0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

15 (de) vizualizări55 paginiThe understanding of the behavior of the materials is very important in the engineering field. Indeed, many industrial applications require that today’s engineers are acquainted with a solid knowledge of the materials science.
The joint between two dissimilar materials have always been a topic of discussion from a scientific point of view because of the properties that can be studied in the field of the materials’ resistance.

Oct 31, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

The understanding of the behavior of the materials is very important in the engineering field. Indeed, many industrial applications require that today’s engineers are acquainted with a solid knowledge of the materials science.
The joint between two dissimilar materials have always been a topic of discussion from a scientific point of view because of the properties that can be studied in the field of the materials’ resistance.

© All Rights Reserved

15 (de) vizualizări

The understanding of the behavior of the materials is very important in the engineering field. Indeed, many industrial applications require that today’s engineers are acquainted with a solid knowledge of the materials science.
The joint between two dissimilar materials have always been a topic of discussion from a scientific point of view because of the properties that can be studied in the field of the materials’ resistance.

© All Rights Reserved

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 55

PRODUCTION

Investigation of a crack at an interface between

two dissimilar materials.

Lecturer: Ing. Csar Sebastin Silva Proao

Study Program: Mechatronics Master

Tutor: Dr. Natalia Konchakova

1

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

1.

engineering field. Indeed, many industrial applications require that todays

engineers are acquainted with a solid knowledge of the materials science.

The joint between two dissimilar materials have always been a topic of

discussion from a scientific point of view because of the properties that can be

studied in the field of the materials resistance.

The personal motivation for this seminar is the previous formation as

mechanical engineer where the study of the materials resistance was one of

the most passionate and important fields that motivated me into this major.

The expectative after this seminar is the amplification of the present

knowledge regarding the materials resistance and the crack properties.

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

2. Important notation

An important notation must be considered. In the next Figure 1 the stress

components on an infinitesimal element are presented.

The stresses are noted as ij where the first subscript i refers to the

direction of outward facing normal, and the second one j to the direction of

the component of the force.

5

P: Analysis Vector P

vector

r: length of the analysis vector

w: Width of the specimen

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

Cartesian stresses can be expressed in terms on the polar coordinates and vice

versa. This can be done with the following relationships:

(1)

(2)

xx yy a 2 xx yy 3a 4 4a 2

3a 4 4a 2

rr

1 2

1 4 2 cos 2 xy 1 4 2 sin 2 (4)

2

r

2

r

r

r

r

xx yy a 2 xx yy 3a 4

3a 4

1 2

1 4 cos 2 xy 1 4 sin 2 (5)

2

r

2

r

r

xx yy 3a 4 2a 2

3a 4 2a 2

3a 4

r

1 4 2 sin 2 xy 1 4 2 cos 2 xy 1 4 cos 2 8 (6)

2

r

r

r

r

r

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

According to Irwin the stress intensity factor is defined as:

KI

22

K II limr 0, 0 2 r 12

K

III

23

Where

K, I

, II

K

(7)

KIII are

lower crack surfaces with respect to each other, this is shown in the next

figure.

10

1) First Intensity Factor Opening Mode, I: In this case the two crack surfaces are pulled apart in the

y direction, but the deformations are symmetric about the x z and z y planes.

2) Second Intensity Factor Shearing Mode, II: Here the two crack surfaces slide over each other in

the x direction, but the deformations are symmetric about the x y plane and skew symmetric about the

xz plane.

3)

Third Intensity Factor Tearing Mode, III: In this case the crack surfaces slide over each other in

the z direction, but the deformations are skew symmetric about the x y and x z planes.

11

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

12

5.

1)

a

1 0.256

W

2

3

a

a

1.152 12.2

W

W

(8)

KI a

sec

a

1

W

(9)

13

2)

2

3

4

a

a

a

a

1.12 0.23 10.56 21.74 30.42

W

W

W

W

(10)

KI a

a

1 (11)

W

14

3)

a

1.12 0.43

W

2

3

a

a

4.79 15.46

W

W

(12)

KI a

15

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

16

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for the pure mode I loading.

In Cartesian Coordinates:

In Polar Coordinates:

r

KI

2 r

(17)

1

2

cos 1 sin 2

2

2

(18)

KI

2 r

1

2

sin cos 2

2

2

3

cos 1 sin sin

2

2

2

(14)

1

2

3

sin cos cos

2

2

2

(15)

2 r

KI

2 r

zz X Y

(19)

K r 2

u I cos 1 2sin 2

2 2

2

2

(20)

K r 2

I cos 1 2sin 2

2 2

2

2

w0

(21)

(16)

problem that we have

cos 1 sin

2

2

KI

2 r

1

2

KI

1

2

(13)

2 r

yy

xy

1

2

3

cos 1 sin sin

2

2

2

KI

xx

(21)

3 4 (22)

For Plane Stress:

3

(23) 17

1

material is said to be under plane stress if

the stress vector is zero across a particular

surface. It typically occurs in thin flat plates

that are acted upon only by load forces that

are parallel to them

Figure 8. Plane stress state in a continuum

components, stress (and strain) are

3D tensors but in prismatic structures

of the structure is much greater than

Figure 9. Plane strain state in a continuum

1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plane_stress

2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infinitesimal_strain_theory#Plane_strain

18

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

19

7.

20

1) Preconfiguration

First we should define the number of theta angles from 0 to 360 degrees that we

are going to use for our analysis.

Second and one of the most important things we need to define the important

physical properties of the two materials:

Youngs Modulus

Shear Modulus

Poissons Ratio

1 Material 1

2 Material 2

E1 , E2

1 , 2

1, 2

(24)

k which is defined as

material _1

k

material _ 2

(25)

2k 1 2 2 1 1 k 1

2k 1 2 2 1 1

(26)

21

2)

The calculation of

The factor

is a term that appears for the calculation of the final stresses. Two

r n 0,1, 2,3,...

First Solution:

j coth

(27)

2n 1

n 0,1, 2,3,...

2

Second Solution:

1

1

1

j tanh 1

log

2

1

Assumption n = 0

(28)

22

3)

In the following part the general function for the solution of this problem is

presented:

Fi , Ai cos 1 Bi cos 1 Ci sin 1 Di sin 1

F f g

Where :

f cosh j

(29)

3

g a sin sin b 3cos cos

2

2

2

2

23

4)

Stresses Calculation

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

3

3 j

2

j cos j log r

2 2

4

2

1

2

Recall:

F f g

Where :

f cosh j

3

g a sin sin b 3cos cos

2

2

2

2

Assume:

Appendix 1

a 10 mm

b 0,1 mm

24

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

25

8.

Interface Cracks

1) Crack Tip Fields

The objective of this part is the calculation of the near-tip normal and shear

stresses

yy

and

x and y. x and y

behind the crack tip. Finally, we are going to be able to calculate the energy

release rate,

for extension of the crack along the interface, given for plain

strain.

26

2) Procedure of Calculation

1. The total intensity factor

K K1 iK2

L

i

K1 iK 2 r i

yy i xy

(33)

2 r

(34)

1 1 2v2 2 1 2v1

2 1 1 v2 2 1 v1

1 1

(36)

ln

2 1

(35)

Recall:

E

E

1 v2

(37)

27

E1 E2

E1 E2

(38)

1

1

K1 iK2

_

_

(39)

4 E1 E2

y i x

r r i

2 1 2i cosh

8. The energy release rate

1

1

K12 K 2 2

_

_

E

E

2

G 1

2cosh 2

(40)

28

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

29

9.

Material Data:

A36 Steel

Aluminum

200e+09

119e+09

75e+09

48e+09

0.26

0.34

Poissons ratio

30

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

31

10.

1. Simulation 1: Crack propagation in two dissimilar materials Steel with Aluminum

r1 = 0,1 mm

r2 = 1 mm

r3 = 2 mm

Recall:

Assume:

a 10 mm

b 0,1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 13. Two dissimilar materials stress distribution Steel with Aluminum

32

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

distribution Aluminum with Steel

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

33

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

34

4. Simulation 4: Homogeneous material, Steel, Opening mode I, Selection 2: Single Edge Notch

Panel

A 36 Steel

10 MPa

r1 = 1 mm

r2 = 2 mm

r3 = 5 mm

a 10 mm

w 50 mm

Plane Stress

Selection 1

Selection2

Selection 3

35

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Calculations Steel Stresses

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Calculations Steel Displacements 36

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

37

2) Geometry finished

3) Boundary Conditions

5) Simulation

Figure 20. FEM Analysis Procedure

38

39

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

40

1) Stress

xx

CALCULATION: MAX 30 MPa at r = 1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

Figure 22. Simulation and Calculated Results A36 Steel Stress Sigma xx

360

41

2) Stress

yy

FEM: MAX = 29 MPa at the minimum r

CALCULATION: MAX 35 MPa at r = 1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

Figure 23. Simulation and Calculated Results A36 Steel Stress Sigma yy

360

42

3) Stress

xy

FEM: MAX 14 - 15 MPa at

45 deg.

and 35 deg.

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 24. Simulation and Calculated Results A36 Steel Stress Tau xy

43

4) Displacement in X

FEM: MAX 0,0013 0,0015 mm

CALCULATION: MAX 0,0008 mm at r = 1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

5) Displacement in Y

FEM: MAX = 0,0001631 mm

CALCULATION: MAX 0,0014 mm at r = 1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

45

7) Simulation of Stress

xx

46

8) Simulation of Stress

yy

47

9) Simulation of Stress

xy

48

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

49

values. The closest similar approach was obtained for the stress yy.

FEM simulation varies significantly and therefore it is difficult make a

comparison, but we can say that in both results the displacement is in the

order of 10^-3.

When the radius approaches to zero, the value of the stress increases

significantly.

anisotropic materials, which are also included in the report but

unfortunately the time is not enough to perform this analysis.

50

1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar

2. Important Notation

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates

4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)

5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

8. Interface Cracks

9. Material Data

10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations

11. FEM Analysis

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

14. References

51

14. References

http://www.fracturemechanics.org/fm/westergaard.html

(1898): http://www.fracturemechanics.org/fm/hole.html

Lempidaki, D., O'Dowd, N., & Busso, E. (s.f.). Crack Tip Stress Fields for Anisotropic

http://www.structuralintegrity.eu/pdf/esis/Documents/Conference/ECF/15/Lempidaki%20D

%20et%20al.pdf

Cambridge: ASME.

Saouma, V. (2000). Lecture Notes in: Fracture Mechanics. Colorado: Dept. of Civil

Sih, G., & Rice, J. (1964). The Bending of Plates of Dissimilar Materials with Cracks.

52

53

QUESTIONS ?

54

55

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.