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UEEA1333

Analogue Electronics
Topic 5
Non-linear circuits

Jan 2013
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In this topic, we will:


Use logarithmic amplifier for signal
conditioning
Learn the basic operation of analog multiplier
Learn about the operation of phase-locked
loops

Logarithmic amplifiers
A logarithmic (log) amplifier produces an output that is
proportional to the logarithm of the input
Two major areas of application: complex analog calculation
and signal processing
Complex analog calculation involves raising the power of a
signal, multiplication and divisions of two signals

In signal processing, log amplifier are used in applications that


require compression of analog input signal and linearization of
transducers that have exponential outputs.
An antilogarithm (antilog) amplifier produce the antilog or
inverse log of its input
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The key element in a basic log amplifier is a semiconductor pn


junction in the form of either a diode or a base-emitter junction of
a bipolar junction transistor
A pn junction exhibits a natural logarithm current for many
decades of input voltage

The relationship between the current and voltage is expressed by


the following equation for a diode

VD
I D = I S exp( ) 1
VT

VD
exp( ) >> 1
VT
VD
I D = I S exp( )
VT
ID
VD = VT ln( )
IS
VT = thermal voltage and is approximately 0.0257V at 25C
IS = reverse saturation current of diode
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Basic log amp:

Due to virtual ground, I IN

Vout

VIN
=
= ID
R1

ID
= VD = VT ln( )
IS
VIN
= VT ln(
)
I S R1
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The BE junction of a BJT exhibits the same type of log


characteristic as a diode

VBE
I C = I S exp(
) 1
VT

where IS is the reverse saturation current of the base-emitter


diode
Similar analysis to obtain:

Vout = VBE

VIN
= VT ln(
)
I S R1

With npn transistor, input voltage must be positive so


that current can flow through the transistor
For signal that may go negative or positive, both npn
and pnp BJT required

Value of IS is difficult to determine and


sensitive to temperature changes
Practical log amp:

VO = K (VO 2 VO1 )

If the two transistors are closely matched in an IC,


both will have same values of IS

VO 2 = VT ln(Vi / I S R1 )
VO1 = VT ln(V REF / I S R1 )
Using difference amplifier with gain K:

VO = K (VO 2 VO1 ) = KVT ln(Vi / VREF )


Output is independent of IS
VREF and difference amp gain can be adjusted to
control overall sensitivity
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Antilog amplifier
Vin = VBE
Vout
I F = IC =
R1
VBE

IC
= VT ln
IS

Vout
Vin = VT ln
R1 I S
Vout

Vin
)
= R1 I S exp(
VT

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For signal that may go positive and negative:

Current flows through Q2 when signal is


negative
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Signal compression using log amp


Dynamic range of a signal is the difference between
the maximum and minimum voltage
If DR is too large for an application to handle, it has
to be scaled down using signal compression
If use linear circuit, lower voltages are reduced by the
same percentage as higher voltages
Thus lower voltages may become masked by noise
Use log amplifier to compress so that higher voltages
are reduced more than lower voltages
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Example
An input voltage has voltages in the range of 0.1V to
20V. An 8-bit ADC with resolution of 31.125 mV is
used to convert this analog signal. A combination of
log amp and inverting amplifier (gain = -25) is used
to condition the input signal so that is it compatible
with the ADC. Design the log amp for npn transistor
with IS = 60 nA

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Solution
Maximum voltage that can be converted by the
ADC = 31.25 x 28 = 8 V
Maximum voltage at inverting amplifier input
= 8/-25 = -0.32 V

Vout = VBE

VIN
= VT ln(
)
I S R1

Vout = -0.32 V, VIN = 20 V


R = 1306
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Analog multiplier
Symbol :

The output is the product of the two inputs divided by


a reference voltage Vref : Vo = vx vy / Vref
As long as vx< Vref and vy < Vref
the output of the amplifier will not saturate
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If both the inputs are positive , it is said to be a one


quadrant multiplier.
Example: multiplier using log amp and summing amp

A two quadrant multiplier will function properly if


one input is held positive and the other is allowed to
swing both positive and negative.
If both inputs may be either positive or negative, it is
called a four quadrant multiplier.
There are a number of applications of analog
multiplier such as frequency doubling, frequency
shifting, phase angle detection, real power
computation, multiplying two signals, dividing and
squaring of signals.
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Analog multiplier
Using log/antilog amplifiers and summing amplifiers,
analog multiplication can be realized:

ln(a b) = ln a + ln b

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Output of log amps are given by:

Vout1 = VT ln (Vin1 / k )
Vout 2 = VT ln (Vin 2 / k )
Unity gain inverting summing amplifier is
used to invert and add the two output voltages:

Vout ( sum ) = (Vout1 + Vout1 )


Vin1
Vin 2
= VT ln
+ ln

k
k
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Output of summing amp is fed into an antilog


amp:
Vout ( anti log)

Vout ( sum )

= k exp
VT

Vin1Vin 2 1
= k expVT ln

2
k
VT

Vin1Vin 2
Vin1Vin 2
= k
=
2
k
k

An inverting amp is used to invert the output


an give it a gain of k:
Vout = Vin1Vin 2
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R1 = R2 = R6 = R to get same k
R3 = R4 = R5 for unity gain

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Phase-locked loops (PLL)


Generates a signal whose frequency tracks that
of another input signal
Used in signal processing and communication
equipments e.g. FM demodulator, frequency
synthesis

vI
fi

Phase
detector

LPF

Vc

VCO

vO
fo

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Phase detector compares the phase of the input voltage with


the VCO output voltage and produces a fluctuating voltage
(called the error voltage) proportional to their phase
difference
Lowpass filter removes high frequency components in the
error voltage to produce a smooth control voltage
The voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) produces a
frequency proportional to the control voltage
VCO output frequency is continuously adjusted until it is
equal to the input frequency when this happen, the loop is
said to be locked
If the frequency of the input voltage changes slightly, the
phase difference between the input signal and the VCO output
will also changes, which changes the control voltage to force
the VCO frequency to the same value as the input voltage
If no input voltage is applied, the VCO runs at a fixed
frequency called the free running frequency
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Lock range is the range of input frequencies


around the free running frequency which the
PLL can maintain lock

Limitations on the range are the maximum


frequency deviation of the VCO and output
limits of the phase detector, but is independent of
the LPF

Capture range is the range of input


frequencies around the free running
frequency which the PLL can acquire lock
with the input signal

The range depends on the filter bandwidth and


maximum deviation of VCO frequency
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Phase detector is basically an analog multiplier


Let the input signal vi(t) = Visin(2fit+i) and the
VCO output signal vo(t) = Vosin(2fot+o)
Output of the multiplier:
Vd = Vi sin(2f i t + i )Vo sin(2f ot + o )
ViVo
=
cos[(2f i t + i ) (2f ot + o )]
2
ViVo

cos[(2f i t + i ) + (2f ot + o )]
2

When the PLL is locked, fi = fo, and the phase


detector output voltage is
Vd =

ViVo
[cos( i o ) cos( 4f i t + i + o )]
2

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The low-pass filter removes the second harmonic


term, leaving a DC voltage:

ViVo
cos e
Vc =
2
where the phase error, e = i o
Therefore, the output voltage of the filter is
proportional to the phase difference of the input
signal and VCO signal and is used as control voltage
for the VCO.

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VCO can be some type of LC, crystal or RC oscillator,


whereby a varactor diode is used as a voltage-variable
capacitor
Capacitance of a varactor diode varies inversely with
reverse-bias voltage, thus inversely varying the
oscillator frequency e.g.

1
fo =
2RC

or

fo =

1
2 LC

Therefore increase of control voltage increases


frequency and vice versa
The conversion gain or sensitivity of the VCO is defined
as:

f 0
K=
Vc

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Exercises
Derive the formula for output voltage of the
basic log amp and antilog amp.
Sketch the block diagram to show how an
analog multiplier can be built using log amp
and antilog amp.
For a phase locked loop, sketch the block
diagram and explain how it operates. Explain
the term free-running frequency, lock range
and capture range.
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