Sunteți pe pagina 1din 2

Upper Quarter

C1-2

Cervical flexion
Cervical side flexion
Scapular elevation
Shoulder abduction
Elbow flexion and wrist extension
Elbow extension and wrist flexion
Thumb extension
Finger abduction

C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
T1
Lower Quarter
L1-2
Hip flexion
L3
Knee extension
L4
Ankle dorsiflexion
L5
Big toe extension
S1
Ankle eversion and plantar flexion, hip
extension
S2
Knee flexion
S3
No specific test action; intrinsic foot muscles
(except abductor hallucis)

IV. ETIOLOGY

Diabetes, especially if your sugar levels are poorly controlled


Alcohol abuse
Vitamin deficiencies, particularly B vitamins
Infections, such as Lyme disease, shingles (varicella-zoster), Epstein-Barr virus,
hepatitis C and HIV
Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, in which your
immune system attacks your own tissues
Kidney, liver or thyroid disorders
Exposure to toxins
Repetitive physical stress, such as repeating the same movement for long periods of
time, possibly during occupational activitieS

1 Alcoholism
- Many alcoholics develop peripheral nerve injuries because they make poor
dietary choices, leading to vitamin deficiencies.
2 Autoimmune diseases
- These diseases include Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis,
Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
and necrotizing vasculitis.
3 Diabetes
- When damage occurs to several nerves, the cause frequently is diabetes. At
least half of all people with diabetes develop some type of neuropathy.
Multiple forms of diabetic neuropathy exist. Some occur due to diabetes and
others are associated with it.

4 Exposure to poisons
- Exposure to poisons may include some toxic substances, such as heavy
metals or chemicals.
a Heavy Metals
Antimony
Arsenic
Gold
Lead
Mercury
Thallium
b Organic Compounds
Carbon disulfide
Ethyl alcohol
Ethylene oxide
Methyl butyl ketone
5 Infections
- Certain viral or bacterial infections can cause peripheral neuropathy,
including Lyme disease, shingles (varicella-zoster), Epstein-Barr virus,
hepatitis C, leprosy, diphtheria and HIV.
6 Inherited disorders
- Disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease are hereditary.
-

Trauma or pressure on the nerve


Traumas, such as motor vehicle accidents, falls or sports injuries, can sever or
damage peripheral nerves.
Nerve pressure can result from using a cast or crutches, spending a long time
in an unnatural position, or repeating a motion many times, such as typing.

7 Tumors
- Growths can form directly on the nerves themselves, or tumors can put
pressure on surrounding nerves. Both cancerous (malignant) and
noncancerous (benign) tumors.
8 Vitamin deficiencies
- B vitamins, including B-1, B-6 and B-12, are particularly important to nerve
health. Vitamin E and niacin also are crucial to nerve health. Not having
enough of these vitamins in your system may cause peripheral nerve injuries.
9 Other diseases
- Kidney disease, liver disease, connective tissue disorders, an underactive
thyroid (hypothyroidism) and amyloidosis.