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Research and Development(We Think We Can,CarpediemTech)

Why not We Use Overcurrent Relay as main Relay in Tranmission Lines

Author : Engr. Qazi Arsalan Hamid

Reviewer : IR. Syed Rizwan Rafiq

Research and Development(We Think We Can,CarpediemTech)

Distance Relay:

It measure and the ratio and detect the abnormalities in ratio of voltage and current at relaying point

Our main intentions are to save our transmission line, but let think why we are using distance relay not over current relay. Now we discuss this

1 st of all take one transmission network with generating sources

Our circuit in consideration:

We are using One over current relay to protect our transmission line, then after results we will analyze why we are getting problems in using only overcurrent relay to protect our transmission lines.

We are taking 4 scenarios of same electrical circuit

Research and Development(We Think We Can,CarpediemTech)

Case 1:

When fault occur between CB 2 and Bus 7, now use Thevenin's Theorem. Source impedance is 1/(1/Z-T/F-1+Z-T/F-2)

Then thevenin impedance is Zth= 1/((1/Z-T/F-1+Z-T/F-2))+Z-Line =(1/(1/18+1/18)) + 4=13.000004ohms I-fault-case-1=VL /1.73 Zth=115000/(1.732*13.000005)=5107.477A We must set our Relay of CB1>5107.477A and Relay of CB2 must be equal or <5107.477A, so in case of fault between CB2 and Bus 7 ,only CB2 trip first and isolate the faulty section of Transmission line and unfaulty section from source generator to Bus 6 remain alive

Case 2:

When fault occur between CB 1 and Cable 1(which is main transmission line) , now use Thevenin's
Theorem.

Then thevenin impedance is Zth= 1/((1/Z-T/F-1+Z-T/F-2))+Z-Line=(1/(1/18+1/18)) =9 ohms I-fault-case-2=VL /1.73 Zth = 115000/(1.732*9)=7377.469249A

Relay-Pick up of CB 1 must be set less than or equal to 7377.469249A

Protection Engineering

Page 3

Research and Development(We Think We Can,CarpediemTech)

Case 3:

Now One source is disconnected and fault occur between CB 2 and Bus 7, now use Thevenin's Theorem.

Then thevenin impedance is Zth= Z-T/f-1+Z-Line=18+ 4=22 ohms I-fault-case-3=VL /1.73 Zth =115000/(1.732*22)= 3108A.

Relay Pickup of CB-1 must be greater than 3108A and Relay Pick up of CB2 must be less than or Equal to 3108 A, so only Faulty section between CB2 and Bus 7 will isolate and unfaulty section from Source to Bus 6 remain intact.

Case 4:

When fault occur between CB 1 and Cable 1(which is main transmission line) , now use Thevenin's Theorem. While Gen 2 is out of service.

Then thevenin impedance is Zth= Z-T/F-1=18 ohms I-fault-case-4=VL /1.73 Zth= 115000/1.732*18= 3688.7349A

Now Relay pick up of CB1 must be less than 3688.7349A

Protection Engineering

Page 4

Research and Development(We Think We Can,CarpediemTech)

 Results: Condition Fault Current CB1-Relay CB-2 Relay Source Line Setting Setting Impedance impedance When fault occur between CB 2 and Bus 7 5107.477A >5107.477A =/<5107.477A 9 ohm 4 ohm When fault occur between CB 1 and Cable 1(which is main transmission line) 7377.469249A <7377.469249A 9 ohm 0 ohm One source is disconnected and fault occur between CB 2 and Bus 7 3108A A >3108A =/<3108A 18ohm 4ohm When fault occur between CB 1 and Cable 1(which is main transmission line) 3688.7349A <3688.7349A 18ohm 0ohm

Now we have to answer why OC relay is not a best option for Transmission Protection.

I will compare Case 1, Case 2, Case 3 and Case 4

if we take minimum value for setting of Relay CB-1,let say 3200A, then it is ok for case 2,case 3 and case 4. But in case 1, the relay of CB1 tripped on fault between CB2 and bus 7 on same setting 3200A because which is not desire able for line fault , so main issue in using OC relay for transmission line protection is Selectivity , that is why we do not prefer OC relay as a primary protection in Transmission line.

Note: Please Point out , if there is any mistake so we can correct it, We Are Human being and always