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EXPERIMENT 7 : DETERMINATION OF ASH

INTRODUCTION
Ash or mineral content is the portion of the food or any organic material that remains after it is
burned at very high temperatures. The ash constituents include potassium, sodium, calcium and
magnesium, which are present in larger amounts as well as smaller quantities of aluminum, iron,
copper, manganese or zinc, arsenic, iodine, fluorine and other elements present in traces.
Ash content represents the total mineral content in foods. Although minerals represent a small
proportion of dry matter, often less than 7% of the total, they play an important role from a
physicochemical, technological and nutritional point of view. Determining the ash content may
be important for several reasons. It is part of proximate analysis for nutritional evaluation.
Ashing is the first step in preparing a food sample for determination of specific elemental
analysis. When powdered foods, are heated to a temperature of about 500C for at least four
hours, the water and other volatile constituents are evolved as vapors and the organic constituents
are burnt off in the presence of oxygen of the air, to carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen and
also eliminated together with hydrogen as water.

OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the percentage of ashes of the food samples.
2. To determine percentage of the acid-insoluble ashes of food samples.

MATERIALS
Porcelain dish, analytical balance , Bunsen burner , oven , muffle , furnace , tongs, hydrochloric
acid, watch glass, filter paper, analytical balance , Bunsen burner .

METHOD
i.
Dry ashing method
The porcelain dish was label clearly at the bottom. The porcelain dish was weight. Next 5g of
the homogenized food sample was weight into the porcelain dish . The dried samples was burn
over a Bunsen burner until the smoke was no longer evolved. The porcelain dish was place in the
muffle furnace and was heated at 550 c for 3 hours .The dish was removed and the weight of the
food sample was obtained.
ii.

Acid-insoluble ash method


The ashes was boiled with 25ml of dilute hydrochloric acid fir 5 minutes .The dish was cover
with watch glass to prevent spattering. The insoluble matter was filtered through an ashless filter
paper and was washed thoroughly by using the hot water. The acidity of the insoluble matter was
checked by using the pH paper. The filter paper was ignited in the original dish . The dish was
cooled and weighted.
RESULTS
Table 7.1: Raw data for ash analysis using dry ashing method.
Group

1
2
3
4

Weight of
Crucible,g

65.2340
65.2300
59.5200
62.0500

Weight of

Weight of

Weight of

Weight of

% ash

crucible +

the

crucible +

ash,g

content

sample,g
70.2468
70.2500
59.5200
67.1000

sample,g
5.0128
5.0100
5.0300
5.0500

ash,g
65.4798
66.0600
60.4900
63.0100

0.2458
0.8300
0.9700
0.9600

4.9034
16.5300
19.2840
19.0100

Table 7.2: Raw data for acid insoluble ash analysis using dry ashing method.
Group

Weight of

Weight of

% g Acid-

g Acid-

% acid

crucible +

acid-insoluble

insoluble

insoluble

soluble ash

acid-insoluble

ash , g

ash/100 g

ash/100g total

ash,g
65.2664

0.0324

sample
0.6460

ash
13.1814

7.632

64.1960

0.0622

1.2420

7.4930

15.288

3
4

59.5341
63.0600

0.0141
1.0100

0.2803
20.00

1.4536
105.2083

19.0037
-0.99

CALCULATION
Dry ashing method
g ash per 100g the total sample =
Group 1=

0.2458 g
5.0128 g

weight of ash (g)


weight of sample( g)

x 100

x100

=4.9034%
Acid-insoluble ash method
Acid insoluble ash =weight of crucible + acid insoluble ash ) weight of crucible
=62.2664-65.2340
=0.0324g
g Acid-insoluble ash/100g the total sample =
Group 1=

weight of acidinsoluble ash( g)


weight of sample (g)

x 100

0.0324 g
5.0128 g x100

= 0.6463%
g Acid-insoluble ash/100g the total ash =

weight of acidinsoluble ash( g)


weight of sample (g)

x 100

0.2458
Group 1= 0.0324 g x 100

=13.1814%
Acid-insoluble ash (%) = % total ash - % acid insoluble ash
=13.1814%-4.9034%
=7.632%

DISCUSSION
During this experiment, in determining the ash ,two different method are used dry ashing
method and acid-insoluble ash method. There are two food samples involve, turmeric powder
and anchovies .group 1 and 2 are assigned to do the turmeric powder .For the ashing method , the
percentage obtained by group 1 and 2 are 4.9034% and 16.53% .While the percentage of ash

content of anchovy by group 3 and 4 are 19.204% and 19.010% . For the acid insoluble ash
analysis , group 1 and 2 are assign to do the turmeric powder. The percentage of acid insoluble
ash/100g total ash is 13.1814% and 7.4930% for turmeric powder. While for group 3 and 4 are
1.4536% and 105.2083%. The % acid soluble for turmeric powder for group 1 is 7.623% and
group 2 is 15.288%.While for anchovy sample are 19.0037% for group 3 and -0.99% for group4.
There were some random error occurred as as the residue was not wash thoroughly until it is
neutral and the food sample also was not ignite thoroughly until the smoke disappeared.

QUESTIONS
1. How do you know the ash is free from carbon?
We can assess the presence or absence of carbon in ash from the colour of the If ash is
greyish to blackish in colour then carbon is present in the ash. If ash is bluish grey to brown
in colour then the ash is free of carbon
2. Why is the sample needed to be heated over a Bunsen burner before heating in a muffle
furnace?
The scope is to eliminate water, volatile compounds, substances easily thermodegradable
before the calcining in a muffle furnace.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion , the percentage of ash content are 4.9034% and 16.53% for turmeric and 19.204%
and 19.010% for anchovies,while the percentage of acid soluble ash are 7.623% and 15.288% for
turmeric and 19.0037% and -0.99% for anchovies.

REFERENCES
1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC421

2. http://library.iyte.edu.tr/tezler/master/enerjimuh/T000743.pdf
3. Nielsen, s. (2010). compositional analysis of food. In s. nielsen, food analysis (p. 88).

wisconsin ,usa: springer.

School of Industrial
Technology
Faculty of Applied Science

________________________________________________________

FST 556
Laboratory title :
Practical 7 : determination of ash
Date of experiment : 1 November 2016

Name

: Hasifah binti Abdul Aziz

Student ID : 2014127737
Group

: AS2464A

Lectures name: Dr Azizah Osman

MARK:

School of Industrial Technology

Faculty of Applied Science

________________________________________________________

FST 554
Laboratory title :
Practical 9 : Effect of freezing temperature on quality of
meatball

Name

: Hasifah binti Abdul Aziz

Student ID : 2014127737
Group

: AS2464A

Lecturers name ; Miss Hariyah

MARK: