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Mains Electricity Qs

Q1.(a)

The diagram shows the inside of an incorrectly wired three-pin plug.

(i)

What two changes need to be made so that the plug is wired correctly?
1 ............................................................................................................
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2 ............................................................................................................
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(2)

(ii)

Which one of the wires inside a plug is there to make an appliance with a
metal case safer to use?
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(1)

(iii)

The fuse inside a plug is a safety device.


Explain what happens when too much current passes through a fuse.
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(2)

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Mains Electricity Qs

(b)

Each of these pictures shows an electrical appliance being used in a bathroom.


A

Using the hairdryer in picture A is dangerous. However, it is safe to use the batteryoperated radio in picture B.
Explain why.
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

Q2.The diagrams show oscilloscope traces. Three different alternating current (a.c.) electricity
supplies, J, K and L, produce these traces.

In each diagram, one vertical division on the oscilloscope screen represents 2 volts.
(a)

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Which one of the electricity supplies, J, K or L, has the largest peak potential

Mains Electricity Qs

difference?

Write your answer, J, K or L, in the box.

(1)

(b)

Calculate the value of the largest peak potential difference.


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...
Largest peak potential difference = ................................... V
(1)

(c)

The oscilloscope is now connected across a 3 V battery. The battery supplies direct
current (d.c.). The settings on the oscilloscope are not changed.
On the diagram below draw the trace you would see on the oscilloscope screen.

(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Q3.

(a) Describe the difference between an alternating current (a.c.) and a direct
current (d.c.).
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Mains Electricity Qs

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(2)

(b)

The diagram shows the information plate on the bottom of an electric wallpaper
steamer.

(i)

Use the equation in the box to calculate the current used by the steamer.

power = current potential difference

Show clearly how you work out your answer.


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Current .............................. A
(2)

(ii)

Which one of the following fuses should be used inside the plug of the
steamer?
Draw a ring around your answer.
1A

3A

5A

10 A

13 A
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

Q4.

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An oscilloscope is connected to an alternating current (a.c.) supply.

Mains Electricity Qs

The diagram shows the trace produced on the oscilloscope screen.

Each horizontal division on the oscilloscope screen represents 0.002 s.


(a)

Calculate the frequency of the alternating current supply.


Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit.
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Frequency = ...........................................................................
(3)

(b)

What is the frequency of the a.c. mains electricity supply in the UK?
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(1)
(Total 4 marks)

Q5.

A set of lights consists of 20 lamps connected in series to the 230 V mains electricity
supply.

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Mains Electricity Qs

(a)

When the lights are switched on and working correctly, the current through each
lamp is 0.25 A.
(i)

What is the total current drawn from the mains supply?


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(1)

(ii)

charge

Use the equation in the box to calculate the charge passing through one of the
lamps in 5 minutes.
=

current

time

Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit.
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Total charge = ..................................................
(3)

(b)

One of the lamps in the set is a fuse lamp. This contains a filament which melts if a
fault occurs. A short time after the lights are switched on, a fault causes the filament
inside the fuse lamp to melt and all the lamps go out.
The householder cannot find another fuse lamp so connects a piece of aluminium
foil across the contacts inside the fuse lamp holder.
When switched on, the nineteen remaining lamps work.
What the householder has done is dangerous.

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Mains Electricity Qs

Explain why.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Q6.

A homeowner has installed electric underfloor heating in the kitchen. When the
heating is switched on, an electric current flows through wires running under the tiled floor
surface.
(a)

What is an electric current?


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...
(1)

(b)

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The graph shows how the power output of an underfloor heating system depends on
the area of the floor that is heated.

Mains Electricity Qs

The area of the homeowners kitchen floor is 9.0 m


Use the graph and the equation in the box to calculate the current drawn from the 230 V mains supply
by the heating system.
2.

power

current

potential difference

Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit.
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Current = ....................................................................
(4)
(Total 5 marks)

Q7.The picture shows an electric cooker hob. The simplified circuit diagram shows how the four
heating elements connect to the mains electricity supply. The heating elements are
identical.

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Mains Electricity Qs

When all four heating elements are switched on at full power the hob draws a current of
26 A from the 230 V mains electricity supply.
(a)

Calculate the resistance of one heating element when the hob is switched on at full
power.
Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.
Give your answer to 2 significant figures.
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Resistance = ..............................
(3)

(b)

The table gives the maximum current that can safely pass through copper wires of
different cross-sectional area.
Cross-sectional
area in mm

Maximum safe
current in amps

1.0

11.5

2.5

20.0

4.0

27.0

6.0

34.0

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Mains Electricity Qs

(i)

The power sockets in a home are wired to the mains electricity supply using
cables containing 2.5 mm copper wires. Most electrical appliances are
connected to the mains electricity supply by plugging them into a standard
power socket.
2

It would not be safe to connect the electric cooker hob to the mains electricity
supply by plugging it into a standard power socket.
Why?
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(2)

(ii)

Describe the structure of the cable that should be used to connect the electric
cooker hob to the mains electricity supply.
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(3)

(c)

Mains electricity is an alternating current supply. Batteries supply a direct current.


What is the difference between an alternating current and a direct current?

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Mains Electricity Qs

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(2)
(Total 10 marks)

Q8.Diagram 1 shows a hairdryer.


Diagram 2 shows how the heaters and fan of the hairdryer are connected to a 3-pin plug.
The hairdryer does not have an earth wire.

(a)

What colour is the insulation around the wire connected to the live pin inside the
plug?
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(1)

(b)

Why does the hairdryer not need an earth wire?

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(1)

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Mains Electricity Qs

(c)
(i)

All the switches are shown in the OFF position.


Which switch or switches have to be ON to make:

(1) only the fan work; ............................................................................


(2) heater 2 work? ................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

The heaters can only be switched on when the fan is also switched on.
Explain why.
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(2)

(d)

The table shows the current drawn from the 230 volt mains electricity supply when
different parts of the hairdryer are switched on.
Current in amps

Fan only

1.0

Fan and heater 1

4.4

Fan and both heaters

6.5

Use the equation in the box to calculate the maximum power of the hairdryer.
power

current

potential difference

Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit.

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Mains Electricity Qs

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Maximum power = ............................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

Q9.

(a)
The picture shows a person using a set of electronic Body Fat Scales. When
the person stands on the scales, a small, harmless, electric current passes through
the persons body. The scales then calculate the resistance of the persons body and
convert the resistance into a prediction of body fat content.

(i)

The scales contain two 3 V cells joined in series.

Calculate the resistance of a persons body, if when he stands on the scales, a


current of 0.12 mA passes through his body.
1000 mA = 1 A
Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet.
Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit.
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Resistance = .............................................................
(3)

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Mains Electricity Qs

(ii)

The scales can only produce a prediction of body fat content and not an
accurate measurement.
Suggest why.
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(1)

(iii)

It is recommended that the scales are not used immediately after a person
has drunk a large amount of water.
Suggest why.
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(2)

(b)

The diagram shows how someone could get an electric shock from accidentally
cutting into an electric cable. If this happens, and a Residual Current Circuit Breaker
(RCCB) is being used, the circuit will switch off automatically.

(i)

A faulty appliance or circuit can be switched off by a RCCB or a fuse.


Compare the action of a RCCB with the action of a fuse.

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Mains Electricity Qs

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(2)

(ii)

The graph shows how the severity of an electric shock depends on the size of
the current and the time that the current flows through the body.

Using the RCCB helps prevent an electric shock seriously injuring the person
using the hedge trimmers.

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Mains Electricity Qs

Using information from both the diagram and the graph explain how.
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(2)
(Total 10 marks)

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Mains Electricity Qs

M1.

(a)
(i) connect the earth wire (to pin)
answers must be in terms of correcting the faults
1

screw cable grip (across cable)


accept tighten the cable grip
1

(ii) earth (wire)


accept the green and yellow (wire)
1

(iii)

any two from:


fuse gets (very) hot

fuse melts
accept blows for melts
do not accept break / snap fuse / blow up
circuit breaks/ switches off
accept stops current flowing
2

(b)

any two from:


it refers to hairdryer

hairdryer is plugged into mains (electricity socket)


hairdryer works from the mains
or
hairdryer is using 230 V
accept 240 for 230
water conducts electricity
do not accept water and electricity don't mix

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radio is low power / current / pd / voltage


accept radio not connected to the mains

Mains Electricity Qs

do not accept radio is waterproof

(the current in / p.d.across) hairdryer more likely to give a (fatal) electric shock
accept the idea of electrocution if hairdryer is wet
accept the idea of radio not causing electrocution
if wet
2

[7]

M2.(a)

L
1

(b)

6 (V)
1

(c)

horizontal line drawn


1

drawn in correct position


judge by eye
1

[4]

M3.

(a)

d.c. flows in (only) one direction


1

a.c. changes direction (twice every cycle)


accept a.c. constantly changing direction
ignore references to frequency
accept answers presented as a clear diagram
e.g.

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Mains Electricity Qs

ac:

(b) (i)
10
allow 1 mark for correct transformation and substitution i.e.
an answer 0.01 gains 1 mark
2

(ii)

13 A
e.c.f.
accept the fuse size that is the next listed value greater than
answer (b)(i)
1

[5]

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Mains Electricity Qs

M4.
(a) 125
allow 1 mark for obtaining time period = 0.008 (s)
or
frequency = 1 / time period (or their calculated time period)
2

hertz
or
Hz
do not accept hz
1

(b)

50 (hertz)
1

[4]

M5.

(a)

(i)

0.25 (A)
1

(ii) 75
allow 1 mark for converting 5 minutes to 300 seconds
or allow 1 mark for correct substitution
ie 0.25 300
allow 1 mark for an answer 1.25
allow 1 mark only for their (a)(i) 300 correctly calculated
2

coulombs or C
do not accept c
1

(b)

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any two from:

Mains Electricity Qs

fault not repaired


accept if a fault was to occur

larger current will (still) flow

aluminium foil will not melt (if a fault)


accept aluminium foil needs a higher current / charge to melt

wiring will overheat / (may) cause a fire


accept idea of fire hazard
do not accept explode etc
2

[6]

M6.

(a)

(rate of) flow of charge / electrons / ions


accept movement for flow
do not accept flow of electricity
1

(b) 7(.0)
accept 6.96 / 6.95 or an answer that would approximate to
6.96 if rounded
allow 1 mark for obtaining correct power and changing to
watts ie 1600
or
allow 2 marks for correct substitution and transformation
ie 1600 230
an answer 0.00696 / 0.007 gains 2 marks
allow 1 mark for 1.6 / 230 or 1.7 / 230
an answer 7.39 or 7.4 gains 2 marks
3

amp (ere)
accept A
1

[5]

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Mains Electricity Qs

M7.(a) 35
an answer with more than 2 sig figs that rounds to 35 gains
2 marks
allow 2 marks for correct method, ie
allow 1 mark for I = 6.5 (A) or R =
an answer 8.8 gains 2 marks
an answer with more than 2 sig figs that rounds to 8.8 gains
1 mark
3

(b)

(i)

(maximum) current exceeds maximum safe current for a 2.5 mm wire


accept power exceeds maximum safe power for a 2.5 mm
wire
2

or(maximum) current exceeds 20 (A)


(maximum) current = 26 (A) is insufficient
1

a 2.5 mm wire would overheat / melt


accept socket for wire
do not accept plug for wire
2

(ii)

(contains) live, neutral and earth wires


accept is a three-core cable
1

cross-sectional area of (live and neutral) wire(s) (minimum of) 4 mm


accept 6 mm for 4 mm
2

wire / cable should be insulated


accept a suitable named insulator, eg PVC / rubber / plastic
1

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Mains Electricity Qs

(c)

a.c. is constantly changing direction


accept a.c. flows in two directions
accept a.c. changes direction
a.c. travels in different directions is insufficient
1

d.c. flows in one direction only


1

[10]

M8.

(a)

brown
1

(b)

outside / case is plastic / an insulator


accept is double insulated
accept non-conductor for plastic
do not accept it / hairdryer is plastic
1

(c)

(i)
(1) S
and no other
1

(2) S and S
both required, either order
1

(ii)

S must be ON (for either heater to work)


do not accept reference to fan switch
1

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Mains Electricity Qs

S switches the fan on


1

(d) 1495
allow 1 mark for correct substitution
ie, 6.5 230
2

watt(s) or W
an answer of 1.495 kW gains 3 marks
although the unit is an independent mark for full credit
the unit and numerical value must be consistent
accept joules per second or J/s
1

[9]

M9.
(a)
(i) 50 000
allow 1 mark for correct substitution, ie
6 = 0.00012 R
or 6 = 0.12 R
or answers of 25 000 or 50 gain 1 mark
or allow 1 mark for an incorrect answer caused by one error
only ie using 3V or an incorrect conversion of current
2

ohm /
an answer 50k gains 3 marks
1

(ii)

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(body) resistance changes

Mains Electricity Qs

or
body fat/resistance affected by (many) factors
accept named factor, eg age, gender, height, fitness, bone
structure, muscle, drinking water related to body fat /
resistance
1

(iii) gives misleading / wrong/inaccurate value


do not credit if specifically linked to a change in mass /
weight
1

(because) high water content changes body resistance


accept a specific change to resistance
water changes body mass is insufficient
1

(b)

(i)

RCCB detects difference between current in live and neutral (wires)


accept RCCB can be reset
1

fuse (overheats and) melts


accept blows for melts
1

(ii)

switches the circuit / hedge trimmers off within 60 milliseconds


allow for 1 mark the RCCB / it is (very) fast.
do not accept the bigger the current the faster the RCCB
switches off
2

[10]

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