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Power Flow

I.

Power distribution system


1. General Aspect

The network of power system which distributes power for a local is known as Distribution
system.
- Power distribution elements
1/ Feeders
[Sa], [Sc] : Feeders
a, b, c, d : distributors
Feeder is a conductor which connects the substation to area where power is distributed .
2/ Distributor is the connector which trapping are taken for supply to the customers.
3/ Service Main: generally, service main is a small cable which connect the distributor to
consumer terminals.
- Distribution Classification
a/. Nature of current distribution
DC /AC
b/. Methods of connections
- Series (open loop)
- Parallel loop
- Mixed
- Feeder and Main
- Loop system
- Ring system
c/. Phase number
- Single phase ( 2 wires, 3 wires )
- Three phase (3 wires, 4-5 wires )
d/. Mounting
- Over head line
- Underground

2. Voltage and distribution


550, 1100, 2200, 6600, 11000, 12000 and 32000V
Requirement of distribution system
1- Proper voltage: max-voltage variation ( 6%)
2- Availability of power demand
3- Reliability
Inter-connection
Reliable automatic control system
Providing additional reserve facilities
lost
public safety
faults
repaired

Overhead line
low
less
more chances
easy

Vs.

Underground
high (5-10 time)
better
very rare
difficult

flexibility (change)
appearance
maintenance (pay)
useful life

more
not good
high
25 yr

less
good
low
more than 50 yr

- DC distribution system
Most DC power is obtained from large AC power system using converter.
i. Practically, AC generator can be constructed up to 1GW but DC generator cannot be built
of ratings higher than 8 MW because of commutation trouble.
ii. AC system can be efficiency and convienly raised lower economic transmission and
distribution. DC power has to be generated at low voltage by units of relatively low
power rating.

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- AC distribution system
The generated voltage is stepped up to 12kV, 220kV and 500kV by mean of (step up
transformer). the small consumers received power at 400/240V where they can use both single
phase or 3 phases supply. Electric power to large scale consumers is often supplied at 22kV,
15kV, 6.6kV such they install their substation (step down transformer).
three phase 4 wires distribution systems
single phase supply 240V
three phase supply 400V
- AC distribution calculation
AC distribution differ from DC distribution in the following respect:
1- in DC system, voltage drop is due to the resistance substation only, but in AC system, this
problem is due to the combination of resistance, inductance and capacitance.
2- in DC system, the addition and subtraction of voltage or currents are simply mathematic,
otherwise the addition and subtraction will be vectorially in AC system.
3- the methods employed for finding the solution of DC system and network shall hold good
in solution of AC system.
- AC distribution with concentrated loads
1- power factor reffered to receiving end-voltage
Impedance in section
B
C
A
AB: Z AB R1 jX 1
BC: Z BC R2 jX 2
Load current at point B: I 1 I1 (cos 1 j sin 2 )

R1 + jX1

R2 + jX2
I1Cos1

I2Cos2

Economic Load Dispatch


I.

Introduction

Energy resource: fossils (coal, fuel diesel, gas, water, radioactive matter, irradiation, wind
flow).
The choice of one or other is made on economic technical or geographic basics. An interconnection system, the fundamental problem is of minimizing the resource expense. The
economic dispatch so that the total cost of generation transmission is minimizing for a prescribed
schedule of loads.
- forecasting includes determining the peak rate of supply (power demand)
- the investment planning application covers the generation and the transmission system
II.

Generator operating cost

The generators in extant systems are three types: nuclear, hydro and fossils. Nuclear power plant
tends to be operated at constant output, hydro plant non-variable operating cost. Thus, the
components of cost, which fall under category of dispatching, are the cost of the fuel bur at in
fuel plant. The total operation cost includes the fuel, labor, supplier and maintenance.

fuel input

system
boiler

Power output
turbine

The output power is varied by operating the level of value at the inlet stream. As the result, the
min
max
operating cost of the plant has the form inequality constrains: Pgi Pgi Pgi
(2)
The constrain optimization problem is converted to an unconstraint problem. Lagrange multiplier
is used in which a function is minimized.
NG

L( Pgi , ) F ( Pgi ) ( PD Pgi )

(3)

i 1

A necessary condition of a function F ( Pgi ) , subject to energy balance to have a reliable minimum
at the partial derivative of the Lagrange function defined by L( Pgi , ) which respect to each of it
arguments must be zero.
The conditions for the optimization problem are:
L( Pgi , ) F ( Pgi )

0 (i = 1, 2, 3 NG)
Pgi
Pgi
and

L( Pgi , )

(4) =>

Pgi

NG

PD Pgi 0

F ( Pgi )

(4)
(5)

i 1

(6)

: incremental cost of i th generator ($/MWh) optimal loading of generator corresponds to equal


incremental cost point of all the generators.