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ASPECTS REGARDING THE

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS


CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA
(U.N.C.L.O.S.)
Consideraii privind implementarea Conveniei Naiunilor Unite privind
dreptul mrii (UNCLOS)

RO
CUPRINS

EN
CONTENTS

RO
INTRODUCERE:
Dreptul mrii parte
internaional public

EN
integrant

Introduction :

dreptului The Law of the Sea A Constitutive Part of the


International Public Law

CAPITOLUL I
ASPECTE JURIDICE ALE PROBLEMATICII
MRII
TERITORIALE
N
DECURSUL
TIMPULUI
1.1. Problematica mrii teritoriale n relaiile dintre
state nainte de convenia de la Geneva 1958
1.2. Rolul conferinei de la Geneva 1958 n
formarea principiilor i conceptelor dreptului mrii
1.3. Practica statelor cu privire la marea teritorial
n perioada 1958- 1982
1.4. Convenia din 1982 de la Montego-Bay privind
dreptul mrii

Chapter 1 : Aspects of the Territorial Sea


Issues along Time
1.1.

Territorial Sea Issues In The Interstate


Relations
Before
The
1958
Geneva Convention
1.2.
The Role Of The 1958 Geneva Conference In
The
Formation
Of
The
Principles And Concepts On The Law Of The Sea
1.3.
The Policy of the States on the Territorial Seas
between 1958-1982
1.4.
The 1982 Montego-Bay Convention on the
Law of the Sea

Chapter 2: The Legal Regime of the Territorial


Sea
2.1. The Legal Nature of the Territorial Sea

CAPITOLUL II
REGIMUL JURIDIC AL MRII TERITORIALE
2.1. Natura juridic a mrii teritoriale
2.2. Dreptul de trecere inofensiv
2.3. Jurisdicia statului riveran asupra mrii
teritoriale
2.4. Legislaia Romniei referitoare la regimul
juridic al mrii teritoriale

2.2. The Right of Innocent Passage

2.3. Jurisdiction of the Coastal State over the


Territorial Sea
2.4. Romanian Legislation on the Legal Regime of the
Territorial Sea

Chapter 3 : Implications of the Delimitation of


Sea
in
the
IMPLICAII
ALE Territorial
Interstate Relations
TERITORIALE N

CAPITOLUL
III
DELIMITRII MRII
RELAIILE DINTRE STATE
3.1. Acorduri ntre state privind delimitarea mrii
teritoriale
3.2. Litigii soluionate pe calea tratativelor direct
ntre state
3.3. Litigii supuse spre rezolvare Curii
Internaionale de Justiie
3.3.1. Delimitarea platoului continental i a
zonelor economice exclusive ale Romniei i
Ucrainei n Marea Neagr

3.1. Agreements between States Regarding


Delimitation of the Territorial Sea
3.2. Legal Disputes Settled By Direct Negotiation
between States
3.3. Legal Disputes Submitted For Settlement to the
International Court Of Justice
3.3.1. The Delimitation of the Continental
Shelf and of the Exclusive Economic
Zones of Romania and Ukraine in the
Black Sea

Conclusion

CONCLUZII
BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIV

EN

RO
INTRODUCERE
Dreptul mrii parte integrant a dreptului

INTRODUCTION
The Law of the Sea A Constitutive Part of the

internaional public

International Public Law

Pmntul este acoperit n cea mai mare parte

Our planet is covered mostly with water, it is

de ap, utilizarea acesteia fiind la fel de veche ca i used since human life appeared on Earth, but only in
existena omului pe Terra, dar numai n ultima the last half of the millennium the water started to be
jumtate de mileniu apa a nceput s fie folosit i n used in other purposes than sailing or fishing.
alte scopuri de ct pentru navigaie i pescuit.
Mrile i oceanele constituie mai mult de

The seas and the oceans represent more than

70% din suprafaa globului i au avut dintotdeauna 70% of the surface of the Globe and have always
un rol important n progresul omenirii i un impact played an important role in the progress of humankind
deosebit asupra tuturor domeniilor vieii economice, and had an awesome impact on every aspect of the
politice i militare a statelor innd cont de faptul c economical, political and military life of the states,
acestea au constituit o surs important de hran, au taking into account the fact that they represented an
contribuit n mod fundamental la dezvoltarea important

source

of

food,

they

contributed

legturilor comerciale ntre state, ndeosebi dup fundamentally to the development of interstate
marile descoperiri geografice iar n prezent pe lng business

relations,

particularly

after

the

great

vechile ntrebuinri s-au adugat multe altele noi geographic discoveries; and nowadays, beside the old
cum ar fi de exemplu exploatarea resurselor use, new ones added, for example the exploitation of
minerale.

the mineral resources.

Descoperirile tiinei i tehnicii din perioada


postbelic

au

determinat

The

postwar

science

and

technique

diversificarea discoveries determined the widening of seas and

funcionalitilor mrilor i oceanelor. n sistemul oceans functionality. In the international transport


transportului internaional marea constituie cea mai system, seas represent the most important path for
important cale pentru desfurarea acestuia, n progress, mostly because its low costs compared with
principal pentru faptul c acesta are un pre redus n the alternatives and because it enables the shipment of
raport cu celelalte modaliti i pentru c permite large amounts of goods; 80% of the international
mbarcarea unui volum mare de mrfuri, pe aceast transport is carried by the sea.
cale desfurndu-se 80% din comerul internaional.
Pentru a guverna relaiile panice dintre state,

In order to govern the peace interstate

ordinea juridic a mrii, creat de-a lungul secolelor relations, the Law of the Sea, based throughout
pe cale cutumiar sau convenional, a fost, ncepnd centuries on common or conventional law, has been
cu Conferina de la Geneva din 1958, modernizat cu starting with the 1958 Geneva Conference - updated
norme, principii i instituii care sunt destinate s with: standards, principles, and institutions created in
4

EN
order to satisfy the legitimate interests of all countries.

RO
satisfac interesele legitime ale tuturor statelor.
n acest context problematica dreptului mrii
se relev ca fiind de o importan major n
desfurarea relaiilor internaionale i n viaa

In this context, Law of the Sea problems


became the most important issues, in the international
business relations and all states activities.

tuturor statelor lumii.


Marea teritorial fcnd parte integrant din
teritoriul de stat, constituie din punct de vedere
juridic un subiect deosebit de important, aceast
zon aflndu-se n egal msur att sub imperiul
reglementrilor internaionale n materie ct i sub
jurisdicia statului riveran. Studierea aspectelor
juridice ale mrii teritoriale comport considerarea
acestora n contextul larg al dreptului internaional
public i n sens restrns a importantei teme a
acestuia - teritoriul. Aceast zon fiind supus
deopotriv

prevederilor

internaionale

celor

As a constitutive part of a state territory,


territorial seas represents from the legal point of
view a very important issue, they are subordinated
to international law regulations and also to coastal
state laws. The study of the legal aspects of the
territorial sea must take into discussion the many
problems that arise from the international public law
and the specific issues of the territory the most
important element of it. This domain is subject to
international

and

national

regulations,

together

influencing the law system of the national border.

interne, care considerate mpreun constituie i pun


amprenta asupra regimului juridic al frontierei
naionale.
O precizare care se impune fcut este aceea
c raportul dintre dreptul internaional i dreptul
intern au fost analizate, inndu-se cont de corelaia
existent ntre ele n cadrul temei abordate i de
faptul c sunt rezultatul unitii dintre politica
extern i cea intern a statului, astfel nct normele
interne nu pot contrazice normele i principiile
dreptului internaional, innd cont de faptul c prin
constituirea ca parte la un tratat sau acord
internaional, statul se oblig implicit ca legislaia
intern s nu contrazic actul ratificat.
Pornind de la aceasta am examinat tema sub
aspectul prevederilor internaionale, a celor interne i
a raporturilor create prin aceast interferen.

An analysis of the connection between


international and national law has been performed,
taking into consideration the correlation which exists
between them within the subject in discussion and the
fact that they represent the result of the unity between
the state national and international policy, so that the
internal standards cannot contradict the standards and
principles of the international law, taking into account
the fact that, as part of the international treaty or
agreement, the state engages not to contradict the
ratified document with the international law.
Based on this idea, I studied the theme in
respect of the international law, of the internal law
and of the relationships created by their interaction.
I dedicated the first chapter to the territorial

Am dedicat primul capitol problematicii


5

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mrii teritoriale n decursul timpului i tratrii n sea issues along time and to the most important

RO

mod general a celor mai importante convenii n agreements regarding the Law of the Sea, leaving for
materia dreptului mrii, rezervnd pentru capitolul al the second chapter the most important aspects of the
doilea tratarea regimului juridic al mrii teritoriale law of the territorial sea.
sub aspectele sale definitorii.
Dorind s reliefm importana deosebit

In order to emphasize the importance for all

pentru toate statele de a-i delimita, n principal de countries of the delimitation of the territorial sea by
comun acord, marea teritorial am tratat n capitolul mutual agreement, in the third chapter I dwelled upon
trei implicaiile de natur juridic ale acestei the legal implications of this delimitation. Taking into
delimitri. innd cont de faptul c delimitarea mrii consideration the fact that delimitation of the
teritoriale reprezint principalul aspect de natur a territorial sea represents the main element that can
provoca diferende ntre state, i lund n consideraie generate disputes between countries, and based on the
practica judiciar n materie, am urmrit s punctm law practice in this domain, I underlined the means of
modalitile de soluionare ale acestora att pe calea solving these problems: by negotiations or by
tratativelor ct i prin supunerea lor spre soluionare submitting them to settlement to the International
Curii Internaionale de Justiie.

Justice Court.

O mare parte a reglementrilor referindu-se

Most of the regulations regard the activities

la activitile desfurate n marea teritorial i that develop in the territorial sea; taking into
innd cont de faptul c acestea au o importan consideration that they are fundamentally important
fundamental din punct de vedere economic i from the economic and social point of view, I
social, am considerat oportun gruparea acestora n discussed them in the last chapter and I examined
ultimul

capitol

le-am

examinat

urmrind them starting with the main specific aspects that

principalele aspecte ce le caracterizeaz, reliefnd n define them, underlining their influences on the
principal modul n care sunt oglindite mai ales n internal regulations.
normele interne.

RO
CAPITOLUL I: ASPECTE JURIDICE ALE

EN

PROBLEMATICII MRII

CHAPTER 1: LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE

TERITORIALE N DECURSUL

TERRITORIAL SEA ISSUES ALONG TIME

TIMPULUI

RO

EN

1.1. Problematica mrii teritoriale n relaiile


dintre state nainte de convenia de la
Geneva 1958
Considerente de ordin politic, economic i
militar au determinat statele lumii, ncepnd chiar
din antichitate, s-i extind aria suveranitii asupra
unei pri din apele mrilor.
Comerul pe ap s-a desfurat n decursul
timpului n condiii avantajoase, dac luam n calcul
nesigurana drumurilor pe uscat i faptul c prin
transportul pe ap au fost eliminate impedimentele
vamale inerente transporturilor pe uscat1.
n perioada de nceput a dezvoltrii
societii, necesitatea oamenilor de a-i asigura
hrana i de a folosi o parte din producie n vederea
schimbului a dus la dezvoltarea comerului practicat
nu numai n cadrul tribului i ntre vecinii de hotare,
ci chiar peste mri2.
n timp, odat cu apariia statelor i a
stabilirii relaiilor economice i politice ntre
acestea, s-au nscut i relaiile juridice create de
state, ce urmreau reglementarea activitilor
desfurate pe mare, aceste circumstane favoriznd
apariia i formarea principiilor, a conceptelor i
instituiilor dreptului mrii.
innd cont de realitile politice i militare,
urmrind aprarea intereselor comerciale pe mare,
fenicienii, grecii, iar mai trziu cartaginezii i
romanii au construit flote puternice pentru acele
timpuri. Cu ajutorul acestor flote s-au ntemeiat
colonii n multe regiuni ale globului, s-a fcut
posibil schimbul comercial ntre metropole i
colonii, dar mai ales s-au meninut ntinsele imperii
coloniale.

1.1.

Territorial Sea Issues In The Interstate


Relations Before The 1958
Geneva Convention

Since Antiquity the political, military and


economic reasons determined the Worlds countries to
expand their sovereignty over a part of the seas.
Trade by sea proved to be profitable in time, if
we take into consideration the uncertainty of roads and
the fact that the transport by sea eliminated the inherent
custom difficulties which appeared during the transport
by land.
At the beginning of the society development, the
fact that people needed to obtain food and to use a part
of the production for exchange led to the development of
the trade between the tribe members and also between
frontier tribes and even tribes separated by seas.
In time, after states set up and new economic and
political relations established between them, interstate
legal relations appeared, relations which targeted the
settlement of the activities by sea; these aspects
encouraged the appearance and the consolidation of the
principles, concepts and institutions of the Law of the
Sea.
Taking into consideration the political and
military realities that had in view the protection of
commercial interests on sea, the Phoenicians, the Greeks
and, later on, the Carthagenes and the Romans built
large fleets for those times.
In many regions of the Globe, colonies were
built based on these fleets, commercial exchanges
between colonies and metropolis began to appear, and
the most important fact the large colonial empires
survived.
The conquest policy of Antiquity Rome
transformed the Mediterranean Sea into a Roman
internal sea. Thus, Paul, Modestian, Ulpian and other
Roman legal experts promoted the idea that the maritime
areas were res nullius and res comunis, as a result Rome
considered the Mediterranean Sea a sea of the empire,
mare nostrum.

Prin politica sa de cuceriri, Roma antic a


transformat bazinul Mrii Mediterane ntr-o mare
intern roman. Astfel n viziunea lui Paul,
Modestian, Ulpian i a altor jurisconsuli romani,
n folosirea spaiilor maritime se promova ideea c
acestea sunt res nullius i res comunis, Roma
considernd astfel Marea Mediteran drept mare a
imperiului - mare nostrum.
A. Voiculescu
transporturilor
navale,iEdit. Didactic
i Pedagogic,
Bucureti
1978 of maritime law
Since
Antiquity
a series
Ca oOrganizarea
dovad ialegislaia
formrii
principiilor
2
Ibidem,
p.
5
conceptelor dreptului mrii, nc din antichitate, au institutions appeared as proof of development of the
fost folosite o serie de instituii de drept maritim, Law of the Sea principles and concepts such as:
cum ar fi: avaria comun (Lex Rodia de jactu), general average (Lex Rodia de jactu), maritime loan
(nauticum feonus), etc.
mprumutul maritim (nauticum feonus)3 etc.
After the Roman Empire collapsed and broke
Dup prbuirea imperiului roman i
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divizarea acestuia n numeroase formaiuni statale into numerous unstable states, the feudal order imposed
nestabile, ordinea feudal a impus un regim de for a force regime the law of the most powerful so the
(dreptul celui mai puternic), rzboiul devenind un war became a permanent phenomenon.
fenomen permanent.
n condiiile nesiguranei date de rzboaie,
Due to the uncertainty created by wars, the most
calea cea mai sigur de schimb comercial ntre secure commercial exchange road between Europe and
Europa i Orient a devenit spaiul maritim, ceea ce the East became the sea, thus explaining the need for a
explic necesitatea legiferrii comerului pe mare de law of the trade by sea that the Byzantine emperors
ctre mpraii bizantini.
imposed.
O perioad de timp, arabii au monopolizat
For a short period of time the Arabians
comerul pe mare, dezvoltnd cunotinele de monopolized the trade by sea and acquired knowledge
navigaie, geografie, astronomie preluate n mare in: sailing, geography, astronomy, most of it being
parte de la bizantini, iar n relaiile comerciale cu borrowed from the Byzanthins, and their commercial
celelalte state s-au condus dup o serie de reguli de exchanges with other states based upon a set of rules of
drept internaional, respectnd obligaiile ce international law which abode from the legal obligations
decurgeau din tratate i practicnd deseori arbitrajul. devolving from the treaties and from the frequently used
Un rol important n meninerea vechilor arbitration.
relaii maritime internaionale l-au avut i
An important role in maintaining the old
normanzii, ei deschiznd drumul expediiilor n international maritime relations was played by the
necunoscut, navignd ctre vest, spre Islanda, Normands, who blazed the trail of expeditions into the
Groenlanda i America de Nord (n secolele IX-X).
unknown, sailing East to Iceland, Greenland, and North
Ca urmare a configurrii unor condiii America (the IX-X centuries).
obiective diferite, de folosire a spaiilor maritime sAs a result of different objectives on the use of
au conturat viziuni deosebite ale statelor n acest sea areas, the different visions of each state in this
domeniu, au avut loc confruntri de interese, s-au domain caused conflicts of interests. Theses and ideas
exprimat teze si idei care s le afirme i s le came up to support and promote these visions.
promoveze.
Evoluia principiilor i conceptelor dreptului
mrii a fost dominat de trecerea de la optica unei
The evolution of the principles and standards on
stpniri restrnse, la cea a ntrebuinrii de ctre the Law of the Sea was ruled by the idea of the
toate statele lumii.
transition from a small ownership to the use of it by all
Ca urmare inerent dezvoltrii comerului the states.
maritim i implicit a relaiilor dintre statele lumii, n
As an inherent result of the maritime trade
secolele XII-XIII au aprut primele ncercri de development and also the development of interstate
codificare a cutumelor internaionale n legtur cu relations, between XII-XIII centuries the first attempts
transportul i comerul pe mare. Mai cunoscute i cu to codify the international common law regarding the
o mai mare aplicabilitate au fost: Dreptul mrii de sea transport and trade appeared. The most popular and
la Visby (Gotland) n secolul XII, Legile Oleronului, useful ones were: the Law of the Sea from Visby
la sfritul secolului XII i Consolato del mare n (Gotland) in the XII-th century, the Laws of Obron at the
secolul al XIII-lea4.
end of XII-th century, and Consolato Del Mare in the
Marile orae-state precum Genova i Pisa XIII-th century.
dar i statele europene posesoare a unor flote
The great state-cities as Genova, Venice and
3
Ibidem,
p.
6
dezvoltate (Danemarca, Spania, Portugalia etc.), Pisa, but also the European states that owned large fleets
4
Ibidem,
p. 5 n sec. XII-XVII dreptul de proprietate (Denmark, Spain, Portugal) claimed in the XII-XVII
pretindeau
asupra unor zone ntinse ale mrilor la care erau centuries the ownership over large areas of the seas they
riverane.1
were coboundary.
n secolul XIII datorit dezvoltrii tot mai
largi a cilor de navigaie s-a simit nevoia
In the XIII-th century, due to massive
reglementrii spaiilor de acces pentru alte state development of the waterways it became necessary to

RO

Dumitra Popescu, Florian Coman, Adrian Nstase - Drept internaional public, Edit. ansa, Bucureti 1994

RO
dect cele riverane, astfel nct limita suveranitii a
fost extins "pna la mijlocul mrii2..
n secolul XIV Loccenius considera c
marea teritorial se ntinde n largul mrii pn la
punctul pe care l va fi atins un vapor dup dou zile
de mers.
Tratatul de la Tordesillas (sec.XV) ncheiat
ntre Spania i Portugalia statueaz concepia
acestor dou ri n privina proprietii spaiilor
maritime: Spania stpnea partea apusean a
Atlanticului, a Golfului Mexic i a Pacificului iar
Portugalia restul apelor din Oceanul Atlantic i
Indian3.
n 1580 regina Elisabeta a II-a se ridic
mpotriva msurilor ntreprinse de Spania i
Portugalia, susinnd c: "folosirea mrii i a
aerului este obteasc i nici un drept asupra
oceanului nu poate s aparin vreunui popor sau
particular oarecare"4.
La nceputul sec. XVII Anglia, Frana, Olanda
- mari puteri maritime ale timpului - aveau orientri
aflate n contradicie n privina folosirii mrilor i
oceanelor lumii, fapt reflectat pe plan tiinific n
cunoscuta polemic dintre Grotius i Selden,
exponeni ai contradiciilor dintre Anglia i Olanda.
n 1609 juristul olandez Hugo Grotius
lanseaz cunoscuta sa concepie care afirma
libertatea mrilor i oceanelor pentru toate satele
lumii n privina navigaiei i pescuitului (Mare
liberum) iar britanicul John Selden susinea n 1635
c marea poate deveni "obiect al proprietii
private" statul urmnd "s ajung la nelegeri cu
celelalte state" care s ngduie "libera circulaie a
vaselor"5.
Disputa s-a finalizat cu recunoaterea tot mai
larg a tezelor lui Grotius n ciuda mpotrivirii
marilor puteri ale vremii i a dus la precizarea i
formularea unor principii i concepte juridice bazate
pe aceste teze cu privire la jurisdicia statului
riveran asupra unor zone adiacente coastelor sale i
a principiilor libertii navigaiei i pescuitului.
Astfel olandezul Bynkershoek, relund n anul
1702 tezele lui Grotius consacr regula "btii
tunului" pentru determinarea limii mrii
teritoriale; n lucrarea De domino maris acesta
precizeaz: "Puterea statului se ntinde pn acolo

EN
settle access areas for other countries than the
coboundary states, so that the sovereignty boundary was
extended as far as the middle of the sea.
In the XIV-th century, Loccenius stated that
territorial sea extends up to the point reached by a ship
after a two-day sail.
The Tordesillas Treaty (XV-th century)
established between Spain and Portugal statues their
ideas on the ownership of the maritime areas: Spain
owned the West side of the Atlantic Ocean, the Mexican
Golf and the Pacific Ocean, and Portugal had the rest of
the waters of the Atlantic and of the Indian Ocean.
In 1580 Queen Elisabeth opposed against the
measurements of Spain and Portugal sustaining that
the use of the sea and of the air is public, neither a
people nor an individual cannot own the Ocean.
At the beginning of the XVII-th century Great
Britain, France, Holland the greatest maritime
powers at that time had conflicting ideas on the use of
the Worlds seas and oceans, conflicts scientifically
described in the well-known dispute between Grotius
and Selden, exponents of the contradictions between
Holland and Great Britain.
In 1609 the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius puts
forward his idea that asserted the free use of seas and
oceans for all the states in the sailing and fishing areas
(Mare liberum) and the British John Seldon sustained in
1635 that the sea can transform into an object of
private property, so the state must reach an
agreement with the other countries that shall allow
free circulation of ships.
The dispute finalized when the ideas of Grotius
became more and more recognized in spite of the
opposition from the great powers of the time, and led to
the wording of legal principles and standards based on
these theses regarding the jurisdiction of the coastal state
over some areas near its shores and the principles of
freedom of sailing and fishing. In 1702, the Dutch
Bynkershock resumes Grotius theses and establishes
the rule of gun range in order to determine the breadth
of the territorial sea; in his work De domino maris he
says: the power of the state extends to the point where

Dumitru Mazilu - Dreptul mrii - Tendine i orientri contemporane, Edit. Academiei, Bucureti, 1980
Dumitru Mazilu - op. cit., p.17
4
Ibidem, p.17
3

Ibidem, p.17

10

RO
6

unde ajung armele sale" .


n 1782 Ferdinand Galiani stabilete un
criteriu matematic pentru determinarea apelor
teritoriale: 3 mile marine (btaia maxim a tunurilor
la acea vreme)7.
n istoricul stabilirii modalitilor de
determinare a mrii teritoriale trebuie menionat i
criteriul "liniei orizontului", expresie a orientrii
umane, metod imperfect i imprecis de
determinare.
Afirmarea actualelor principii i concepte a
fost bazat pn n sec. XIX pe aciuni unilaterale
ale marilor puteri. n acest context Conferina de la
Haga din 1882 pentru controlul pescuitului n
Marea Nordului constituie una dintre puinele
excepii i reprezint un important pas nainte prin
elaborarea unor reglementri stabile cu privire la
statuarea unor norme obligatorii pentru navele de
pescuit.
n sec.XVII-XIX, datorit extinderii
confruntrilor militare navale se restrnge, pn la
anulare aproape, principiul libertii mrilor, aceasta
datorit marilor puteri care acionau ca veritabili
"stpni pe mare", acionnd n for mpotriva
celor care se opuneau. Aceast situaie conduce la
ideea c libertatea pe mare poate fi asigurat doar
prin echilibrul forelor navale ale principalelor
puteri maritime (idee susinut de Germania nainte
de al doilea rzboi mondial). Statele mici i mijlocii,
pronunndu-se tot mai ferm n aceast perioad
pentru elaborarea unor msuri pe cale multilateral
prin negocieri, susinnd folosirea n interesul
tuturor a mrilor i oceanelor i elaborarea unor
reguli legate de desfurarea rzboiului pe mare.
Tot n aceast perioada majoritatea soluiilor
teoretice i practice au fost legate de problematica
rzboiului ceea ce a condus la ideea limitrii
rzboiului numai n apele teritoriale ale statelor
beligerante.
n anul 1918 preedintele Wilson proclam,
ntre cele 14 principii fundamentale ale pcii:
"libertatea deplin a navigaiei pe mri n afar de
apele teritoriale, n timp de pace, ca i n vreme de
rzboi, cu excepia mrilor care ar putea s fie
nchise total sau parial, printr-o aciune
internaional avnd ca scop executarea unor
acorduri internaionale".
Conferina naval de la Washington
(1922) reunete Anglia, S.U.A., Japonia, Frana i
6
7

EN
his weapons reach.
In 1782 Ferdinand Galiani establishes a
mathematical criterion to determine the territorial sea: 3
miles (the maximum reach of the guns at that time).
Among the various ways to determine the
territorial sea we mention the horizon mile criterion,
as an expression of human orientation, an imperfect
method of determination.
The present principles and notions were based
until the XIX-th century on unilateral acts of the great
powers. In this context, the 1882 Hague Conference
concerning the fishing control of the North Sea
represents one of the few exceptions and an important
step forward because it established stable rules regarding
compulsory standards for the fishing vessels.
In the XVII-XIX centuries, due to the numerous
marine military confrontations, the principle of freedom
at sea is almost cancelled, because the great powers
acted as real masters of the seas, using force against
those who opposed them. This situation leads to the idea
that freedom at sea can be obtained only by the
equilibrium of the naval forces of the main maritime
powers (idea sustained by Germany before World War
II). In this period the small and middle states firmly
requested the settlement of multilateral measures using
negotiations, and sustained the use of the seas and
oceans in the general interest and the elaboration of rules
concerning war at sea.

Also in this period, most of the technical and


practical solutions were related to the war problem, this
leading to the idea that war should be restricted only in
the territorial waters of the belligerent states.
In 1918 president Wilson proclaims, among the
14 fundamental principles of peace, complete
freedom of navigation on seas, excepting territorial
waters, at peace and at war, excepting the seas that may
be totally or partially enclosed by an international
decision in order to execute international agreements.

Raluca Miga-Beteliu - Drept internaional - Introducere n dreptul internaional public, Editura All, Bucureti, 1997, p.226
Grigore Geamnu - Drept internaional public, vol.I, Bucureti, 1981

11

RO
Italia care convin asupra unui echilibru al forelor
navale ale marilor puteri n tip de pace 12. Din pcate
ns aplicarea acestei Convenii a fost suspendat
prin Acordul naval anglo-german din 1935.
Accentuarea opoziiilor marilor puteri a
generat nevoia acut a adoptrii de reglementri
generale n privina mrii, fapt pus n lumin i de
Conferina de la Laussane din 1922 i 1923 n
care s-a abordat i problema libertii depline a
navigaiei comerciale precum i de Conferina
general de unificare a dreptului internaional
(Haga 1930) care a accentuat i necesitatea corelrii
normelor dreptului mrii cu cele ale dreptului
internaional, ajutnd la definirea unor probleme de
drept specifice care vor fi consacrate cu prilejul
conferinelor O.N.U. cu privire la marea teritorial,
marea liber etc. De asemenea o importan
deosebit a avut i Conferina de la Montreux din
1936 care i-a adus aportul la formarea principiilor
de mare teritorial, liber navigaie, trecerea navelor
prin strmtori (la care delegaia romn a avut o
contribuie major).
Romnia ca stat riveran la Marea Neagr a
fost legat, nc din cele mai vechi timpuri, de
istoricul bogat n evenimente, lupte i ciocniri de
interese al strmtorilor care au constituit singura
ieire pentru comerul internaional pe mare.
Contiente fiind de nsemntatea strmtorilor
Mrii Negre toate puterile militare ale timpului au
impus, prin ocuparea acestora, un regim de mare
nchis care a defavorizat continuu rile riverane
mici.
n ceea ce privete istoricul regimului Mrii
12
Dumitru
Mazilu,
op. cit.,succint
p.18
Negre vom
enumera
cele mai importante
date i evenimente care au marcat evoluia acestuia.
Dup o perioad n care fenicienii i grecii
au dominat comerul maritim n zon, Justinian se
declar n 562 stpn absolut al Mrii Negre situaie
care a continuat pn la cderea Imperiului roman
de rsrit.
n anul 1453 turcii cuceresc Bizanul i
anexeaza Marea Neagr transformnd-o ntr-o mare
intern a Imperiului Otoman ("lac turcesc" cum era
denumit), veneienii, care au dominat pn n sec
XVI navigaia i comerul n aceast zon, fiind
nevoii s ncheie tratate pentru a beneficia de
dreptul de trecere.
O alta mare putere riveran cu interese n
Marea Neagr a devenit Rusia sub Petru I care a
revendicat Turciei dreptul de liber trecere pentru
navele sale, pentru ca n 1699 dup tratativele dintre

EN
The 1922 Naval Conference in Washington
brings together the Great Britain, the U.S.A., Japan,
France and Italy, all agreeing upon equilibrium of the
naval forces of the great powers, at peace.
Unfortunately, the implementation of this Convention
was suspended by the 1935 English - German Naval
Agreement.
The conflicts between the great powers
generated an urgent need to adopt general regulations on
the seas issues, fact highlighted by the 1922 and 1923
Lausanne Conference that tackled the problem of the
complete freedom of commercial navigation, and also
by the First Conference for the Codification of
International Law, in Hague, 1930, which emphasized
the necessity to correlate the Law of the Sea regulations
with those of the international law, supporting the
uncovering of some specific legal issues which will be
acknowledged during the U.N. Conferences upon the
territorial and high seas. Another essential event was the
1936 Montreaux Conference that had an important
contribution to the setting up of the regulations on the
territorial sea, freedom of navigation, and passing of the
vessels through the straits (Romanian delegation has
played a major role).
Romania, a coastal Black Sea state since
ancient times, had a history of events, battles and
conflicts of interest regarding the straits, which
represented the only way for the international sea trade.
Acknowledging the importance of the Black Sea
straits, all military powers of the time enforced by
taking hold of them a closed sea regime that
continuously disfavours the small coastal countries.
As to the history of the Black Sea regime, here
are briefly listed the most important dates and events
which influenced its evolution.
After a time when the Phoenicians and the
Greeks dominated the maritime trade in the area, in 562
Justinian proclaims himself absolute owner of the
Black Sea, situation that continued until the East Roman
Empire fell.
In 1453 The Turks conquer Byzantium and affix
the Black Sea to their territory, transforming it into a
closed sea of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish Lake); the
Venetians, which dominated until the XVI-th century the
navigation and trade in this region, were forced to
conclude treaties in order to obtain the passage right.
Another great coastal power that became
12

RO
acestea dou, Marea Neagr s devin mare
clausum.
Rusia va obine dreptul de trecere pentru
navele comerciale prin tratatul de la KuciukKainargi (1774) i pentru cele de rzboi n 1833 prin
tratatul de la Unkiar-Iskelessi la care va renuna n
1841 datorit presiunilor Angliei.
Anul 1918 va instaura prin Pactul Antantei
un regim de ocupaie militar a Mrii Negre la care
se va renuna n 1920, un an mai trziu declarnduse libera trecere pentru toate statele lumii i dreptul
exclusiv al statelor riverane de a stabili regimul
Mrii Negre. Conferina de la Lausanne va aborda
problemele deplinei liberti a navigaiei comerciale
i a demilitarizrii zonei Dardanele, Bosfor i a
Mrii Marmara pentru ca abia n 1936 prin
Conferina de la Montreaux s se adopte norme
n materie, s se sublinieze importana tratativelor n
soluionarea unor probleme deosebit de spinoase,
cum a fost cea a trecerii navelor de rzboi prin
strmtori.
n concluzie formarea principiilor i
conceptelor dreptului mrii a fost un proces lent
care a necesitat secole pentru apariia i conturarea
acestora i care a fost subordonat intereselor marilor
puteri navale ale timpului care au impus, prin acte
unilaterale n special, reglementrile n materie.
Aceasta situaie s-a schimbat abia prin apariia n
secolul XIX a necesitii ncheierii de acte
multilaterale i a nregistrat un succes deosebit
ncepnd cu Conferina din 1958 de la Geneva,
continund cu cea din 1960 (care dei a constituit un
insucces n privina adoptrii unor reglementri i-a
adus contribuia la definirea principiilor i
conceptelor dreptului mrii).

1.2. Rolul conferinei de la Geneva 1958 n


formarea principiilor i conceptelor
dreptului mrii
Dezvoltarea exploziv a tiinei i tehnicii,
ndeosebi dup cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial a
dezvluit deosebitele potenialiti ale celui mai
bogat mediu
planetar determinnd
astfel
ntreprinderea unor aciuni complexe de valorificare
i exploatare a resurselor marine, fapt ce a generat
necesitatea adoptrii unor norme juridice adecvate
cerinelor fundamentale ale problematicii dreptului
mrii, cum ar fi precizarea drepturilor i obligaiilor

EN
interested in the Black Sea was Russia under Peter the
Great, who claimed from Turkey the right of free
passage for its vessels, and, in 1699, after negotiations
between the two states, the Black Sea became mare
clausum.
Russia obtains the right of free passage for the
commercial vessels as a result of the Kuciuk-Kainargi
Treaty in 1774 and - for the warships - from the 1833
Unkiar-Iskelessi Treaty, which will be called off in
1841 because of the insistences of the Great Britain.
In 1918 the Antante Pact establishes a military
occupation regime of the Black Sea, which will be
called off in 1920; a year later free passing for all the
states was stated and the exclusive right of coastal states
to decide upon the regime of the Black Sea. The
Lausanne Conference tackled the problem of complete
freedom of commercial navigation and of the
demilitarization of the Dardanelles, Bosphorus and Sea
of Marmara area, but only in 1936 the Montreaux
Convention adopted regulations on this matter,
underlined the importance of negotiations in solving
some very delicate problems such as passage of
warships through straits.
As a conclusion, the formation of the Law of the
Sea principles and concepts was a slow process which
required centuries to appear and to materialize and
which was subordinated to the interests of the great
naval powers of the time, which enforced more often
by unilateral acts the regulations in this domain. This
situation changed only in the XIX-th century when the
necessity to conclude multilateral acts occurred and
scored success starting with the 1958 Geneva
Conference and continuing with the Conference of 1960
(although it failed to adopt regulations, it helped define
principles and concepts on the Law of the Sea).

1.2.

The Role Of The 1958 Geneva Conference


In The Formation Of The Principles And
Concepts On The Law Of The Sea

Explosive development of the science and


technique, mostly after the World War II, revealed the
exquisite potential of the most abundant planet resource,
therefore complex operations of using and exploiting
were undertaken, generating the need to adopt a series of
suitable legal regulations to fulfill the fundamental
necessities of the Law of the Sea issues, such as: each
and every states rights and obligations on the use of

13

RO
fiecrui stat n folosirea mrilor i oceanelor, a
formelor i modalitilor de cooperare, definirea i
codificarea principiilor i conceptelor specifice
dreptului mrilor i corelarea acestora cu normele de
drept internaional.
Prima
Conferin
O.N.U.
asupra
dreptului mrii (Geneva 1958 ) a ncercat s
rspund acestor exigene i a elaborat pentru prima
dat norme juridice concrete ce acopereau, practic,
toat problematica dreptului mrii.
Prin adoptarea a patru convenii :
1.Convenia asupra mrii teritoriale i zonei
contigue;
2.Convenia asupra platoului continental;
3.Convenia asupra mrii libere;
4.Convenia asupra pescuitului i conservrii
resurselor biologice din marea liber;
precum i a unui Protocol facultativ privind
reglementarea obligatorie a diferendelor s-a
cuprins ntr-o concepie unitar general
problematica zonelor naionale (preciznd drepturile
i obligaiile fundamentale ale statelor), dar i
ansamblul
problemelor
dreptului
mrii,
consacrndu-se principiile libertii de navigaie, de
pescuit i de a pune cabluri i conducte, libertatea
de survol etc.).
De
asemenea,
conformndu-se
particularitilor perioadei respective, convenia a
mai stabilit norme generale aplicabile activitilor
de pescuit i norme privind protecia i conservarea
resurselor biologice ale mrii.
Referitor la rolul conveniei n apariia
conceptelor dreptului mrii, aceasta a definit i
consacrat conceptele de mare teritorial, ape
interioare, zona contigu i linii de baz i a stabilit
reguli clare aplicabile pe plan internaional n
privina pescuitului, navigaiei, a statornicit drepturi
i obligaii, cum ar fi de exemplu dreptul de trecere
inofensiv, dreptul statului riveran de a stabili i
exercita jurisdicia n marea teritorial i n zona
contigu i drepturile de exploatare a resurselor
platoului continental, dreptul de a pune cabluri i
conducte etc.
n sensul Conveniei, marea teritorial este
zona de mare adiacent coastelor care ncepe de la
liniile de baz i asupra creia statul riveran i
exercit suveranitatea, respectnd celelalte reguli ale
dreptului internaional. Limita exterioar a mrii

EN
seas and oceans, means and ways of co-operation,
definition and codifications of the specific principles and
concepts of the Law of the Sea and correlation with the
international law regulations.
The first U.N. Conference on the Law of
the Sea (Geneva 1958) tried to meet this needs and
elaborated for the first time concrete legal regulations
solving all the problems on the Law of the Sea.
The four conventions:
1. Convention on the Territorial Sea and
Contiguous Zone;
2. Convention on the High Seas;
3. Convention on the Continental Shelf;
4. Convention on Fishing and Convention of the
Living Resources of the High Seas;
and the Optional Protocol of Signature Concerning the
Compulsory Settlement of Disputes solved the
problems of the national zones (by settling the rights and
obligations of each and every state), but also the domain
of the Law of the Sea, establishing major principles on
freedom of navigation, of fishing, of lying cables and
pipelines, freedom of overflight, etc.

Also, according to the specific conditions of the


times, the Convention established general regulations on
the protection and conservation of the sea living
resources.
The Convention played an important role in the
conceiving of the Law of the Sea concepts, it defined
and settled the concepts of: territorial sea, interior
waters, contiguous zone and baselines, and adopted clear
rules applicable on international scale to fishing and
navigation, settled rights and obligations such as the
right of innocent passage, the right of the coastal state to
establish and practice its jurisdiction in the territorial sea
and in the contiguous zone and the right to exploit the
resources of the high seas, the right of lying cables and
pipelines.
According to the Convention, the territorial sea
is the low-water line along the coast where sovereignty
can be extended by the contiguous state within the limits

14

EN
teritoriale este constituit dintr-o linie care are established by international law. The outer limit of the
fiecare punct situat la o distan egal cu limea territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a
mrii teritoriale msurat din punctul cel mai distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to
apropiat al liniei de baz.
the breadth of the territorial sea.
Liniile de baz normale au fost indicate ca
fiind liniile celui mai mare reflux de-a lungul
coastelor iar liniile de baz drepte acelea care
The normal baselines are the low-water lines
unesc punctele cele mai avansate n larg i care sunt along the coast which presents cuts into a coastal
folosite pentru rmurile care prezint crestturi i indentation.
sinuoziti adnci. n privina apelor interioare
From the Convention point of view, internal
convenia prevede c sunt acelea situate ntre uscat waters represent the waters on the landward side of the
i liniile de baz. Acestea sunt considerate ca fcnd baseline of the territorial sea and they are a part of the
parte integrant din teritoriul naional.
national territory.
Linia de demarcare dintre marea teritorial
a doua state ale cror coaste sunt aezate fa n fa
sau sunt limitrofe se stabilesc prin acorduri
The line of delimitation between the territorial
bilaterale. n lipsa acordului nici unul dintre state nu sea of two states being opposite to each other or adjacent
are dreptul s-i extind marea teritorial peste linia to each other shall be established by bilateral
median ale crei puncte sunt la distane egale de agreements. Neither of the two states is entitled to
punctele cele mai apropiate ale liniilor de baz.
extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every
Prin
Convenia
asupra
platoului point of which is at a distance from the nearest point of
continental s-a statuat exercitarea drepturilor the baselines.
suverane ale statului riveran asupra platoului
The Convention on the Continental Shelf lays
continental n scopul explorrii i exploatrii down the exerting of the sovereign rights of the coastal
resurselor acestuia i obligaiile care le incumb state over the continental shelf for the purpose of
acestea, cum ar fi obligaia de a nu mpiedica exploring and exploiting its natural resources and the
punerea sau ntreinerea de cabluri sau de conducte obligations that derive from this such as the obligation
petroliere submarine pe platoul continental, de a nu not to impede the lying or maintenance of submarine
mpiedica ntr-un mod nejustificat navigaia, cables or oil pipelines on the continental shelf, not to
pescuitul sau conservarea resurselor biologice ale forbid innocent navigation, fishing or preservation of
mrii etc. Aceast convenie nu a reuit s consacre seas living resources. This Convention didnt
reguli viabile pentru delimitarea platoului established viable rules for the delimitation of the
continental ceea ce a generat, ulterior adoptrii, continental shelf, generating after it was signed
diferende ntre state.
interstate conflicts.
Convenia asupra mrii libere a codificat
regulile de drept internaional cu privire la acea
partea a mrii care se constituie n patrimoniul
The Convention on the High Seas codified the
comun al umanitii, a instituit reglementri rules of international law related to the specific parts of
avantajoase pentru statele care nu au ieire la mare, the sea which represent all nations common
preciznd care sunt considerate astfel i drepturile belonging, laid down favorable previsions for the states
de care se bucur ca i obligaiile care revin statelor, having no sea-coast, establishing which are this states
care au litoral, n aceast privin. Aceasta mai and which are their rights and obligations - the same
cuprinde reguli ce vizeaz acordarea de ajutor pe with those of the coastal states. It also includes rules for
mare i dispoziii care au ca scop reprimarea getting assistance by sea and regulations that help
pirateriei i comerului cu sclavi, definind i acte sau repress the piracy and slave trade, giving a clear
faptele care sunt considerate piraterie. Tot aici sunt definition of the facts which are considered acts of
consacrate reguli relative la exercitarea dreptului de piracy. It also established rules regarding the right to hot
urmrire a unei nave strine despre care autoritile pursuit of a foreign ship when the authorities of the

RO

15

EN
competente ale statului riveran au motive ntemeiate coastal state have good reasons to believe that the ship
s cread c aceast nav a contravenit legilor i has violated the laws and regulations of that state, the
regulamentelor acestui stat, dreptul de reinere a right to arrest the foreign ship.
navei contraveniente etc.
innd cont de efectele polurii care se
fceau resimite n multe zone maritime a cuprins n
articolele 24-25 obligaia statelor riverane de a
Taking into account the fact that pollution effects
emite reguli cu privire la evitarea polurii mrilor started to be felt in many maritime zones, the articles 24
prin hidrocarburi i de a colabora cu organizaiile and 25 comprise the obligation of every coastal state to
internaionale competente n adoptarea unor astfel draw up regulations for the prevention of the pollution
de msuri.
of the seas by discharge of oil from ships and pipelines
and to co-operate with the competent international
Convenia asupra pescuitului i a organizations to take measures for this purpose.
conservrii resurselor biologice din marea liber
The Convention on Fishing and Convention of
a avut ca scop asigurarea unui cadru care s permit the Living Resources of the High Seas created a
rezolvarea problemelor ridicate de exploatarea framework for finding solutions to the problems that
iraional a resurselor biologice ale mrii libere pe appeared as a result of irrational exploitation of the
calea cooperrii internaionale prin aciunile natural resources of the high seas, on the basis of
concertate a tuturor statelor interesate n vederea international co-operation through concerted actions of
asigurrii unei optime aprovizionri cu produse all the states concerned, in order to ensure an optimal
alimentare pentru consumul uman.
supply with food for people consumption.
Ultimul act adoptat la Geneva n 1958,
Protocolul de semnare facultativ privind
he last treaty adopted in Geneva in 1958: the
reglementarea obligatorie a diferendelor, a Optional Protocol of Signature Concerning the
oglindit dorina statelor pri de a recurge la Compulsory Settlement of Disputes expressed the
jurisdicia obligatorie a Curii Internaionale de wish of state parties to resort to the compulsory
Justiie pentru soluionarea tuturor diferendelor jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice to solve
izvorte din interpretarea tuturor articolelor i disputes arising from of the interpretation or application
conveniilor asupra dreptului mrii.
of any Conventions and Treaties on the Law of the Sea.

RO

1.3. Practica statelor cu privire la marea


teritorial n perioada 1958- 1982
Anumite deficiene ale Conveniei de la
Geneva au generat disensiuni ntre state i au fost
supuse spre soluionare Curii Internaionale de
Justiie care prin soluiile date a creat baza
reglementrilor conveniilor ulterioare n privina
dreptului mrii. Aceast stare de lucruri a determinat
convocarea n 1960 a unei noi conferine n aceast
materie.
Cea de-a doua Conferin O.N.U.
privitoare la dreptul mrii (Geneva 1960) dei nu
a reuit s-i ating scopurile (stabilirea limitei
apelor teritoriale i a limitei zonelor de pescuit), ea
a realizat totui codificarea unor norme i principii
existente i a formulat unele noi. Astfel ea a creat o

1.3.

The Policy of the States on the Territorial


Seas between 1958-1982

Some lacks of the Geneva Convention created


disputes between the states and were brought before the
International Court of Justice; its decisions became the
bases of the provisions of the next Conventions on the
Law of the Sea. This situation determined the
summoning in 1960 of a new Conference on this
subject.
The Second U.N. Convention on the Law of
the Sea (Geneva 1960) failed to bring about a generally
accepted limit for the territorial sea and a fishing zone
limit; instead it succeeded to codify some of the
principles and standards already existing and formulated

16

RO
noua instituie a dreptului
mrii - platoul
continental (care fusese sugerat nc din 1945 prin
Declaraia Truman).
Datorit faptului c nu au fost reglementate
limea mrii teritoriale (ea variind ntre 3-200 mile
marine) criteriile de stabilire a platoului continental,
datorit neclaritilor i insuficienelor conveniei
din 1958, a reconfigurrii noilor cerine de hran i
resurse petroliere a rilor n curs de dezvoltare i a
celor create prin destrmarea colonialismului, s-a
simit nevoia unor noi soluii juridice. Astfel dup o
serie de pregtiri a fost convocat cea de-a treia
Conferina O.N.U. asupra dreptului mrii care,
ncepnd din 1973 (New York) i continund cu
1974 (Caracas), 1975, 1976, 1978 (Geneva), a avut
opt sesiuni la care au participat peste 140 de state.
n cadrul acestei conferine s-a urmrit a se
soluiona o serie de probleme cu privire la stabilirea
limii mrii teritoriale cum ar fi:
1. limita exterioar a mrii teritoriale (la 15
iulie 1977 se stabilete: "limita exterioar a mrii
teritoriale este constituit de o linie avnd fiecare
punct la o distan egal cu limea mrii
teritoriale msurat din punctul cel mai apropiat al
liniei de baz"13);
2. stabilirea liniilor de baz (conferina
definete linia de baz normal drept "linia
refluxului de-a lungul coastei aa cum este indicat
pe hrile marine la scar mare, recunoscute oficial
de statul riveran");
3. modul de delimitare ntre state aezate
fa n fa sau limitrofe (dup ndelungi dezbateri sa conturat ideea c, n cazul n care coastele a doua
state sunt aezate fa n fa sau sunt limitrofe, nici
unul dintre aceste state nu are dreptul, n lipsa unui
acord contrar ntre ele, s-i extind marea sa
teritorial peste linia median, ale crei puncte sunt
la distane egale de punctele cele mai apropiate ale
liniilor de baz de la care se msoar limea mrii
teritoriale a fiecruia dintre cele doua state14).
Conferina a fost precedat de adoptarea
unor documente internaionale pentru rile latinoamericane (cu privire la marea teritorial, platoul
continental, zona de mare matrimonial) i
pentru rile africane; un grup de nou state a
prezentat un proiect pe articole, un alt grup de state
a depus un proiect pentru rezolvare panic a
diferendelor ce vor apare n legtur cu convenia.

EN
some new ones. Thus it created a new institution of the
Law of the Sea: the continental shelf (concept that was
already suggested since 1945 in the Truman
Proclamation on the Continental Shelf).
Due to many causes: the indistinct definition of
the breadth of the sea (it varied between 3 and 200
miles), the unclear criterion for determination of the
continental shelf, the vagueness and insufficiencies of
the 1958 Convention, the re-configuration of the needs
of food and oil resources of the developing countries and
of the states created after the fall of the Colonialism, the
necessity of a new legal solution, so after a series of
preparation, a Third U.N. Convention on the Law of
the Sea was convened in 1973 (New York), continued
in 1974 (Caracas), 1975, 1976, 1978 (Geneva), and
comprised 8 sessions attended by 140 states.
The Conference was convened in order to solve a
series of problems concerning the breadth of the
territorial sea, such as:
1.Outer limit of the territorial sea (on the 15th of
July 1977: the outer limit of the territorial sea is the
line every point of which is at a distance from the
nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the
territorial sea)
2. Establishing the baselines (the conference
defines the normal baseline as the low water line along
the coast as marked on large-scale charts recognized by
the coastal state)
3.Delimitation of the territorial sea between
states with opposite or adjacent coasts (after long
debates came up the idea that if the coasts of two states
are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither of the two
states is entitled, failing agreement between them to the
contrary, to extend its territorial sea beyond the median
line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest
point of the baselines from which the breadth of
territorial sea of each of two states is measured).
The Conference was preceded by a series of
international documents containing regulation for the
Latin - American countries (territorial sea, continental
shelf, matrimonial sea zone) and for the African
countries: a group of 9 states came up with a project
structured on articles, another group of states brought up
a project for peaceful settlement of disputes which will
appear, related to the Convention.

17

RO

EN

1.4. Convenia din 1982 de la Montego-Bay 1.4.


The 1982 Montego-Bay Convention on the
Law of the Sea
privind dreptul mrii
The U.N. Convention on territorial sea signed in
Convenia Naiunilor Unite asupra mrii
Montego
Bay (Jamaica) on the 10th of December 1982
teritoriale, ncheiat la Montego-Bay (Jamaica) la
10 decembrie 1982 a fost ratificat i de Romnia was ratified in Romania by the Law No. 110 of 1996,
prin Legea nr. 110 din 1996, ara noastr reiternd ourth country reiterating the Declaration formulated on the
Declaraia pe care a formulat-o i n 10 decembrie 10 of December 1982 at the signing up of the
1982 cu ocazia semnrii Conveniei: "Ca ara Convention: As a geographically disadvantaged
geografic dezavantajat, riveran la o mare srac country, coboundary to a sea with few fishing resources,
n resurse piscicole, Romnia reafirm necesitatea Romania reaffirms the necessity of the development of
dezvoltrii cooperrii internaionale n domeniul international co-operation on the use of fishing
valorificrii resurselor piscicole din zonele resources of the economic areas and reasserts the
economice" i " reafirm dreptul statelor right of the coastal states to adopt measures which
riverane de a adopta msuri pentru protecia protect our security interests, including the right to
intereselor de securitate, inclusiv dreptul de a adopt national regulations on foreign warships passing
adopta reglementri naionale cu privire la trecerea through the territorial sea.
navelor de rzboi strine prin marea teritorial".
Convenia din 1982 de la Montego-Bay a
The 1982 Montego-Bay Convention succeeded
realizat codificarea dreptului mrii ntr-o viziune
to
codify
the Law of the Sea in a unique vision that had
unic care a urmrit n principal:
instituirea unor spaii maritime noi (zona in view:
economic exclusiv, zona internaional a
Establishing new maritime zones (the exclusive
teritoriilor submarine);
economic zone, the international submarine
extinderea sferei reglementrilor asupra
territories zone );
vastei probleme a dreptului mrii inclusiv n
13
Art.4, partea II, Teritorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, Informal Composite Negotiating
Text, a 3 a Conferin
O.N.U. asupra dreptului

Expanding
the regulations
area tomrii,
the15 iulie
vast1977
cea a strmtorilor i a cercetrii tiinifice
14
Dumitru Mazilu, op. cit., p.31
problem of the Law of the Sea, including the
marine, protecia mediului marin;
issues about straits, marine scientific research,
stabilirea unor criterii precise pentru
environmental control;
delimitarea i unificarea zonei maritime de

Establishing accurate criterion of delimitation


sub jurisdicia naional (marea teritorial and unification of the naval area under national
parte integrant a teritoriului, zona
jurisdiction (territorial sea is a part of the
economic exclusiv - drepturi suverane
territory, exclusive economic zone sovereign
asupra acesteia, instituirea drepturilor
rights exercised over it), formulation of special
speciale fa de zona contigu, drepturi i
rights for the contiguous zone, rights and
obligaii n legtur cu marea teritorial i
obligations on the territorial sea and the
zona internaional a teritoriilor submarine);
international submarine territories zone;
crearea unui nou concept - zona - i a unei
autoriti internaionale pentru aceasta
A new concept was created the zone and an
precum i pentru resursele sale.
international authority for it and for its
resources.
n ceea ce privete delimitarea mrii teritoriale
Convenia din 1982 statuez la Art.3: "Fiecare stat
As for the delimitation of the territorial sea, the
are dreptul s stabileasc limea mrii sale
1982
Montego-Bay
Convention mentions in Article No
teritoriale pn la o limit care s nu depeasc
12 mile marine, msurate de la liniile de baz, 3: Every state has the right to establish the breadth of
determinate n conformitate cu prezenta Convenie". the territorial sea to a limit not to exceed 12 miles,
Aceast limit de 12 mile marine reprezint un measured from the borderlines, established according
maximum pe care statele au libertatea de a-l atinge, with the rules of the present convention. This 12 miles

18

EN
dar pe care sunt obligate s nu-l depeasc .
limit represents a maximum that all the states have the
Extinznd aria reglementrilor n raport cu freedom to reach but must not surpass.
Convenia din 1958, prevederile Conveniei din
1982 includ norme privind ocrotirea faunei i florei
maritime i combaterea polurii.
Expanding the subject established in the 1958
Impunnd statelor obligaia de a proteja i Convention, the 1982 Convention includes standards on
conserva mediul marin, orice act de exploatare a maritime flora and fauna and on the control of marine
resurselor naturale (indiferent dac este efectuat n pollution.
zona contigu, zona economic exclusiv, marea
States are bound to protect and preserve the
teritorial sau n zona internaional a teritoriilor marine environment, any act of exploiting of the natural
submarine) este supus reglementrilor obligatorii resources (indifferently if it takes place in the contiguous
stabilite de Convenie. Astfel, fiecare stat are zone, territorial sea or the international submarine
obligaia de a lua toate msurile necesare pentru a territories zone) must respect the compulsory rules
preveni, reduce i controla poluarea, activitatea imposed by the Convention. States are bound to take all
desfurndu-se astfel nct s nu se cauzeze prin necessary measures to prevent, reduce and control
poluare prejudicierea altor state.
marine pollution, without causing prejudice to other
Dup Conferina de la Montreux a fost states.
pentru prima dat cnd s-au discutat i reglementat
n amnunt problemele strmtorilor i a navigaiei
prin acestea, consacrnd msuri unice aplicabile pe
After the Montreaux Conference, it was the first
plan internaional n aceast privin. De asemenea a time when issues like straits and navigation through
mai stabilit n mod complet dreptul de acces la mare straits were brought up and settled unique international
al statelor fr litoral i a libertii de trafic pentru measures in this domain. The Conference established
acestea.
completely the right of access to and from the sea for the
15
.Raluca Miga-Beteliu,
op.
cit.,
p.226
Avnd n vedere importana cercetrii land-locked states and the freedom of transit.
tiinifice pentru dezvoltarea modalitilor de
valorificare a resurselor mrii, a dedicat un ntreg
capitol reglementrii acesteia dispunnd favorizarea
Taking into consideration the importance of
cercetrii, modalitile de cooperare internaional scientific research for developing new ways to use the
n acest domeniu, stabilind statutul juridic al marine resources, the Conference dedicated an entire
instalaiilor i al materialelor de cercetare i a chapter on regulations in this domain and decided to
drepturilor i obligaiilor statelor. Tot n aceast promote the scientific researches, to find modalities of
privin a reglementat cadrul pentru dezvoltarea i international co-operation in this area, establishing the
transferul tehnologiilor marine i rolul centrelor legal statute of the installations and of the research
naionale i regionale de cercetare tiinific, materials and decided upon the rights and obligations of
cooperarea
ntre
acestea
i
organizaiile states. It also established a framework for the
internaionale.
development and the transfer of the marine technology
Un pas important, fa de Conferina de la and underlined the role played by the national and
Geneva, l-a constituit definirea i trasarea limitelor regional scientific research centers, the co-operation
aplicabile reglementrii diferendelor, a dispus between them and the international organizations.
sanciunile ce pot fi aplicate, a instituit o noua
A very important step forward compared with
procedur de conciliere i de obligativitate a the Geneva Conference was the definition and
supunerii diferendelor acesteia, a precizat establishment of the limits concerning the dispute
competenele Tribunalului Dreptului Mrii, settlement, it decided upon the sanctions applicable, it
organizarea i procedura acestuia i a arbitrajului.
established a new procedure of conciliation and
Statutul Tribunalului este asemntor n submitting of the disputes to the International Tribunal
multe privine cu cel al Curii Internaionale de for the Law of the Sea, the Tribunal structure,
Justiie. Componena acestuia trebuie s reflecte o procedure and arbitration.

RO

15

19

RO
repartiie geografic echitabil, precum i
reprezentarea principalelor sisteme juridice ale
lumii. n ceea ce privete competena, este
definitoriu faptul c acesta are un dublu regim
referitor la dreptul spaiilor marine i cel al
teritoriilor submarine16. Competena general a
Tribunalului privete toate diferendele i cererile
care i sunt supuse n conformitate cu Convenia, iar
competena special se refer la activitile de
exploatare a resurselor Zonei internaionale a
teritoriilor submarine17. Sentinele Tribunalului sunt
definitive i obligatorii.
Convenia asupra dreptului mrii de la
Montego-Bay se constituie ntr-un mecanism foarte
eficient de lucru, care conine dispoziii privind
toate aspectele problematicii marine i care a
rezolvat, n mod just i echitabil interesele legate de
mare pentru toate statele lumii, inclusiv pentru cele
lipsite de mare sau dezavantajate din punct de
vedere geografic.
Exist totui doctrine care susin c aceast
convenie a erodat libertatea mrilor prin faptul c a
extins suveranitatea statelor riverane (i a micorat
corelativ suprafaa mrii libere) pn la aproape o
16
.Raluca
op. cit., p.332
treime Miga-Beteliu,
din spaiul mrilor
i oceanelor. Nu suntem
17
Ibidem.
de acord cu aceast opinie, deoarece satisfacerea
intereselor legitime ale statelor cu un potenial
economic sczut impunea instituirea drepturilor
suverane asupra unei mai mari pri din mare,
pentru a exploata i conserva resursele biologice ale
mrilor i oceanelor (pentru rile n curs de
dezvoltare pescuitul constituind principala surs de
asigurare a necesarului de hran).

EN
The statute of the Tribunal is similar in many
ways with that of the International Court of Justice. The
component parts must reflect a fair geographical
repartition and must represent the main legal systems in
the world. As for competence, it is well-known the fact
that it has a double system: it refers to the law of the
maritime zones and to the law of the submarine
territories. The general competence of the Tribunal
concerns all the disputes and requests submitted
according to the Convention, and the special
competence concerns the exploration of the resources of
the submarine territories of the international zone. The
sentences of the Tribunal are irrevocable and
compulsory.
The 1982 Montego-Bay Convention on the Law
of the Sea represents a very efficient mechanism which
includes provisions for all the maritime issues and
solves rightfully and fairly all the maritime interests for
all the states of the World, including the land-locked
states or those geographically disadvantaged.
Doctrines appeared and stated that this
Convention restricted the freedom of the sea by
extension of the coastal states sovereignty (and reduced
correlative the surface of high seas) up to almost 1/3 of
the seas and oceans surface. We disagree with this
opinion because the fulfilling of the legal interests of the
states with low economic power requires the
establishment of sovereignty rights on a larger surface of
the seas in order to explore and preserve the natural
resources of the seas and oceans (because for many
developing countries fishing represents the main source
of food).

20

RO
CAPITOLUL II: REGIMUL JURIDIC AL
MRII TERITORIALE

EN

CHAPTER II: THE LEGAL REGIME OF


THE TERRITORIAL SEA

21

RO
2.1. Natura juridic a mrii teritoriale
Marea teritorial este partea de mare adiacent
rmului, pn la o anumit distan n larg,
considerat ca fcnd parte din teritoriul de stat i
supus deci suveranitii statului riveran, suveranitate
care se extinde i asupra spaiului aerian de deasupra
mrii teritoriale, precum i asupra solului i subsolului
acestei8.
Regimul juridic al mrii teritoriale este
stabilit prin legislaia intern a statului riveran,
inndu-se cont de prevederile dreptului internaional.

EN
.

2.1. The Legal Nature of the Territorial Sea


The territorial sea is the part of the sea adjacent
to the coast, up to a certain distance at large,
considered as a part of the state territory, therefore
subject to sovereignty of the coastal state, sovereignty
which includes the airspace above the territorial sea
and the soil and subsoil of the sea.
The legal regime of the territorial sea is
established by the national laws of the coastal state,
taking into consideration the international legal
provisions.
In Romania, the legal regime of the territorial
sea is settled by the Law No. 17 of 1990 concerning
the legal regime of the internal waters, the territorial
sea and the contiguous zone and of the exclusive
economic zone of Romania, law which establishes the
delimitation of the territorial sea, the rights exercised
by Romania in this zone, the regulation of navigation,
the jurisdiction applied to foreign vessels and to the
activities developed in this area. Every state has the
right, according to the 1982 Montego-Bay
Convention, to settle the breadth of its territorial sea,
but it cannot exceed 12 miles, measured from the
borderlines established according to this Convention.
The coastal state exercises all the rights which
derive from its sovereignty, such as: navigation,
resource exploiting, exploring, fishing, jurisdiction,
supervision and control (sanitary, customs),
environment protection, the right to take necessary
measures to ensure the states security, and the
fulfilling of the correlative obligations (for example,
the obligation to ensure the right of innocent passage
for commercial ships).
According to article No. 136 paragraph 3
from the Constitution of Romania states that:
the beaches, the territorial sea, the natural resources
of the economic zone and the continental shelf, as
well as other possessions established by the organic
law, shall be public property exclusively and they are
inalienable.

n Romnia regimul juridic al mrii teritoriale


este reglementat prin Legea nr. 17/1990 privind
regimul juridic al apelor maritime interioare, al mrii
teritoriale, al zonei contigue i al zonei economice
exclusive ale Romniei9, care stabilete modul de
delimitare al mrii teritoriale, drepturile exercitate de
Romnia n aceast zon, reglementarea navigaiei,
jurisdicia aplicabil navelor strine precum i
activitile desfurate n aceast zon. Orice stat are
dreptul, conform Conveniei de la Montego-Bay 1982,
de a fixa limea mrii sale teritoriale, dar cu
precizarea c aceasta nu poate depi 12 mile marine,
msurate de la liniile de baz stabilite n conformitate
cu aceast convenie.
Statul riveran exercit toate drepturile ce
decurg din suveranitatea sa10, cum ar fi: navigaia,
exploatarea resurselor, explorare, pescuit, jurisdicie,
supraveghere i control (vamal, sanitar etc.) protecia
mediului, dreptul de a lua orice msuri considerate ca
fiind oportune pentru aprarea securitii sale, ct i
ndeplinirea obligaiilor corelative (ca de exemplu
obligaia asigurrii dreptului de trecere inofensiv a
navelor comerciale).
Potrivit art. 136, alin. 3 din Constituia
Romniei plajele, marea teritorial, resursele
naturale ale zonei economice i ale platoului
continental, precum i alte bunuri stabilite de legea
organic, fac obiectul exclusiv al proprietii
publice. fiind inalienabile.
Din interpretarea art. 49 litera c din L
The interpretation of article No. 40 letter c
17/1990, n sensul reglementrilor Conveniei din
from
Law
No. 17 of 1990, according to the
1982 rezult c pescuitul i exploatarea resurselor
naturale ale mrii teritoriale i elementelor asociate regulations of the 1982 Convention, leads to the idea
that fishing and exploitation of the natural resources
8

Raluca Miga-Beteliu, op. cit., p.225

Publicat n Monitorul Oficial nr. 99/09.08.1990, Republicare 1 M.Of. nr. 765/21.10.2002


10
"Suveranitatea statului riveran asupra mrii teritoriale decurge din suveranitatea statului asupra teritoriului su".

22

RO
acestora, aparin n exclusivitate statului romn care
poate ncheia acorduri prin care s stabileasc
modalitatea i condiiile efecturii acestor acte, putnd
s o supun sau nu clauzei reciprocitii.
Reglementarea navigaiei n marea teritorial de
ctre statul riveran are ca scop asigurarea securitii
traficului, separarea cilor de navigaie, pilotajul,
prevenirea abordajelor, protecia cablurilor submarine
i conductelor petroliere, stabilirea semnalelor
obinuite i de alarm, folosirea aparaturii radio i de
comunicaii de ctre navele strine etc.
Obligaia corelativ ce decurge din acest drept
este aceea de a comunica
prin Avize pentru
navigatori orice modificare adus reglementrilor i
efectuarea unei publiciti corespunztoare.
Dreptul de control i supraveghere vamal
urmrete prevenirea contrabandei i pirateriei,
stabilirea actelor i faptelor ce constituie infraciuni
sau contravenii i aplicarea de sanciuni pentru fiecare
dintre acestea. Pentru asigurarea acestora, navele
comerciale strine au obligaia de a staiona n locuri
determinate, de a nu ncrca i descrca mrfuri n
afara punctelor de control stabilite prin lege. Controlul
sanitar i cel al documentelor se efectueaz de ctre
organele statale ndrituite pentru aceasta.
Cercetarea tiinific n marea teritorial
constituie apanajul exclusiv al statului i se realizeaz
de ctre instituiile specializate cu acordul prealabil al
organelor competente, cu precizarea c persoanele
(fizice i juridice strine) pot cere i obine autorizaia
de a efectua astfel de cercetri numai n condiiile
stabilite de normele n vigoare.

EN
of the territorial sea and the elements assimilated with
it belong only to Romania who can sign agreements
which establish the modality and the circumstances
which allow the effectuation of these activities and
can subdue it or not to the cause of reciprocity.
Navigation regulations in the territorial sea,
as established by the coastal state, aims to ensure the
safety of the sea traffic, to divide the waterways,
steering services, preventing collisions, protecting
submarine cables and oil pipelines, setting the normal
signals and the alarm signals, using the radiocommunication devices by the foreign vessels, etc.
The correlative obligation that arises from this
right is the use of notices to mariners to transmit
any changes of the regulations and adequate publicity.
The right of control and customs
supervision has in view to prevent contraband and
piracy, to establish the acts and facts which represent
crimes or minor offences and to apply sanctions for it.
In order to apply these regulations, the foreign
commercial ships are bound to harbour in specific
locations, to load and unload goods only on the
boarding stations established by law. Medical and
documents control is effectuated by the state
authorities entitled to do this.
Scientific research in the territorial sea
represents the exclusive privilege of the state and is
effectuated by the specialized institutions with the
preliminary agreement from the qualified authorities,
and persons (foreign individuals or legal entities) can
request and obtain the permit to effect scientific
research only according with the regulations in force.

2.2. The Right of Innocent Passage

2.2. Dreptul de trecere inofensiv


Recunoscut la nceputurile sale ca o regul de
drept cutumiar, consacrat apoi prin prima conferin
asupra dreptului mrii, trecerea inofensiv, aa cum a
fost reglementat n art.14-23 din Convenia
UNCLOS, reprezint un progres, prin prevederea unor
reglementri mai detaliate i mai clare n comparaie
cu Convenia din 1958.
Conform Conveniei din 1958 prin trecere se
nelegea faptul de a naviga n marea teritorial fie
pentru a o traversa fr a intra n apele interioare, fie
pentru a intra n apele interioare, fie pentru a iei n
larg, venind din apele interioare (art. 14, alin. 2).
21
22

Initially known as a common law regulation,


recognized by the first Conference on the Law of the
Sea, innocent passage as it was established in
articles 14-23 of the U.N.C.L.O.S. Convention
represents a real progress because it includes specific
and clear provisions comparing with the 1958
Convention.
According to the 1958 Convention passage
means navigation through the territorial sea for the
purpose either of traversing that sea without entering
internal waters, or of proceeding to internal waters, or
of making for the high seas from internal waters
(article No. 14 paragraph 2).
Such a definition wasnt clear enough; it could

Grigore Geamnu, op. cit., p. 432


23 Iai, 1993
Constantin Andronovici - Drept internaional public, Editura Graphix,

EN

RO
CAPITOLUL III: IMPLICAII ALE
DELIMITRII MRII TERITORIALE
N RELAIILE DINTRE STATE

3.1. Acorduri ntre state privind delimitarea


mrii teritoriale
Expresie a raporturilor reciproce dintre state,
a voinei lor comune de a ajunge la un acord ntr-o
problem controversat, acordurile diplomatice au
intrat de mult n practica statelor devenind odat cu
evoluia relaiilor internaionale din ce n ce mai
necesare.
inndu-se cont de realitile prezente ale
societii internaionale, format n principal din
state suverane i organizaii internaionale create de
ctre aceste state, tratatele internaionale joac un rol
fundamental n ceea ce privete obligaia respectrii
n raporturile dintre aceste state a dispoziiilor
convenite de comun acord ale tratatelor la care sunt
pri.
ntr-un sens foarte larg al cuvntului, tratatul
este definit ca un acord de voin ntre subiecte de
drept internaional, acord care este supus normelor
dreptului internaional23.
Potrivit art. 2 (1) din Convenia de la Viena
din 1969 cu privire la dreptul tratatelor, prin tratat
se nelege: un acord internaional ncheiat ntre
state n form scris i guvernat de dreptul
internaional, fie c este consemnat ntr-un singur
instrument sau n dou ori mai multe instrumente
conexe i oricare ar fi denumirea lor particular.
n ceea ce privete termenul de Acord n sens
larg, acesta este cel mai adesea aplicabil unor
nelegeri care intervin n variate domenii, n general
precis determinate (economic, financiar, comercial,
cultural etc.)24.
Am ncercat n cele ce urmeaz s prezentm
o serie de astfel de acorduri, oferind o imagine
global asupra acestor nelegeri ce privesc
delimitarea de comun acord, prin tratative ntre
statele direct interesate, a mrii teritoriale.
Un prim exemplu este acordul semnat n

23

Raluca Miga-Beteliu op. cit., p.261

24

Ibidem, p. 263

CHAPTER III : IMPLICATIONS OF THE


DELIMITATION OF
TERRITORIAL SEA IN THE INTERSTATE
RELATIONS

3.1. Agreements between States Regarding


Delimitation of the Territorial Sea
As a result of the mutual relations between
states, of their common will to reach an agreement
on a disputed issue, the diplomatic agreements
became based on the evolution of the international
relations more and more necessary.
Taking into account the present realities of
the international society, composed mainly of
sovereign states and international organizations
created by these states, international treaties have an
important role as concerns the obligation to respect
the provisions established by mutual agreement in
the treaties where the states are parties.
In a wide meaning, a treaty is defined as an
agreement of will between subjects of international
law, agreement which is subject to the rules of
international law.
According to article No. 2 (1) from the
Vienna Convention from 1969, on the Law of
Treaties, treaty means an international agreement
concluded between states in written form and
governed by international law, whether embodied in
a single instrument or in two or more related
instruments
and
whatever
its
particular
designation.
As for the wide meaning of the agreement, it
applies more often to Conventions which intervene
in various fields, usually clearly defined (economic,
financial, commercial, cultural, etc).
In the following pages I tried to depict a
series of agreements and to present a global
understanding of these agreements which concern
the mutual delimitation by negotiations between
the states really interested - of the territorial sea.
The first example is the agreement signed in

RO
regiunea Atlanticului de Nord ntre Guvernul
Republicii Franceze i cel al Regatului Unit al Marii
Britanii i Irlandei de Nord n legtur cu
delimitarea n Marea Nordului a coordonatelor mrii
teritoriale, inndu-se cont de reglementrile
internaionale n vigoare.
Art. 1 al acordului stabilete c demarcaia
mrii teritoriale ntre cele dou state se va face prin
linia a crei puncte sunt convenite de comun acord,
determinndu-se cu precizie coordonatele acestor
puncte (latitudine/longitudine) trasate pe harta
anexat la acest acord25. Prile contractante se
oblig s respecte n ntregime aceast nelegere i
s nceap procedurile specifice de ratificare a
acestui acord.
Acordul dintre Frana i Marea Britanie este
semnat pe data de 2 noiembrie 1988 i intr n
vigoare ncepnd cu data de 6 aprilie 1989.
Pe data de 8 octombrie 1990 se semneaz n
aceeai regiune a Atlanticului de Nord Marea
Nordului o nelegere ntre Guvernul Republicii
Franceze i Guvernul Regatului Belgiei n legtur
cu delimitarea mrii teritoriale.
Dorind s stabileasc pe principii echitabile
linia de demarcaie ntre marea teritorial a celor
dou state, inndu-se cont de regulile existente
privind delimitarea spaiilor maritime, Guvernul
Republicii Franceze mpreun cu cel al Regatului
Belgiei convin n acest sens pentru crearea unei linii
de demarcaie format prin punctele de coordonat
(latitudine/longitudine) nscrise n acest acord.
Un alt exemplu de delimitare a mrii
teritoriale prin acord ntre state este i acela semnat
ntre Finlanda i Suedia la data de 14 iunie 1985 i
care privete regiunea Atlanticului de Nord Marea
Baltic.
La data de 14 iunie 1985 ambasadorul
Suediei la Helsinki trimite o scrisoare ctre
Ministrul de Externe al Finlandei, prin care l
informeaz pe acesta n legtur cu aprobarea de
ctre Parlament a examinrii frontierei de stat dintre
Finlanda i Suedia, fcute n anul 1981 i raportat
n documentul oficial pregtit de ctre specialitii
din Suedia mpreun cu cei ai Finlandei, cu excepia
unei suprafee n apropiere de Vahanara. Guvernul

25

EN
the North Atlantic Region between the Government
of the French Republic and the Government of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland on the delimitation in the North Sea of the
co-ordinates of the territorial sea, taking into account
the international regulations in force.
The first article of the agreement establishes
that the boundary between the territorial sea of the
two states shall be a line composed of loxodromes
joining in the sequence given, clearly defined points
by means of their co-ordinates (latitude/longitude)
drawn on the chart annexed to the agreement. The
agreement parties oblige themselves to fully respect
this agreement and to start specific procedures in
order to ratify it.
The agreement between France and Great
Britain is signed on the 2nd of November 1988 and
entries into force on the 6th of April 1989.
On the 8th of October 1990 in the same area
of the North Atlantic North Sea an agreement is
signed between the Government of the French
Republic and the Government of the Kingdom of
Belgium on the delimitation of the territorial sea.
Wishing to establish on equitable principles
the boundary between the territorial sea of the two
states, taking into account the existing rules on the
delimitation of marine areas, the Government of the
French Republic and the Government of the
Kingdom of Belgium convene on a line composed of
loxodromes connecting, in a given sequence, the
defined points (latitude/longitude) defined in the
agreement.
Another example of delimitation of the
territorial sea by agreements between states is the
one signed by Finland and Sweden on the 14 th of
June 1985 which regards the North Atlantic Baltic
Sea area.
On the 14th of June 1985 the ambassador of
Sweden at Helsinki sends a letter to the Minister for
Foreign Affairs of Finland, to inform him that the
Swedish Parliament approved the 1981 survey of the
Swedish Finnish state frontier and stated in the
official document, conceived by the Sweden
specialists together with the Finnish specialists, with
the exception of a frontier segment near Vahanara.
The Government of Sweden proposes a new frontier
survey to be governed by the same principles with
regard to the 1981 frontier survey, with the exception

The Law of the Sea Maritime Boundary Agreements (1985-1991), United Nations-New York, 1992

RO
Suediei propune ca delimitarea frontierei s se fac
n concordan cu propunerea fcut n anul 1981,
cu excepia amintit mai sus i ar trebui s intre n
vigoare la 1 august 1985. Se propune ca aceast
scrisoare, mpreun cu rspunsul prii finlandeze,
s constituie un acord ntre Guvernul Suediei i cel
al Finlandei. Acceptarea propunerilor fcute din
partea Suediei se face n aceeai zi de ctre Ministrul
de Externe al Finlandei.
n continuare amintim un alt caz privind
delimitarea mrii teritoriale i anume acordul dintre
Columbia i Honduras semnat la data de 2 august
1986.
Confirmnd legturile de prietenie care
guverneaz relaiile dintre cele dou state i
contientiznd nevoia stabilirii unei linii de
demarcaie maritime ntre acestea, se decide
semnarea unui acord n acest sens.
Acordul cuprinde patru articole prin care se
stabilesc punctele ce formeaz linia de demarcaie
(latitudine/longitudine), precum i normele de
aplicare ale acestuia, orice nenelegere cu privire la
interpretarea i aplicarea acordului se va rezolva n
conformitate cu normele internaionale.
Alte dou acorduri n legtur cu delimitarea
mrii teritoriale sunt semnate, de aceast dat n
regiunea Mrii Mediterane; primul ntre Guvernul
Republicii Franceze i cel al Italiei iar al doilea ntre
Principatul Monaco i Guvernul Republicii
Franceze.
n ceea ce privete primul acord, acesta este
semnat la Paris la data de 28 noiembrie 1986 ntre
Guvernul Republicii Franceze i Guvernul Italiei i
are n cuprinsul su patru articole prin care sunt
convenite precis i echitabil limitele spaiului
maritim asupra cruia fiecare dintre cele dou state
i poate exercita nestingherit suveranitatea.
Al doilea exemplu privete delimitarea mrii
teritoriale ntre Principatul Monaco i Republica
Francez prin acordul semnat ntre acestea la data de
16 februarie 1984. Acordul are cinci articole n
cuprinsul crora sunt stabilite punctele geografice ce
reprezint limita teritoriilor maritime ale celor dou

EN
mentioned above which should enter into force on
the 1st of August 1985. A proposal was made that the
letter and the reply from the Finnish Government
should constitute an agreement between the
Government of Sweden and the Government of
Finland. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Finland
approves the proposal made by Sweden in the same
day.
Next I present another case on the
delimitation of the territorial sea : the agreement
between Columbia and Honduras signed on the 2nd
of August 1986.
As an acknowledgement of the friendship
relations between the two states and conscious of the
necessity to establish a borderline between them, a
decision is made to sign an agreement on this matter.
The agreement includes four articles which
establish the points that form the boundary
(latitude/longitude), as well as the standards of
application of the agreement, any misunderstanding
concerning the interpretation and the application of
the agreement shall be solved according to the
international rules.
Another two agreements on the delimitation
of the territorial sea are signed, this time in the
Mediterranean Sea area; the first between the
Government of the French Republic and the
Government of the Italian Republic and the second
between the Monaco Principality and the
Government of the French Republic.
The first agreement is signed in Paris on the
28th of November 1986 between the Government of
the French Republic and the Government of Italy
and contains four articles which settle precisely and
equitably the maritime spaces over which each of
the two states exercise their sovereignty or sovereign
rights.
The second example concerns the
delimitation of the territorial sea between the
Government of His Most Serene Highness the Prince
of Monaco and the French Republic by the
agreement signed between the two states on the 16th
of February 1984. The agreement contains five
chapters which include the co-ordinates which
represent the limit of the marine territories of the
two states, as well as the standards of application of
the agreement, with respect to the provisions of the

RO
state, precum i normele de aplicare ale acordului,
respectndu-se prevederile tratatelor internaionale
n vigoare la acea dat.
Un ultim exemplu privind delimitarea
teritoriilor maritime prin acord ntre state este actul
semnat ntre Jamaica i Cuba la data de 18 februarie
199426.
Prin
acest
acord,
reafirmndu-se
tradiionalele legturi de prietenie i respectul
reciproc existent ntre acestea, Guvernele celor dou
state convin asupra principalelor probleme privind
delimitarea teritoriilor maritime dintre acestea,
inndu-se cont de principiile statuate prin
Convenia Naiunilor Unite asupra dreptului mrii
Jamaica 1982, la care Jamaica i Cuba sunt pri. Pe
lng stabilirea coordonatelor punctelor de
delimitare, prile convin s coopereze n
dezvoltarea i implementarea unor programe n
domeniul siguranei navigaiei, al cutrii i salvrii
de victime, n domeniul hidrografic, al cercetrii
tiinifice precum i al conservrii i protejrii
mediului marin.
Acestea sunt doar o parte a exemplelor ce
pot fi date in legtur cu delimitarea mrii teritoriale
de comun acord ntre state, exemplificarea fcut
limitndu-se doar la cazurile i zonele considerate ca
avnd o mai mare importan.

3.2. Litigii soluionate pe calea tratativelor


direct ntre state

EN
international treaties in force at that time.
The last example about the delimitation of
the territorial sea by state agreement is the document
signed between the Government of Jamaica and the
Government of Cuba on the 18th of February 1994.
In this agreement, reaffirming the close and
traditional bounds of friendship, the mutual respect
and understanding existing between the two states,
their Governments agree upon the main problems on
the delimitation of the territorial sea between them,
taking into account the principles of the U.N.
Convention on the Law of the Sea adopted in 1982
in Jamaica, to which Jamaica and Cuba are Parties.
After the settlement of the co-ordinates of the
delimitation points, the parties agree to co-operate in
the development and the implementation of
programs in the area of: safety of navigation, search
and rescue, hydrographic survey, scientific research
and preservation and protection of the marine
environment.
These represent only a part of the examples
that can be given on the delimitation of the territorial
sea by mutual agreements between states; the
examples are limited to the cases and areas
considered to be of great importance.
3.2. Legal Disputes Settled By Direct Negotiation
between States

In common acceptation dictionaries define


treaties as relations between two or more states
which deal with an activity or a problem or as
contacts between the agent and the accredited state
ntr-un sens foarte general dicionarele which has the purpose of safeguarding or defending
definesc tratativele ca fiind raporturile dintre dou of the interests of the accreditee.
sau mai multe state care voiesc s trateze o aciune
In the reference literature the next definition
sau o afacere27 sau ca fiind relaiile dintre is suggested: negotiations are competitive
agentul i statul acreditar care au ca scop procedures which take place during peaceful talks
salvgardarea sau aprarea intereselor statului by one or more parties, which pursue the optimum
acreditant28.
and safe accomplishment of objectives, settled into
n literatura de specialitate se sugereaz an explicit solution mutually approved.
urmtoarea definiie: negocierile sunt procese
The first function of the treaties between
competitive desfurate n cadrul unor convorbiri states, as a mean of settlement of international
panice de ctre una sau mai multe pri, ce accept disputes, is to be the preliminary condition of
s urmreasc mpreun realizarea n mod optim i dispute settlement to an international court and finds
sigur a unor obiective, fixate n cuprinsul unei complete confirmation in practice.
soluii explicite, agreat n comun.

EN
caute s-l rezolve nainte de toate prin
Prima
funcie
tratativelor dintre state, ca
As defined by the U.N. Charter, negotiations
tratative
(art. a33);
mijloc
de
reglementare
a
diferendelor
internaionale,
apply
to
the following cases:
pentru cele care constituie o ameninare
aceea de condiie prealabil a supunerii unui
For disputes the continuations of which is
virtual a meninerii pcii, sau au dus deja la
diferend la o instan internaional i gsete o
likely to endanger the maintenance of the
o ruptur a pcii ori au generat un act de
27
deplin
practic.
Larousseconfirmare
-citat de IonelnClocan Despre diferendele interneionale i cile
de soluionarepeace
a lor, Editura
tiinific,the
Bucureti
international
and security,
parties1973
agresiune,
Consiliul
Securitate,
vacit.,
putea,
28
Dictionnaire
diplomatique
- citat dedeIonel
Cloca - op.
p. 49
shall, first of all, seek a solution by
dup ce va constata aceasta, fr a mai
negotiations (article No. 33);
atepta tratativele prealabile, s fac

For disputes which represent a virtual threat


recomandri sau s decid msuri n
for the maintenance of the international
conformitate cu art. 41-42 din Carta ONU.
peace or already led to a breach of peace or
generated acts of aggression, the Security
Un rol foarte important al tratativelor l
Council shall after it establishes the facts dezvluie Statutul Curii Internaionale de Justiie
without waiting the ending of the preliminary
care supune declararea competenei acesteia dup
negotiations, make recommendations or
verificarea condiiei tratativelor dintre prile
takes measures according to articles No. 41litigante. Un rol tot att de important l au tratativele
42 of the U.N. Charter.
diplomatice i n ce privete calificarea unui
The importance of negotiations is revealed
diferend ca avnd caracter juridic.
by the statute of the International Court of Justice
Convenia din 1982 de la Montego-Bay which examines its jurisdiction after verifying the
consacr, pe lng alte reglementri internaionale circumstances of the negotiations between the
aplicabile tratativelor, n art. 283, statele pri la litigant parties. The same importance has the
convenie avnd obligaia ca atunci cnd intervine diplomatic negotiations for the matter of settlement
un diferend ntre ele s procedeze la un schimb de of a dispute of legal nature.
vederi n privina stingerii diferendului pe cale
The
1982
Montego-Bay
Convention
tratativelor. Dup urmarea acestei proceduri, dac nu establishes, besides other international provisions on
s-a ajuns la un rezultat, statele supun Curii negotiations, in article No. 283, that state parties
Internaionale de Justiie sau Tribunalului Dreptului have the obligation, when a dispute arises between
Mrii cauza spre soluionare.
them, to proceed expeditiously to an exchange of
Tratativele ntre state pot interveni i dup views regarding its settlement by negotiations or
hotrrea dat n fond de Curtea Internaionala de other peaceful means. If no settlement has been
Justiie pentru a stabili pentru viitor prin acorduri reached by recourse to such procedures, the states
bilaterale reglementri prin care statele respective s refer the cause for settlement to the International
aplice n practic hotrrea instanei, aa cum a fost Court of Justice or to the International Tribunal for
cazul n diferendul intervenit n anul 1967 ntre the Law of the Sea.
Republica Federal Germania pe de o parte, Olanda
The negotiations between states can arise
i Danemarca pe de alt parte, care dup hotrrea even after a decision is rendered by the International
dat de instan au urmat calea tratativelor, ulterior Court of Justice in order to establish in the future, by
cele trei state ncheind dou tratate bilaterale i un bilateral agreements, regulations by which the states
protocol tripartit de delimitare a platoului must put into practice the decision of the Court,
continental din Marea Nordului.
situation that occurred in 1967 in the dispute
between the Federal Republic of Germany on one
Tratativele ntre state au un rol deosebit de side , and the Netherlands and Denmark , on the
important n meninerea pcii, ele constituind o other side, which - after a decision was rendered by
modalitate de rezolvare pe cale panic a the Court took the negotiations course,
diferendelor dintre state i o cale de meninere a subsequently the three states concluded two bilateral
bunelor raporturi dintre state.
treaties and a tripartite protocol on the delimitation
of the continental shelf of the North Sea.

RO

3.3. Litigii supuse spre rezolvare Curii

EN

RO

Negotiations between states have a very


important role in maintaining peace; they represent a
possibility of peaceful settlement of disputes
between states and a modality to maintain good
Curtea Internaional de Justiie este relations between states.
organul judiciar principal al Organizaiei Naiunilor
Unite avnd sediul n Palatul Pcii din Haga. Curtea 3.3. Legal Disputes Submitted For Settlement to
i-a nceput activitatea n anul 1946, prin nlocuirea
the International Court Of Justice
Curii Permanente de Justiie Internaional care a
funcionat n Palatul Pcii dup 1922 i care avea un
Statut asemntor cu cel al organismului predecesor,
The international Court of Justice is the
fiind parte integrant a Cartei Naiunilor Unite.
principal judicial organ of the United Nations
Curtea Internaional de Justiie, ca organ Organization; it is headed in the Peace Palace in The
judiciar principal al Organizaiei Naiunilor Unite, Hague. The Court began work in 1946 when it
de la nfiinarea sa i pn n prezent a dat decizii a replaced the Permanent Court of International
cror nsemntate consta, pe de o parte n rezolvarea Justice which operated in the Peace Palace after
dat unor diferende internaionale ivite ntre state i, 1922 and which had a statute similar with its
pe de alta parte, n argumentri de principiu ce predecessor authority, being part of the United
constituie contribuii importante la dezvoltarea Nations Charter.
dreptului internaional.
The international Court of Justice, as
principal judicial organ of the United Nations, since
Curtea are n componena sa 15 judectori, its beginnings until present time, delivered decisions
dintre care: un Preedinte, un Vice-preedinte i 13 the importance of which came, on one hand, from
judectori, alei pentru nou ani de ctre settlement of the international disputes that occur
Secretariatul General al Naiunilor Unite i Consiliul between states, and on the other hand, from the
de Securitate, neputnd include mai mult de un advisory opinions which represent important
judector de aceeai naionalitate, alegerea fcndu- contributions to the development of the international
se o dat la trei ani pentru o treime din numrul law.
acestora. Membrii Curii nu reprezint guvernele
The Court is composed of 15 judges : a
statelor lor, fiind magistrai independeni.
President, a Vice-President and 13 judges, who are
Printre domeniile n care Curtea a fost elected for terms of office of nine years by the
solicitat i a pronunat decizii amintim: dreptul United Nations General assembly and the Security
mrii, delimitarea frontierelor, dreptul de Council, it cannot include more of one national of
naionalizare etc. Nu toate cauzele aduse n faa the same state, one third of the Court is elected every
Curii s-au terminat prin decizii pronunate n fond. three years. The members of the Court do not
Astfel, dup nceperea procedurii, n unele litigii, represent the Governments of their states, they are
Curtea s-a declarat necompetent, n altele a independent judges.
constatat identitatea de obiect i a dispus reunirea
Among the domains where the Court was
plngerilor, iar n altele, cnd au intervenit nelegeri solicited and delivered decisions we mention: the
ulterioare ntre statele-pri, a dispus scoaterea Law of the Sea, delimitation of borders, right to
cauzei de pe rolul instanei.
nationalization, etc. Not all the cases brought to the
Court led to rendering of decisions. Therefore, after
Dintre problemele de actualitate care the beginning of the procedure, in some disputes, the
confrunt statele lumii i care ridic aspecte de drept Court declares its incompetence, in other disputes
internaional de o importan major sunt acelea care noted the subject identity and requested junction of
se refer la regimul politico-juridic al mrilor i the complaints and in others, when subsequent
oceanelor. Factorii politici i economici contribuie la agreements concluded between the state-parties
preocuparea sporit a statelor fa de problemele ordered the removal of the case from the court roll.

Internaionale de Justiie

RO

EN

spaiului maritim mai ales n ceea ce privete


exploatarea bogiilor mrilor i oceanelor.
Curtea Internaional de Justiie a examinat
numeroase aspecte juridice din dreptul mrii, n
principal cu privire la dreptul de pescuit n oceane i
la delimitarea platoului continental.
Un astfel de litigiu s-a ivit la nceputul anului
1950 ntre Marea Britanie i Norvegia cu privire la
dreptul de pescuit. nc din 1935, Norvegia i
rezervase drepturi exclusive de pescuit n apele
teritoriale din partea de nord a coastelor sale. Printrun act unilateral Norvegia i-a stabilit liniile de baz
de la care urma s porneasc delimitarea propriilor
ape teritoriale. n acest caz Marea Britanie a
considerat c regulile impuse de guvernul norvegian
contraveneau principiilor de drept internaional
privitoare la fixarea linilor de baz ale apelor
interioare. Litigiul fiind naintat Curii, aceasta a
soluionat cauza n favoarea Norvegiei lund n
consideraie structura specific a rmului norvegian
(care prezint numeroase fiorduri, insulie, stnci
foarte apropiate de coast) i faptul c existau unele
principii tradiionale, datnd nc din 1812, i
necontestate de vreun alt stat. Curtea a subliniat c
n acel timp nu existau metode universal recunoscute
i aplicabile pentru toate cazurile n privina stabilirii
limitelor apelor teritoriale.

Among the issues regarding confrontations


between the states of the world and rising problems
of international law of major importance, there are
those which refer to the legal and political regime of
the seas and oceans. Economic and political factors
enhance the concerns of the states on the problems
of the maritime space, especially regarding the
exploiting of the resources of the seas and oceans.
The International Court of Justice examined
many legal aspects of the Law of the Sea, especially
those regarding the right of fishing in oceans and the
delimitation of the continental shelf.
Such a dispute occurred at the beginning of
the year 1950 between Great Britain and Norway,
regarding fisheries. Starting from 1935 Norway
reserved exclusive fisheries areas in the Northern
territorial waters of its coasts. By unilateral act
Norway fixed the baselines from which began the
delimitation of its territorial waters. In this case
Great Britain considered that the regulations
imposed by the Norwegian Government violated the
principles
of
international
law
regarding
establishment of the baselines of the interior waters.
The dispute was submitted to the Court, which
solved the case in Norways advantage taking into
consideration the specific structure of the Norwegian
shore (which presents many fiords, little islands,
rocks very close to the coast) and the fact that the
traditional principles, which existed since 1812, have
been undisputed by other states. The Court
emphasized that at that time there werent exist
universally recognized methods applicable to all the
situations regarding the delimitation of the territorial
waters.
Another case submitted for settlement to the
Court was that of the Great Britain and of the
Federal Republic of Germany which forwarded
separate complaints against Iceland, occasioned by
the unilateral actions by which Iceland extended its
fisheries jurisdiction from 12 to 50 miles.
After the Court indicated conservation
measures until judgement of the case, requesting
Iceland not to apply the new regulations on the
exclusive fisheries jurisdiction to the claimant states
which should also limit fishing in the litigious area,
the Court ruled on the 25th of July 1974 two separate
decisions with the same tenor. The International
Court of Justice established that the unilateral action

Un alt caz supus soluionrii Curii a fost cel


al Marii Britanii i al Republicii Federale Germania
care au introdus n 1972 plngeri separate mpotriva
Islandei, ca urmare a unor msuri unilaterale prin
care Islanda i extindea limita exclusiv a dreptului
de pescuit de la 12 la 50 de mile marine.
Dup ce, n prealabil, Curtea indicase msuri
de conservare pn la judecarea procesului, cernd
Islandei s nu aplice noile reglementri privind
dreptul exclusiv de pescuit fa de statele
reclamante, care la rndul lor, trebuiau s-i limiteze
pescuitul n zona litigioas, s-a pronunat la 25 iulie
1974 prin dou decizii separate cu un coninut
identic. Curtea Internaional de Justiie a stabilit c
reglementarea unilateral impus de Islanda cu
privire la dreptul exclusiv de pescuit n zona de 50
de mile marine nu poate fi opozabil Marii Britanii
i R.F.G.
Ca urmare, Islanda nu are dreptul s
ndeprteze din acea zona vasele de pescuit
aparinnd celor dou ri. Curtea a indicat c statele

RO
pri s duc tratative - pe baza considerentelor
cuprinse n cele dou decizii - care s conduc la
ncheierea unor nelegeri privitoare la dreptul de
pescuit n zon. Decizia Curii a fost urmat de
tratative care au dus la nelegeri bilaterale ntre
state.
n anii imediat urmtori acelei decizii cele
dou state care s-au opus instituirii unei zone de
pescuit de ctre Islanda, au instituit ele o asemenea
zon ntr-o aciune concertat a rilor din piaa
comun, restrngnd astfel, unilateral de data
aceasta n cadrul unei grupri de state i pentru o
vast zon maritim, dreptul de pescuit pentru alte
state.
Delimitarea platoului continental a pus
deseori probleme, fiind necesar uneori supunerea
diferendelor Curii. Un astfel de caz fiind cel al
diferendului
privind
delimitarea
platoului
continental din Marea Nordului ntre R.F.G. i
Danemarca i Olanda pe de alt parte, care, n final,
a dus la un compromis ntre cele trei ri, care au
transmis n 1967 litigiul spre rezolvare C.I.J.. Prin
acel compromis, prile au cerut Curii s indice care
sunt principiile i regulile de drept internaional pe
baza crora platoul continental din Marea Nordului
urmeaz s fie delimitat.
La 20 februarie 1969, Curtea s-a pronunat n
fond asupra litigiului, dnd dreptate R.F.G. i
preciznd c n cazul delimitrii platoului
continental nu se poate aplica un singur principiu
(cel al echidistanei - aa cum era prevzut n
convenia de la Geneva din 1958). Curtea a
recomandat ca delimitarea s se efectueze prin
nelegeri ncheiate ntre statele pri, ce ar urma s
se elaboreze pe baze echitabile. Cele trei state au
ncheiat ulterior dou tratate bilaterale i un protocol
tipizat de delimitare a platoului continental semnate
la Copenhaga n 1971.

3.3.1. Delimitarea platoului continental i a


zonelor economice exclusive ale
Romniei i Ucrainei n Marea Neagr

EN
imposed by Iceland, establishing a zone of exclusive
fisheries jurisdiction extending to 50 miles cannot be
opposable to Great Britain and to the Federal
Republic of Germany. As a result Iceland doesnt
have the right to move off the fishing ships of the
two countries from the designated area. The Court
indicated that state parties should engage
negotiations based on the regulations included in
the two decisions which lead to agreements on the
right of fishing in the area. The decision of the Court
was followed by negotiations which can lead to
bilateral agreements between the states.
The years following this decision, the two
states which opposed to the fixing of fisheries area
by Iceland, set up by themselves an area of that time
in a common action of the states from the common
market, which restrained by unilateral actions the
right of fishing for a group of states and established
the right of fishing to a large maritime area for other
states.
The delimitation of the continental shelf has
always created problems, making sometimes
necessary the settlement of the disputes by the
Court. Such a case was that of the difference
concerning the delimitation of the North Sea
continental shelf between the Federal Republic of
Germany and Denmark/the Netherlands which led to
a compromise between the two states, which in 1967
submitted the dispute for settlement to the
International Court of Justice. By the compromise
the Court is requested to decide which are the
applicable principles and rules of the international
law for the delimitation of the North Sea continental
shelf.
On the 20th of February 1969 the Court
rendered a decision in the advantage of the Federal
Republic of Germany and specified that for the
delimitation of the continental shelf cannot be used
only one principle (the equidistance principle as
the provisions of the 1958 Geneva Convention
stipulated). The Court recommended that the
delimitation must be effected by agreements
established between state parties in accordance with
equitable principles. The three states subsequently
signed in Copenhagen in 1971 two bilateral treaties
and a standard protocol on the delimitation of the
continental shelf.

RO

vecintate
i cooperare
dintre
Romnia iia Ucraina
Delimitarea
platoului
continental
zonelor
(Tratatul
de baz).
Tot cunordic
aceast
ocazie, a
economicepolitic
exclusive
n sectorul
al bazinului
fost
semnat
Acordul
conex
Tratatului
politic
baz,
de vest
al Mrii
Negre
a fcut
obiectul
unuideproces
ncheiat
de desfurat
scrisori ntre
minitrii
ndelungatprin
de schimb
negocieri,
n perioada
afacerilor
externe
ai celor dou
ri.
1967-1987,
ntre Romnia
i Uniunea
Republicilor
Socialiste Sovietice, fr ca cele dou pri s ajung
la un Acest
acord. ultim
Dup document
destrmareaconine
URSS,prevederi
aceast
referitoare
la
obligaia
prilor
de
a
ncepe
negocieri
problematic a fost abordat n relaia cu partea
n
vederea ncheierii unui Tratat privind regimul
ucrainean.
frontierei de stat i a unui Acord pentru delimitarea
platoului continental i a zonelor economice
exclusive ale Romniei i Ucrainei n Marea Neagr.
Totodat, Acordul conex conine o serie de principii
n funcie de care cele dou pri au convenit s
realizeze delimitarea.
n acelai timp, documentul menionat
includea o clauz compromisorie care stabilete
posibilitatea pentru oricare din pri s sesizeze
unilateral Curtea Internaional de Justiie de la
Haga pentru soluionarea delimitrii spaiilor
maritime, n cazul ndeplinirii, cumulativ, a dou
condiii:

EN

3.3.1. The Delimitation of the Continental


Shelf and of the Exclusive Economic Zones
of Romania and Ukraine in the Black
Sea
The delimitation of the continental shelf and
of the economic exclusive zones in the Northern
sector of the Western Black Sea basin was the object
of an extended process of negotiations, which took
place between 1967 and 1987, between Romania and
the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics no
agreement having been reached between the two
Parties. After the dissolution of the USSR, this issue
began to be discussed with the Ukrainian side.
On the 2nd of June 1997, the Treaty on the
Relations of Good Neighbourliness and CoOperation between Romania and Ukraine was signed
in Constana (the Basic Political Treaty). On the
same occasion, the Agreement Additional to the
Basic Political Treaty, concluded by exchange of
letters between the ministers of foreign affairs of the
two countries, was also signed.
The later document contains provisions
regarding the obligations of the Parties to begin
negotiations for the conclusion of a Treaty on the
State Border Regime and of an Agreement for the
Delimitation of the Continental Shelf and the
Exclusive Economic Zones of Romania and Ukraine
in the Black Sea.

negocierile cu privire la delimitarea spaiilor


maritime s se fi desfurat pe o perioad
mai mare de doi ani;
Tratatul privind regimul frontierei de stat s
fi intrat n vigoare sau s se demonstreze
faptul c acesta nu a intrat n vigoare din
vina celeilalte pri.
Astfel, n 1998, a nceput negocierea, n
paralel, a Tratatului privind regimul frontierei
comune i a Acordului privind delimitarea spaiilor
At the same time, the Additional Agreement
maritime.
contains a series of principles according to which the
two Parties agreed to proceed to delimitation. The
Tratatul privind regimul frontierei de stat above mentioned document also included a special
romno-ucrainene, colaborarea i asistena mutual clause, establishing the possibility for either of the
n probleme de frontier a fost, semnat la Cernui, Parties to unilaterally seize the International Court of
la 17 iunie 2003, de ctre preedinii Romniei i Justice in order to find a solution to the issue of the
Ucrainei, intrnd n vigoare n urma schimbului delimitation of the maritime zones, on condition that
instrumentelor de ratificare, realizat la Mamaia, la two simultaneous conditions were met:
data de 27 mai 2004.
the negotiations regarding the delimitation of
the maritime zones to have lasted for more
n schimb, negocierile bilaterale referitoare
than two years;
la Acordul privind delimitarea platoului continental
the Treaty on the Border Regime to have
i a zonelor economice exclusive ale Romniei i
entered into force or, if that was not the case,

RO

EN

Ucrainei n Marea Neagr, desfurate n perioada


1998-2004, nu au condus la rezultate concrete, textul
acestui document nefiind convenit.

that this delay was due to the fault of the


other Party.
Thus, in 1998, the Treaty on the Common
State Border Regime and the Agreement on the
Delimitation of the Maritime Zones started to be
negotiated together.
The Treaty between Romania and
Ukraine on the Romanian-Ukrainian State
Border Regime, Collaboration and Mutual
Assistance on Border Matters was signed at
Cernui, on the 17th of June 2003, by the presidents
of Romania and Ukraine and entered into force
following the exchange of the instruments of
ratification, done at Mamaia, on the 27th of May
2004.
Nevertheless, the bilateral negotiations with
respect to the Agreement on the Delimitation of the
Continental Shelf and the Exclusive Economic
Zones of Romania and Ukraine in the Black Sea,
which took place between 1998 and 2004, did not
lead to any concrete results, as the text of this
document could not have been agreed upon.
Under these circumstances, taking into
account the fact that both conditions regarding the
seizing of the International Court of Justice had been
fulfilled, and having in mind the lack of any progress
of the bilateral negotiations (24 rounds of
negotiations, plus 10 other rounds at expert level),
on the 16th of September 2004, Romania submitted
to the International Court of Justice the Application
Instituting Proceedings, with a view to find a
solution to the issue of the delimitation of the
continental shelf and of the exclusive economic
zones of Romania and Ukraine in the Black Sea.
Mr. Bogdan Aurescu was assigned as Agent
of the Romanian Party, while Mr. Cosmin Dinescu,
director general for legal affairs, and Mr. Iulian
Buga, Ambassador of Romania at The Hague, were
appointed as Co-Agents.
The recourse to the jurisdiction of the
International Court of Justice has the advantage that
the solution to be adopted will certainly be an
equitable one, fully taking into account the rules of
international law.
The International Court of Justice, the main
judicial organ of the United Nations, has a great
expertise as far as the delimitation of the maritime
spaces is concerned.

n aceste condiii, avnd n vedere faptul c


ambele condiii privind sesizarea CIJ erau
ndeplinite, i fa de lipsa de progrese n negocierile
bilaterale (24 de runde, completate de 10 alte runde
la nivel de experi), la data de 16 septembrie 2004
Romnia a transmis ctre Curtea Internaional de
Justiie de la Haga cererea de iniiere a procedurilor
(Application Instituting Proceedings) n vederea
soluionrii problematicii delimitrii platoului
continental i a zonelor economice exclusive ale
Romniei i Ucrainei n Marea Neagr.
Agentul prii romne a fost desemnat
domnul Bogdan Aurescu, iar n calitate de co-Ageni
au fost numii domnul Cosmin Dinescu, director
general pentru afaceri juridice i domnul Iulian
Buga, Ambasadorul Romniei la Haga.
Recurgerea la jurisdicia CIJ prezint
avantajul garantrii pronunrii unei soluii
echitabile i aflate n deplin concordan cu
normele dreptului internaional.
Curtea Internaional de Justiie, principalul
organ judiciar al Naiunilor Unite, are o expertiz
deosebit n ceea ce privete delimitarea spaiilor
maritime.
Competena membrilor Curii, integritatea lor
dincolo de orice ndoial, precum i expertiza
deosebit a CIJ n soluionarea unor astfel de litigii
constituie veritabile garanii n acest sens. De
asemenea, sesizarea CIJ creeaz perspectiva
rezolvrii problematicii delimitrii platoului
continental i zonelor economice ale Romniei i
Ucrainei n Marea Neagr ntr-un interval de timp
rezonabil (media duratei de timp aferente
soluionrii cazurilor de ctre CIJ este de 4 ani).
La data de 15 august 2005 nainte de
expirarea termenului fixat prin Ordinul Curii -,
Agentul prii romne pentru procedurile n faa
Curii Internaionale de Justiie n cazul Delimitarea
maritim n Marea Neagr (Romnia v. Ucraina),
domnul Bogdan Aurescu, a depus, la Haga, la Grefa

EN

RO
Curii,
Memoriul
Romniei,
fundamentarea poziiei prii romne.

cuprinznd

Memoriul este nsoit de anexe incluznd


documente i hri ce constituie elementele de prob
pe care se fundamenteaz argumentaia prii
romne.
La data de 16 mai 2006 a fost depus, la Grefa
CIJ, Contra-memoriul prii ucrainene - etap
fireasc a procesului aflat pe rolul Curii, n
continuarea procedurilor scrise n faa acestei
instane.
n urma examinrii acestui document, partea romn
a decis, n conformitate cu Regulile de procedur ale
CIJ, s treac la elaborarea unei Replici, care va
avea rolul de a exprima reacia fa de elementele de
susinere din Contra-memoriu i de a le contraargumenta, partea ucrainean urmnd s depun, la
rndul su, la Grefa Curii, o Duplic.

Astfel, printr-un Ordin al instanei de la


Haga, din data de 3 iulie 2006, au fost fixate i
termenele pentru depunerea Replicii prii romne
(22 decembrie 2006), respectiv, a Duplicii prii
ucrainene (15 iunie 2007).
La data de 19 decembrie 2006 a fost depus
la Grefa Curii Internaionale de Justiie Replica
Romniei n aceast spe, care include contraargumentaia prii romne fa de susinerile prii
ucrainene din Contra-memoriu, precum i o reiterare
i consolidare a poziiei expuse de partea romn n
Memoriu.
Conform art. 53 alin (2) al Regulilor de
Procedur ale Curii, coninutul actelor depuse de
pri are caracter confidenial, pn la iniierea fazei
orale a procedurilor, cnd Curtea poate decide, dup
consultarea prilor, s le fac accesibile publicului.
Dup finalizarea fazei scrise, va urma etapa
oral a procedurilor (pledoariile celor dou pri), iar
ulterior deliberrile i pronunarea hotrrii Curii
(care va avea loc, cel mai probabil, n a doua
jumtatea a anului 2008).

The high competence of the members of the


Court, their integrity beyond any shadow of doubt,
as well as the great expertise of the International
Court of Justice as far as this kind of disputes are
concerned, represent firm guarantees in this respect.
At the same time, the seizing of the International
Court of Justice creates the perspective of solving
the delimitation of the continental shelf and the
exclusive economic zones of Romania and Ukraine
in the Black Sea within a reasonable time-limit (the
average time-limit of cases at the International Court
of Justice is 4 years).
On the 15th of August 2005 before the
running out of the time-limit fixed by the Order of
the Court the Agent of the Romanian Party in the
proceedings in front of the International Court of
Justice in the case regarding The Maritime
Delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v. Ukraine),
Mr. Bogdan Aurescu, filed, at the Registry of the
Court, Romanias Memorial, comprising the
Romanian Partys position.
The Memorial encloses a series of annexes,
comprising documents and maps, which represent
evidences supporting the argumentation of the
Romanian Party.
On the 16th of May 2006 the CounterMemorial of the Ukrainian party was filed with the
Registry of the International Court of Justice this
represents a normal stage of the trial found on the
court roll, after the written procedure was presented
before the instance. After the examination of the
document, Romania decided - according to the rules
of procedure of the International Court of Justice, to
draw up a retort which will express the response
towards the upholding factors from the CounterMemorial and to counter-argument them; the
Ukrainian party shall submit, in its turn, at the
Registry of the International Court of Justice, a
duplicate.
By an Order of the Court, issued on the 3 rd of
July 2006, the deadlines for the filing of the
Romanian partys Reply (22nd of December 2006),
respectively, the Ukrainian partys Rejoinder (15th of
June 2007) were settled.
On the 19th of December 2006, the Reply of
the Romanian party in this case was filed with the
Registry of the International Court of Justice,
document which includes the counter-argumentation

RO
Cu ocazia vizitei ntreprinse la Kiev de ctre
domnul Mihai-Rzvan Ungureanu, ministrul
afacerilor externe al Romniei, la data de 22 martie
2005, s-a decis reluarea discuiilor bilaterale
romno-ucrainene referitoare la delimitarea spaiilor
maritime, n paralel cu desfurarea procedurilor n
faa Curii Internaionale de Justiie i fr ca aceste
proceduri s fie afectate n vreun fel. n acelai sens
au fost i concluziile discuiilor pe aceast tem care
au avut loc cu ocazia ntlnirilor oficiale dintre
preedintele Romniei, domnul Traian Bsescu i
preedintele Ucrainei, domnul Victor Iucenko
(Bucureti, 21 aprilie 2005, i Kiev, 2 februarie
2006).
n paralel cu procedurile n faa CIJ, au avut
loc i discuii bilaterale, patru ntlniri la nivel de
experi desfurndu-se la Kiev (14-15 aprilie 2005
i, respectiv, 31 octombrie 1 noiembrie 2005),
Constana (2-3 iunie 2005) i Bucureti (28-29
martie 2006). Delegaiile romn i ucrainean
participante la negocieri i-au reafirmat ncrederea n
capacitatea Curii Internaionale de Justiie de a
rezolva problema delimitrii spaiilor maritime ale
celor dou state n Marea Neagr ntr-un mod
echitabil i imparial i au reiterat poziia conform
creia discuiile bilaterale nu trebuie s prejudicieze
n nici un fel desfurarea procedurilor n faa CIJ.
n cadrul ntlnirii de la Odesa (4 iulie 2006)
a minitrilor afacerilor externe ai celor dou ri s-a
convenit ca noi runde de negocieri bilaterale s se
desfoare doar n cazul n care va fi necesar.
n cadrul ntlnirii prilejuite de deschiderea,
la data de 15 ianuarie 2007, a punctului de trecere a
frontierei de la Sighetu Marmaiei Solotvino,
preedintele Romniei, domnul Traian Bsescu i
preedintele Ucrainei, domnul Victor Iucenko, au
subliniat c recurgerea la jurisdicia Curii
Internaionale de Justiie corespunde unei relaii
bilaterale civilizate. De asemenea, preedintele
ucrainean Victor Iucenko a confirmat c Ucraina va
respecta, fr echivoc, decizia Curii Internaionale
de Justiie n aceast spe.

EN
of the Romanian party as to the contentions of the
Ukrainian party in its Counter-Memorial, as well as
a reiteration and a consolidation of the position
expressed by the Romanian party in its Memorial.
According to article 53, paragraph (2) of the
Rules of Procedure of the Court, the contents of
the Memorial, of the Counter-Memorial and of other
documents filed by the Parties are confidential, until
the opening of the oral proceedings, when the Court
may decide, after ascertaining the views of the
Parties, to make them accessible to the public.
The written phase will be followed by the
oral phase (the pledges of the two parties), and, later
on, by the deliberation and the Courts decision (to
be pronounced, most likely, in the second half of
2008).
On the occasion of a visit to Kiev of Mr.
Mihai-Razvan Ungureanu, the minister of Foreign
Affairs of Romania, on 22 March 2005, it was
decided for the bilateral Romanian-Ukrainian talks
on the delimitation of the maritime spaces to be
resumed, in parallel with the proceedings in front of
the International Court of Justice, without affecting
these proceedings in any way. The same conclusion
was also reached on the occasion of the official
meetings that took place between the President of
Romania, Mr. Traian Basescu, and the President of
Ukraine, Mr. Victor Iuscenko (Bucharest, 21 April
2005 and Kiev, 2 February 2006).
Concomitant with the procedures carried on
at the International Court of Justice, bilateral talks
were held, four reunions at expert level took place in
Kiev (14-15 April 2005 and 31 October 1
November 2005), Constanta (2-3 June 2005) and
Bucharest (29-29 March 2006). The Romanian and
Ukrainian delegations participating to these rounds
of negotiations reaffirmed their trust in the capacity
of the International Court of Justice to solve the
issue of the delimitation of the maritime spaces of
the two States in the Black Sea in an equitable and
impartial way, reiterating the position according to
which the bilateral talks should not in any way
prejudice the proceedings before the International
Court of Justice.
On the occasion of the Odessa meeting (4
July 2006) of the ministries of foreign affairs of the
two countries, they decided that new bilateral rounds

RO

EN
of negotiations should be carried out only if
considered necessary.
During the meeting that took place on the
15th of January 2007 the occasion of the opening of
the border crossing point at Sighetu Marmaiei
Solotvino the President of Romania, Mr. Traian
Basescu, and the President of Ukraine, Mr. Victor
Iuscenko underlined that the recourse to the
jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice
corresponds to a civilized bilateral relation. Equally,
the Ukrainian president Victor Iuschenko confirmed
that Ukraine shall respect, unequivocally, the
decision of the International Court of Justice in this
case.

RO

EN

CONCLUZII

CONCLUSIONS

Dreptul mrii, component important a


dreptului internaional public, a nregistrat de la
nceputul secolului i pn acum, succese deosebite n
materia apariiei, configurrii i codificrii normelor
sale. Pe plan internaional (prin intermediul
conferinelor O.N.U.), regional (prin acordurile
ncheiate pe plan regional) i pe plan naional sunt
reglementate n momentul de fa toate aspectele ce le
comport activitile desfurate de statele lumii n
mediul marin.
Conferinele O.N.U. cu privire la dreptul mrii
i-au adus aportul la realizarea acestuia prin
consacrarea unor noi concepte i instituii specifice,
prin tratativele purtate ntre state pentru a se ajunge la
acorduri comune i prin reglementrile care au inut
cont de faptul c trebuie s asigure satisfacerea
necesitilor economice ale tuturor statelor. De
asemenea, Organizaia Naiunilor Unite prin
intermediul instituiilor sale specializate i mai ales a
Organizaiei Internaionale a Mrii, prin programele
de cercetri ntreprinse i coordonate de acestea a
contribuit n mod fundamental la definirea
problematicii i reglementrilor dreptului mrilor.
n ceea ce privete legislaia intern cu
aplicabilitate n domeniul maritim constatm o
reglementare de ansamblu care acoper, n principiu
toate aspectele activitilor n aceste zone, cu rezerva
prezentat n cap. II, seciunea a IV-a care se refer la
nereglementarea frontierei maritime cu statul bulgar,
fiind necesar ntreprinderea unor aciuni i msuri
(mai ales din partea Ministerului Afacerilor Externe,
Guvernului) care s acopere aceast scpare a legii
astfel nct s nu se mai nregistreze diferena de
delimitare pe care o constatm n prezent.
n sensul artat anterior ar fi necesar, n cazul
n care partea bulgar refuz cooperarea, supunerea
acestui aspect uneia din instituiile competente (Curii
Internaionale de Justiie, Tribunalul Dreptului Mrii)
un tribunal arbitral, care s aib i experiena necesar
soluionrii unor astfel de cazuri.
Relativ la protejarea mediului marin n
Romnia sunt n vigoare legi i regulamente care

The Law of the Sea is an important part of the


international public law and registered since the
beginning of the century important success in the
matter of apparition, configuration and codification of
its standards. On the international plan (by the United
Nations Conferences), the regional plan (by the
agreements concluded in the region) and the national
plan, all the aspects of the activities developed by the
states in the seas area are settled.
The U.N. Conferences on the Law of the Sea
held to its accomplishment by definition of new
concepts and specific institutions, by negotiations
between states in order to reach common agreements
and by the regulations which based on the fact that
they must meet all the economic needs of the states.
Also, the United Nations Organization, by its
specialized institutions, especially by the International
Sea Organization, by the research programs
undertaken and coordinated by them, contributed
fundamentally to the definition of the problems and
regulations of the Law of the Sea.
As for the national law in the maritime field,
we must note a general regulation which covers
theoretically all the aspects of the activities from these
areas, exception makes the issue presented in Chapter
No. 2, section 4, which refers to the fact that the
maritime border with Bulgaria hasnt been settled,
actions and measures must be undertaken (especially
by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the
Government) in order to solve this omission of the
law, so that there shall be no delimitation difference as
can be observed in the present time.
Regarding the above-mentioned issue, if
Bulgaria refuses co-operation, it must be submitted to
one of the competent institutions (the International
Court of Justice, the International Tribunal for the Law
of the Sea) , an arbitrary court, which must have the
necessary experience in order to solve such cases.
Regarding the protection of the maritime
environment, Romania possesses laws and regulations

RO
acoper aceast gam de probleme, pstrarea
echilibrului ecologic i al conservrii ecosistemelor
Mrii Negre se bucur de o reglementare
corespunztoare avnd, n privina cooperrii statelor
riverane la Marea Neagr, prevederi eficiente att sub
aspect juridic ct i tiinific.
n concluzie, activitile de orice natur
desfurate n perimetrul apelor teritoriale romneti
au o consacrare expres i nuanat n legile interne i
n prevederile internaionale aceasta innd cont de
excepiile artate.

EN
in force, which cover these problems; the preservation
of the ecological equilibrium and of the ecosystems of
the Black Sea is adequately settled and also includes
in the matter of the co-operation between coastal states
of the Black Sea efficacious provisions from the
legal and scientific point of view.
In conclusion, the activities of any nature
which take place in the Romanian territorial waters are
expressly and nuanced defined in the internal laws and
in the international provisions, taking into account the
exceptions mentioned above.

ANEXA

Delimitation of the territorial sea, contigue zone, economical exclusive zone and the
Delimitarea mrii teritoriale, a zonei contigue, a zonei economice exclusive i a platoului continental.

Delimitarea mrii teritoriale i a platoului continental

Romanian and Bulgarian border


Delimitarea frontierei romno-bulgare