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Methods of production

Sodium hydroxide is produced (along with chlorine and hydrogen) via the chloralkali
process. This involves the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The
sodium hydroxide builds up at the cathode, where water is reduced to hydrogen gas and
hydroxide ion:
2 Na+ + 2 H2O + 2 e- = H2 + NaOH .
To produce NaOH it is necessary to prevent reaction of the NaOH with the chlorine, this
is typically done in one of three ways, of which the membrane cell process is,
economically, the most viable.

Mercury cell process sodium metal forms as an amalgam at a mercury cathode;


this sodium is then reacted with water to produce NaOH. There have been
concerns about mercury releases, although modern plants claim to be safe in this
regard.
Diaphragm cell process uses a steel cathode, and reaction of NaOH with Cl2 is
prevented using a porous diaphragm.
Membrane cell process similar to the diaphragm cell process, with a Nafion
membrane to separate the cathode and anode reactions. It is cheaper than the
diaphragm cell process, and it produces a higher quality of NaOH.

An older method for sodium hydroxide production was the LeBlanc process, which
produced sodium carbonate, followed by roasting to create carbon dioxide and sodium
oxide. This method is no longer used, but it helped to establish sodium hydroxide as an
important commodity chemical.
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Major producers
In the United States, the major producer of sodium hydroxide is the Dow Chemical
Company, which has annual production around 3.7 million tonnes from sites at Freeport,
Texas and Plaquemine, Louisiana. Other major US producers include Oxychem, PPG,
Olin and Formosa. All of these companies use the chloralkali process.
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Uses
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General applications

Sodium hydroxide is the principal strong base used in the chemical industry. In bulk it is
most often handled as an aqueous solution, since solutions are cheaper and easier to
handle. It is used to drive for chemical reactions and also for the neutralization of acidic
materials.
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Experiment
Sodium hydroxide has also been used in conjunction with zinc for creation of the famous
"Gold pennies" experiment. A penny is boiled in a solution of NaOH together with some
granular zinc metal, the color of the penny will turn silver in about 45 seconds. The
penny is then held in the flame of a burner for a few seconds and it turns golden. The
reason this happens is that granular zinc dissolves in NaOH to form [Zn(OH)4]-2. This
zincate ion becomes reduced to metallic zinc on the surface of a copper penny. Zinc and
copper when heated in a flame form brass.
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Use in chemical analysis


In analytical chemistry, sodium hydroxide solutions are often used to measure the
concentration of acids by titration. Since NaOH is not a primary standard, solutions must
first be standardised by titration against a standard such as KHP. Burettes exposed to
NaOH should be rinsed out immediately after use to prevent "freezing" of the stopcock!
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Soap making
Soap making via saponification is the most traditional chemical process using sodium
hydroxide. The Arabs began producing soap in this way in the 7th century, and the same
basic process is still used today.
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Biodiesel
For the manufacture of biodiesel, sodium hydroxide is used as a catalyst for the
transesterification of methanol and triglycerides. This only works with anhydrous sodium
hydroxide, because water and lye would turn the fat into soap which would be tainted
with methanol.
It is used more often than potassium hydroxide because it costs less, and a smaller
quantity is needed for the same results. Another alternative is sodium silicate.

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Aluminum etching
Strong bases attack aluminium. This can be useful in etching through a resist or in
converting a polished surface to a satin-like finish, but without further passivation such as
anodizing or allodizing the surface may become corroded, either under normal use or in
severe atmospheric conditions.
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Food preparation
Food uses of lye include washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, chocolate
and cocoa processing, caramel color production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing,
and thickening ice cream. Olives are often soaked in lye to soften them, while pretzels
and German lye rolls are glazed with a lye solution before baking to make them crisp.
Specific foods processed with lye include:

The Scandinavian delicacy known as lutefisk (from lutfisk, "lye fish").


Hominy is dried maize (corn) kernels reconstituted by soaking in lye-water. These
expand considerably in size and may be further processed by cooking in hot oil
and salting to form corn nuts
Sodium hydroxide is also the chemical that causes gelling of egg whites in the
production of Century eggs.
German pretzels are poached in a boiling sodium hydroxide solution before
baking, which contributes to their unique crust.

[edit]

Domestic uses
Sodium hydroxide is occasionally used in the home as an agent for unblocking drains,
provided as a dry crystal (e.g. "Drno") or as a thick liquid gel. The chemical mechanism
employed is the conversion of grease to a form of soap, and so forming a water soluble
form to be dissolved by flushing; also decomposing complex molecules such as the
protein of hair. Such drain cleaners (and their acidic versions) are highly caustic and
should be handled with care (see precautions).
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Precautions

Gloves and eye protection should be worn when using sodium hydroxide, since there is a
high danger of causing chemical burns, permanent injury or scarring, and blindness. A
PVC apron is also recommended when concentrated solutions or the solid form are used.
It should be stored well away from strong acids such as battery acid. It can create enough
heat to ignite flammables (such as alcohols), so it should be added slowly in biodiesel
processors. Vinegar is a mild acid that will neutralize lye if it were to make contact with
the skin.
[edit]

See also

soda lime

[edit]

External links

International Chemical Safety Card 0360


NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
European Chemicals Bureau
The Chlorine Institute, Inc. website
Sodium hydroxide products of Bayer MaterialScience in North America

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. At standard
temperature and pressure ammonia is a gas. It is toxic and corrosive to some materials,
and has a characteristic pungent odor.
An ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramid shape, as would be expected from VSEPR
theory. This shape gives the molecule an overall dipole moment and makes it polar so
that ammonia very readily dissolves in water. The nitrogen atom in the molecule has a
lone electron pair, and ammonia acts as a base. That means that, when in aqueous
solution, it can take a proton from water; this produces a hydroxide anion and an
ammonium cation (NH4+), which has the shape of a regular tetrahedron. The degree to
which ammonia forms the ammonium ion depends on the pH of the solutionat
"physiological" pH (~7), about 99% of the ammonia molecules are protonated.
The main uses of ammonia are in the production of fertilizers, explosives and polymers.
It is also an ingredient in certain household glass cleaners. Ammonia is found in small
quantities in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal
and vegetable matter. Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in
rainwater, while ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac) and ammonium sulfate are found in
volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonian
guano. Ammonium salts also are found distributed through all fertile soil and in seawater.
Substances containing ammonia or that are similar to it are called ammoniacal.

General
Systematic name
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and
Trivial names
hydrogen with the formula NH3. At standard
temperature and pressure ammonia is a gas.
Molecular formula
It is toxic and corrosive to some materials,
and has a characteristic pungent odor.
Molar mass
An ammonia molecule has a trigonal
pyramid shape, as would be expected from
VSEPR theory. This shape gives the
molecule an overall dipole moment and
makes it polar so that ammonia very readily
dissolves in water. The nitrogen atom in the
molecule has a lone electron pair, and
ammonia acts as a base. That means that,
when in aqueous solution, it can take a
proton from water; this produces a
hydroxide anion and an ammonium cation
(NH4+), which has the shape of a regular
tetrahedron. The degree to which ammonia
forms the ammonium ion depends on the
pH of the solutionat "physiological" pH
(~7), about 99% of the ammonia molecules
are protonated.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NH3
The main uses of ammonia are in the
production of fertilizers, explosives and
polymers. It is also an ingredient in certain
household glass cleaners. Ammonia is found
in small quantities in the atmosphere, being
produced from the putrefaction of
nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter.
Ammonia and ammonium salts are also
found in small quantities in rainwater, while
ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac) and
ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic
districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate
have been found in Patagonian guano.
Ammonium salts also are found distributed
through all fertile soil and in seawater.
Substances containing ammonia or that are
similar to it are called ammoniacal.

Content

Ammonia
Azane (see text)
Spirit of hartshorn
Nitrosil
Vaporole
NH3
17.03 g/mol

Appearance

Colourless gas with


strong pungent odor

CAS number

[7664-41-7]
Properties

Density and phase .6813 g/L, gas


Solubility in water 54 g/100 ml
Melting point

-78.27 C (195.42 K)

Boiling point

-33.49 C (240.74 K)

Basicity (pKb)

4.75

Acidity (pKa)

approx. 34

Thermodynamic data
Std enthalpy of
formation fHgas

-45.92 kJ/mol

Standard molar
entropy Sgas

192.77 JK1mol1
Hazards

EU classification

Conc. dependent.
See text

R-phrases

Conc. dependent
See text

S-phrases

S1/2, S16, S36/37/39,


S45, S61

NFPA 704
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties

n, r, etc.

Thermodynamic
data

Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas

Spectral data

UV, IR, NMR, MS

Regulatory data

Flash point,
RTECS number, etc.

s
[hide]

1 History
2 Synthesis and production
3 Biosynthesis
4 Properties
o 4.1 Formation of salts
o 4.2 Acidity
o 4.3 Formation of other compounds
o 4.4 Ammonia as a ligand
5 Uses
6 Liquid ammonia as a solvent
o 6.1 Solubility of salts
o 6.2 Solutions of metals
o 6.3 Redox properties of liquid ammonia
7 Detection and determination
8 Safety precautions
o 8.1 Toxicity
o 8.2 Household use
o 8.3 Laboratory use of ammonia solutions
o 8.4 Laboratory use of anhydrous ammonia
(gas or liquid)
9 See also
10 References
11 Bibliography

12 External links
COPPER SULFATE
(cupric sulfate; blue vitriol; blue stone; blue copperas)

CuSO4 5H2O
Properties: Blue crystals or blue, crystalline granules or powder; slowly efforescing in
air; white when dehydrated; nauseous metallic taste. Soluble in water, methanol; slightly
soluble in alcohol and glycerol; d 2.284.
Derivation: Action of dilute sulfuric acid on copper or copper oxide (often as oxide ores)
in large quantities with evaporation and crystallization.
Method of purification: Recrystallization.
Grade: Technical, CP, NF, also sold as monohydrate. Available as crystals of powder.
Use: Agriculture (soil additive, pesticides, Bordeaux mixture), feed additive, germicides,
textile mordant, leather industry, pigments, electric batteries, electroplated coatings,

copper salts, reagent in analytical chemistry, medicine, wood and ground pulp, process
engraving and lithography, ore flotation, petroleum industry, synthetic rubber, steel
manufacture, treatment of natural asphalts. The anhydrous salt is used as a dehydrating
agent.
http://search.opera.com/?search=CuSO4
Kloroform adalah nama umum untuk triklorometana (CHCl3). Kloroform dikenal karena
sering digunakan sebagai bahan pembius, meskipun kebanyakan digunakan sebagai
pelarut nonpolar di laboratorium atau industri. Wujudnya pada suhu ruang berupa cairan,
namun mudah menguap.

Miana Tak Mampu Kurangi Cacing Pita Pada Ayam


Bogor, CyberNews.Tanaman Miana yang secara tradisional sering digunakan
peternak untuk mengatasi penyakit cacing pita pada ayam ternyata tak cukup
ampuh.
Penelitian yang dilakukan Peneliti Muda dari Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Institut
Pertanian Bogor (IPB) Yusuf Ridwan menunjukkan, pemberian ekstrak kloroform
daun miana dosis antara 25 mg sampai 200 mg/kg berat badan tidak mampu
menurunkan jumlah cacing pada cacing secara signifikan.
Selama ini infeksi cacing pita menghambat pengembangan peternakan unggas di
Indonesia. Infeksi ini mengakibatkan penurunan bobot badan, mengganggu laju
pertumbuhan, menurunkan produksi daging dan telur.
Cacing pita dalam jumlah besar mengambil sari-sari makanan dari tubuh inang,
sehingga tidak jarang terjadi hypoglikemia. Tercatat, kerugian akibat infeksi cacing
pita di Jawa Barat ditaksir mencapai 2.240 3.148 ribu ton atau senilai 2,49 3,48
juta dollar per tahun.
Dalam penelitian yang dilakukan Yusuf, terdapat tiga tahapan. Yakni penapisan
fitokimia, uji aktivitas antelmintik dari setiap jenis ekstrak daun miana terhadap
cacing pita invitro dan pengujian ekstrak daun miana yang memiliki aktivitas
antlemintik terkuat pada ayam.
Dari uji fitokimia terungkap daun miana mengandung metabolit sekunder flavonoid,
steroid, tannin dan saponin. Kemudian diuji lebih lanjut tingkat efektifitas
kekuatannya dengan pelarut air, methanol, dan kloroform.
Ekstrak kloroform memiliki aktivitas anthelmintik yang paling kuat, diikuti methanol.
Esktrak kloroform ini mengandung senyawa golongan steroid dan flavonoid. Ektrak
yang paling kuat tadi dicobakan pada ayam.
Namun dari penelitian tersebut terungkap pula, sari daun miana tetap efektif dalam
membasmi cacing pita Hymenolepis nana pada hewan model mencit pada dosis 0,5
ml dengan konsentarsi 43,5 % volume/volume.( agung setia bakti/Cn07 )

http://www.suaramerdeka.com/cybernews/harian/0601/06/nas8.htm

WHAT IS CHLOROFORM?
Chloroform is a clear liquid with an ether-like odor and a slightly sweet taste. It is
a naturally-occurring chemical, but most of the chloroform in the environment is
man-made. Chloroform is a member of a group of chemicals called
"trihalomethanes." It is used to make coolants, as a fumigant for grain, and as a
dry cleaning spot remover.
Chloroform can be formed during the break-down of chlorine-containing
compounds, and may be found in in small amounts in chlorinated drinking or

swimming pool water. Chlorine treatment of drinking water is often necessary to


prevent diseases that can be a major cause of illness.
Chloroform evaporates quickly. Most of the chloroform that ends up in lakes,
streams, or soil evaporates into the air. However, chloroform that seeps through
soil into ground-water can remain unchanged for many years.
HOW ARE PEOPLE EXPOSED TO CHLOROFORM?
Breathing: People who work with chloroform are at a greater risk. People may
also be exposed by inhaling the chemical as they do laundry or bathe with
contaminated water.
Drinking/Eating: People can get low level exposure when they use
contaminated water for drinking or for preparing food.
Touching: Chloroform can pass through the skin when people handle pure
chloroform or products that contain it. For example: touching contaminated soil,
or using contaminated water for activities such as bathing, swimming or doing
laundry.
DO STANDARDS EXIST FOR REGULATING CHLOROFORM?
Water: The state groundwater standard for chloroform is 6 parts per billion (ppb).
The state and federal drinking water standard for total trihalomethanes in
chlorinated, municipal drinking water supplies is 100 ppb. We suggest you stop
drinking water that contains more than the standard for your water supply. If
levels of chloroform or trihalomethanes are very high in your water, you may also
need to avoid washing, bathing, or using the water for other purposes. Contact
your local public health agency for more information specific to your situation.
Air: No standards exist for the amount of chloroform allowed in the air of homes.
We use a formula to convert workplace limits to home limits. Based on the
formula, we recommend levels be no higher than 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of
chloroform in air. Most people cant smell chloroform until levels reach 133 ppm
or higher. If you can smell the chemical, the level is too high to be safe.
The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources regulates the amount of
chloroform that can be released by industries.
WILL EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM RESULT IN HARMFUL HEALTH
EFFECTS?
Immediately or shortly after exposure to a level of 100 ppm of chloroform in air, a
person may feel tired, dizzy, and have a headache.

The following health effects can occur after several years of exposure to
chloroform:
Cancer: Chloroform is suspected of causing cancer. Liver and kidney tumors
have been reported in laboratory animals. Any exposure to a cancer-causing
chemical may increase your risk of developing cancer.
Reproductive Effects: The reproductive and developmental effects of
chloroform are not known. However, chloroform can enter the bloodstream of a
developing baby.
Organ Systems: Damaged liver or kidney function can result when levels of
chloroform reach 300 ppb in water or 0.25 ppm in air.
In general, chemicals affect the same organ systems in all people who are
exposed. However, the seriousness of the effects may vary from person to
person.
A person's reaction depends on several things, including individual health,
heredity, previous exposure to chemicals including medicines, and personal
habits such as smoking or drinking.
It is also important to consider the length of exposure to the chemical; the
amount of chemical exposure; and whether the chemical was inhaled, touched,
or eaten.
CAN A MEDICAL TEST DETERMINE EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM?
Chloroform is rapidly flushed from the body. Chloroform can be measured in
exhaled breath, urine, blood, and other tissues, but no reliable method exists to
determine the level of your exposure. Because chloroform can be formed in the
body following exposure to other substances, levels found in tests cannot always
be linked to just chloroform exposure. Doctors can use tests of liver, kidney, and
heart function to evaluate the health effects of chloroform exposure.
Seek medical advice if you have any symptoms that you think may be related to
chemical exposure.
(PPH 4355 Revised 3/2000)