0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

1 (de) vizualizări24 paginivery useful in load distribution process

Nov 15, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

very useful in load distribution process

© All Rights Reserved

1 (de) vizualizări

very useful in load distribution process

© All Rights Reserved

- Lateral Loads Manual for sap2000
- RCC42 Post Tensioned Analysis & Design
- Design Report-RCC Return Wall (7.0m Height)
- Irregular Diaphragms Paper1
- As 1170.4-1993 Minimum Design Loads on Structures - Known as the SAA Loading Code - - Earthquake Loads
- Calculations
- Vulcraft Composite Deck
- RR-8
- S-TN-LOP-001
- Design Loads
- ch01.pdf
- format_8s
- Struktur beton bertulang lecture 1
- construction technology mcas review
- 0 Dee c 5267 a 04082152000000
- Hull - Finite element analysis
- 1X1.5X1.5 WITH 1m Precast.pdf
- CE_SE_01.pdf
- MIL-STD-8591
- ASME BTH-1-2011_QMC

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 24

Chapter 3

Loads and load distribution

October 2015

Load Distribution

3.1 Types of Loads

There are several types of loads that may act on a structure and can be

categorized as follows:

i. Dead Loads: These are constant in magnitude and fixed in loacation for

the lifetime of the structure. A major part of the dead loads results from the

own weight of the structure itself. The dead loads are also include sand

required for leveling of the flooring, flooring material and brick walls.

ii. Live Loads: These loads depend mainly on the use of the structure. For

buildings, live loads are the results of occupants and furniture. In bridges,

vechile loads represent the major live load. Their magnitude and location

are variable.

iii. Lateral Loads: These are the loads resulting from wind pressure,

earthquake loads, soil pressure and fluid pressure. In recent years,

significant progress has been made to accurately estimate the horizontal

forces due to wind or earthquake.

The safety and accuracy of any design process for various structures is

based mainly on the correct choice of the magnitude and the nature of the

applied loads. Accordingly, social care must be given to the load

assessment. The dissention between the working or service loads used in

the working stress design method (WSD) and the factored load or ultimate

load used in the limit state design method (L.S.D) as will be mentioned

below must be taken into consideration. Also, all the possible load

combination must be investigated to obtain the absolute straining actions.

Prof. Dr. Fathy Saad

October 2015

Load Distribution

Every attempt should be made to reduce the dead load which is required to

be sustained by individual members.

In general, slabs are usually subjected to uniform loads. The load on slab is

calculated per unit area, the load on slab can be classified to the following:

i. The own weight of the slab: which equal to ts x c where ts is the

thickness of the slab and the gc is the unit weight of concrete. c is taken

25 kN/m` for the reinforced concrete as average value.

ii. Weight of the floor and ceiling finishes: which is called floor cover

(F.C /m2), where ts is the slab thickness and gc is the density of concrete.

The floor cover intensity depends on the type of floor finish. The Egyptian

Code for loads state the values of unit weight of different materials (table

3-1 Code ).

Prof. Dr. Fathy Saad

October 2015

Load Distribution

iii. The live load; this depends on the building type and nature (residential,

hospital, school,industrial,.etc.). Different values for live loads are

given in table (4-1),in the Egyptian Code of loads.

This loads can be briefly described as:

i.Reactions transmitted from other beams: which may be supported on

the beam under consideration.

ii.The own weight of the beam: An initial estimate of the o.w. of the

beam is made by assuming the depth which satisfies the deflection

requirement of the beam. This depth may be assumed ranging between

L/5 to L/21 according to the type of beam (see Egyptian Code table

4.10).

October 2015

Load Distribution

iii.The wall loads: walls are considered as a direct load on the floor

beams. the weight of the wall depends on its type and height. there are

different types of walls like solid bricks with opening, and light weight

walls. the unit wt of bricks, brick varies between 17 kN/m3 and 7

kN/m3. for simplification, all the wall weight will be considered on the

beam using the following equation.

The weight of walls /m` can be calculated as load of wall /m` = tw.w.hw

Where:

tw: the thickness of wall and taken by the thickness of plaster into

consideration.

w: unit wt of bricks used.

hw: clear height of wall.

October 2015

Load Distribution

iv.The floor slab load: The magnitude and distribution of the load

transmitted from the floor slab to the supporting beam depends on the

dimension of the slab. The slabs are classified to:

a) One way slabs.

b) Two way slabs.

One way slab is a panel slab supported a long two sides only or on all four

sides. but with rectangularity ratio (r) length / width ratio 2.0 [L/2x 2.0].

In this case the load will be transmitted in the short direction to the beam

along the longitudinal sides of the panel slab, as shown in Fig.

Two way slab is a panel slab supported a long four sides with

rectangularity ratio (r) length / width < 2.0 ( L / 2X < 2.0 ).

In this case, the slab loads are transmitted to both principal directions of

the four beams within tributary areas bounded by the intersection of 45

lines drawn from the corners with the longitudinal center lines of adjacent

panels as shown in fig. All beams must be in the same boundary conditions.

October 2015

Load Distribution

In case of one way slab system, the load transmitted to a supporting beam

is uniformly distributed along its length. In two way slab, the slab load

transmitted to supporting beam is non uniform load along its length as

triangular or trapezoidal. For convenience, the non uniform loads may be

replaced by uniform distributed loads. The equivalent uniformly distributed

loads produces the same bending moment and shearing force as the original

non uniform distributed loads. In either, the beam is assumed simply

supported consider the two way slab as shown in fig. with L / b < 2

B2

weq. = Factor * wslab

X

B2

B1

B2

b = 2X

B1

B1

Factor = Ca or Ce

October 2015

Load Distribution

Where

Ca = The coefficient of equivalent distributed load for shear

Ce = The coefficient of equivalent distributed load for moment

The using of equivalent coefficient Ca, Ce for moment and shear was

based on the assumptions that the beam is simply supported and that the

slab load of one tributary area on each side. For cantilevers or beams

assigned loads on more than one tributary area on either sides, an

equivalent uniformly distributed load equal the total areas on the span /

divided by beam length and multiplied by the intensity of dead or live

load of slab. This equivalent uniformly distributed load used for

computing the maximum moment as well as maximum shear and

reactions.

Equivalent uniform load for beam:

B1

A1 A 2 A 3 A 4

* w slab

L

Where

Ai = The area of tributary triangular.

October 2015

Load Distribution

Inclined Slab

All Applied loads are on inclined projection. Except live load which is

applied on horizontal projection, so it should be multiplied by Cos to

transfer it to inclined projection.

W = g + P Cos

W L L'

8

According to the Limit State Design Method, members are designed with

a capacity that is much greater than required to support the anticipated

working loads. Thats why the anticipated working loads are multiplied by

safety factors of values greater than unity called load factors. This extra

capacity not only provides a factor of safety against failure by accidental

overload or defective construction but also limits the level stress under

service loads to control deflection and cracking.

These include all types that affect the functional use of the structure and

can be classified as follows:

Deformational and Deflection limit States: Excessive deflections may be

visually unacceptable and may lead to walls or partitions damage.

Prof. Dr. Fathy Saad

October 2015

Load Distribution

Cracking Limit States: Excessive cracks may lead to leakage, corrosion

of reinforcement and deterioration of concrete.

Vibration Limit States: Vertical vibration of floors or roofs may cause

unacceptable level of comfort for the users.

In case of design for serviceability limit state the adopted loads are

characteristic loads (service loads)

D + L . (3.13 a-Code).

D + L + W ... (3.13 b-Code).

D + L/1.2 + S/1.4 ... (3.13 c-Code).

Where

= Coefficient that takes into account the effect of live load that might

exists on the building during an earthquake and is taken as follows

= in residential building residential buildings.

= in public buildings and structures such as malls, schools, hospitals,

garages and theaters.

= 1 in silos, water tanks and structures loaded with sustained live loads

such as public libraries, main storage areas and garages for public cars.

If the dead loads increase the structural stability, the following loads should

be used:

0.9D . (3.14 a-Code).

[0.9D + W] or [0.9D + S/1.4] (3.14 b-Code).

If wind or earthquake loads are considered in the design for serviceability

limit state, the allowable stress could be increased.

October 2015

10

Load Distribution

These states are concerned with the failure of a structural member or the

whole structure. Such a failure should have a very low probability of

occurrence since it may lead to loss of human lives.

The load factors specified in The Egyptian Code, to be applied to calculated

dead, live and lateral loads according to the ULS, are summarized as

follows:

1. For members that are subjected to dead loads D and live loads L, while

lateral loads can be neglected, the ultimate factored loads U are

U=1.4D + 1.6L (3.1-Code).

2. If the live load 0.75 the dead loads; then,

U=1.5 (D + L ) (3.2-Code).

3. In case of earth pressure or fluid pressure (lateral pressure, E)

U=1.4D +1.6(E + L) (3.3-Code).

Provided that U is not less than the value given by equation (3.1-Code).in

case E is due to a fluid within a container with definite dimensions such

as tanks and small pools use (1.4E) instead of (1.6E).

4. If the structure is subjected to wind loads W or earthquake S, the

ultimate load U is taken as the biggest from the following two

equations:

U= 0.8 (1.4D + 1.6L + 1.6W) (3.4-Code).

U= 1.12D + L+ S .....(3.5-Code).

Provided that, U is not less than the value given by equation (3.1-code),

also wind loads and earthquake loads cant be combined.

Prof. Dr. Fathy Saad

October 2015

11

Load Distribution

5. If the dead loads increase the structural stability or reduce the straining

actions the loads in 1,3 and 4 should be replaced by the following

respectively.

U= 0.9D .................... (3.6-Code).

U= 0.9D + 1.6E (3.7-Code).

U= 0.9D + 1.3W (3.8-Code).

U= 0.9D + S

(3.9-Code).

shrinkage is T;

U= 0.8 (1.4D + 1.6L + 1.4T ) (3.10-Code)

U 1.4 (D + T ) .. (3.11-Code)

7. A dynamic load, K, can be replaced by an equivalent static load as

follows:

U=1.4D + 1.6L + 1.6K (3.12-Code)

With consideration paid to U given by equation (3.6-Code).

October 2015

12

Load Distribution

The use of maximum and minimum load factors and the arrangement of

loads should be chosen to cause the most critical effect on the member

being designed. for example, for a beam with cantilever end, two cases of

loading must be considered, as shown below

Example: 1 on Absolute Internal Force on beams

For the beam shown it is required to draw the max. max (absolute) straining

action diagrams (B.M.D, S.F.D, N.F.D). Note: the given loads are the

working loads.

Solution:

October 2015

13

Load Distribution

October 2015

14

Load Distribution

October 2015

15

Load Distribution

For the frame shown it is required to draw the max. max (absolute)

straining action diagrams (B.M.D, S.F.D, N.F.D). Note: the given loads are

the working loads.

October 2015

16

Load Distribution

Solution:

October 2015

17

Load Distribution

3.5 Examples

Example: 1on Load Distribution

For structural plan of an office building shown in Fig. it is required to

draw the load distribution on the plan and to calculate the ultimate load

for all beams shown:

Given:

L.L on slabs = 3 kN / m2

wall

October 2015

18

Load Distribution

Solution:

October 2015

19

Load Distribution

October 2015

20

Load Distribution

October 2015

21

Load Distribution

October 2015

22

Load Distribution

October 2015

23

Load Distribution

October 2015

24

- Lateral Loads Manual for sap2000Încărcat deMarcus Mihai
- RCC42 Post Tensioned Analysis & DesignÎncărcat dehala_azhari
- Design Report-RCC Return Wall (7.0m Height)Încărcat dePrabhakaran Karunanithi
- Irregular Diaphragms Paper1Încărcat dejoel
- As 1170.4-1993 Minimum Design Loads on Structures - Known as the SAA Loading Code - - Earthquake LoadsÎncărcat deRosauraLuminitaAlbert
- CalculationsÎncărcat deantonio laten
- Vulcraft Composite DeckÎncărcat deThai Dam
- RR-8Încărcat deMariusz Milewski
- S-TN-LOP-001Încărcat desoylomasgrandes
- Design LoadsÎncărcat deBai Alleha Musa
- ch01.pdfÎncărcat deLuis S Alvarez Jr
- format_8sÎncărcat deShamsul Islam
- Struktur beton bertulang lecture 1Încărcat deAdriel Osmond
- construction technology mcas reviewÎncărcat deapi-319102793
- 0 Dee c 5267 a 04082152000000Încărcat deAntonio Perez Ortiz
- Hull - Finite element analysisÎncărcat deSilvaDark
- 1X1.5X1.5 WITH 1m Precast.pdfÎncărcat deAnkush Sharma
- CE_SE_01.pdfÎncărcat deMehedi Bin Sharif
- MIL-STD-8591Încărcat deaditya tulus
- ASME BTH-1-2011_QMCÎncărcat decesquimon
- Bsee Crane PincÎncărcat deEyoma Etim
- EXCELÎncărcat deNhân Nguyễn
- Concrete Fatigue 1Încărcat depalavmilind
- UPoles - Paper - Durability of Poles in NESC Grade C Construction by HJ Dagher - 04-23-2001.AshxÎncărcat deVictor Jimenez
- Wind Analysis Building RevisedÎncărcat deRacharla Narasimha Raju Varma
- mechanical component.pdfÎncărcat derochman
- GuidelineOnStructuralFireEngineering(Part2)Încărcat deLeung Mk
- buckingham-pd-structural-testÎncărcat deapi-257677429
- Vic rd specification Sec606Încărcat denishan_ravin
- 425 Lecture Chp12 Footing DesignÎncărcat deMang Kulas

- INFLATION RATE - ASSIGNMENT.xlsxÎncărcat deElton Maro
- Dispute Resolution -MediationÎncărcat deElton Maro
- Remedies for Breach of Contract.pptÎncărcat deElton Maro
- Breach of Contract RemediesÎncărcat deAbdul Salam khuhro
- Flowchart Tort of NegligenceÎncărcat deYogita Hauradhun
- Professional NegligenceÎncărcat deElton Maro
- Concrete_and_Fire Irish ConcreteÎncărcat destevecabrera
- SSB05 Detailed Design of Trusses 2010-03-22Încărcat deDiego Nicolás Guevara Huatuco
- Abutment Design Example to BD 30Încărcat deElton Maro
- STIFFENERS DESIGN.docxÎncărcat deElton Maro
- Abutment Design Example to BD 30Încărcat deElton Maro
- Base PlateÎncărcat deElton Maro
- SSB05 Detailed Design of TrussesÎncărcat deElton Maro
- Roof Truss GuideÎncărcat deElton Maro
- Tuangoma (Two Way Slabs)Încărcat deElton Maro

- 3GPP TS 29.018-3b0Încărcat deChristos Ricudis
- journ.docxÎncărcat deAishdfe Maple R. Du
- Malware Scan and Removal Guide to Clean Heavy Inected ComputersÎncărcat deRahman Rodhiya
- EntelliGuard G App GuideÎncărcat deBolivar Martinez
- Analisis Airbus a380Încărcat deDamian Pandu Kurniawan
- MOTOR S-50 DDEC-IV.pdfÎncărcat deeduardonemo
- OM90notesÎncărcat deKunto Adi Nugroho
- Conditions EnÎncărcat deandrejnigel
- EE504 Lecture Slides Week 5Încărcat desohaib
- XLO United ClutÎncărcat devishal
- Modulo Nand Flash ARDUINOÎncărcat deWilmer Yesid Granados Jaimes
- bitcoins.docxÎncărcat deTaim Salah
- HR RolesÎncărcat deRahul Wani
- CashiersÎncărcat dejay jay
- AHTISHAM PROJCTÎncărcat dePappu Pass Ho Gya
- Booking.com ConfirmationÎncărcat deZah Schlafmütze
- Cape Digital Media Unit 1 Paper 1 May 2014Încărcat deAbygayle Ivey
- 2. Matrices and DeterminantsÎncărcat deRavi Kumar
- Cav Info Spring ValeÎncărcat demycambodian
- Pile Cap DesignÎncărcat depwd2007
- systems analysisÎncărcat detom
- US Federal Trade Commission: 0608hcupdateÎncărcat deUSA_FederalTradeCommission
- Organizational RestructuringÎncărcat denicks_rose02
- Daewoo Cn071 Chassis Dvq13h1fc Tv-Vcr Sm OnlyÎncărcat deJose Gil
- 2008 T.matsushita 1Încărcat deblehsadnjs
- Warehouse ManagementÎncărcat desundeep2kumgmailcom
- Visualization of Data SetsÎncărcat desivaram_5005
- 411 Wireless Charging of Mobile Phones Using MicrowavesÎncărcat deRam VBIT
- STCW_7895Încărcat deDheerajKaushal
- 100 Series Controlled- Torque Stub DriverÎncărcat deNguyen Cuong

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.