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# Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

## Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Power System
Protection for Engineers
Directional Element
Application and Evaluation

## Technical papers supporting this section:

6009.pdf, Directional Element Design and Evaluation, Jeff Roberts, Armando Guzman

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Objectives
z

## Describe the Connections of Traditional

Phase and Ground Directional Relays

## Discuss Security Problems of Traditional

Phase Directional Elements, and Digital
Solutions to These Problems

Elements

## Describe the Advantages of NegativeSequence Directional Elements

Directional overcurrent protection (67, 67N) requires current and voltage information to
provide the directional discrimination. Directionality extends the application of the
overcurrent principle to looped and parallel lines. Directional ground overcurrent
protection inherits the high sensitivity of non-directional ground overcurrent elements.
However, directional phase overcurrent elements (67) responding to the line currents
need to be set above maximum load, and this requirement limits their sensitivity.
Directional overcurrent protection settings must be revised as the system topology
changes to avoid coordination problems.
It is common to use ground directional overcurrent elements (67N) in combination with
phase distance elements (21) to provide line phase and ground protection. As we will
see, the distance principle overcomes the sensitivity limitation of phase directional
overcurrent protection.

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Need For Directional Elements

1
F1

3 ~0
z

Selectivity Condition:

3 and 1

## The application of directional overcurrent relays is typically unnecessary in radial

systems due to the fact that the load contribution from one feeder to its neighbor is
generally negligible. For the case shown in the figure, there is no need to calculate the
setting of Relay 3 to coordinate with Relay 1 for fault at F1, since the current measured
by Relay 3 is considerably less than Relay 3s pick-up.

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Need For Directional Elements

~0

3
z

Selectivity Condition:

F2

1 and 3

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Need For Directional Elements

2

1
F1

4
z

F2

Selectivity Conditions:

t3 > t1 for F1
t1 > t3 for F2

If the non-directional overcurent relays are applied to a non-radial system, there will be
coordination problems. As shown in the figure, there are two selectivity conditions
which are often contradictory. It is likely that finding relay settings will be difficult such
that both conditions are achieved. It is desirable that Relay 1 does not detect faults at F2
and Relay 3 does not detect faults at F1. This is possible if the relay is modified such
that it will only operate when a fault occurs on its line. In other words, the overcurrent
relay needs to be directionally sensitive.

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Need For Directional Elements

2

1
F1

4
z

Selectivity Conditions:
No Need to Verify if
1 and 3 are Directional
Overcurrent Relays

t3 > t1 for F1
t1 > t3 for F2

F2

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Supervise Distance Elements

Distance Characteristics

## Why use directional elements?

We use directional elements to:

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Directional Overcurrent Protection

Basic Applications

## The addition of a directional element eliminates the restriction of applying overcurrent

protection only to radial lines. Directional overcurrent protection can be applied to
either systems having several generation sources or looped systems. The arrows are
used to represent the protection tripping direction. Note that the relays are oriented
towards the protected lines. This orientation divides the system protection into two
independent groups: the relays looking to the right and those looking to the left.
The directionality divides the coordination process into two independent processes. A
relay only needs to be coordinated with the other relays in its group.
In the lower figure, all the relays are directional except the relays adjacent to the
generation bus. At these two points, the system is directional. That is, fault current can
only flow out of the bus and into the lines. Thus, there is no need for a directional relay.

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Directional Overcurrent Protection

Basic Applications

A radial system with two parallel lines is a unique case. In such a case, directional
overcurrent protection is needed at the line ends connected to the load bus. The addition
of a parallel line in a radial system creates the necessity for directional protection.

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Directional Overcurrent Protection

Basic Principle
V

F1

F2
Relay
Reverse Fault (F2)

## Forward Fault (F1)

V
I

Now that is has been determined that directional relays are needed, how it the protection
accomplished?
A classical directional element responds to the phase shift between the relay voltage and
current. For faults on the protected line (forward faults), the current lags the voltage.
The angle between voltage and current corresponds to the angle of the fault-loop
impedance.
For faults on the adjacent line (reverse faults), the voltage angle remains almost
unchanged and the current angle changes approximately 180. The directional element
uses this information to discriminate between forward and reverse faults. Observe that
the voltage input signal acts as an angular reference. This signal is referred to as the
relay polarizing quantity. The current input signal contains information about the fault
location and is referred to as the relay operating quantity.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

OP
OP

POL

## Torque Applied to Cylinder:

T = k |OP| |POL| sin
= k |OP| |POL| cos (90)
POL
Operates when T>0

Early directional relays consisted of induction cylinder units. The relays operation is
based on the movement of a cylinder. The torque to move the cylinder is the magnetic
flux produced by the interaction of the two input quantities.
This torque equation is very famous, and modern digital relays still use the term
torque to reference the quantity which determines the relay operation.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Operation Characteristic

V I cos( MT ) 0
Operation

No
Operation

Maximum
Torque Line

MT

I (Operating
Quantity)
V (Polarizing
Quantity)

In the figure, the operating equation of a traditional directional element, having a voltage V
and a current I as input signals, is shown. A phasor diagram is used to represent the relay
operating condition. Using the voltage as a reference, the relay maximum torque line (dotted
in the figure) is drawn with a MT angular displacement from the voltage reference. When
= MT, the current phasor coincides with the maximum torque line and the relay produces the
maximum operation torque.
Angle MT is the characteristic angle of the E/M relay. Angle MT is a relay setting in
modern relays.
Perpendicular to the maximum torque line are the relay operating characteristic (full line in
the figure). All current phasors located to the right of the operating characteristic satisfy the
operating condition. Current phasors located to the left of the operating characteristic
represent restraint conditions. For proper application of the directional element, the value of
MT is selected and the relay is connected in such a way that, for forward faults, the current
phasor lies within the operating region. For reverse faults, the current should lie within the
restraint region.
As the operating quantity moves away from the maximum torque line, the amount of torque
produced decreases (cosine function) to magnitude zero at the no-operation line. If the
operating quantity lies within the no operation region, a negative torque is produced. That is,
the torque will attempt to rotate the cylinder in the reverse direction. If the operating quantity
coincides with the maximum torque line in the no-operation region, the relay will produce
the maximum restraint torque. An easy visualization is to consider the cosine function. The
positive half cycle of the cosine function is centered at zero degrees. As you move away
from zero degrees, in either direction, the function decreases in magnitude to zero and then
becomes negative (the restraint region).
Directional Element Design_r7

12

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Ia, Ib, Ic
Va, Vb, Vc
Relay

## The angle among the phase voltages

and currents measured by the relay
depend on the type of faults.

It has been established that a directional relay needs two input quantities to determine
direction. The angular relationship between currents and voltages is dependent on the
type of fault. The question now becomes, What quantities do I use?

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Available Sequence Quantities for

Phase Faults
Sequence Three-Phase Phase-Phase- Phase-PhaseQuantity
Faults
Faults
Ground Faults

V1
V2
V0
I1
I2
I0

Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No

Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

## Not all sequence quantities are available for phase faults.

Although sequence components are available, they have not been used in traditional
phase directional relays. Instead, phase quantities have been used for the restraint and
operate quantities.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## 90o Phase Directional Element

Ia
Va

Voltage Current

A
MT

MT
Vbc
Vc

Vbc

Ia

Vca

Ib

Vab

Ic

Vb

MT = 30 or 45 (Leading)

The figure illustrates the most widely used traditional phase directional element. Each
of the phase elements receives a line-line voltage and the current of the third line as
input signals. The phase shift between relay voltage and current for a unity-powerfactor condition is 90. Hence, the name of the connection: 90 or quadrature
connection.
A value of 30 or 45 is selected for the maximum torque angle MT (with current
leading the voltage). For forward fault conditions, the fault current lags the phase
voltage (and the unity-power-factor current) and tends toward the maximum torque line,
MTA, as shown in the figure. If MT is 30, the fault current, for a bolted fault, will
coincide with the MTA if the characteristic line angle is 60.
It can be shown that this is valid for three-phase and phase-phase faults. For forward
three-phase faults, all three directional elements will be in close proximity to the
maximum torque condition and will operate. For forward line-line faults, there are only
two elements with positive operating torque. The directional element connected to the
voltage between the faulted lines will see no fault current and probably a low voltage
and will, therefore, not operate.
For reverse three-phase or line-line faults, the relay current will be shifted 180, placing
it in the restraint region of the directional element.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## 90o Phase Directional Element

a
b
c

Bus
a
b
c

Ia

Ib

67+

67+

67+

Ic

52
Line
The figure shows the typical connection diagram for directional elements using the 90
connection. The manufacturers literature should always be consulted to verify the
proper connections to achieve the desired directionality.
Note that in the connection the polarity markings of the relays, CTs, and VTs are
selected in order to provide the desired tripping direction. For currents flowing out of
the bus and into the line, the relay currents flow into the relay polarity markings.
Accordingly, the voltage drops in the secondary side of the VTs are oriented from
polarity to nonpolarity marking in the relay. The result is positive relay torque for faults
at the protected line (forward faults). Note that the secondary connections of CTs and
VTs are grounded at only one point. If more than one ground exists (for example, at the
relay panel and the substation switchyard), there could be circulating currents during
ground faults that would create a potential difference between the two grounding points.
The circulating current can cause a relay misoperation.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Available Sequence Quantities for

Ground Faults
Sequence
Quantity

Phase-PhaseGround Faults

Single-LineGround Faults

V1
V2
V0
I1
I2
I0

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

## All sequence quantities are available for ground faults.

However, zero-sequence quantities have traditionally been used for ground fault
detection. This is because all faults involving ground produce zero-sequence voltages
and currents. Additionally, zero-sequence quantities are easy to obtain. The residual
current resulting from three wye-connected CTs is zero-sequence current. Zerosequence voltage can be obtained through the use of a grounded-wye/broken delta
connection of three VTs. Zero-sequence voltage or current can be used as the
polarizing quantity for a zero-sequence directional element.
Although there are benefits to using negative-sequence quantities, they were not
common in the E/M world because of the expense of the relays. However, things have
changed in the digital world. In a digital relay, negative-sequence components are

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Elements
Polarizing
Quantity

Operating
Quantity

3V0

3I0

3I0

3I0

V2

I2

## Zero-sequence directional elements can misoperate for some faults in an adjacent,

mutually-coupled line. The use of negative-sequence directional elements solves the
problem.
Other advantages of negative-sequence directional elements include the following:
Negative-sequence elements are applicable at stations where only open-delta VTs exist
or where VTs are available only on the opposite side of wye-delta power transformers.
Negative-sequence elements are easy to check in the field for correct connections and
operation.
An important point in ground directional element application is the availability and
reliability of the polarizing quantity. Zero-sequence voltage or current is not always
available; the negative-sequence voltage is always available. There are cases (for lineend faults, for example) in which 3V0 is higher than 3V2; in other cases the opposite is
true, depending on system topology and parameters. A careful choice of the polarizing
quantity is very important for proper directional element application.
Whatever the directional element type and connection might be, the overcurrent element
always responds to the residual current 3I0.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Connection for 3V0 Polarized

Ground Directional Element
V0

I0
+
-

3I0

I0
ZT0

V0
+

ZL0

3V0

When the zero-sequence voltage is available at the relay location, the voltage can be
used as a polarizing signal. The figure shows the sequence network interconnection and
the phasor diagram for a forward ground fault. Observe that current 3I0 leads voltage
3V0 by more than 90. In traditional directional elements, it is difficult to obtain a value
of MT higher than 90.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Connection for 3V0 Polarized

Ground Directional Element
3I0

-3V0

Voltage
3V0
-3V0

3V0
-3I0

Current
-3I0
3I0

MT = 60 (Lagging)

There are two possible relay connections to keep MT less than 90. One solution uses
3V0 and -3I0 as input signals, and the other connection uses -3V0 and 3I0. In both
alternatives, the operating current lags the polarizing voltage by the angle of the zerosequence network impedance. Because of the lagging operating current, a value of 60
is commonly used for the maximum torque angle MT, with current lagging voltage.

20

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## 3V0 Polarized Directional Element

a
b
c

Bus

a
b
c

3I0
3V0

+
+ 67N

52
Line
The figure shows a connection for the 3V0 polarized ground directional element.
According to the polarity markings, the relay receives -3V0 and 3I0 as input signals in
this connection.
Observe that the residual connection of the CTs is used as a zero-sequence current filter.
In order to get 3V0, a set of auxiliary VTs are connected grounded wye-broken delta.
This is a traditional zero-sequence voltage filter.
Note that the use of auxiliary VTs is not a requirement. The primary VTs can be
connected grounded wye-broken delta to provide 3V0 to the relay, if secondary phase
voltages are not needed. Additionally, many VTs are supplied with dual secondaries.
In such a case, one set of secondaries can be connected as wye to supply phase voltages
and the other set of secondaries can be connected broken delta to supply 3V0.

21

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Three Ways of Obtaining 3I0

I0

a
FluxSumming
CT

I0
b

I0
3I0

3I0
3I0

3I0

Previously, it was indicated that zero-sequence current could be used for the polarizing
and the operating quantities of a ground fault directional element. The question is,
How to use the same quantity for both inputs of a directional element?
The figure shows three sources for obtaining 3I0. Starting from left to right, 3I0 can be
obtained from a CT in the grounded neutral of a wye-connected winding of a power
transformer. Next is the residual current of wye-connected CTs. Last, 3I0 can be
obtained through the use of a flux-summing CT.
The CT connected to the transformer neutral and the flux-summing CT can provide
higher sensitivity by using lower ratio CTs. In the residual connection, the ratio is
determined by maximum load currents. If using lower ratio CTs, care should be
exercised in selecting the proper CTs such that saturation will not be a concern.

22

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

S
138kV

67N

69kV

S
67N

## Caution must be used in selecting a source of polarizing current:

All paths for ground current to flow are not necessarily ground sources.

If they merely pass ground current from another source, they cannot be used for
polarization.

## The addition of a delta connected tertiary winding in an auto or wye/wye

transformer means that it contributes ground current in addition to the ground
current that it passes from the other source and, therefore, it can be used.

The H0X0 bushing current of auto banks can only be used with caution. The
tertiary delta current is a better source.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## 3I0 Polarized Ground Directional Element

a
b
c

Bus

3I0T
3I0L

3I0T
+ 67N
+

Line

52

3I0L

The figure shows one alternative for 3I0 directional element connection. The current
flow directions are shown for a ground fault on the protected line. The primary zerosequence current flows up the transformer neutral and out the line. The secondary zerosequence current flows into the relay polarity markings.
For a ground fault on another line connected to the same bus (not shown in the figure),
the primary currents will flow up the transformer neutral, and into the bus from the
protected line. For such a case, the phase angle for polarizing current 3I0T remains
unchanged and the operating current 3I0L undergoes a 180 phase shift.

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## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Ground Sources
L

## Cannot Use for IPol

R

L
ZLF

ZFR

ZSR

ZTL

ZSL

N0

ZTR

A wye/wye bank will pass zero-sequence current from one side to the other.
However, it does not contribute additional zero-sequence current, assuming there is no
phantom tertiary. Therefore, it appears in the zero-sequence network just the same as
a line or other series impedance.

25

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Ground Sources
L

L
ZLF

ZFR

ZTMR

ZSR

OK for IPol
R

ZTTR

ZTL

ZSL

N0

ZTHR

When the transformer includes a delta tertiary winding, it appears as an additional path
in the zero-sequence network.
The result is that zero-sequence current is contributed by the transformer, as well as
passed through from the source. The effect of a parallel path results in a lower zerosequence impedance which increases the ground fault current. By connecting CTs to
measure the current circulating in the delta winding, the current flowing in the ZTTR
branch (that contributed by the transformer) can be isolated and used as a source of
zero-sequence current polarization.

26

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Example of Obtaining IPOL, Wye/Wye-TX

138kV

69kV

1I0TTR

IPol=1I0TTR

120T

240T

IPOL=(3I0SR+3I0TTR)-3I0SR=3I0TTR

3I0SR+3I0TTR

3I0SR

To isolate the zero-sequence current flowing from the N0 bus to the fault for
polarization in a three winding transformer, connect the CTs in the ground legs as
shown. It is important to use CT ratios to match the power transformation ratio to get
perfect cancellation of the through portion of the current.
An easier alternative is to use a CT connected inside the delta of the tertiary winding to
obtain the I0TTR current. If the delta winding is not loaded, a single CT may be used and
the result is 1I0. If the tertiary winding is loaded, it is necessary to connect CTs in each
leg of the delta in parallel to obtain only the zero-sequence component. In which case,
the current obtained is 3I0.

27

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

S
138kV

67N

69kV

S
67N

S
67N

28

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Example of Obtaining IPOL, Auto-TX

138kV

69kV

1I0TTR

IPol=1I0TTR
IPol=(3I0SR+3I0TTR)@138kV-3I0SR@69KV

3I0SR+3I0TTR

3I0SR

In the case of an auto-transformer, the current flowing in the H0X0 bushing is a mix of
currents on two different voltage bases. Thus, the current can only be used for
polarization with great caution. All possible zero-sequence source conditions, for all
possible faults on the systems, must be studied to ensure that the polarization signal will
be correct for all possible configurations.
An easier alternative is to use the current circulating in the delta for polarization. It will
be a reliable source of polarization in all cases.

29

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Digital Enhancements

Up to this point, the discussion has been centered on traditional (E/M) directional
elements. Numerical relays form directional characteristics, from torque-like
quantities, and sequence impedance measurements. An advantage of the digital
solution is the ability to consolidate several directional elements in one hardware
associated with simple E/M elements.
In E/M relays, a minimum torque is required to overcome friction and the restraint
spring. Likewise, digital relays require that a minimum threshold is met before a
direction decision can be made. The minimum threshold in a digital relay accounts
for A/D resolution issues and prevents improper decisions for faults that result in low
magnitudes of the restraint or operate quantity.

30

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Conventional Relay Panel

IA

VBC

IB

VCA

IC

VAB

IR

3V0

67A

67B

67C

67N

32A

32B

32C

32N

50/51

50/51

50/51

50/51

Trip

Trip

Trip

Trip

A traditional relay panel consists of three relays for phase-to-phase faults and one
relay for phase-to-ground faults. All of these relays make independent directional
decisions. The directional element in each relay has no knowledge of the decisions
made by the other directional elements in the same terminal.

31

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

IA

IB

VA VB VC

IC

Phase
50/51

Neg.-Seq.

Ground

50/51

50/51

Trip

## Numerical relays integrate voltage and current information to perform directional

element calculations and evaluate the results in order to make the correct directional
decision.
Aside from making negative-sequence directional elements economically viable,
modern relays allow the use of multiple directional elements. Using multiple
directional elements enables the user to use different directional elements for
the deficiencies of traditional directional elements.

32

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Positive-Sequence Directional
Element Torque Equation

## A single positive-sequence directional element can be created for three-phase faults.

T32P is the torque calculation of this element.
The sign of T32P is positive for forward three-phase faults and negative for reverse
three-phase faults.
Since this element is only valid for three phase faults, a separate directional element
for unbalanced faults is needed.

33

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Ground Directional Element Torque

Equations
Voltage Polarized :
r
r
r
r
r
T32V = | 3V0 | | IR | cos ( 3V0 ) ( IR ) + (ZL0 )

Current Polarized :
r
r
r
r
T32I = | IPOL | | IR | cos IPOL IR

)]

As can be seen, the format of the equation is the same, but the quantities used are
different.
A zero-sequence, voltage-polarized ground directional element uses zero-sequence
voltage as the polarizing quantity and the residual current as the operating quantity.
If the polarizing voltage quantity becomes too small, the element becomes unreliable.
A zero-sequence, current-polarized ground directional element uses an external
current for polarization, instead of the zero-sequence voltage.
The torque sign depends on the angle between the residual current and the polarizing
current.

34

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Negative-Sequence Directional
Element Torque Equation

## The torque calculation of this directional element is based on negative-sequence

quantities. T32Q is positive for forward faults.

35

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Torque Equation
Original torque equation :
T = VIcos( MT ) = VIcos(MT )
Another way to express the torque equation :
r r j *
r r * - j
MT
T = Re V ( I e ) = Re V I e MT

The original torque equation is the same that was presented earlier. The earlier
discussion used VIcos( - MT). However, because of the nature of the cosine function,
cos( - MT) = cos(MT - ).
The alternative expression represents the same equation using different mathematical
expressions.
Trig functions are not typically part of a microprocessors repertoire and the
trigonometric algorithms are generally inefficient. As a result, efficient algorithms have
been developed to solve the math associated with power system equations.

36

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Directional Element
Issues and Solutions

37

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

90 Connected, Phase-Directional
Element
T > 0 for Forward Three-Phase Faults

Bus S

Three-Phase
Fault

Bus R

Relay 1

## For forward three-phase faults the torque calculations of the three

90-connected, phase-directional elements are positive. Balanced fault conditions
cause no problem.

38

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Reverse SLG Fault With Strong

Remote Zero-Sequence Infeed

Open

I Fault
Relay 1

Relay 2

Bus S

Bus R
A-Phase
Fault

Mr. Warrington identifies in his book a system-dependent fault condition that produces
a misoperation for 90 connected, phase-directional elements. This condition is a
reverse A-phase-to-ground fault, where the remote infeed current is zero-sequence.
Relay 1 should see the fault in the forward direction, while Relay 2 should see the fault
in the reverse direction.

39

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Reverse SLG Fault

May Cause Relay Misoperation
Relay 1
VPOLB=VCA

Relay 2
VPOLC=VAB

VPOLB

IA, IB, IC

VPOLC

44.3 44.3

180
136

136
IA, IB, IC
VPOLA

VPOLA=VBC

Relay 1 A-phase element sees the fault in the forward direction, as expected. Relay 2
B-phase and C-phase elements see the fault in the forward direction, instead of the
expected reverse direction.

40

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Possible Phase Directional

Element Solutions
z

Elements

## Supervise With Phase-to-Phase

Overcurrent Element

## Block Directional-Element Decision

Based on 3I0 Level

## The following are possible solutions to this problem:

Require agreement of all directional elements before declaring phase-fault
direction
Supervise each phase directional decision with a phase-to-phase overcurrent
element
Block phase directional element decision based on zero-sequence current
level
Use a positive-sequence directional element
These are solutions that are easy to implement in a digital relay.

41

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Positive-Seq. Element Performance for

Out-of-Section Phase-Phase Faults
Bus S

Bus R
Line 2

Source S
ES 30

Source R
ER 0

Line 1
Relay 1

Relay 2

Z S1 = Z R1 = j0.8

Z L1 = j4

Lets look at the performance of the positive-sequence directional element for a Bphase-to-C-phase fault in the parallel line. Relay 1 should see the fault in the forward
direction, while Relay 2 should see the fault in the reverse direction.

42

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Positive-Sequence Element of Relay 2

Misoperates for Out-of-Section BC Fault
I1 1 ZL1

Relay 1

= 74

Relay 2
V1
V1

I1

I1

= 86

I1 1 ZL1

For Relay 2, the angle between the polarizing quantity and the operating quantity is
less than 90. Relay 2 incorrectly declares the fault as forward.
How can we avoid this incorrect directional declaration?

43

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Memory Voltage

## Only Valid for Three-Phase Faults

The positive-sequence directional element cannot operate for three-phase faults where
the magnitudes of all three phase voltages are near zero. The amount of torque is
directly related to the magnitude of the voltage. Hence, zero volts results in zero torque.
The close-in zero voltage fault issue can be overcome using positive-sequence memory
voltage.

44

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Zero-Sequence Polarization
Parallel Lines w/ Common Terminals

Line 2
ZOM
Line 1
Source 1

Source 2
SLG Fault

Zero-sequence polarized directional elements are reliable for use in parallel lines with
common terminals.
The figure shows the direction of zero-sequence currents for a single-line-to-ground
fault on Line 1. The direction of zero-sequence current in both sources is always the
same for ground faults anywhere on Line 1 and Line 2. The element performs correctly
in this application.

45

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Zero-Sequence Polarization
Parallel Lines w/ Isolated Zero-Seq. Sources
Relay 3

Relay 4
Line 2

Source 3

Source 4
ZOM
Relay 1

Relay 2
Line 1

Source 1

Source 2
SLG Fault

## Zero-sequence polarized directional elements can misoperate in parallel lines with

high zero-sequence mutual coupling and isolated zero-sequence sources.
The figure shows parallel lines with isolated zero-sequence sources and a SLG fault on
Line 1. Note that the zero-sequence current in each source is in phase with the zerosequence current of the corresponding relay. An undesired trip may occur in the
unfaulted line.

46

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Zero-Sequence Polarization
One Common Bus
Relay 3

Relay 4
Line 2

Source 3
ZOM
Relay 1

Relay 2
Line 1

Source 1
SLG Fault

47

Source 2

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Zero-Sequence Source Isolation in

Parallel Lines With One Common Bus
Relay 3

Relay 4
Line 2

Source 3
ZOM
Relay 1

Relay 2

Source 2

Line 1
Open

Source 1
SLG Fault

Zero-sequence source isolation also occurs in parallel lines with a single common bus
after the breaker closest to the common bus opens.

48

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Why Use Negative-Sequence Quantities

for Ground Directional Elements?

Coupling

## Why use negative-sequence quantities for ground directional elements?

They are insensitive to zero-sequence mutual coupling associated with parallel
line applications. They can be applied in systems with isolated zero-sequence
sources.
They are reliable input quantities.
As mentioned earlier, negative-sequence directional elements were not used in large
quantities until the advent of the digital relay.

49

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

## Ground Directional Protection

Polarizing Quantity Profiles
L

V1SL

V1SR
V1
V0

V2

V1F=(2*V1SL)/3

V2F=V0F=(V1SL)/3

## Review of Symmetrical Components.

The Positive-sequence voltage is highest at the source and lowest at the fault.

The Negative- and Zero-sequence voltages are highest at the fault and lowest
at the source.

If you are close to a source, various sequence quantities may be insufficient to polarize
the relay for a ground fault. This can especially be a problem for using Zero-Sequence
voltage polarization since there are ground source transformers situated throughout the
transmission grid.

If you are at a bus with a strong zero-sequence current source, a remote fault
may result in very little voltage distortion. So current polarization is
desirable.

## If there is a single ground source on the bus, there could be no source of

current polarization if it is out of service. So 3V0 polarization is desirable.
(These are two reasons that dual polarized relays 67N are so popular.)

## As we discussed earlier, zero-sequence mutual coupling can result in

misoperation for either zero-sequence current or voltage polarization so
negative-sequence polarization is often better.

Note: In the above figure, we have made the simplifying assumption that the positive-,
negative-, and zero-sequence impedances are equal at the point of the fault.

50

## Power System Protection for Engineers PROT 401

Section 13 - Directional Element Design and Evaluation

Summary
z

## Zero-Sequence Source Isolation Affects

Zero-Sequence Polarized Directional
Elements