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Chapter 1 :

LINEAR EQUATIONS

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

A linear equation in one unknown is an equation which contains one or

more linear terms in one unknown.

(Ex : x + 5 = 11)

A numerical value is a solution of a given linear equation in one unknown if value satisfies the equation.

The solution of a linear equation is also known as the root of the equation.

Example 1 Example 2 Given that 5m – 11 = 21 – 3m, find the
Example 1
Example 2
Given that 5m – 11 = 21 – 3m, find the
value of m.
Solve the equation 2x/7 – 3 = - 9
Solution
Solution
2x/7 = - 9
+ 3
5m – 11
5m + 3m
= 21 – 3m
= 21 + 11
8m = 32
m = 32/8
= 4
2x/7 = - 6
2x = - 42
x = - 42/2
= - 21

A linear equation in two variables is an equation consists of linear terms in two variables and a constant. (Ex : x + 3y = 8)

Simultaneous linear equations in two variables are two linear equations with two similar variables and have a common solution. ( Ex :

3x y = 1 and 4x + y = 6)

Simultaneous linear equations in two variables can be solved by

o

Elimination method

o

Substitution method

By Elimination : By Substitution : Example 4 Example 3 Solve the following simultaneous linear
By Elimination :
By Substitution :
Example 4
Example 3
Solve the following simultaneous
linear equation.
Solve the following simultaneous
linear equation.
x
– y = -6
x + y = 9 ……………
y = 2x……………
1
5x – y = -2
2
Solution
Substitute
2
into
1
x
x
– y = -6 ……………
11
1
+ 2x = 9
3x = 9
5x – y = -2 ……………
x = 3
2
2
-
1
: 4x = 4
Substitute x = 3 into
2
x = 1
Substitute x = 1 into
1 – y = -6
y = 7
y
= 2 (3)
= 6
1

1.2 GRAPH OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

The graph of the solution set of an equation in two variables, usually called the graph of the equation, is the set of all points with coordinates (x, y) that satisfy the equation.

In this chapter, we are primarily interested in a particular kind of equation in x and y and the graph of that equation.

The equations we refer to involve x and y to the first power, and they are called linear equations.

An equation of the form,

Ax + By = C

in which A and B cannot both be zero, is called the standard form for a line. Its graph is always a line.

Graphing by Plotting Points

Example 5
Example 5

Graph the equation

x + y = 5

This is a linear equation in two variables. To draw its graph, we can begin by assigning values to x and finding the corresponding values for y. For instance, if

x = 1, we have

1 + y = 5 Y = 4 Therefore, (1, 4) satisfies the equation and is on the graph of x + y = 5.

Similarly, (2, 3), (3, 2), and (4, 1) are in the graph. Often these results are recorded in a table of values, as shown below. We then plot the points determined and draw a line through those points.

x + y = 5

Every point on the graph of the equation x + y = 5 has coordinates

Every point on the graph of the equation x + y = 5 has coordinates that satisfy the equation, and every point with coordinates that satisfy the equation lies on the line.

The following algorithm summarizes our first approach to graphing a linear equation in two variables.

approach to graphing a linear equation in two variables. Two particular points are often used in

Two particular points are often used in graphing an equation because they are very easy to find. The x intercept of a line is the point at which the line crosses the x axis. If the x intercept exists, it can be found by setting y = 0 in the equation and solving for x. The y intercept is the point at which the line crosses the y axis. If the y intercept exists, it is found by letting x = 0 and solving for y.

Graphing by the Intercept Method

Example 6
Example 6

Use the intercepts to graph the equation x - 2y = 6

To find the x intercept, let y = 0.

x - 2(0 ) = 6 x = 6 The x intercept is (6, 0).

To find the y intercept, let x = 0.

0 - 2y = 6 -2y = 6 y = -3 The y intercept is (0, -3).

Graphing the intercepts and drawing the line through those intercepts, we have the desired graph.

y intercept is (0, -3). Graphing the intercepts and drawing the line through those intercepts, we

The following algorithm summarizes the steps of graphing a line by the intercept method.

When can the intercept method not be used? Some lines have only one intercept. For

When can the intercept method not be used? Some lines have only one intercept. For instance, the graph of x _ 2y _ 0 passes through the origin. In this case, other points must be used to graph the equation.

Graphing a Line That Passes Through the Origin

Example 7
Example 7

Graph x + 2y = 0.

Letting y = 0, gives x + 2(0) = 0 x = 0 Thus (0, 0) is a solution, and the line has only one intercept.

We continue by choosing any other convenient values for x. If x = 2:

2 + 2y = 0 2y = -2 y = 1

So (2, _1) is a solution. You can easily verify that (4, -2) is also a solution. Again, plotting the points and drawing the line through those points, we have the desired graph.

-2) is also a solution. Again, plotting the points and drawing the line through those points,

1.3 Algebraic Formulae

A variable is a quantity which has a value that is not fixed. This quantity is usually represented by a letter.

An algebraic formula is an equation relating several variables and constants. (Ex : J = 2x + 3v)

The subject of an algebraic formula is a variable that is expresses in terms of

other variables. (Ex : P = 5x 2 y

in terms of other variables. (Ex : P = 5x 2 – y P is the

P is the subject.

Example 8 Example 9 Given 2mn – 4m = 5n, express n in terms of
Example 8
Example 9
Given 2mn – 4m = 5n, express n in
terms of m.
Given that j =
e
, express e in terms
6 + e
of j.
Solution
j =
e
2mn – 4m = 5n
2mn – 5n = 4m
6 + e
J(6 + e) = e

n(2m 5) = 4m

4m

n =

2m - 5

6j + je = e e je = 6j e(1 j) = 6j e =

6j

1 - j

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