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SEMINAR CONSTRUCTION, MATERIALS,

PRODUCTION
Investigation of a crack at an interface between
two dissimilar materials.
Lecturer: Ing. Csar Sebastin Silva Proao
Study Program: Mechatronics Master
Tutor: Dr. Natalia Konchakova

Winter Semester 2015 - 2016


1

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

1.

Introduction and motivation for this seminar

The understanding of the behavior of the materials is very important in the


engineering field. Indeed, many industrial applications require that todays
engineers are acquainted with a solid knowledge of the materials science.
The joint between two dissimilar materials have always been a topic of

discussion from a scientific point of view because of the properties that can be
studied in the field of the materials resistance.
The personal motivation for this seminar is the previous formation as
mechanical engineer where the study of the materials resistance was one of
the most passionate and important fields that motivated me into this major.
The expectative after this seminar is the amplification of the present
knowledge regarding the materials resistance and the crack properties.

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

2. Important notation
An important notation must be considered. In the next Figure 1 the stress
components on an infinitesimal element are presented.

Normal Surface to this direction

Direction of the stress

Figure 1. Stress components on an infinitesimal element

The stresses are noted as ij where the first subscript i refers to the
direction of outward facing normal, and the second one j to the direction of
the component of the force.
5

Notation from now on


P: Analysis Vector P

: Angle from crack to analysis


vector
r: length of the analysis vector

a: length of the crack


w: Width of the specimen

Figure 2. Graphical Convention

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates


Cartesian stresses can be expressed in terms on the polar coordinates and vice
versa. This can be done with the following relationships:

xx rr cos 2 sin 2 r sin 2

(1)

yy rr sin 2 cos 2 r sin 2

(2)

xy rr sin cos r cos2 sin 2 (3)


xx yy a 2 xx yy 3a 4 4a 2
3a 4 4a 2
rr
1 2
1 4 2 cos 2 xy 1 4 2 sin 2 (4)
2
r
2
r
r
r
r

xx yy a 2 xx yy 3a 4
3a 4

1 2
1 4 cos 2 xy 1 4 sin 2 (5)
2
r
2
r
r

xx yy 3a 4 2a 2
3a 4 2a 2
3a 4
r
1 4 2 sin 2 xy 1 4 2 cos 2 xy 1 4 cos 2 8 (6)
2
r
r
r
r
r

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

4. Stress Intensity Factors (Irwin)


According to Irwin the stress intensity factor is defined as:

KI
22


K II limr 0, 0 2 r 12
K

III
23
Where

ij are the near crack tip stresses, and

K, I

, II
K

(7)

KIII are

associated with three independent kinematic movements of the upper and


lower crack surfaces with respect to each other, this is shown in the next
figure.

10

1) First Intensity Factor Opening Mode, I: In this case the two crack surfaces are pulled apart in the
y direction, but the deformations are symmetric about the x z and z y planes.
2) Second Intensity Factor Shearing Mode, II: Here the two crack surfaces slide over each other in
the x direction, but the deformations are symmetric about the x y plane and skew symmetric about the
xz plane.
3)

Third Intensity Factor Tearing Mode, III: In this case the crack surfaces slide over each other in

the z direction, but the deformations are skew symmetric about the x y and x z planes.

Figure 3. Independent Modes of Crack Displacements

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Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

12

5.

First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I :


1)

Engineering Example 1: Middle Tension Panel

Figure 4. Middle tension panel

a
1 0.256
W

2
3

a
a
1.152 12.2

W
W

(8)

KI a

sec

a
1
W

(9)

13

2)

Engineering Example 2: Single Edge Notch Tension Panel

Figure 5. Single edge notch tension panel


2
3
4

a
a
a
a
1.12 0.23 10.56 21.74 30.42
W
W
W
W

(10)

KI a

a
1 (11)
W

14

3)

Engineering Example 3: Double Edge Notch Tension Panel

Figure 6. Double edge notch tension panel

a
1.12 0.43
W

2
3

a
a
4.79 15.46

W
W

(12)

KI a
15

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

16

6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for the pure mode I loading.

In Cartesian Coordinates:

Figure 7. Elements of analysis in the crack tip

In Polar Coordinates:
r

KI

2 r

(17)

1
2

cos 1 sin 2
2
2

(18)

KI

2 r

1
2

sin cos 2
2
2

3
cos 1 sin sin
2
2
2

(14)

1
2

3
sin cos cos
2
2
2

(15)

2 r
KI

2 r

zz X Y

(19)

K r 2

u I cos 1 2sin 2
2 2
2
2

(20)

K r 2

I cos 1 2sin 2
2 2
2
2

w0

(21)

(16)

refers to the type of


problem that we have

cos 1 sin
2
2

KI

2 r

1
2

KI

The generated displacements:

1
2

(13)

2 r

yy

xy

1
2

3
cos 1 sin sin
2
2
2

KI

xx

(21)

For Plane Strain:


3 4 (22)
For Plane Stress:
3

(23) 17
1

A) Plane Stress1: In continuum mechanics, a


material is said to be under plane stress if
the stress vector is zero across a particular
surface. It typically occurs in thin flat plates
that are acted upon only by load forces that
are parallel to them
Figure 8. Plane stress state in a continuum

B) Plane Strain2: In real engineering


components, stress (and strain) are
3D tensors but in prismatic structures

such as a long metal billet, the length


of the structure is much greater than
Figure 9. Plane strain state in a continuum

the other two dimensions.

1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plane_stress
2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infinitesimal_strain_theory#Plane_strain

18

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

19

7.

Crack at an Interface between two dissimilar materials

Figure 10. Case 3: Components of stress in polar coordinates

20

1) Preconfiguration
First we should define the number of theta angles from 0 to 360 degrees that we
are going to use for our analysis.
Second and one of the most important things we need to define the important
physical properties of the two materials:

Youngs Modulus

Shear Modulus

Poissons Ratio

1 Material 1
2 Material 2

E1 , E2

1 , 2
1, 2

Alfa which is defined as

(24)

k which is defined as

material _1
k
material _ 2

(25)

Beta which is defined as

2k 1 2 2 1 1 k 1

2k 1 2 2 1 1

(26)
21

2)

The calculation of

The factor

is a term that appears for the calculation of the final stresses. Two

solutions have been proposed for this calculation:

r n 0,1, 2,3,...
First Solution:

j coth

(27)

2n 1
n 0,1, 2,3,...
2
Second Solution:
1
1
1
j tanh 1
log

2
1

Assumption n = 0

(28)

22

3)

The general function for the solution to the problem of crack

interface between two dissimilar isotropic materials


In the following part the general function for the solution of this problem is
presented:
Fi , Ai cos 1 Bi cos 1 Ci sin 1 Di sin 1
F f g
Where :

f cosh j

(29)

3

g a sin sin b 3cos cos
2
2
2
2

23

4)

Stresses Calculation

rr r cos j log r F '' r cos j log r j sin j log r F (30)


2

1
2

1
2

1
2

3
3 j
2
j cos j log r

2 2
4

sin j log r F '' (31)

r r cos j log r F ' cos j log r j sin j log r F ' (32)


2

1
2

Recall:
F f g
Where :

f cosh j

3

g a sin sin b 3cos cos
2
2
2
2

Assume:

Appendix 1

a 10 mm
b 0,1 mm
24

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

25

8.

Interface Cracks
1) Crack Tip Fields

The objective of this part is the calculation of the near-tip normal and shear
stresses

yy

and

xy . Additionally, we are also going to determine the flank

displacements, for a plane strain

x and y. x and y

are the opening and

sliding displacements of two initially coincident points on the crack surfaces


behind the crack tip. Finally, we are going to be able to calculate the energy
release rate,

for extension of the crack along the interface, given for plain

strain.

Figure 11. Interface crack with generated displacements

26

2) Procedure of Calculation
1. The total intensity factor

K K1 iK2

L
i

K1 iK 2 r i

yy i xy

2. Normal and Shear tip stresses

(33)

2 r

(34)

3. Dunders elastic mismatch parameter for plain strain

4. The oscillation index

1 1 2v2 2 1 2v1
2 1 1 v2 2 1 v1

1 1
(36)
ln

2 1

(35)

Recall:

5. The plain strain young modulus

E
E
1 v2

(37)
27

6. The mismatch parameter alfa

E1 E2
E1 E2

(38)

7. Crack flank displacements for plain strain

1
1
K1 iK2
_
_

(39)
4 E1 E2
y i x
r r i
2 1 2i cosh
8. The energy release rate

for plain strain

, for extension of the crack along the interface,

1
1
K12 K 2 2
_
_

E
E
2
G 1
2cosh 2

(40)

28

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

29

9.

Material Data:
A36 Steel

Aluminum

Youngs Modulus (Pa)

200e+09

119e+09

Shear Modulus (Pa)

75e+09

48e+09

0.26

0.34

Poissons ratio

Figure 12. Considered material for the analysis

30

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

31

10.

Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations:


1. Simulation 1: Crack propagation in two dissimilar materials Steel with Aluminum

r1 = 0,1 mm
r2 = 1 mm
r3 = 2 mm

Recall:
Assume:

a 10 mm
b 0,1 mm
45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 13. Two dissimilar materials stress distribution Steel with Aluminum

32

2. Simulation 2: Crack propagation in two dissimilar materials Aluminum with Steel

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 14. Two dissimilar materials stress


distribution Aluminum with Steel

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 15. Comparison with r = 0,1 mm

33

3. Simulation 3: Crack at an Interface between A36 Steel and A36 Steel

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 16. Steel with Steel

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 17. Comparison of the 3 cases

34

4. Simulation 4: Homogeneous material, Steel, Opening mode I, Selection 2: Single Edge Notch
Panel

A 36 Steel

10 MPa

r1 = 1 mm
r2 = 2 mm
r3 = 5 mm

a 10 mm
w 50 mm
Plane Stress

Selection 1

Selection2

Selection 3
35

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 18. Homogeneous


Calculations Steel Stresses

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 19. Homogeneous


Calculations Steel Displacements 36

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

37

11. FEM Analysis

1) Sketching the geometry


2) Geometry finished

3) Boundary Conditions

4) Creating the meshing

5) Simulation
Figure 20. FEM Analysis Procedure

38

Geometrical properties of the crack considered for the analysis

Figure 21. Geometry of the crack for the FEM analysis

39

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

40

12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results


1) Stress

xx

FEM: MAX = 54 MPa at the minimum r


CALCULATION: MAX 30 MPa at r = 1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

Figure 22. Simulation and Calculated Results A36 Steel Stress Sigma xx

360

41

2) Stress

yy
FEM: MAX = 29 MPa at the minimum r
CALCULATION: MAX 35 MPa at r = 1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

Figure 23. Simulation and Calculated Results A36 Steel Stress Sigma yy

360

42

3) Stress

xy
FEM: MAX 14 - 15 MPa at

45 deg.

CALCULATION: MAX 5 MPa at r = 1 mm


and 35 deg.

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 24. Simulation and Calculated Results A36 Steel Stress Tau xy
43

4) Displacement in X
FEM: MAX 0,0013 0,0015 mm
CALCULATION: MAX 0,0008 mm at r = 1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 25. Simulation and Calculated Results A36 Steel Displacement in X 44

5) Displacement in Y
FEM: MAX = 0,0001631 mm
CALCULATION: MAX 0,0014 mm at r = 1 mm

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

Figure 26. Simulation and Calculated Results A36 Steel Displacement in Y

360

45

7) Simulation of Stress

xx

Video 1. Sigma XX - Simulation

46

8) Simulation of Stress

yy

Video 2. Sigma YY - Simulation

47

9) Simulation of Stress

xy

Video 3. Tau XY - Simulation

48

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

49

13. Conclusions and Recommendations

We observed a correspondence between the FEM and the experimental


values. The closest similar approach was obtained for the stress yy.

As far as the displacements are concerned, the range of colors of the


FEM simulation varies significantly and therefore it is difficult make a
comparison, but we can say that in both results the displacement is in the
order of 10^-3.

When the radius approaches to zero, the value of the stress increases
significantly.

It would be a good for a next seminar to include the analysis of the


anisotropic materials, which are also included in the report but
unfortunately the time is not enough to perform this analysis.
50

Investigation of a crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


1. Introduction and motivation for this seminar
2. Important Notation
3. Cartesian and Polar Coordinates
4. Stress Intensity Factor (Irwin)
5. First Intensity Factor Opening Mode I
6. Stresses and Displacements in Homogeneous Cracked Solids for pure mode loading I

7. Crack at an interface between two dissimilar materials


8. Interface Cracks
9. Material Data
10. Numerical Examples and Matlab Simulations
11. FEM Analysis
12. FEM Results vs. Calculated Results
13. Conclusions and Recommendations
14. References

51

14. References

LEFM. (s.f.). Obtained from Westergaard's Solution for Cracks:

http://www.fracturemechanics.org/fm/westergaard.html

LEFM. (s.f.). Stress Concentrations at Holes. Uniaxial Tension - Kirsch's Solution

(1898): http://www.fracturemechanics.org/fm/hole.html

Lempidaki, D., O'Dowd, N., & Busso, E. (s.f.). Crack Tip Stress Fields for Anisotropic

Materials with Cubic Symmetry. Obtained from


http://www.structuralintegrity.eu/pdf/esis/Documents/Conference/ECF/15/Lempidaki%20D
%20et%20al.pdf

Rice, J. (1988). Elastic Fracture Mechanics Concepts for Interfacial Cracks.

Cambridge: ASME.

Saouma, V. (2000). Lecture Notes in: Fracture Mechanics. Colorado: Dept. of Civil

Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado.

Sih, G., & Rice, J. (1964). The Bending of Plates of Dissimilar Materials with Cracks.

ASME - Journal of Applied Mechanics.


52

53

QUESTIONS ?
54

Appendix 1. Assumption for a and b


55