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Physical Chemistry

1. A particular gas is found to diffuse 1.33 times as fast as another. The faster of the two
gases is analyzed and has a molecular weight of 30. What is the molecular weight of the
lighter gas?
2. 17
(C) 23
3. 20
(D) 25
4. Use the van der Waals equation to calculate the volume of 2mol CO 2 308,000 Pa and 373
K. For CO2 a = 3.64 x 105 Pa L2 mol-2 and b = 4.27 x 10-2 L mol-1.
5. 15 L
(C) 20 L
6. 30 L
(D) 25 L
7. Calculate the Boyle temperature for CH4. The van der Waals constant are a = 2.253 L2
atm mol-2 and b = 0.0428 L mol-1.
(A) 278 0C
(C) 188 0C
(B) 368 C
(D) 428 0C
8. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
9. The compressibility factor of a gas provides a measure of ideality.
10. A gas is assumed to consist of tiny particles relatively far apart, moving at a
low speed.
11. The mean fee path of a particle is the average distance traveled between
12. The constants in the van der Waals equation of state account for attractive forces
between molecules and for the volume occupied by the molecules.
13. 36.0 L-atm of work is obtained when 2.00 mol of an ideal gas, initially at STP, is allowed
to expand isothermally. What is the final volume of the gas?
14. 100 L
(C) 110 L
15. 90 L
(D) 120 L
16. For a certain ideal gas, Cp,m = 5/2 R. If 1 mol of this gas undergoes an adiabatic reversible
expansion from STP to a volume of 40.0 L, what is the final temperature?
17. -67 0C
(C) -100 0C
18. -98 C
(D) -88 0C
19. 8.31 kJ work is done by the expansion of the gas at constant pressure from 300 K to 500
K. How many moles of gas is present?
20. 2
(C) 4
21. 3
(D) 5
22. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
23. In a reversible reaction, the external pressure changes continuously but is always
equal to the pressure of the gas.
24. In a reversible expansion, the amount of work done is maximum.
25. A process is spontaneous if it tends to occur by itself depending on its rate.
26. Spontaneous processes are irreversible and lead to degradation of energy.
27. Calculate the heat involved when the change in internal energy of a quantity of gas is 31
cal while expanding from 15 L to 25 L at a constant pressure of 4.0 atm.
28. 900 cal
(C) 1000 cal
29. 1100 cal
(D) 1200 cal
30. An ideal gas, initially at 127 0C and 405.3 kPa, is allowed to expand reversibly and
adiabatically until the temperature has dropped to 300 K. What is the final pressure? (C V,m

= 5/2 R.)
31. 147.94 kPa
32. 197.44 kPa

(C) 174.49 kPa

(D) 144.97 kPa


Physical Chemistry
33. If 22g of an ideal CO2 gas undergoes a reversible compression from 202.65 kPa pressure
to 607.95 kPa at a constant temperature of 300 K, how much work is done?
34. 0.98 kJ
(C) 1.67 kJ
35. 1.99 kJ
(D) 1.40 kJ
36. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
37. When heat is converted into work, complete conversion is impossible.
38. The efficiency of a reversible heat engine is determined by the two operating
39. Heat can be transferred from a certain temperature if work is done by the
40. The four steps of the Carnot cycle are isothermal expansion, adiabatic expansion,
isothermal compression, and adiabatic compression.
41. 28 g of an ideal nitrogen gas (CV.m = 7/2 R), initially at 202.65 kPa and 500 K, is allowed
to expand adiabatically against an unknown constant pressure. When the pressure of the
gas becomes equal to that constant pressure, the temperature is 400 K. What is the
constant pressure?
(A) 78.09 kPa
(C) 67.43 kPa
(B) 60.68 kPa
(D) 23.44 kPa
42. Calculate the work done if 8g of an ideal gas (MW = 4), initially occupying a volume of
30.0 L at 280 K, is allowed to expand isothermally and reversibly until the volume is 50
43. -2.38 J
(B) -3.54 J
44. -1.22 J
(C) -5.44 J
45. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
46. The entropy of the universe (or of an isolated system) always increases when a
spontaneous process occurs, but remains unchanged when a reversible process occurs.
47. Entropy is a state function.
48. Entropy is a measure of orderliness of a system.
49. At absolute zero, the entropy of all pure perfect crystalline substances may be
taken to be zero.
50. For an ideal gas having Cv = 5/2 R, calculate the entropy changes of 10g of the gas
(MW=2) when it is heated from room temperature (25 0C) to 227 0C at constant volume.
51. 33.3 J/K
(C) 28.5 J/K
52. 53.7 J/K
(D) 75.2 J/K
53. For an ideal gas having Cv = 5/2 R, calculate the entropy changes of 10g of the gas

(MW=2) when it is heated from room temperature (25 0C) to 227 0C at constant pressure.
(A) 33.3 J/K
(C) 28.5 J/K
(B) 53.7 J/K
(D) 75.2 J/K
54. Calculate the entropy changes for the gas if 32g of an ideal gas (MW = 32) expands
isothermally and reversibly from 4.0 L to 9.0 L at 27 0C.
Answer: 6.7 J/K
55. One mole of an ideal gas (CV = 5/2 R), initially at 300 K and 2 atm, was compressed until
the pressure was 5 atm. The temperature rose to 550 K. Calculate S.
Answer: 10.0 J/K










56. At the normal melting point of 47.0C, the heat of fusion of lauric acid is 43.7 cal g -1.
When 100.0 g of the solid compound is brought to a constant temperature of 60C, the
solid melts. Calculate the entropy change in the compound. The specific heats are: solids
= 0.430 cal g-1 deg-1 and liquid = 0.515 cal g-1 deg-1.S
Answer: 14.0 cal/K
57. Calculate the third-law entropy at 20.0 K of a substance having a measured C p at 12.0 K
of 1.78 J K-1 mol-1.
Answer: 2.75 J/mol-K
58. Calculate S if 1 mol H2S is burned in oxygen to produce SO2(g) and H2O(g) at 298.2 K.
Answer: -76.5 J/K
59. If the pressure on 3 mol of an ideal gas initially at STP is increased isothermally to 5 atm,
what is the change in the Gibbs free energy?
Answer: 11.3 L-atm
60. One mole of a certain gas occupies 26.0 L at 300 K. If it undergoes an isothermal
expansion with A = 2.0 kJ, what is the new volume?
Answer: 11.7 L
61. Calculate G for the isothermal solidification of 1.0 mol H 2O(l) at 8C. At this
temperature. The vapor pressure are H2O(s) = 2.326 mm Hg and H2O(l) = 2.514 mm Hg.
Answer: - 171.4 J
62. An ideal gas (Cp = 7/2 R; n = 2 mol) at 300 K and 3 atm is allowed to expand

isothermally and reversibly until the pressure is 0.50 atm. Calculate q, w, E ,H, S,
A, and G for this process.
Answer: W=A=G=- 8.94 kJ; q = 8.94 kJ;
E =H=0; S=29.8 J/K
63. A 20.0 L vessel contains 1.50 mol O 2, 1.50 mol N2, and 0.10 mol NO after equilibrium
has been reached. Calculate Kc for the reaction 2NO N2 + O2.
64. For the system CO2(g) + H2(g) CO (g) + H2O (g), at 700C, Kc = 0.534. Calculate the
number of moles of CO present at equilibrium if 2 mol CO 2 and 1 mol H2 were mixed
65. For the reaction CO(g) + 2H 2 (g) CH3OH(l), the value of Kc at 25C is 45.0 Calculate
66. When 4.0 mol H2O was heated to 1500C in a 6.0-L vessel, the water was found to be
1.6% dissociated. Calculate Kc.
67. The system SbCl3(g) + Cl2(g) SbCl5(g), under a pressure of 4.0 atm and at equilibrium, is
found to contain 3.0 mol SbCl3, 4.0 mol Cl2, and 9.0 mol SbCl5. Calculate Kp.
68. For the system 2H2S(g) 2H2(g) + S2(g), at 1065C and 1 atm, H2S is 24.7 percent
dissociated. Calculate Kp.
69. At 25C, Kp is 4.0 for the reaction 2NOBr 2NO + Br2. Calculate G.
70. Calculate Kp at 298 K for the reaction C2H4(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(g).
71. At 0C, Kp = 4.1 x 10-25 for the reaction Na2SO4 10H2O(s) Na2SO4(s) + 10H2O(g).
Calculate the equilibrium pressure of H2O vapor (a) at 0C and (b) at 25C.
72. For a solution of H2S in water under a pressure of 1.5 atm, the molality was found to be
0.155 mol kg-1. Calculate the pressure to be expected over a solution that is 0.50 molal.
73. The chemical reaction H2(g) + CO2(g) H2O(g) + CO(g) has a calculated Kc = 1.60. Onehalf mole each of H2 and CO2 are placed in a 1-liter reaction vessel and allowed to come
to equilibrium with the products. Calculate the concentration of all participants in the
reaction at equilibrium.
74. Gaseous hydrogen and iodine react to produce gaseous hydrogen iodide: H 2(g) + I2(g)
2HI(g). The concentration equilibria are found to be 0.36 M H 2, 0.36 M I2, and 0.75 M HI.
Calculate the Kc for this reaction.

75. A chemical reaction, SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO (g), is at equilibrium with the
concentrations of 0.35 M SO 2, 0.05 M NO2, 0.23 M SO3, and 0.45 M NO. What will be
the new concentration of SO3 if 0.12 moles SO3 are added to the 1-liter container?
76. We are given the reaction SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO (g). The Kc for the reaction is 5.9.
SO3(g) + NO (g) SO2(g) + NO2(g) is the reverse reaction. What is the Kc for the reverse
77. The reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) is at equilibrium. Analysis provides us with the
partial pressures: PCl5 = 0.125 atm, PCl3 = 0.40 atm, and Cl2 = 4.0 atm. Calculate the Kp.
78. The partial pressures of CO is 0.0022 atm and CO 2 is 0.117 atm. What is the value of Kp
for the reaction C (s) + CO2(g) 2CO (g)?
79. Calculate the Kc for COCl2(g) CO (g) + Cl2(g) if 0.50 mol COCl2, 0.022 mol CO, and
0.022 mol Cl2 are present at equilibrium in a 1-L sealed reaction vessel.
80. Carbon monoxide and water react in equilibrium with carbon dioxide and hydrogen; all
species are gases. Calculate the Kc for this reaction in a 5.75-L container when 2.3 mol
CO, 2.3 mol H2O, 3.7 mol CO2, and 3.7 mol H2 are present at equilibrium.
81. The reaction SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO (g) is at equilibrium in a 25-L container. Our
analysis tells us that 0.85 mol SO2, 1.35 mol NO2, 0.25 mol SO3, and 0.27 mol NO are
present. Calculate the equilibrium constant.
82. The Kc for a hypothetical reaction, A B + C, is 2.75. Equilibrium concentrations of
both B and C are 6 mol/L. Calculate the concentration of A at equilibrium.
83. The Kc for COCl2(g) CO (g) + Cl2(g) is 0.575. There are 1.9 mol of COCl2 introduced into
a 1-L reaction vessel. Calculate the concentration of CO at equilibrium.
84. Sulfur dioxide and oxygen are in equilibrium with sulfur trioxide by the following
chemical reaction: 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g). The contents of a sealed 8-L container are
4.00 mol SO2, 4.00 mol O2, and 2.75 mol SO3. Calculate the Kc.
85. Calculate the Kc for the reaction in which the elements are in equilibrium with ammonia.
The amounts present in a 3-liter container are 25.00 mol NH 3(g), 4.000 mol N2(g), and
6.500 mol H2(g).
86. 3A + 6B C + 2D + 4E is performed in a 3-liter container. The amounts of the reactants
and products present at equilibrium are 2 mol A, 4.00 mol B, 6.00 mol C, 6.00 mol D,
and 7.40 mol E. Calculate the Kc for this hypothetical reaction.
87. Two moles of hydrogen iodide are introduced into a 1-liter container. Calculate the
concentration of H2, I2, and HI when the Kc = 45.0.

H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI (g)

88. A 3-Lreaction vessel is filled with 0.22 mol NH3(g) and 0.22 mol HCl (g) and allowed to
come to equilibrium with the product, NH4Cl (s). The concentrations of NH3(g) and HCl (g)
at equilibrium are 0.15 mol each. Write the equation for the reaction as described.
Calculate the Kc prime.
89. Mercury can be separated from HgO by being exposed to hot hydrogen gas.
HgO (s) + H2(g) Hg(l) + H2O (g)
At a high temperature, the Kc is 11.75. At equilibrium, there are 2 mol H2 gas present in a
4-liter reaction container. What is the number of moles of gaseous water present?
90. Calculate the Kp for SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO (g) when there are 1.500 atm SO 2, 1.500
atm NO2, 0.600 atm SO3, and 0.400 atm NO measured to be present in a 1-liter sealed
reaction vessel.
91. CO (g) + H2O (g) CO2(g) + H2(g) reaches equilibrium pressures of 2.00 atm CO, 1.25 atm
H2O, 0.25 atm CO2, and 0.25 atm H2. Calculate the Kp for this reaction.
92. Present at equilibrium are 5.00 atm HI, 1.25 atm H 2 and 1.25 atm I2 for the reaction 2HI
(g) H2(g) + I2(g). Calculate the Kp.
93. A 2-liter reaction vessel contains 10.5 g NO 2(g) and 35 g N2O4(g) at equilibrium at a
temperature of 320C. Calculate the Kp for 2NO2(g) N2O4(g).
94. Calculate the Kp for a reaction in which 2.559 grams of solid ammonium chloride are in
equilibrium with 1.7 grams of ammonia and 3.6 grams of hydrogen chloride gases in a
7.5-L container at 250C.
95. A solution is produced by dissolving 45 grams of aluminum sulfate in 3 liters of water.
Calculate the freezing point of the solution.
Answer: -0.41 0C
96. What is the boiling point of a solution composed of 18 grams of C 3H6O3 in 800 grams of
nitrobenzene? Nitrobenzene boils at 210.88oC and has a molal boiling point elevation
constant of 5.24.
Answer: 212.19 0C
97. Calculate the vapor pressure at 30 C of 32 grams of glucose dissolved in 0.30 liters of
water. (VPwater = 31.824 mm Hg at 30oC)
Answer: 31.5 mmHg
98. Calculate the osmotic pressure of a 3-M glucose solution at 25 C.
Answer:73.4 atm
99. What is the osmotic pressure at normal human body temperature of a solution of 1.5
grams of a nonelectrolyte with a molecular weight of 135 diluted to 100 mL?
Answer: 2.83 atm

100. Calculate the molecular weight of the solute when the vapor pressure of a solution
containing 7.5 grams of that nonvolatile nonelectrolyte dissolved in 85 grams of water is
22.98 mm Hg. These data were collected at 25 oC. The vapor pressure for pure water at
25oC is 23.76 mm Hg.
Answer: 46.8
101. A solution boils at 102.3 C. Analysis of the components of the solution tells us that
there are 150 grams of nonelectrolyte dissolved in 650 grams of water. Calculate the
molecular weight of the solute.
Answer: 51.4
102. A solution is produced by dissolving 56 grams of an unknown nonelectrolyte in 100
grams of water. The freezing point of the solution is3.45 oC. Calculate the molecular
weight of the solute
Answer: 301.9
103. Calculate the FP of a solution composed of 150 g C 6H12O6 dissolved in 1 liter of
water. Assume: D = 1.0 g/mL; MW = 180 g/mole.
Answer:-1.55 0C
104. What is the freezing point of a solution of 50 g of methanol(CH 3OH; MW = 32g/mole)
dissolved in 1.5 kg of benzene? The Kf for benzene is 5.12oC/m and the freezing point is
Answer: 0.15 0C
105. Fifteen grams of substance determined to be a nonelectrolyte are dissolved in 100
grams of benzene. The freezing point of the solution is determined to be -2.0 oC. Calculate
the molecular weight of the unknown substance.
Answer: 102.7
106. A 25-g sample of nonelectrolyte is dissolved in 175 grams of benzene. The boiling
point of the solution is determined to be 83.0 oC. Calculate the molecular weight of the
Answer: 124.6
107. The vapor pressure of water at 25 C is 23.76 torr. Calculate the vapor pressure at 25oC
of a solution that contains 100 g sucrose in 1,000 g water.
Answer:23.64 torr
108. Calculate the osmotic pressure of one liter of a solution that contains 100 grams of
sucrose and is at 37.00oC (your body temperature).
Answer:7.44 atm
109. In an experiment to determine Kb of ethanol, 0.978 g of glucose (C6H12O6) was
dissolved in 10.0 g of ethanol. This solution boiled at 79.07 oC. Calculate the experimental
(Tob of ethanol = 78.4oC.)
Answer: 1.2 K kg/mol
110. The empirical (simplest) formula of oxalic acid is CHO 2. After 3.70 g of the
compound was dissolved in 10.0g of water, the solution boiled at 102.16 oC. What is the
true molecular formula of oxalic acid? Assume negligible dissociation.
Answer: C2H2O4.
111. How many grams of sucrose (C12H22O11) must be added to 50.0 g of water to create a
solution with a freezing point of 1.00oC?

Answer:9.19 g
112. A solution of 4.80 g urea [CO(NH2)2] in 50.0 g 1,4-dioxane freezes at 2.7oC.
Calculate Kf for the solvent. (Tof = 10.5oC.)
Answer: 4.9 K kg/mol
113. What is the freezing point of an aqueous solution which by weight is 10 percent
methanol and 20 percent ethanol?
Answer:-19.9 0C
114. A student was asked to find the molar mass and formula of an organic compound
using freezing-point depression. She found that the compound contained 85.7 percent
carbon and 14.3 percent hydrogen. Then she dissolved 1.12 g of the compound in 20.0 g
benzene and measured the freezing point of this solution to be 1.6oC. Calculate (a) The
experimental molecular weight and (b) The true molecular formula and the true
molecular weight.
Answer: 0.074 kg/mol; 0.0140 kg/mol; 0.07 kg/mol
115. If a solution has an osmotic pressure of 10.0 atm at 300 K, what is its concentration?
Answer:0.406 mol/L
116. What is the molality of an aqueous solution that freezes at 2.00 C?
Answer: 1.08 m
117. Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is often used as an antifreeze. What weight would be
needed for a 10oC decrease of the freezing point per kilogram of water?
Answer: 333 g
118. When 2.34 g of urea, CO(NH2)2, is dissolved in 100 g of nitrobenzene, the solution
freezes at 2.54oC. When 2.12 g of an unknown substance is dissolved in 50.0 g of
nitrobenzene, the solution freezes at 3.14oC. Calculate the molar mass of the unknown
substance. (Tof of nitrobenzene = 5.7oC.)
119. Calculate the osmotic pressure at 300 k of 100 mL of an aqueous solution that
contains 10.0 g of ethanol.
Answer: 53.5 atm
120. What is the molecular weight of an unknown substance if a solution of 2.13 g of the
substance in 45.2 mL of solution was found to have an osmotic pressure of 2.43 mm Hg
at 300 K?
Answer: 3.63x105 g/mol