the ability for users to make an adequate return, then the preferred concept shouldbe re-evaluated to determine if there is scope for CAPEX reductions and Operating Expenditure (OPEX) savings. In extreme cases, this may require base assumptions to be re-examined and alternative, more simple and less expensive facility solutions to be brought forward, Master Plan Deli erable — Conceptual Layouts Conceptual layouts should clearly demonstrate how: ‘© All users can operate efficient, effective and profitable operations within the proposed plan, ‘¢ Long term sustainable development can be achieved. ‘© Projected growth in all types of traffic can be accommodated throughout the entire life of the project until saturation is achieved in the ultimate stage. © The environmental impact on surrounding communities and stakeholders will be minimised and maintained at acceptable levels. © Additional capac operations. can be brought into play without negatively impacting on current user ‘® Associated surface access infrastructure systems will be introduced in staged developments to ‘support forecast traffic levels and demand. ‘© Publictransport systems can be introduced to increase the percentage of tips made by passengers and staff when accessing the airport. Master Plan Deliverable — Development Phasing It we assume that basic planning principals have been observed, then facility phasing and construction should be determined by demand, Facilities should be expanded in a modular fashion and at intervals to keep slightly ahead of demand and to maintain pre-determined and required levels of service. Phased expansion should allow for periods where individual facilities can settle into routines such that operational efficiencies can be maximised. In general terms this period should extend for a minimum of 4 to 5 years after project completion. Longer periods of construction inactivity willbe the result of the over provisioning of facilities, with associated cost penalties that would invariably be passed on through airport charges. ‘As master plans are drawn up, they should show the existing airport layout and as a minimum the plans showing the first phase and/or development in years 5, 10, 20 as well as the ultimate stage. ‘Short term plans covering a ten year period should be supported by a rolling development programme that is reviewed annually by the airlines and supported by a CAPEX document. IATA has developed specific guidelines in relation to CAPEX documentation. Such guidelines are available on request. we IATA C1138 1.13.9 84 Airport Development Reference Manual Master Plan Deliverable — The Master Plan Report final master plan report should be submitted showing how the land-use option has been developed. The report should be concise and give a clear indication of any outstanding strengths and weaknesses. Recommendations for future actions should also be given. For this report, drawn information needs to be of a higher quality, with precise dimensions clearly noted such that the operational viability can be clearly demonstrated. The information must be capable of standing up to intense scrutiny and questioning. The report should identity how the phased implementation of the airport master plan will satisty the strategic brief for the region. The main elements defined within Clause C1.2, The Master Plan — Ten Step Sequence should be clearly explained within the report. The final master plan report should at least contain: '* Definition of the strategic objectives for the region. © Executive summary. © Statement on how the master plan shall meet strategic objectives. ‘* Financial Plan (development financing proposal & cost recovery and payback periods). © Environmental impact, Economic impact. © ATC impact. © Qualifications of master planning team. ‘* Explanation of how The Master Plan — Ten Step Sequence was observed, * Provision of master plan phasing diagrams to ultimate airport development (in § year increments). © Conclusions and recommendations statements, '* Supporting forecasting/environmentalfinancial data. © Prospective Aitline User statements. © Further Information, Final reports may be subject to comparative analysis; i.e. to determine which airport planner's master plan option is ultimately successful and moves forward into the final stage. Again the master plan must be easily recognised and understood by a broad, perhaps non-technical reviow team, It Is for this reason that airport master plans should adopt a consistent format so that comparison of master plans can be done on a like for like assessment basis. Master Plan Deliverable — Location Map This is a map drawn to a suitable scale (e.g. approximately 1:50,000) sulficiont to depict the airport, city or cities near the airport, rail lines, major roads, major obstructions, terrain and geographical boundaries within 15-20km of the airport. It is also important for environmental and political Considerations. A sectional aeronautical chart may be used. This may be shown on the title page in lieu of the ALP. 2, ara Master Planning 1.13.10 Master Plan Deliverable — Basic Data Tables ‘These tables contain data on airport conditions and information on existing and proposed runways where applicable. The following table is an illustrative example. Master Plan Deliverable — Basic Data Tables Rinay oe EE tectiv runway graciant (in %) 34 Wied Coverage Designated Inarurent Rurway(s) Runway lanth metres) Pavement strength (see note 1) Pavementtype (od, sepha, concrete). ‘Approach Slopes & Clear Lighting HR, Maran ‘Weather Navigatlon & Visual Ads ILS, ALS, VASI Same FRETS rape ext taxwaye) & RATS (apt acess taxiway) Notes: 1, Values given are gross aircraft weight in 1,000" and type of main gear Dual Tandem (DT) Gear aircraft using the CAN-PCN system as appropr Master Plan Deliverable — Basic Data Tables ee ee ‘Arport magnet varaion ‘Aiport Bevation (ghest pont of he useable lang aes) ‘Atpor Refernce Pokd (ARP) Co-erdinatas (WGS-24) ‘Apo & Teminal NAV aids ‘SMRISMGCS (ourface mavement redaraurface movement gudance & conto system) ean Max. Temperature of Hottest Month 208. same Notes: Miscellaneous Facilities — taxiway edge: lighting, centreline and sign system. Remarks: Trees to Northwest of runway 12 to be removed when runway is extended. 1.1311 Master Plan Deliverable — Building List All buildings should be described and numbered. 1:12.12 Master Plan Deliverable — Meteorological Information. ‘A.wind rose should be presented, with the runway orientations superimposed. This should Indicate the data source and for what period the records cover. 85 &, ‘ara Airport Development Reference Manual C1.13.13 Master Plan Deliverable — Main Title Block A title block should show: © Drawing Description. © Who was responsible for creating the plan. © Who prepared, checked and approved the plan. '* The drawing reference number, the date drawn, scale and number of associated sheets. ‘* Revision details including number, description, who revised, who approved change and date. 1.14 IATA RECOMMENDATIONS. 86 Master Planning &, ee IATA 87 we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual SECTION C2: FORECASTING 24 c2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 88 INTRODUCTION AND FORECASTING DEFINITION Airport traffic forecast studies use a combination of trend analysis, data extrapolation, expectation surveys and professional statistical judgement. Extensive operational knowledge and a comprehensive understanding of how the local environment in which the airports situated is required. A close working relationship with planning and forecasting experts of all major airlines operating at the subject airport will also be necessary. Particular attention is also given to comments and forecast inputs from other sectors of the travel industry (e.g. tourist boards, tour operators, financial institutions, etc.) whenever possible to ensure that the forecasts incorporate a wide range and broad base of views. As a result, any forecast Produced should reflect the views of the travel industry concerning future traffic development and likely changes in operating pattems, Air transport activity generates typical peak period demand that reflects user's characteristics and Volume for a normal busy period. Traffic forecasts often are presented using the following recommended projection petiod: ‘© Short Term (2 1 Year <5 Year Projection). Long Term (> 5 Years < 30 Year Projection). Annual (12 Month Projection). * Peak Period (Selected Months Within An Operational Year) OBJECTIVES OF FORECASTING Capacity Planning ‘An important input to the capacity planning process is the alrport traffic forecast. An accurate forecast is essential since the sizing and the phasing of the airport project is dependant on its data, If the forecast understates demand, the facilities will be built too small and the airport will experience a capacity problem. If the forecast overstates the demand, the facilities will be over-sized and the air it ti Financial and Cost Benefit Studies Forecasts can also provide inputs for financial planning. At most airports, landing fees are determined on the basis of unit charge that is multiplied by the aircraft maximum take-off weight (MTOW) tonnage of the aircraft. With an understanding of the likely aircraft movements it will be necessary to ‘compile a comprehensive financial and cost benefit study to support the forecast material. The financial plan should include but should not be limited to the following data/factors: Landing Fee Projection. Local Community Benefi Likely Airport Operational Costs. Alternative Transport Provision Costs. = TATA Master Planning c2.3 2.3.1 FORECAST DATA There are essentially three parameters that need to be covered in the annual traffic forecast: (a) passengers and baggage volumes; (b) cargo; and (0) aircraft movements. To obtain this data will Tequire a clear understanding of the airine user requirements and calculated usage of the facility. Passenger and Baggage ‘The originating, domestic and transfer passenger volumes will be used to determine the planning requirements of airport terminal facilities and support infrastructure. The number of passengers collectively within the building will be derived from the fight schedules and corresponding load factors which collectively shall provide the volumes of the passengers within the building at any instance in time. ince various categories of passenger traffic will use different facilities in the airport, Itwill be necessary to forecast each passenger category separately in order to determine future requirements for passenger facilities. Accordingly, IATA forecasts three types of passenger traffic: © Embarking. © Disembarking. © Direct Transit. ‘These categories are further subdivided between scheduled and non-scheduled passenger traffic, for which separate forecasts should be produced. Following the implementation of 24-hour landside shopping, the terminal retail complex will also see growth from the local community and casual visitors to the airport. This volume of the general public should be added to the volume attributed to the traveling passenger. Tho baggage forecast data will be derived by multiplying the passenger processing rates by the passenger bag ratios for the various categories of passengers within the terminal. In practice the following steps are used in this regards: Step 1 — Flight Schedule Determined for Design Year. Step 2 — Flight Loadings Determined. ‘Step 3 — Number of Passengers Witnessed Determined as Passenger Rate/Hr. Step 4 — Passenger Bag Ratio(s) Applied to Passenger Rate(s) to determine Total Bag Rate/Ht. For existing airports, airport planners should use passenger to bag ratlos determined through surveys atthe relevant airport. In the absence of this data the following bag to passenger design ratios should be adopted. It should be noted that this is only useful as a first cut forecast for the master plans where the data is not readily available. Planners are advised to carefully review this data at subsequent and more detailed design levels. Table C2-1: Typical Bag to Passenger Ratios for High Level Forecasting Purposes Type of Pax. Europe ‘Asia/Atrica| USA Rest of the Traffic World International Pax. | 1.0-1.5 Bags/Pax | 2 Bags/Pax 2Bags/Pax | 1.5 Bags/Pax Domestic Pax. 0.5-1.0 BagsiPax | 1.0-2.0 Bags/Pax | 1.0 BagsiPax_| 1.0 Bags/Pax ‘Transfer Pax. 4-1.5 BagsPax | 1-2 Bags/Pax | 1-2 Bags/Pax_| 1-1.5 Bags/Pax 89 Oe IATA Airport Development Reference Manual ©2.3.2 2.3.3 90 Commercial Aircraft Movement The forecast of aircraft movements (Le., aircraft landing and take-off movements) determines the planning requirements of airport alrside facilities Aircraft movements include all commercial scheduled operations. Non-scheduled, general aviation and military aircraft movements usually have litle influence on the planning of runway and apron capacity. These are generally excluded from forecasts unless their impact is deemed appropriately significant. Cargo ‘When forecasting the perceived cargo tonnage it ‘of cargo goods. Cargo is the combination of fr follows: be important o distinguish between the categories ht and mail and these in tum are comprised as Freight Includes express and diplomatic bags but not a passenger's checked baggage. Mail Refers to correspondence and other objects tendered by and intended for delivery to postal administrations. Inthe forecast, the combined number of tonnes of freight and mail handled at the airport are taken into consideration. Also, in general, scheduled and non-scheduled cargo traffic are considered together, as both are handled in the same cargo terminal area. The forecast should differentiate between passenger and all-cargo operations, as each will have a specific influence in respect of apron use. Express freight, for example, will have a dedicated facility and apron area just as will perishable goods, and so it will be necessary to understand the split between these categories of cargo volume. ‘Some of the key factors that influence the demand in cargo traffic are economic growth (both on a regional and global level) as well as the costs associated with air cargo. ‘The GDP indicator has demonstrated a strong link to demand for aviation services, in cargo as well {as passenger transport. On a regional analysis there must be an assessment of the catchment area, and what type of market segment can be captured if there is competition for the same service. AS the global marketplace expands, there is also a need to assess factors on the movement of goods ‘on a broader base, such as domestic trade policies, elimination of tariffs, etc., on a worldwide level. Other factors, such as the ‘Justin time’ philosophy, increase the demand for a faster air cargo service. ‘The growth in e-commerce has also produced a new demand segment for the movement of products and the dynamic tracking of goods. Forecasters should seek data from freight forwarding and freight, processing companies to understand market trends and cargo type distinctions, For airport planning purposes, cargo forecasts must be broken down into sectors differentiating the means by which the cargo is transported: © Passenger and Combi Aircraft © All-Cargo Aircraft. {tis essential to make this spit in the forecast as each sector has different operating requirements, Such as: apron requirements; type of terminal facility; type of aircraft stand; etc. This type of information 's crucial to the planning of cargo facilities where an understanding of client's usage is required. ‘The combined tonnage of freight and mail handled at the airport should also be taken into consideration in a cargo forecast. Scheduled and non-scheduled cargo traffic are generally considered together, as both are handled in the same cargo terminal area. It's generally not recommended to produce & cargo forecast by origin-destination or by route area, but rather by inbound and outbound cargo traffic, Because the distinction between freight carried on aircraft and freight carried on trucks is not always lear, any analysis of cargo traffic must be made with great caution. There are cases when freight Se IATA C2.3.5 c2.4 2.4.1 c2.4.2 Master Planning tonnes carried on trucks are included in air freight statistics due to this freight being covered by the same airwaybill as pure air freight. Aircraft movements ‘There are two ways of projecting passenger aircraft movements. One way is to project an average number of passengers per flight and apply this parameter to the projection of passenger traffic to derive the resulting movements. ‘The second way is to project the passenger load factor and the average aircraft size as two separate steps. This approach provides a more solid projection of aireraft movements than the first one, but it requires the construction of passenger load factors for the base year for each route area. These are then projected for the whole forecast period and must reflect the potential room for improvements in airline productivity. The next step is to apply the projections of the load factors to passenger traffic projections in order to derive the projection of total seats. Following this, forecasters will need to project the average aircraft size to reflect as much as possible the expected evolution of airline fleet mix as wel as airlines’ strategy to either intensify frequencies, to the detriment of aircraft size, or utilise bigger aircraft if the level of frequencies is found to be suitable. In applying the average aircraft size to the projection of total seats, we obtain a projection of aircraft movements. It becomes important that, within each route area to be forecast, the projected evolution of aircraft mix by size category remains compatible with the projected evolution of the average aircraft size winich is expected to take place. For example, if one projects the average aircraft size to decline during a five-year period, the projection of the mix during that period should net reflect an increased share of aircraft of the higher size categories. In regard to cargo aircraft movements, the forecast needs a different approach. It should be based ‘on the projection of the share of total cargo likely to be carried on these cargo aircraft, and determining ‘an assumed average number of tonnes per flight, this would lead to the construction of cargo aircraft movements. This however requires that the statistics are made available by the airport authorities in question. A distinction in cargo tonnage carried on the passenger aircraft versus cargo carried on cargo aircraft Is required. SEGMENTATION Traffic Sectors Itis also important to distinguish between the different traffic sectors. Each individual airport will have different trafic sectorisation comprised from the list below: Long Haul international. ‘Short Haul International. Domestic. Schengen. Transborder. Passenger Characteristics Originating, terminating and transfer passengers should be further subdivided between scheduled and non-scheduled passenger traffic, especially with the growing market of the low cost carriers. Given that air travelis a derived demand, itis essential to identity the different passenger characteristics to have a better appreciation of the impact on the future development of the different terminal facilities such as checiin, passport control, baggage handling system, business lounge, etc. 91 wee taTA Airport Development Reference Manual 2.5 DEMANDS AND TRENDS €2.5.1 Annual to Peak Period Demand For the purpose of facilities planning it is essential to know the likely requirements on an hour-by- hour basis, Annual or even weekly forecast figures can be almost meaningless in this respect. The relationship of annual traffic to peak period will depend on seasonal variations and passenger characteristics. This relationship is projected separately for domestic and international traffic and within each category for each route area. €2.5.2 Seasonal Trends ‘Seasonal variation affects the relationship of peak month to annual traffic. Common influencing factors in this regard include: © Effect of economic growth on business or holiday market sectors (leisure traffic usually creates peaks at certain periods of the year different from the peak created by business traffic). © Whether airlines increase capacity during peak periods. C2.5.3 Spe i Events Peaks associated with special occurrences such as national holidays, religious festivals, and ‘sporting events should be excluded from forecasts. Plan to accommodate this above planning peak demand at a lower level of service, by means of contingency plans, schedule coordination and other sound demand/capacity management practices. ©2.5.4 Assessment Methods 92 Having established the magnitude and frequency of the forecasted data, it will be necessary to assess it using proven assessment rules which will be used for the sizing of airport facilities. One approach is to use a proportion (85th percentile) ofthe forecast profile as the basis to plan airport infrastructure. Another approach Is to select frequently occurring peak days or busy hour periods which are chosen as the basis on which to plan airport facilities. These approaches can be summarised as follows: 85th percentile, 40th busy hour or day of the year (see CDG example of this method in Table C2-2 below). 30th busy hour or day of the year. ‘The second busiest day in an average week during the peak month — an average weekly pattem of traffic is then calculated for that month, Itis important that one the above techniques is used as it is inappropriate to plan the design of airport Infrastructure on the occurrence of either an isolated peak day forecast or an isolated peak hour rate. Busy Day Schedule: Determining airport capacity largely depends on predicting the impact of Projected airline schedules on the various airport facilities. Capacity and level of service are based on operating conditions and rules, but also upon the particular demand profiles created by the mix of fights and flight sector for a typical busy day. The amalgamated airline schedules for a typical busy day reflects the airlines strategy for an airport and how an airport is connected to the world. ‘The produetion of a single day forecast requires a detailed assessment of all the operational parameters that underlie airline schedules: the operational suitability of aircraft types for given route structures; reasonable aircraft roistering compatible with a high level of aircraft utilisation; and use of commercially feasible arrival and departure timings throughout a route structure. This assessment is then incorporated to form the amalgamated airline forecast schedule. Selection of a ‘Busy’ Day: A typical ‘busy’ day is the secohd busiest day in an average week during the peak month. An average weekly pattem of passenger traffic is calculated for that month, and a) TA er TA Master Planning peaks associated with special events such as religious festivals, trade fairs, conventions and sport events are excluded. This single day analysis should assess: ‘© Operational suitability of an aircraft type for a given route structure. Aircraft rotations compatible with a high level of utilisation, Use of commercially feasible arrival and departure timings throughout the route structure. ¢ Airport curfews and other limitations. ‘The ‘busy day’ data for the base year is ‘actual’ and should come from the alrport control tower (ATC) log. It should cover each aircraft movement during the ‘busy’ day with indication of the following attributes: Aircraft Registration. Seating Capacity. Origin Of Flight. . . . © Arrival . . . Terminal Used. Passengers Disembarked. Direct Transit Passengers (If Applicable). Departure Time. Destination Of Flight. © Embarking Passengers. The busy day should be more than just a single witnessed statistical hour or a day within an operational calendar. The busy day should be representative of a frequently ocourring ‘model’ busy period, representative of a realistic day within a weekly schedule. Table C2-2: CDG Peak Passenger Traffic Analysis CDG Airport Passenger Traffic Analysis ea ST 93 we TATA Airport Development Reference Manual c2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 94 Table C2-3: Estimate of Peak Passenger Traffic Based on MPPA Forecast Famer | {cei [acorn | sonaoe | iamapee | aeonane | — Taam PasergoraPeak Neath ‘o@20 | — asoao0 | — sooot0 | xoraoo | sase00 | — 1sonat0 PesangeePak Oy ‘aco | vecca | zac0 | —o0an | sa000 | eno Pilar a = ‘soo [~ueto- | a00 | 500 5400 Bassons "008 | 08060 | sas | ane | — saaNNT Faiscnjraboat woe] 2500.00 | s00n000_| asone00 | ~