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## Seismic Design Philosophy

Main Concepts

 Energy dissipation

 Ductility

## Prof. Stephanos E. Dritsos

 Capacity design

## Ductility and Ductility Factors

Energy Dissipation

## Ductility is the ability of the system to undergo plastic deformation. The

structural system deforms before collapse without a substantial loss of
strength but with a significant energy dissipation.

## The system can be designed with smaller restoring forces, exploiting

its ability to undergo plastic deformation.
Ductility factor (u/y): Ratio of the
ultimate deformation at failure u to the
yield deformation y.
* u is defined for design purposes as the
deformation for which the material or
the

structural

element

loses

## predefined percentage of its maximum

strength.
3
4

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Behaviour q Factor

Ductility Factors
In terms of displacements:

In terms of rotations:
(for members)

In terms of curvatures:
(for members)

u
y

## u: ultimate deformation at failure

y: yield deformation

u
y

## u: ultimate rotation at failure

y: yield rotation

u
y

## u: ultimate curvature at failure

y: yield curvature

## The q factor corresponds to the reduction in the level of seismic

forces due to nonlinear behaviour as compared with the expected
elastic force levels.

## Ductility and Behaviour Factor q

V
Definition q = el .
Vinel

for T=0
for T=Tc

u 2
V
q = 1max =
=
V2 max y 2

1
y

u2

## Rule of equal dissipating energy

y2

u2

q=1
q=

V
V
q = el = 1max = (2 1)1/ 2
Vinel V2 max

q = 1 + ( 1)

T
(Eurocode 8)
Tc

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## The capacity of structural systems to resist seismic actions

in the non-linear range permits their design for resistance
to seismic forces smaller than those corresponding to a
linear elastic response.

For the horizontal components of the seismic action the design spectrum, Sd(T),
shall be defined by the following expressions:
ag is the design ground acceleration on
type A ground (ag = I.agR);
I=importance factor
TB is the lower limit of the period of the
constant spectral acceleration branch;
TC is the upper limit of the period of the
constant spectral acceleration branch;
TD is the value defining the beginning of
the constant displacement response
range
of the spectrum;
S is the soil factor
Sd(T) is the design spectrum;
q is the behaviour factor;
is the lower bound factor for the
horizontal design spectrum,
10
recommended =0,2

## The energy dissipation capacity of the structure is taken

into account mainly through the ductile behavior of its
elements by performing a linear analysis based on a reduced
response spectrum, called design spectrum. This reduction is
accomplished by introducing the behavior factor q.

## Behaviour Factor (Eurocode 8)

The upper limit value of the behavior factor q, introduced to account
for energy dissipation capacity, shall be derived for each design
direction as follows: q = qokw 1,5
Where qo is the basic value of the behavior factor, dependent on the type
of the structural system and on its regularity in elevation;
kw is the factor reflecting the prevailing failure mode in structural systems
with walls: ku = (1 + ao ) / 3 1 and 0,5 ao = Pr evailing wall aspect ratio = hwi / l wi
Low Ductility Class (DCL): Seismic design for low ductility , following
EC2 without any additional requirements other than those of 5.3.2, is
recomended only for low seismicity cases (see 3.2.1(4)).

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## au/a1 in behaviour factor of buildings designed for ductility:

due to system redundancy & overstrenght

## A behaviour factor q of up to 1,5 may be used in deriving the seismic

actions, regardless of the structural system and the regularity in elevation.
Medium (DCM) and High Ductility Class (DCH):

For buildings which are not regular in elevation, the value of qo should be
reduced by 20%
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## Structural Regularity (Eurocode 8)

For seismic design, building structures in all modern codes are
separated in two categories: a) regular buildings
b) non-regular buildings
This distinction has implications for the following aspects of the seismic
design:
the structural model, which can be either a simplified planar model or
a spatial model ;
the method of analysis, which can be either a simplified response
spectrum analysis (lateral force procedure) or a modal one;
the value of the behavior factor q, which shall be decreased for
buildings non-regular in elevation
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## Criteria for Regularity in Elevation (Eurocode 8)

STRUCTURE OF EN1998-1:2004

## All lateral load resisting systems, such as cores, structural walls, or

frames, shall run without interruption from their foundations to the top
of the building or, if setbacks at different heights are present, to the
top of the relevant zone of the building.
Both the lateral stiffness and the mass of the individual storeys shall
remain constant or reduce gradually, without abrupt changes, from the
base to the top of a particular building.
When setbacks are present, special additional provisions apply.

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How q is achieved?

## Specific requirements in detailing (e.g. confining actions by

well anchored stirrups)
Avoid brittle failures
Avoid soft storey mechanism
Avoid short columns
Provide seismic joints to protect from earthquake induced
..

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Capacity Design

Capacity Design

## Provide strong column/weak beam frames or

wall equivalent dual frames, with beam sway
mechanisms, trying to involve plastic hinging at
all beam ends

## Capacity Design (Eurocode 8)

M
x
2
1
M 2 1
V=
Column moment distribution
l 12
Avoid Brittle failure

column 1

beam 1

V=

M2

beam 2

+E

M1,d

M1,d

column 2

-E

or
2

Vmax,c =
Exceptions: see EC8 5.2.3.3 (2)

M 1,+d + 2, d
l 12

M2,d

l 12 = l clear

+
2

Vmax,c =

M2,d

M 2,+ d + 1, d
l 12

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## Shear Capacity Design of Columns (Eurocode 8)

weak columns

M1

M1,d

Similarly
RdMRc,1 , when Rb < Rc
-

M1

M2

VM

Determination of VM
+E

M1,d

-E

M2,d
2

## RdMRc,1- (Rd,b\ Rd,c)

Also similarly for M2,d+, M2,dRb , Rc for the corresponding direction of seismic action (+E or -E)

M2,d

[M]

[V]

VM max,b =

M1,d

or

In DC H Rd=1.3
In DC M Rd=1.1

Vg+q

M1,d

VCD

## RdMRc,1+ (Rd,b\ Rd,c) , when Rb < Rc , weak beams:

(moment developed in
the column when beams fail)

M2

M 2,+ d + 1, d
l 12

[M]
[V]

VM max,b =

M 1,+d + 2, d
l 12

In DC H Rd=1.2
In DC M Rd=1.0

+

## RdMRb,1+ , when Rb < Rc ,

weak beams

M1,d
RdMRb,1+ (Rd,c\ Rd,b) , when Rb > Rc , weak columns:
(moment developed in
the column when beams fail)

Similarly
-

## RdMRb,1- , when Rb < Rc

M1,d
RdMRb,1- (Rd,c\ Rd,b)

Also similarly for M2,d+, M2,dRb , Rc for the corresponding direction of seismic action (+E or -E)
In DC H Rd=1.3
In DC M Rd=1.1

## Local Ductility Conditions

 Relation between q and

= q if T1 Tc , =1 + (q 1) Tc / T1 if T1 < Tc ;

##  Relation between and

= 1 + 3( 1) Lpl / Ls (1 0.5 Lpl / Ls ); where Lpl:plastic hinge length, Ls: shear span
 Relation of Lpl & Ls for typical RC beams, columns & walls

## (considering : cu* = 0.0035 + 0.1aw )

L pl 0.3 Ls and for safety factor 2 : L pl 0.15 Ls Then : 2 1
 For T1Tc
= 2 1 = 2q 1
T
T
= 2 1 = 2[1 + (q 1) c ] 1 = 1 + 2(q 1) c
For T1Tc
T1
T1
In EC8 qo is used instead of q concervatively to include irregular buildings (q<qo)
Therefore:

= 2qo 1 if T1 Tc
=1 + 2(qo 1)

Tc
if T1 < Tc
T1

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## Ductility Estimation for Beams

Ductility Estimation for Beams
Ductility increases when:
cu
2

fc

confinement

## Compressive reinforcement neccessary

While for tension reinforcement: the less the best

## Confined Concrete Model

Ductility Estimation for Columns

FRP

Fc + Fs 2 Fc1 = N

fc

v = N / bdf c

E
u
0.6
=1.2 s [
1] cu
f y v + ( 1 k 2 )( f y / f c )
y

fc
0,85fc

f = fc
*
c

## Ductility is reduced when axial load increases

EC8 limits: vd > 0.65 for DCM and vd > 0.55 for DCH

co
*
c u co

According to EC2

= co
*
co

Adopting 1 + 3, 7 p
fc

cu

p
0.5 a w
fc
w= Mechanical volumertic ratio of hoops

0.86

min 1 + 5

p
p
, 1.125 + 2.5
fc
fc

p
fc

## =Confinement effectiveness factor,

Therefore
= min (1 + 2.5 aw , 1.125 + 1.25aw )
cu* = 0.0035 + 0.1aw

a = as an

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## Detailing of primary beams for local ductility

EN 1998-1:2004 () 5.4.3.1.2

for DCM l cr = hw
for DCH l cr =1.5hw

2 = 2req + 0.5



dbw 6mm

s

## Detailing of primary seismic columns for local ductility

EN 1998-1:2004 () 5.4.3.2.2

hw / 4
24 dbw
8 dbL

## ( DCM ) or 6 dbL ( DCH )

225mm ( DCM ) or 175mm ( DCH )

## Detailing of primary seismic columns for local ductility

EN 1998-1:2004 () 5.4.3.2.2

Everywhere
6 mm
dbw
1
dbL ,max
4
 more restrictions for DCH
critical regions

c d

vd 0.65 for DCM
vd 0.55 for DCH

In critical regions

for DCM

## For l cr / hc < 3.0 l cr = l cl

for DCH

bo / 2
8 dbL ,min
175 mm
bo / 3
6 dbL ,min
125 mm

d
bo = bc 2(c + w )
2
bi 200 mm for DCM

tot =

Astot
bu

max tot = 4%

## bi 150 mm for DCH

At least 3 bars in every slide

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Detailing of primary seismic columns for local ductility for DCM & DCH in
critical region at column base

Beam-Column Joints

EN 1998-1:2004 () 5.4.3.2.2

DCM

## - Horizontal hoops as in critical region of columns

- At least one intermediate column bar at each joint slide


DCH
Specific rules in 5.5.33

Ductile Walls
lw
hcr = max

hw / 6

hw

hcr
hcr
w

2l w
hs
2hs

for n 6 storeys
for n 7 storeys

## hs = clear storey height

after qo = qo M Ed / M Rd
M Ed / M Rd at the base
Normilised axial load for DCM vd > 0.40 and for DCH vd > 0.35

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. .
No strong column/weak beam capacity design required in wall or wallequivallent dual systems (<50% of seismic base shear in walls)
For Shear

## Design and Detailing of Ductile Walls

strain distribution

= cu*

## also l c (0.15l w , 1.5 bc )

For DCH ,

VEd = VEd

0.5
Confined boundary element of free-edge wall end: Longitudinal reinforcement tot 0.5%
Same restrictions as in columns e.g. wd 0.08 ( DCM )

wd 0.12 ( DCH )

Smax , etc

where v = v f yd ,v / f cd

## Detailing of Ductile Walls

EN 1998-1:2004 () 5.4.3.4.2

## Detailing of Ductile Walls

EN 1998-1:2004 () 5.4.3.4.2

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## Large Lightly Reinforced Walls

Foundation Problem
 Large lw 
Large moment at the base and very low normalized axial force
 Usual way of footing with tie-beams is insufficient
 Impossible to form plastic hinge at the wall base. Wall will
uplift & rock as a rigid body

l c max

Boundary elements
bw
cm = mean value of concrete
3bw cm / fcd

compressive stress

## Longitudinal Reinforcement of Boundary Elements

(a) Diameter of vertical bars (EC8- 5.4.3.5.3 (2))
lower storeys when l w hstorey / 3

: dbL 12mm

## higher storeys: dbL 10mm

(b) Stirrups (EC8- 5.4.3.5.3 (1))
In all storeys-closed stirrups

dbw max(6mm,

dbL

3)
sw min(100mm,8dbL )
No other particular regulations for LLRCW

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## Secondary Seismic Members

 A limited number of structural members may be
designated as secondary seismic members. The strength
and stiffness of these elements against seismic actions
shall be neglected.
 The total contribution to lateral stiffness of all
secondary seismic members should not exceed 15% of
that of all primary seismic members.
 Such elements shall be designed and detailed to
maintain their capacity to support the gravity loads
present in the seismic design situation, when subjected
to the maximum deformations under the seismic design
situation. Maximum deformations shall account for P-.

## Specific Provisions in EC8 for:

 LOCAL EFFECTS to masonry infills see 5.9
 CONCRETE DIAPHRAGMS see 5.10

## Thank you for your attention

http://www.episkeves.civil.upatras.gr

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APPENDIX: Detailing & Dimensioning of seismic elements (Synopsis by M. Fardis)

## APPENDIX: Detailing & Dimensioning of seismic elements (Synopsis by M. Fardis)

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APPENDIX: Detailing & Dimensioning of seismic elements (Synopsis by M. Fardis)

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