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European Institutions Overview

Several key international organizations play a role in EuroAtlantic Security and interact with NATO and each other. This security architecture
has undergone intensive changes and adjustments in the past decade.

No single institution is in a position to deal with the security situation in Europe alone. The Rome Summit of 1991 reaffirmed this concept and
formulated the need for a framework of mutually reinforcing institutions within which NATO, the CSCE (now OSCE), the European Community
(now European Union) and the Council of Europe would interact and would all have a special role to play in a common effort to prevent or
manage crises affecting stability and security in Europe.

Since the 1991 Rome Summit, the Alliance has launched a wide
range of initiatives to help establish the basis for such cooperative
security arrangements:

Ensuring transparency, through regular contacts and the


exchange of information and documentation.

Participation and representation at appropriate meetings


arranged on the basis of reciprocity.

Since 1999, the European Union has increasingly assumed the


WEUs operational responsibilities. The WEU has retained certain
residual functions relating to the Brussels Treaty.
The Alliances commitment to build a genuine strategic partnership
with the European Union took on a new dimension in December
2002, with the publication of a joint EUNATO Declaration on the
European Security and Defense Policy, paving the way for closer
political and military cooperation between the two organizations
and providing a formal basis for cooperation, particularly in the
areas of crisis management and conflict prevention.

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

This chart shows structure of cooperation in Europe.

OSCE Structure
The main OSCE activities

The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) is


the largest regional security organization in the world with 56
participating states from Europe, Central Asia and North America.
It is active in early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management
and postconflict reconstruction. The OSCE approach to security is
comprehensive and includes:

Arms control.

Preventive diplomacy.

Confidence and security building measures.

Human rights.

Democratization.

Election monitoring.

Economic and environmental security.

The OSCE (formerly known as the Conference on Security and


Cooperation in Europe [CSCE]) was initially a political consultative
process. It became an international organization in January 1995.
As the only forum which brings together all of the countries of Europe,
as well as Canada and the United States, the OSCE represents a key
OSCE Secretary General Lamberto Zannier (r) meets members of the
component of Europes security architecture. It provides a
Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, 20 March 2012.
comprehensive framework for cooperation in the areas of human
rights, fundamental freedoms, democracy, the rule of law, security
and economic cooperation.

Security touches on many aspects of the way we live and are governed. The OSCEs comprehensive view of security covers three
dimensions:

The politicomilitary.

The economic and environmental.

The human.

The OSCEs activities cover all three of these areas, from hard security issues such as conflict prevention to fostering economic
development, ensuring the sustainable use of natural resources and promoting the full respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
The Council of Europe (CoE)

CoE chart

The Council of Europe (CoE) is an intergovernmental organization


the aim of which is to protect human rights, pluralist democracy
and the rule of law. The Council deals with all major issues facing
European society except defense.
The Council of Europe, established in May 1949, now has 47
member countries. The significant extension of membership since
the end of the Cold War and the increasing number of conventions
signed, demonstrates determination of the member governments
to establish cooperative structures designed to avoid new rifts in
the continent and to build a common European civilization of
democratic nations. The Council of Europes efforts in this sphere
are therefore complementary to those of the North Atlantic
Alliance. The Council of Europe seeks implementation of its Action
Plan in cooperation with European and other international
organizations, notably the European Union and the OSCE.

The Council of Europe home page

EuroAtlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)

EAPC

The EuroAtlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) is a multilateral


forum, created in 1997, in which NATO member and partner
countries meet on a regular basis to discuss political and security
related issues and develop cooperation in a wide range of areas. At
present, there are 50 members: 28 NATO member countries and
22 partner countries. All EAPC members are members of the
Partnership for Peace program.

EAPC

The EuroAtlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) provides the overall political framework for NATOs cooperation with Partner countries and the
bilateral relationships developed between NATO and individual Partner countries with the Partnership for Peace program.
It is the forum in which Allies and Partner countries consult on a wide variety of issues, including but not limited to crisis
management and peacesupport operations; regional issues; arms control and issues related to the proliferation of weapons of
mass destruction; international terrorism; defense issues such as planning, budgeting, policy and strategy; civil emergency
planning and disasterpreparedness; armaments cooperation; nuclear safety; civilmilitary coordination of air traffic
management; and scientific cooperation.
Meetings of the EAPC are held monthly at the level of ambassadors, annually at the level of foreign and defense ministers and chiefs of
defense, as well as occasionally at summit level. As of 2005, a new highlevel EAPC Security Forum meets to discuss important security
issues and look at how NATO and Partner countries can best address them together. As an active participant in the Partnership for Peace
Program, a Partner country may also consult with NATO on an individual basis if it perceives a threat to its territorial integrity, political
independence or security. Both the EAPC and the PfP are dynamic concepts that continuously receive inputs for adaptation to the challenges
of a changing security environment.
Partnership for Peace (PfP)

The Partnership for Peace program

Launched in 1994, the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program has steadily
grown both in membership and in the range of practical, military and
defenserelated areas of cooperation in which PfP countries are involved.
The principal objectives of the PfP are to promote reform, increase stability,
diminish threats to peace, and build strengthened security relationships
between individual Partner countries and NATO, as well as among Partner
countries themselves. Presently twentytwo countries participate in the PfP.
Activities include defense planning and budgeting, military exercises and civil
emergency operations.

At present, there are 50 members: 28 NATO member countries and 22


The Partnership for Peace (PfP) expresses NATOs desire to reach out to all European states with an offer of close cooperation in defense and
security affairs and represents a farreaching response to the desire of a growing number of governments to participate in NATOs security
system. The Partnership provides a way for individual countries to tailor their relationship with NATO to meet their national needs and
circumstances. The countries that joined so far were at different stages of political, economic and military development, so any program of
association with NATO had to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate such diversity. Each partner was therefore invited to identify the extent
and intensity of the cooperation it wished to develop within a bilateral partnership program with NATO. Each individual program focuses on
defense and security related cooperation and forges a real partnership between each Partner country and NATO in areas ranging from the
purely military matters to cooperation in areas such as crisis management, civil emergency planning, air traffic management and armaments
cooperation.
Diversity is a common feature of Partner countries in the PfP: some countries see their participation as a means of strengthening their
candidature for NATO membership, whereas others see it as a unique and important way of contributing to peace and security, not aiming at
full membership of the Alliance.
At the April 2008 Bucharest Summit, NATO welcomed Maltas return to the PfP and was pleased to note the significant progress achieved in
the framework of the Mediterranean Dialogue since the Istanbul and Riga Summits.
Partnership and Cooperation in the EuroAtlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP): The Euro
Atlantic Partnership Council brings NATO member states and Partner countries together in a multilateral forum for regular dialogue and
consultation on political and security related issues. It also serves as the political framework for the individual relationships between NATO and
its Partners in the PfP, and these institutional arrangements for cooperation and joint activities are continuing to be developed as integral parts
of the EuroAtlantic security structure.
European Union (EU)

The European Economic Community (EEC), later EU, was established by the
Treaty of Rome in 1957 by Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and
the Netherlands. It has since grown to twenty seven Member States.
The European Union (EU) was established on the basis
of the Treaty of Rome signed in March 1957. At the
Maastricht European Council in December 1991 the
Heads of State and Government adopted a Treaty on
Political Union a Treaty on Economic and Monetary
Union which together form the Treaty on European
Union.

Treaty of Lisbon

EU Operations

The three pillars of the European Union are:

The European Community (EC)

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)

Justice and Home Affairs

In the interests of the Alliance as a whole, NATO has worked towards the
development of a stronger European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI)
within the Alliance in order to strengthen its European pillar.
NATO is also working jointly with the European Union to build up a Common
Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) that would enable the European Union to
undertake military operations in response to international crises, in
circumstances where NATO as a whole is not engaged militarily.

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)


The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is intended to be comprehensive, and to cover all areas of foreign and security policy
and to provide a framework for a Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP).
In the European Union Treaty (1991), it was decided that the Western European Union (WEU) would become an integral part of the Union.
The operational role of the WEU has subsequently been assumed by the EU itself. In approving these measures, the EU leaders emphasized
that NATO remained the basis for collective defense of its members and would continue to play an important role in crisis management.
In addition, the EU decided to create permanent political and military structures, including a Political and Security Committee, a
Military Committee and a Military Staff in order to provide the necessary political guidance and strategic direction for such operations.
The Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP)
The Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP), formerly known as the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), is a major
element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union (EU) and is the domain of EU policy covering defense and military
aspects. The ESDP was the successor of the European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI)under NATO, but differs in that it falls under the
jurisdiction of the European Union itself, including countries with no ties to NATO.
Formally, the Common Security and Defense Policy is the domain of the European Council, which is an EU institution, whereby the

heads of member states meet.


Petersburg tasks
In 1992, the Western European Union adopted the Petersburg tasks, designed to cope with the possible destabilizing of Eastern Europe. The
WEU itself had no standing army but depended on cooperation between its members. Its tasks ranged from the most modest to the most
robust, and included:

Humanitarian and rescue tasks.

Peacekeeping tasks.

Tasks for combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking.

Treaty of Lisbon
The Treaty of Lisbon renamed the ESDP to Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP).
The post of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy has been created(superseding the High
Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy and European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighborhood
Policy). Unanimous decisions in the Council of the European Union continue to instruct the EU foreign policy and CSDP matters became
available to enhanced cooperation.
Lisbon also led to the termination of the Western European Union in 2010 as, with the solidarity clause (deemed to supersede the
WEUs military mutual defense clause) and the expansion of the CSDP, the WEU became redundant. All its remaining activities were to be
wound up or transferred to the EU by June 2011.
Lisbon extends the enhanced cooperation mechanism to defense issues and also envisions the establishment of a Permanent Structured
Cooperation in Defense.
The EUNATO Relationship

EUNATO declaration of 2002

The EU and NATO decided to develop arrangements for full consultation,


cooperation and transparency between the two organizations.
They agreed to create appropriate structures to ensure the necessary
dialogue, consultation and cooperation with European NATO members who
are not members of the EU, on issues related to CSDP and crisis
management. Ad hoc EUNATO working groups were set up in mid2000 to
address these issues. Although agreement was soon reached in principle on
most issues, real progress in practical arrangements for cooperation was
more difficult to achieve. The debate centered on the arrangements which all
Alliance member countries, concerned about their participation in
consultations and decisionmaking relating to the use of NATO assets by the
EU, would find satisfactory.

A breakthrough was achieved in December 2002, enabling the EU and NATO to issue a joint Declaration on the European Security and
Defense Policy, setting out agreed principles on which the future relationship between the two organizations would be founded. In the
joint EUNATO declaration of 2002, the six founding principles included partnershipfor example, crisis management activities should be
mutually reinforcing effective mutual consultation and cooperation, equality and due regard for the decisionmaking autonomy and
interests of both EU and NATO, and coherent and mutually reinforcing development of the military capability requirements common to the
two organizations. In institutional terms, the partnership is reflected in particular by the Berlin plus agreement from March 2003, which
allows the EU to use NATO structures, mechanisms and assets to carry out military operations if NATO declines to act. Furthermore, an
agreement has been signed on information sharing between the EU and NATO, and EU liaison cells are now in place at SHAPE (NATOs
strategic nerve center for planning and operations) and NATOs Joint Force Command in Naples. The Alliance, for its part, has remained
committed to reinforcing its European pillar through the development of separable but not separate capabilities which could respond to EU
requirements and at the same time contribute to Alliance security.