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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr.

2/2014

INFRACIUNEA DE OMOR N NOUL

MANSLAUGHTER IN THE NEW

COD PENAL

PENAL CODE

Ion Cristinel RUJAN*

Ion Cristinel RUJAN**

Abstract: Normele de drept penal intern i


dispoziiile dreptului penal internaional protejeaz
cel mai important dintre drepturile fundamentale ale
omului consfinite i garantate constituional n
Romnia, n acord cu prevederile Declaraiei
Universale a Drepturilor Omului i ale Conveniei
Europene
a
Drepturilor
Omului.
Analiza
infraciunilor referitoare la omor din noul cod penal
are n vedere, n primul rnd, restructurarea textelor
care ncrimineaz faptele penale ndreptate contra
vieii persoanei i, n al doilea rnd, subliniaz
noutile ce vizeaz coninutul infraciunii de omor
calificat i regimul sancionator.

Abstract: The rules of domestic criminal law


and regulations of international criminal law protect
the most important of fundamental human rights
approved and guaranteed constitutionally in
Romania, in accordance with the provisions of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the
European Convention on Human Rights. The analysis
of the offenses relating to murder of the new Criminal
Code envisages firstly, the reorganization of the texts
that incriminate the criminal offences directed against
human life and, secondly, highlights the news
targeting the offenses of first-degree murder and
sentencing regime.

Cuvinte cheie: dreptul la via, infraciunea


de omor, infraciunea de omor calificat, pedeaps.

I.

Key words: right to life, murder, first-degree


murder, punishment.

Consideraii introductive.

Viaa reprezint dreptul omului


cel mai de pre, fiind un dar de la Dumnezeu,
un act al creaiei Sale n Facerea lumii.
Paradigma teologic n care se circumscrie
dreptul la via presupune c nimeni, n afar
de Dumnezeu, nu poate dispune de viaa altei
persoane, nici mcar de propria sa via. n
acest sens, porunca lui Dumnezeu din
Decalogul lui Moise este limpede: S nu
ucizi, aceasta fiind o norm cretin
imperativ de natur moral, care
fundamenteaz norma penal codificat
ulterior (Exod. 20, 13; Deut. 5, 17)1.
n lumina nvturii bisericilor
cretine,
viaa
reprezint
un
dar
dumnezeiesc, valoarea suprem a omului pe
pmnt, fiindc ea este suportul tuturor
celorlalte valori, care o exprim i o impun
n fruntea tuturor acestora, pentru c omul a

I.

Introduction.
Life is the most precious human
right, as a gift from God, an act of His
creation in the Genesis. The theological
paradigm which circumscribes the right to
life means that no one but God can dispose
of another person's life, even his own life. In
this sense, the commandment of God from
the Ten Commandments of Moses is clear:
"Do not kill", which is an imperative
Christian moral norm that underlies criminal
standard subsequently codified (Exodus. 20,
13; Deut. 5, 17)16.
In the light of the teachings of the
Christian church, life is a divine gift, the
supreme value of man on earth, for it is the
support of all other values, which reflect and
require its coming before of all these,
because man was made in the image and

Lect. univ. dr., Departamentul tiine Juridice, Facultatea de Relaii Internaionale, Drept i tiine
Administrative, Universitatea Constantin Brncui din Tg-Jiu
**
University Lecturer, PhD, Department of Juridical Sciences, Faculty of International Relations, Law and
Administrative Sciences Constantin Brncui University of Tg-Jiu
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fost fcut dup chipul i asemnarea lui


Dumnezeu. (Fac. I, 26-27).
Infraciunea de omor este
cuprins n categoria infraciunilor contra
vieii, n art.188 din Capitolul I al Codului
penal i prezint importan pentru c
vizeaz protecia penal a dreptului la via,
drept consfinit constituional n art. 22 din
Constituia Romniei2
Dreptul la via este protejat de
legea penal din momentul nceperii vieii
persoanei i pn la decesul acesteia, fr s
se fac distincie n raport de sex, vrst, ori
alte elemente ce ar putea fi incluse ntr-o
perspectiv discriminatorie3.
Protecia juridic a dreptului la
via a fost ntrit prin adoptarea n 1948 a
Declaraiei Universale a Drepturilor Omului,
care consacra n cadrul art.3 c orice om are
dreptul la via, libertatea i securitatea sa.
Toate fiinele umane se nasc libere i egale n
demnitate i drepturi, fiecare om se poate
preleva de drepturile i libertile
fundamentale, fr nici un fel de deosebire
de ras, culoare, sex, limb, religie, opinie
politic, origine natural sau social, avere,
natere sau orice alt situaie. n Pactul
internaional privind drepturile civile i
politice, adoptat de Adunarea General a
O.N.U. la data de16.12.1966 i intrat n
vigoare la 20.11.1974, se precizeaz la art.6
c Dreptul la via este inerent persoanei
umane. Acest drept trebuie ocrotit prin lege.
Nimeni nu poate fi privat de viaa sa n mod
arbitrar.
Primul cod penal romn din 1937
reglementa mai multe infraciuni de omor:
omorul simplu - art. 463, omorul calificat art. 464, pruncuciderea - art. 465, oferta de
omor - art. 466, omuciderea prin impruden
- art. 467, omuciderea la struin - art. 468,
omorul prin consens - art. 469. Codul penal
din 1939 coninea iniial numai dou forme
de svrirea a omorului: omorul simplu i
omorul calificat, la care s-a adugat n 1957,
omorul deosebit de grav. Structurarea
infraciunilor de omor n trei variante: omor,
omor calificat i omor deosebit de grav a fost

likeness of God . (Fac. I, 26-27).


Manslaughter is in the category
of crimes against life in Article 188 of
Chapter I of the Criminal Code and it is of
importance as it views on the criminal
protection of the right to life, to the
prosecution intended to protect the right to
life as enshrined constitutionally in Article.
22 of the Romanian Constitution17.
The right to life is protected by
the criminal law from the start of human life
and until the death of the person, without
distinction by gender, age, or other items that
could be included in a discriminatory view18.
Legal protection of the right to
life was strengthened by the adoption in
1948 of the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, which enshrined in Article 3 that
"everyone has the right to life, liberty and
security. All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights, each man may
take the rights and fundamental freedoms
without any discrimination as to race, color,
sex, language, religion, political opinion,
national or social origin, property , birth or
other status. " The International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights, adopted by UN
General Assembly on 16.12.1966 and
entered into force on 11.20.1974, it is stated
in Article 6 that "All human beings have the
inherent right to life. This right shall be
protected by law. No one shall be deprived
of his life arbitrarily. "
First Romanian Criminal Code of
1937 regulated several offenses of murder:
simple murder - art. 463, first degree murder
- art. 464, infanticide - art. 465, murder offer
- art. 466, reckless homicide - art. 467,
homicide in patience - art. 468, murder by
consensus - art. 469. The Criminal Code of
1939 originally contained only two forms of
committing murder: plain murder and firstdegree murder, to which was added
aggravated murder in 1957. The Criminal
Code of 1969 kept structuring murder in
three versions: murder, manslaughter and
aggravated murder , which, in the chapter on
offenses against human life, criminalized

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Juridical Sciences Series, Issue 2/2014

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pstrat i n Codul penal din 1969, care, n


cadrul capitolului referitor la infraciuni
contra vieii persoanei, incrimina i alte fapte
ce aveau ca urmare moartea victimei, i
anume: pruncuciderea , uciderea din culp i
determinarea sau nlesnirea sinuciderii.
Referitor
la
reglementarea
infraciunilor care vizeaz persoana n
general i viaa persoanei, n special, ntre
vechiul cod penal i noul cod penal exist
diferene structurale i de coninut. Astfel, n
noul cod penal, capitolul care prevede
infraciunile contra vieii este circumscris
infraciunilor contra persoanei i cuprinde:
art. 188 omorul, art. 189 omorul calificat,
art. 190 uciderea la cererea victimei, art.
191 determinarea sau nlesnirea sinuciderii
i art. 192 uciderea din culp. Vechea lege
penal avea o structur diferit n sensul c,
n cadrul capitolului denumit Omuciderea,
erau ncriminate urmtoarele infraciuni:
omorul (art. 174), omorul calificat (art. 175),
omorul deosebit de grav (art. 176),
pruncuciderea (art. 177) i uciderea din culp
(art. 178)4.
Din analiza comparativ a
structurilor celor dou coduri referitoare la
infraciunile contra vieii persoanei se poate
observa c vechea reglementare prevedea
omorul deosebit de grav, infraciune care nu
se mai regsete n noul cod penal. Totui, o
parte dintre ipotezele de svrire a omorului
deosebit de grav au fost incluse n structura
infraciunii de omor calificat din noul cod
penal, n timp ce unele variante de realizare a
omorului calificat din vechiul cod penal nu
se mai regsesc n noua reglementare.
De asemenea, putem remarca
faptul c noul cod penal cuprinde o nou
infraciune i anume, uciderea la cererea
victimei, care const n uciderea svrit la
cererea explicit, serioas, contient i
repetat a victimei care sufer de o boal
incurabil sau de o infirmitate grav atestat
medical, cauzatoare de suferine permanente
i greu de suportat, dar i faptul c
infraciunea de pruncucidere este ncriminat
sub o alt denumire - Uciderea sau

other acts that resulted in the death of the


victim, namely infanticide, manslaughter and
causing or aiding suicide.
Regarding the regulation of
offenses concerning the person in general
that and person's life in particular, between
the old penal code and the new penal code
there are structural and content differences.
Thus, in the new penal code the chapter
regarding crime against life is circumscribed
to crimes against person and includes: art.
188 - murder, art. 189 first-degree murder,
art. 190 - murder at the request of the victim,
art. 191 - causing or aiding suicide and art.
192 - involuntary manslaughter. Old criminal
law had a different structure in the sense that,
in the chapter called Homicide, were
incriminated the following offenses: murder
(article. 174), first degree murder (article.
175), first degree murder (article. 176),
infanticide (art . 177) and involuntary
manslaughter (article. 178)19.
From the comparative analysis of
the structures of the two codes relating to
offenses against human life we can see that
the old regulation stipulated aggravated
murder, a crime which does not appear in the
new penal code. However, a number of
assumptions to commit aggravated murder
were included in the structure of the offense
of first-degree murder in the new penal code,
while some embodiments described firstdegree murder in the old penal code can not
be found in the new regulation.
We can also notice that the new
Penal Code includes a new offense, namely
the murder at the request of the victim,
which is the murder committed at the
explicit, serious, conscious and repeated
request of the victim suffering from an
incurable disease or severe disability
certified medically, causing permanent and
unbearable suffering, and that the offense of
infanticide is charged under a different name
- Killing or harming the newborn by the
mother, in another chapter of the new code Crimes committed against a member of
family.

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vtmarea
nou-nscutului
de
ctre
mam,ntr-un alt capitol al noului cod
Infraciuni svrite asupra unui membru al
familiei.
II.
Infraciunea de omor
1. Coninutul legal
n conformitate cu art. 188 Cod penal
infraciunea const n uciderea unei
persoane.
2. Condiii preexistente
a) Obiectul juridic. Omorul are ca
obiect juridic relaiile sociale referitoare la
un drept fundamental, garantat constituional,
i anume dreptul la via al persoanei.
Dreptul la via este garantat, conform art. 22
alin.(1) din Constituia Romniei i art. 2
alin. (1) din Convenia european a
drepturilor omului.
b) Obiectul material. Obiectul
material al infraciunii de omor const n
corpul victimei. Este necesar ca persoana
asupra creia se rsfrnge activitatea
infracional s fie n via la momentul
svririi faptei.
Infraciunea de omor exist chiar
dac existau anterior faptei, cauze care ar fi
determinat o moarte natural, deci nu are
importan ct ar fi trit victima dac nu ar fi
fost ucis5.
c) Subiecii infraciunii. Subiect activ
al infraciunii de omor poate fi orice
persoan care ndeplinete condiiile generale
cerute de lege pentru a rspunde penal.
Subiect pasiv al omorului poate fi, de
asemenea orice persoan aflat n via,
indiferent de vrst ori starea sntii. n
ipoteza, n care subiectul pasiv este o femeie
gravid, fapta va fi ncadrat la infraciunea
de omor calificat, conform art.189 lit. g) Cod
penal.
n situaia n care fptuitorul a comis
anterior o infraciune de omor sau o tentativ
la infraciunea de omor, atunci fapta va fi
ncadrat la omor calificat, potrivit art. 189
lit. e).
Participaia penal este posibil sub
toate formele sale instigare, complicitate i

II.
Manslaughter
1. Legal content
In accordance with art. 188 Criminal
Code the offense consists of the
killing of a person.
2. Pre-existing conditions
a) Legal object. Manslaughter has as
legal
object
social
relations
concerning a fundamental right,
constitutionally guaranteed, namely
the right to life of the person. The
right to life guaranteed under Art. 22
para. (1) of the Romanian
Constitution and Art. 2 para. (1) of
the European Convention on Human
Rights.
b) The material object. The material
object of the crime of murder is the
victim's body. It is necessary that the
person on whom the criminal activity
is reflected to be alive at the time of
the offense.
It is manslaughter even if there are no
cases that would previously have led to a
natural death, so there is no importance of
how long the victim would have lived if the
victim had not been killed20.
c) Subjects of the crime. An active
subject of manslaughter can be any person
who fulfills the general conditions required
by the law to have criminal responsibility. A
passive subject of murder can also be any
person alive, regardless of age or health. In
the event, the passive subject is a pregnant
woman, the act will be assigned to the firstdegree murder under Article 189 let g) of the
Criminal Code.
If the offender has previously
committed an offense of murder or attempted
murder offense, the offense will be assigned
to the first-degree murder, according to art.
189 letters e).
Criminal participation is possible in
all its forms - incitement, complicity and
accomplice. Regarding being accomplice in
judicial practice and crime doctrine it was
concluded that there is the case when

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coautorat. n ceea ce privete coautoratul, n


practica judiciar i n doctrina penal s-a
concluzionat c exist coautorat atunci cnd
participanii au acionat cu intenia de a ucide
chiar dac sub aspect material numai
loviturile unuia sau unora au fost apte a
produce moartea victimei.
3. Coninutul constitutiv
a) Latura obiectiv. Elementul
material se realizeaz printr-o aciune sau
inaciune, printr-o activitate material ce are
ca rezultat moartea unei persoane.
Aciunea de uciderea poate consta
ntr-o lovire, mpucare, njunghiere, otrvire
i, deci poate fi ndreptat mpotriva fizicului
persoanei, dar poate s vizeze i psihicul
victimei, cnd fptuitorul tiind c victima
are o boal cardiac i provoac o emoie
puternic ce duce la moartea acesteia6.
Fptuitorul poate aciona asupra
victimei cu energia proprie, direct i
nemijlocit, ori poate folosi o alt energie sau
for, cum ar fi, de exemplu, folosirea unui
animal.
n doctrina penal se consider c
omorul se poate svri i prin folosirea
energiei fizice a victimei, care este
constrns s se mpute, s se arunce de la
nlime etc.7
Constituie omor fapta conductorului
de autovehicul care, dei i s-a cerut insistent
de ctre victim s opreasc autovehiculul
pentru a cobor, altfel fiind nevoit s sar
din mers, a accelerat n momentul deschiderii
portierei i sritura victimei a dus la moartea
acesteia8. De asemenea, constituie omor
fapta de a arunca dou crmizi de pe terasa
unui bloc cu opt etaje, n piaa intens
circulat din faa blocului, dintre care una a
lovit n cap o persoan care a decedat9.
Omorul poate fi svrit i prin
inaciune, atunci cnd fptuitorul are
obligaia de a aciona pentru a mpiedica
moartea persoanei. Este cazul medicului care
nu trateaz bolnavul aflat n ngrijirea sa sau
situaia n care mama nu-i hrnete copilul.
Infraciunea de omor exist i atunci
cnd fptuitorul pune victima ntr-o situaie

participants acted with intent to kill even if


under the material aspect only the hitting of
one or some were able to cause the victim's
death.
3. Constitutive Content
a) The objective side. The material
element is made through action or inaction,
through physical activity that results in the
death of a person.
The action of killing may consist of a
striking, shooting, stabbing, poisoning and
therefore could be brought against the body
of the person, but can also target the psyche
of the victim, the offender knowing that the
victim has heart disease provokes a strong
emotion that leads to her death21.
The offender may act on the victim
with his own energy directly and
immediately, or may use a different power or
force, such as, for example, the use of an
animal.
The crime doctrine says that murder can be
committed also using the natural energy of
the victim, who is forced to shoot himself, to
jump from a high place etc. 22
It constitutes murder the act of the
vehicle driver who, although he was urged
by the victim to stop the vehicle to get off,
otherwise being forced to jump off while the
vehicle was not stopped, accelerated when
opening the door and the victim`s jumping
resulted in death23. Also, murder is the act of
throwing two bricks from the terrace of a
building with eight floors in high-traffic
market in front of the building, one of which
hit in the head a person who died. 24
Murder can be committed through
inaction when the offender has a duty to act
to prevent the death of the person. It is the
case of the doctor who does not treat his
patients or the mother who is not feeding the
baby.
Manslaughter exists when the
perpetrator puts the victim in a dangerous
situation and does nothing to prevent his
death.
The immediate result is the death of
the victim, not relevant whether this result

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periculoas i nu ntreprinde nimic pentru


mpiedicarea morii acesteia.
Urmarea imediat const n moartea
victimei, nefiind relevant dac acest rezultat
se produce imediat sau mai trziu.
Trebuie s existe un raport de
cauzalitate ntre aciunea fptuitorului i
moartea victimei. Raportul cauzal exist i
dac aciunea fptuitorului este concurat de
ali factori preexisteni o boal a victimei,
concomiteni lovituri aplicate de altcineva
sau posteriori internarea tardiv10.
Exist
posibilitatea
ntreruperii
raportului de cauzalitate cnd, ulterior
svririi faptei, intervine o cauz, care
produce moartea victimei independent de
aciunea
fptuitorului11,
de
exemplu
administrarea unui tratament greit ce
cauzeaz moartea victimei internate n spital
pentru vtmri corporale.
b) Latura subiectiv. Omorul se
svrete cu intenie direct sau indirect 12.
Mobilul sau scopul svririi faptei
nu au relevan pentru existena infraciunii;
ele conduc ns, la calificarea faptei i sunt
luate n considerare la individualizarea
pedepsei.
Eroarea asupra persoanei victimei nu
nltur
rspunderea
penal
pentru
infraciunea de omor. Totodat, s-a
considerat c exist infraciunea de omor i
n cazul loviturii deviate (aberatio ictus),
pentru c fptuitorul a dorit s omoare o
persoan, nefiind important dac rezultatul sa produs asupra persoanei vizate sau asupra
altei persoane.
Pornind de la faptul c omorul este
svrit cu intenie, trebuie fcut deosebirea
cu lovirile i vtmrile cauzatoare de
moarte, infraciune prevzut de art. 195 Cod
penal, caz n care moartea victimei nu este
urmrit ori acceptat de fptuitor, nu exist
intenie n svrirea faptei, rezultatul fiind
praeterintenionat.
Ca elemente de difereniere ntre
cele dou infraciuni subliniem: zonele vitale
ale
corpului
victimei,
aptitudinea
instrumentului folosit de fptuitor de a

occurs immediately or later.


There must be a causal link between
the actions of the perpetrator and the victim's
death. There is causal report also whether the
perpetrator`s action is competed by other
pre-existing factors - a disease of the victim,
simultaneously hitting by someone else or
post - late hospitalization25.
There is the possibility of interrupting
causal relationship when, subsequent to the
commission of the offense, there is a cause
that
produces
the
victim's
death
independently of the perpetrator`s action 26,
for example administering the wrong
treatment causing death of the victim
hospitalized for injuries.
b) The subjective side. Murder is
committed with intent directly or indirectly.
27

The motive or purpose of committing


the crime are irrelevant to the existence of
the crime; but they lead to the classification
of the facts and are considered in the
sentence.
The error on the person of the victim
does not cover criminal liability for the
offense of murder. It was also considered
that there is manslaughter and in the case of
deflected strike (aberatio ictus) because the
perpetrator wanted to kill a person, not
important if the result occurred on the initial
subject or on another person.
Starting from the fact that the murder
is committed intentionally, the distinction
must be made with assault and battery
causing death, offense under art. 195 of the
Criminal Code, where the victim's death is
not sought or accepted by the offender, there
is no intention to the act, resulting being
above the intention.
As elements differentiating the two
offenses we emphasize: the vital areas of the
body of the victim, the offender's ability to
use the instrument to produce death, the
number and intensity of the blows, previous
relationships between offender and victim,
offender's attitude after committing the
crime28. In this sense, in practice it was

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produce moartea, numrul i intensitatea


loviturilor, relaiile anterioare dintre fptuitor
i victim, atitudinea fptuitorului dup
comiterea faptei13. n acest sens, n practic
s-a considerat c nu reprezint infraciunea
de loviri sau vtmri cauzatoare de moarte,
ci infraciunea de omor, moartea victimei ca
urmare a aplicrii de lovituri repetate, cu
pumnii i picioarele, n zona feei i a
toracelui, lovituri care au generat stop cardio
- respirator i hemoragie intern14.
4. Forme. Modaliti. Sanciuni
Tentativa la infraciunea de omor se
pedepsete, potrivit art. 188 alin. (2) Cod
penal. n practica judiciar s-a ridicat
problema diferenierii dintre tentativa la
infraciunea de omor i vtmarea corporal,
prin care se pune n pericol viaa victimei,
prevzut de art. 194 alin. (1) lit. e) Cod
penal. Delimitarea dintre cele dou
infraciuni se face n primul rnd prin
raportarea la latura subiectiv a infraciunii,
n sensul c, n cazul vtmrii corporale,
fptuitorul acioneaz cu intenia de a-i pune
victimei viaa n pericol i nu de a-i suprima
viaa, cum acioneaz intelectiv subiectul
activ n cazul omorului. Totodat, constituie
elemente de difereniere ntre cele dou
infraciuni i: mprejurrile n care a fost
svrit fapta, zona vital a corpului n care
au fost aplicate lovituri, intensitatea
loviturilor i obiectul folosit la svrirea
faptei.
Consumarea infraciunii are loc n
momentul n care s-a produs rezultatul
periculos, moartea victimei15.
Infraciunea de omor se pedepsete
cu nchisoare de la 10 la 20 de ani i
interzicerea exercitrii unor drepturi.
Omorul svrit
n anumite
mprejurri mrete gradul de pericol social,
dat fiind modul de realizare, subiectul pasiv
asupra cruia se rsfrnge activitatea
infracional, starea de recidiv ori poziia
subiectiv
a
fptuitorului.
Aceste
considerente stau la baza reglementrii
formelor agravate ale infraciunii de omor,
cuprinse n art. 189 Cod penal sub titulatura

considered not the crime of injuries causing


death, but the crime of manslaughter, the
victim's death as a consequence of repeated
blows with fists and feet in the face and
chest, which kicks that generated cardiac
arrest and internal bleeding29.
4. Forms. Methods. Sanctions
Attempted
manslaughter
is
punishable under Art. 188 para. (2) Criminal
Code. In judicial practice it was raised the
differentiation between the attempted
manslaughter and injury, which endanger
the life of the victim, provided by art. 194
para. (1) let. e) of the Criminal Code. The
demarcation between the two offenses is
primarily by reference to the subjective side
of the offense, meaning that if injury, the
perpetrator acts with the intention of putting
the victim's life in danger and not to
suppress life as the active subject
intellectually acts in the case of
manslaughter.
At
the
same
time,
distinguishing elements between the two
crimes are: the circumstances in which the
offense was committed, vital area of the
body where have been applied strokes, the
intensity of the strokes and the object used
to commit the crime.
The crime occurs when takes place
the dangerous result, the victim's death. 30
Manslaughter is punishable by imprisonment
for 10 to 20 years and deprivation of certain
rights.
Manslaughter committed in certain
circumstances increases the degree of social
danger, as for the way it was committed, the
passive subject over whom the criminal
activity is reflected, status of second offence
or subjective position of the offender. These
considerations underlie the regulation of
aggravated forms of the offense of murder,
contained in art. 189 of the Criminal Code
under the name of first-degree murder, under
which killing is worse if it is committed in
the following circumstances: a) with
premeditation, b) of interest, c) to avoid
one`s self or another`s criminal liability or

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de omor calificat, potrivit cruia omorul este


mai grav dac este svrit n urmtoarele
mprejurri: a) cu premeditare, b) din interes
material, c) pentru a se sustrage ori pentru a
sustrage pe altul de la tragerea la rspundere
penal sau de la executarea unei pedepse, d)
pentru a nlesni sau a ascunde svrirea altei
infraciuni, e) de ctre o persoan care a mai
comis anterior o infraciune de omor sau o
tentativ la infraciunea de omor, f) asupra a
dou sau mai multe persoane, g) asupra unei
femei gravide i h) prin cruzimi. Pedeapsa
pentru infraciunea de omor calificat este
nchisoare de la 15 la 25 de ani i
interzicerea exercitrii unor drepturi.
III.
Concluzii
Noul cod penal aduce modificri
semnificative n ceea ce privete infraciunile
de omor, att sub aspectul structurii
capitolului ce circumscrie faptele penale care
au ca urmare moartea victimei, ct i n ceea
ce privete coninutul infraciunilor.
n raport cu vechea reglementare
penal, noul cod penal structureaz
infraciunile de omor n dou articole:
art.188 - omorul i art.189 omorul calificat,
fr a mai cuprinde i omorul deosebit de
grav, infraciune existent n vechiul cod
penal.
Coninutul infraciunii de omor
calificat prevzut de art. 189 Cod penal este
diferit fa de art. 175 din vechiul cod penal,
acesta incluznd unele mprejurri de
svrire a faptei cuprinse anterior n
infraciunea de omor deosebit de grav, cum
este cazul omorului svrit asupra a dou
sau mai multe persoane, omorul svrit
asupra unei femei gravide, omorul svrit
prin cruzimi ori de ctre o persoan care a
mai svrit un omor.
Includerea n cadrul omorului
calificat a uciderii realizate de ctre o
persoan care a mai svrit un omor s-a
fcut ntr-un mod clar, n sensul c s-a
stabilit limpede c se reine omorul calificat,
dac cealalt infraciune de omor a fost
svrit anterior, aspect care nltur

execution of a sentence, d) to facilitate or


conceal the commission of another crime e)
by a person who has previously committed a
crime of murder or attempted murder and, f)
on two or more persons, g) on a pregnant
woman and h) with cruelty. The punishment
for the first-degree murder is imprisonment
from 15 to 25 years and deprivation of
certain rights.
III.
Conclusions
The new penal code brings significant
changes in respect of the offenses of murder,
both in terms of structure of the chapter
circumscribing criminal acts that result in
death of the victim, and in terms of content
crimes.
In relation to the former criminal
regulation the new penal code structures the
offenses of murder in two articles: Article
188 - murder and Article 189 first - degree
murder without also including aggravated
murder, crime existing in the old criminal
code.
Offense of first-degree murder under
Art. 189 of the Criminal Code is different
from the art. 175 of the old Criminal Code, it
includes some circumstances of committing
the offense previously included in the
offense of aggravated murder, such as
murder committed against two or more
persons, murder committed against a
pregnant woman, murder committed by
cruelty or a person who has committed a
murder.
The inclusion in the first-degree
murder of killing carried out by a person
who has committed a murder was done in a
clear way, meaning that it was established
clearly that it is understood first-degree
murder if the other offense of murder was
committed "prior" thus eliminating the
semantic drawback given by the text of the
old penal code that generated ambiguity with
the expression "has committed murder,"
which did not clarified the temporal aspect of
anteriority, even if it was used the past tense
of the verb "commit" so that act was

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astfel neajunsul semantic dat de textul


vechiului cod penal, care genera un echivoc
dat de expresia a mai svrit un omor,
care nu clarifica aspectul temporal de
anterioritate, chiar dac folosea timpul trecut
al verbului a svri, astfel c se putea
considera c fapta constituie omor n form
agravat, chiar dac fptuitorul omorului a
mai comis ulterior un alt omor. Totodat, se
poate observa c n noul cod a fost clarificat
i situaia tentativei de omor svrit
anterior ca pe o mprejurare care
circumstaniaz omorul.
n cadrul art. 189 Cod penal nu-i mai
regsesc consacrarea mprejurri agravante,
care erau incluse n art. 175 din vechiul cod
penal, cum ar fi: omorul svrit asupra
soului sau unei rude apropiate, omorul
profitnd de starea de neputin a victimei de
a se apra, omorul svrit prin mijloace ce
pun n pericol viaa mai multor persoane,
omorul svrit n legtur cu ndeplinirea
ndatoririlor de serviciu sau publice ale
victimei i omorul comis n public.

considered aggravated murder, even if the


offender committed murder after he had
committed another. However, it can be seen
that the new code has clarified also
attempted murder case previously committed
as a circumstance that circumstantiates
murder.
In the art. 189 Criminal Code there is
no longer found consecration aggravating
circumstances that were included in art. 175
of the old Criminal Code, such as murder
committed on the spouse or a close relative,
murder taking advantage of the victim's state
of impossibility to defend, murder
committed by means endangering the lives
of many people, murder committed in
connection with job duties or public duties of
the victim and manslaughter committed in
public.

www.CretinOrtodox.ro, Pr. A. Radu;


Art. 22 alin. (1) din Constituia Romniei: Dreptul la via i la integritate fizic i psihic (1) Dreptul la
via, precum i dreptul la integritate fizic i psihic a persoanei sunt garantate.
3 E.G. Simionescu, Criminal Law. General part I, Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing House, Bucharest, 2014,
p.183.
4 E.G. Simionescu, Comparative Study on the attempt to curent and future regulations of the Criminal Code, the
volume Scientific Session The Legislation and the education in the perspective of the European integration,
Constantin Brncui University of Trgu- Jiu, 17-18.12.2004, Publishing Universitaria Craiova, p. 227-236.
5 O. Loghin, T. Toader, op. cit., p.89
6
Gh. Mateu, Drept penal special. Sintez de teorie i practic judiciar, vol. I, Ed. Lumina Lex, 1999, p.65
7
V. Dongoroz, S. Kahane .a., op. cit., p.214
8 C.S.J., Secia penal, decizia nr.1620/1998, n Dreptul nr. 12/1999, p.171.
9 C.S.J., Secia penal, decizia nr.369/1997, n Dreptul nr.5/1998, p. 124
10 T. Toader, Drept penal. Partea special, Ed. All Beck, Bucureti, 2002, p.41
11 T. Vasiliu, D. Pavel , G. Antoniu, D. Lucinescu, V. Papadopol, V. Rmureanu, Codul penal al R.S.R.,
comentat i adnotat, partea special, Ed. tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1975, p.73
12 E.G. Simionescu, The intention, form of guilt in the Romanian and foreight penal legislation, Annals of
University Constantin Brncuiof Trgu-Jiu, Juridical Science Series, no.3/2013, p.113-126.
13
T. Toader, op. cit., p.42
14 C.S.J., Secia penal, decizia nr. 1559/1999, n Dreptul nr. 1/2001, p.189.
15 E.G.Simionescu, Consumed offense form of crime intentional, Annals of University Constantin Brncui
of Trgu-Jiu, Juridical Science Series, no.4/2013, p.25-32.
2

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www.CretinOrtodox.ro, Pr. A. Radu;


Art. 22 para. (1) of the Constitution: the right to life and to physical and mental integrity "(1) The right to life
and the right to physical and mental integrity of the person are guaranteed".
18 E.G. Simionescu, Criminal Law. General part I, Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing House, Bucharest, 2014,
p.183.
19 E.G. Simionescu, Comparative Study on the attempt to curent and future regulations of the Criminal Code, the
volume Scientific Session The Legislation and the education in the perspective of the European integration,
Constantin Brncui University of Trgu- Jiu, 17-18.12.2004, Publishing Universitaria Craiova, p. 227-236.
20 O. Loghin, T. Toader, op. cit., p.89
21
Gh. Mateu, Drept penal special. Sintez de teorie i practic judiciar, vol. I, Ed. Lumina Lex, 1999, p.65
22
V. Dongoroz, S. Kahane .a., op. cit., p.214
23 C.S.J., Secia penal, decizia nr.1620/1998, n Dreptul nr. 12/1999, p.171.
24 C.S.J., Secia penal, decizia nr.369/1997, n Dreptul nr.5/1998, p. 124
25 T. Toader, Drept penal. Partea special, Ed. All Beck, Bucureti, 2002, p.41
26 T. Vasiliu, D. Pavel , G. Antoniu, D. Lucinescu, V. Papadopol, V. Rmureanu, Codul penal al R.S.R.,
comentat i adnotat, partea special, Ed. tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1975, p.73
27 E.G. Simionescu, The intention, form of guilt in the Romanian and foreight penal legislation, Annals of
University Constantin Brncuiof Trgu-Jiu, Juridical Science Series, no.3/2013, p.113-126.
28
T. Toader, op. cit., p.42
29 C.S.J., Secia penal, decizia nr. 1559/1999, n Dreptul nr. 1/2001, p.189.
30 E.G.Simionescu, Consumed offense form of crime intentional, Annals of University Constantin Brncui
of Trgu-Jiu, Juridical Science Series, no.4/2013, p.25-32.
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