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Ductile Detailing: Comparison Between IS 13920:1993

and ACI 318-14


(For Beam, Columns and Structural Walls)
Topic

IS 13920-1993
1. Width to depth Ratio Shall
preferably be more than
0.3

Dimensional
Limits

2. Width of the member shall


not be less than 200 mm

ACI 318-14
1. Clear span n shall be at least
4d.
2. Width bw shall be at least the
lesser of 0.3h and 10 inches.

3. Depth of the member shall


not be greater than 1/4 th of
the clear span.

3. Projection of the beam width


beyond the width of the
supporting column on each
side shall not exceed the
lesser of c2 and 0.75c1.

1. At least two Bars t shall be


provide through the top and
bottom faces.

1. At least two Bars shall be


provide through the top and
bottom faces.

2. Tension steel ratio on any


face shall not less than

2. Minimum reinforcement

min= 0.24 .
Longitudinal
Reinforceme
nt

3. Maximum steel ratio at any


face
shall
not
exceed
max=0.025.
4. Steel provide at the top and
bottom face along the length
shall not be less than th
maximum negative moment
steel provide at the joint
face.
5. At external Joint the bar
must be taken beyond the
inner face by an length
equal to Ld+10db-(90 bend
allowance).
6. Internal Joint the bars must
be
taken
continuously
through the column.

3. As,min=

3 fc'
bw d .
fy

(or)

200
bw d .
fy
4. Maximum steel ratio at any
face
shall
not
exceed
max=0.025
5. The
positive
moment
strength at the face of the
joint shall be at least onethird the negative moment
strength provided at that
face of the joint.
6. Neither the negative nor the
positive moment strength at
any section along the length
of the beam shall be less
than one-fifth the maximum

Splicing

Axial Force
Limit

moment strength provided


at the face of either joint.
1. Splicing shall be provided 1. Lap splices of deformed
only if the hoops are
longitudinal
reinforcement
provided over the entire
shall be permitted if hoop or
splice length.
spiral
reinforcement
is
provided over the lap length.
2. Lap length shall not be less 2. Spacing of the transverse
reinforcement enclosing the
than Ld .
lap-spliced bars shall not
exceed the lesser of d/4 and
3. Lap shall not be provided with
4 inches.
in a joint , at distance 2d from
the joint face and th length
of the member where flexural 3. Lap splices shall not be used
in locations Within the joints,
yielding might occur under
Within a distance of twice the
seismic actions.
beam depth from the face of
the joint, Within a distance of
4. More than 50% of the bars
twice the beam depth from
shall not be spliced at one
critical
sections
where
section.
flexural yielding is likely to
occur as a result of lateral
displacements beyond the
elastic range of behaviour.
The factored axial stress in the The factored axial stress in the
member under seismic action member under seismic action
shall not exceed 0.1fck.
A f '
g

10

The shear force to be resisted by


the beam shall be the maximum
of :
a) Calculated factored shear
force as per
analysis

1.2( D.L L.L)


2

Shear
strength

VaD.L+L.L = VbD.L+L.L =
b) Shear force due to formation
of plastic hinges at both ends of
the beam plus the factored
gravity load on the span. This is
given by
Sway to right:
Vu=Va D+L

1.4

shall not exceed


.
The design shear force Ve shall
be calculated from consideration
of the forces on the portion of
the beam between faces of the
joints.

M pr1 M pr 2
Ve=

ln

wu ln
2
.

M u As lim M u Bh lim

LAB

Sway to Left:
Vu= Va D+L

1.4

M u Ah lim M u Bs lim

LAB

Web

1. Web
reinforcement
shall 1. Hoops shall be provided in the
consist of vertical hoops. A
following regions of a beam:
vertical hoop is a closed (a) Over a length equal to twice
the beam depth measured
stirrup having a 135 hook
from
the
face
of
the
with a 10 diameter extension
supporting column toward
(but not < 75 mm) at each
mid-span, at both ends of the
end that is embedded in the
beam.
confined core.
(b) Over lengths equal to twice
the beam depth on both sides
2. The minimum diameter of the
of a section where flexural
bar forming a hoop shall be 6
yielding is likely to occur as a
mm. However, in beams with
result of lateral displacements
clear span exceeding 5 m, the
beyond the elastic range of
minimum bar diameter shall
behaviour.
be 8 mm.
2. Spacing of the hoops shall not
3. The contribution of bent up
exceed:
bars and inclined hoops to

Reinforceme
nt

shear
resistance
of
section
shall
not
considered.

the
be

(a) d/4
(b) Six times the diameter of
the
smallest
primary
flexural reinforcing bars
excluding longitudinal skin
reinforcement required.
(c) 6 inches.

4. The spacing of hoops over a


length of 2d at either end of a
beam shall not exceed.
(a) d/4.
(b) 8 times the diameter of 3. Where hoops are not required,
the smallest longitudinal bar.
stirrups with seismic hooks at
both ends shall be spaced at a
5. Spacing of hoops need not be
distance not more than d/2
less than 100 mm.
throughout the length of the
beam.
6. The first hoop shall be at a
distance not exceeding 50
mm from the joint face.
7. Vertical hoops shall also be
provided over a length equal
to 2d on either side of a
section where flexural yielding
may occur under seismic
action, remaining places the
beam shall have vertical
hoops at a spacing not
exceeding d/2.

Beams:

Columns
Topic

Dimensional
Limits

IS 13920:1993

ACI 318:14

1. The minimum dimension of


the member shall not be less
a) 15 db of the reinforcement in
the beam passing through or
anchoring into the column
joint
b) 300 mm.

The column shall satisfy


a) The shortest cross-sectional
dimension, measured on a
straight line passing through the
geometric centroid, shall be at
least 12 inches.

2. The ratio of the shortest cross


sectional dimension to the
perpendicular dimension shall
preferably not be less than
0.4.

Longitudinal

(b) The ratio of the shortest


cross-sectional dimension to the
perpendicular dimension shall
be at least 0.4.
1. Area
of
longitudinal
reinforcement, Ast, shall be
at least 0.01Ag and shall not
exceed 0.06Ag.

Splicing.

1. Lap splices shall be provided


only in the central half of the
member length. It should be
proportioned as a tension
splice.

2. In columns with circular


hoops, there shall be at
least six longitudinal bars.
Lap splices shall be permitted
only within the center half of the
member
length,
shall
be
designed as tension lap splices,
and shall be enclosed within
transverse reinforcement.

2. Hoops shall be provided over


the entire splice length at
spacing not exceeding 150
mm c/c.
3. Not more than 50% of the
bars shall be spliced at one
section.
The design shear force for
columns shall
be the maximum of:
a) Calculated factored shear force
as per
analysis, and
b) a factored shear force given by

Shear
strength

Vu=1.4

M u BL lim M u Br lim

hst

The design shear force Ve shall


be calculated from considering
the maximum forces that can be
generated at the faces of the
joints at each end of the column.
These joint forces shall be
calculated using the maximum
probable flexural strengths, Mpr,
at each end of the column
associated with the range of
factored axial forces, Pu, acting
on the column. The column
shears need not exceed those
calculated from joint strengths
based on Mpr of the beams
framing into the joint. In no case
shall Ve be less than the
factored shear calculated by
analysis of the structure.

M pr 3 M pr 4
Ve=

lu

1. The
parallel
legs
of
rectangular hoops shall be
spaced not more than 300
mm centre to centre. If the
length of any side of the hoop
exceeds 300 mm, a crosstie
shall be provided or a pair of
overlapping hoops may be
provided within the column.
2. The spacing of hoops shall
not exceed half the least
lateral dimension of the
column.

Transverse
reinforceme
nt

3. The minimum diameter of the


transverse
reinforcement
shall be 8 mm. However, for
columns with longitudinal bar
diameter larger than 25mm,
minimum
diameter
of
transverse
reinforcement
shall be 10mm.
4. Special
confining
reinforcement
shall
be
provided over a length l o,
from each joint face, towards
mid-span, and on either side
of any section, where flexural
yielding may occur under
seismic actions. The length l o
shall not be less than.
(a) larger lateral dimension of
the member at the section
where yielding occurs,
(b) l/6 of clear span of the
member, and
(c) 450 mm.

1. Transverse
reinforcement
shall be provided over a
length lo from each joint
face and on both sides of
any section where flexural
yielding is likely to occur as
a
result
of
lateral
displacements beyond the
elastic range of behaviour.
Length lo shall be at least
the greatest
(a) The depth of the column
at the joint face or at the
section where flexural
yielding is likely to occur.
(b) One-sixth of the clear
span of the column.
(c) 18 inches.
2. Reinforcement
shall
be
arranged such that the
spacing hx of longitudinal
bars laterally supported by
the corner of a crosstie or
hoop leg shall not exceed 14
inches around the perimeter
of the column.
3. Spacing
of
transverse
reinforcement
shall
not
exceed the smallest of
(a) Onfourth
of
the
minimum
column
dimension.
(b) Six times the diameter
of the smallest
longitudinal bar.

14 h x

(c) so=
so shall not exceed 6 in. and
need not be taken less than 4
inches.

5. When a column terminates


into a footing or mat, special
confining reinforcement shall
extend at least 300 mm into
1. Columns supporting reactions
the footing or mat.
from
discontinued
stif

6. When the calculated point of


contraflexure, under the efect
of gravity and earthquake
loads, is not within the middle
half of the member clear
height,
special
confining
reinforcement
shall
be
provided over the full height
of the column.
7. Columns supporting reactions
from discontinued.
8. Stif members, such as walls,
shall be provided with special
confining reinforcement over
their full height.
9. Full height of a column which
has significant variation in
stifness along its height. This
variation in stifness may
result due to the presence of
bracing, a mezzanine floor or
a R.C.C. wall on either side of
the column that extends only
over a part of the column
height.
10.The area of cross section, Ash
to
be
used
as
special
confining reinforcement, shall
not be less than.
Circular reinforcement,

0.09 SDk

members, such as walls, (a)


Transverse
reinforcement
required
shall be provided
over the full height at all levels
beneath the discontinuity if the
factored
axial compressive
force in the columns, related to
earthquake efect, exceeds
Agfc/10. Where design forces
have
been
magnified
to
account for the overstrength of
the vertical elements of the
seismic-force-resisting system,
the limit of Agfc/10 shall be
increased
to
Agfc/4.
(b)
Transverse reinforcement shall
extend into the discontinued
member at least d of the
largest longitudinal column
bar. Where the lower end of
the column terminates on a
wall, the required transverse
reinforcement shall extend into
the wall at least d of the
largest longitudinal column bar
at the point of termination.
Where the column terminates
on a footing or mat, the
required
transverse
reinforcement shall extend at
least 12 inches into the footing
or mat.

f ck Ag
1.0

f y Ak

Ash=
Rectangular reinforcement,

0.18Sh
Ash=

f ck Ag
1.0

f y Ak

Minimum
flexural
strength

The flexural strengths of the


columns shall satisfy,

6
5

Mnc Mnb
Mnc: Sum of nominal flexural
strengths of columns framing

into the joint.


Mnb: Sum of nominal flexural
strengths of the beams framing
into the joint.

Structural Wall:-

Topic

IS13920 :1993
1. The thickness of any part of
the wall shall preferably, not
be less than 150 mm.

Dimensional
limits

Reinforceme
nt limits

ACI 318:14
Design provisions for vertical
wall segments depend on the
aspect ratio of the wall segment
in the plane of the wall (hw/w),
and the aspect ratio of the
horizontal cross section (w/bw).

2. The efective flange width, to


be used in the design of flanged
wall sections, shall be assumed to
extend beyond the face of the
web for a distance which shall be
the smaller of,
(a)Half the distance to an
adjacent shear wall web.
(b) l/10th of the total wall height.
1. Shear walls shall be provided 1. The
distributed
web
with
reinforcement
in
the
reinforcement ratios, and
longitudinal
and
transverse
t, for structural walls shall
directions in the plane of the
be at least 0.0025, except
wall.
The
minimum
that if Vu does not exceed
reinforcement ratio shall be
A cv fc'
0.0025 of the gross area in each
.
direction. This reinforcement
shall be distributed uniformly 2. Reinforcement spacing each
across the cross section of the
way in structural walls shall
wall.
not exceed 18 inches.
2. If the factored shear stress in 3. Reinforcement
contributing
fck

to Vn shall be continuous and


the wall exceeds 0.25
or
shall be distributed across
if the wall thickness exceeds
the shear plane.
200 mm, reinforcement shall be
provided in two curtains, each
having bars running in the 4. At least two curtains of
reinforcement shall be used
longitudinal
and
transverse
directions in the plane of the
A cv fc'
wall.
in a wall if Vu >
or
hw/w 2.0, in which hw and
4. The diameter of the bars to be
w refer to height and length
used in any part of the wall
of entire wall, respectively.
shall not exceed l/l0th of the
thickness of that part.
5. Longitudinal
reinforcement
shall extend beyond the
5. The
maximum
spacing
of
point at which it is no longer
reinforcement in either direction
required to resist flexure by
shall not exceed the smaller of
least 0.8w, except at the top
lw/5,3tw and 450mm; where lw is
of a wall.
the horizontal length of the wall,
and tw is the thickness of the
wall web.
6. At locations where yielding of
longitudinal reinforcement is

6. The vertical reinforcement that


is uniformly distributed in the
wall shall not be less than the
horizontal
reinforcement
calculated.
7.

likely to occur as a result of


lateral
displacements,
development
lengths
of
longitudinal
reinforcement
shall be 1.25 times the
values calculated for fy in
tension.

The vertical reinforcement ratio


across a horizontal construction
7. Horizontal reinforcement in
joint shall not be less than:
the wall web shall extend to
Pu
0.92

within 6 inches of the end of


v
f y
Ag
the wall. Reinforcement shall
be anchored to develop fy
within the confined core of
v: shear stress at the joint
the boundary element using
Pu: Factored axial force
standard hooks or heads.
Ag: Gross cross sectional area at
Where the confined boundary
the joint.
element has sufficient length
to develop the horizontal
8. Horizontal reinforcement shall
web reinforcement, and Asfy/s
be anchored near the edges of
of
the
horizontal
web
the wall or in the confined core
reinforcement
does
not
of the boundary elements.
exceed
Asfyt/s
of
the
boundary element transverse
9. Splicing of vertical flexural
reinforcement parallel to the
reinforcement
should
be
horizontal
web
avoided, as far as possible, in
reinforcement, it shall be
regions where yielding may take
permitted to terminate the
place. This zone of flexural
horizontal web reinforcement
yielding may be considered to
without a standard hook or
extend for a distance of lw
head.
above the base of the wall or
one sixth of the wall height,
whichever is more. However,
this distance need not be
greater than 2 lw. Not more than
one third of this vertical
reinforcement shall be spliced
at such a section. Splices in
adjacent
bars
should
be
staggered by a minimum of 600
mm.
10.Lateral ties shall be provided
around lapped spliced bars that
are larger than 16mm in
diameter. The diameter of the
tie shall not be less than th of
the spliced bar nor less than
6mm. The spacing of ties shall
not exceed 150mm c/c.

The nominal shear stress is


calculated from

v
Shear
strength

1. Vu shall be obtained from the


lateral
load
analysis
in
accordance with the factored
load combinations.

Vu
twd w

Vu =Factored shear force,


tw = Thickness of the web, and
dw= Efective depth of wall section,
may be taken as 0.8 lw for
rectangular sections.

2. Vn of structural walls shall not


exceed:

Vn Acv ( c f c ' t f y )
3. Where, the coefficient c is

When
is greater than , the
area
of
horizontal
shear
reinforcement, Ah to be provided
within a vertical spacing. S v is

Vus

0.87 fyAh d w
Sv

given by
Where, Vus=(Vu-ctwdw) is the shear
force to be resisted by the
horizontal reinforcement. However,
the
amount
of
horizontal
reinforcement provided.
If v is less than c shear
reinforcement shall be provided in
accordance with limits mentioned
in the reinforcement limit topic.

3.0 for hw/ l

1.5, is 2.0

for hw/w 2.0, and varies


linearly between 3.0 and 2.0
for hw/w between 1.5 and
2.0.
4. Walls shall have distributed
shear reinforcement in two
orthogonal directions in the
plane of the wall. If hw/w
does
not
exceed
2.0,
reinforcement ratio shall
be at least the reinforcement
ratio t.
5. For horizontal wall segments
and coupling beams, Vn shall
not be taken greater than

10A cw fc'

, where Acw is the


area of concrete section of a
horizontal wall segment or
coupling beam.
1. Where
the
extreme
fibre 1. Walls or wall piers with hw/w
compressive stress in the wall
2.0 that are efectively
due to factored gravity loads plus
continuous from the base of
factored
earthquake
force
structure to top of wall and
exceeds
0.2fck,
boundary
are designed to have a single
elements shall be provided along
critical section for flexure and
the vertical boundaries of walls.
axial loads shall satisfy
The boundary elements may be
discontinued
where
the
a)Compression zones shall be
calculated compressive stress
reinforced
with
special
becomes less than
boundary elements where
0.15fck.
lw

600(1.5 u / hw )

Boundary
element

2. A boundary element shall have


adequate axial load carrying
capacity, assuming short column
action, so as to enable it to carry
an axial compression equal to the
sum of factored gravity load on it
and the additional compressive
load induced by the seismic
action and it is given by.

Vus

M u M uv
Cw

Where,
Mu- Factored design moment on
the entire wall section,
Muv- Moment of resistance
provided by distributed vertical
reinforcement across the wall
section, and
Cw P- Center to center distance
between the boundary elements
along the two vertical edges of
the wall.
3. In walls that do not have
boundary
elements,
vertical
reinforcement
shall
be
concentrated at the ends of the
wall. Each concentration shall
consist of a minimum of 4 bars of
12 mm diameter arranged in at
least 2 layers.
4. The percentage of vertical
reinforcement in the boundary
elements shall not be less than
0.8%, nor greater than 6%.(~4%
to avoid congestion).

c corresponds to the largest


neutral axis depth calculated
for the factored axial force
and
nominal
moment
strength consistent with the
direction
of
the
design
displacement u. Ratio u/hw
shall not be taken less than
0.005.
(b) Where special boundary
elements are required the
special boundary element
transverse
reinforcement
shall extend vertically above
and below the critical section
at least the greater of w and
Mu/4Vu.
2. Structural
walls
not
designed
in
accordance
with above procedure shall
have
special
boundary
elements at boundaries and
edges around openings of
structural walls where the
maximum extreme fiber
compressive
stress,
corresponding
to
load
combinations
including
earthquake efects exceeds
0.2fc. The special boundary
element shall be permitted
to be discontinued where
the calculated compressive
stress is less than 0.15fc.
3. Where
special
boundary
elements
are
required
following conditions must be
satisfied :
(a) The boundary element shall
extend horizontally from the
extreme compression fiber a
distance at least the greater
of
c 0.1w and c/2,
where c is the largest neutral
axis depth calculated for the
factored axial force and

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

1. Coupled shear walls shall be


connected by ductile coupling
beams. If the earthquake
induced shear stress in the
coupling beam exceeds where

0.1l s

fck
D

ls : Clear span of the coupling


beam
D : Overall depth

nominal moment strength


consistent with u.
Width
of
the
flexural
compression zone, b, over
the
horizontal
distance
calculated including flange if
present, shall be at least
hu/16.
For walls with hw/w 2.0 that
are efectively continuous
from the base of structure to
top of wall, designed to have
a single critical section for
flexure and axial loads, and
with c/w 3/8, width of the
flexural compression zone b
calculated shall be greater
than or equal to 12 inches.
In flanged sections, the
boundary
element
shall
include the efective flange
width in compression and
shall extend at least 12
inches into the web.
Where the critical section
occurs at the wall base, the
boundary element transverse
reinforcement at the wall
base shall extend into the
support. Where the special
boundary
element
terminates on a footing, mat,
or pile cap, special boundary
element
transverse
reinforcement shall extend at
least 12 inches into the
footing, mat, or pile cap.

1. Coupling beams with (n/h)


4 shall satisfy the requirements
of
specification
of
beam
detailing,
with
the
wall
boundary interpreted as being a
column and dimensional limits
as specified for beams may not
be applicable.
2. Coupling beams with (n/h) <
2 and with

Vu 4 fc' Acw

shall

Coupled
shear wall

2. The area of reinforcement to be


provided along each diagonal in
a diagonally reinforced coupling
beam shall be:

Asd

Vu
1.74 f y sin

Vu is the factored shear force,


: angle made by the diagonal
reinforcement with horizontal.
3. At least 4 bars of 8 mm
diameter shall be provided
along
each
diagonal.
The
reinforcement
along
each
diagonal shall be enclosed by
special confining reinforcement.
The spacing of ties shall not
exceed 100 mm.
4. The diagonal or horizontal bars
of a coupling beam shall be
anchored in the adjacent walls
with an anchorage length of 1.5
times the development length
in tension.

be
reinforced
with
two
intersecting
groups
of
diagonally
placed
bars
symmetrical about the midspan,
unless it can be shown that loss
of stifness and strength of the
coupling beams will not impair
the vertical load-carrying ability
of the structure, or the integrity
of non-structural components
and their connections to the
structure.
3.Coupling beams reinforced
with two intersecting groups of
diagonally
placed
bars
symmetrical about the midspan
shall satisfy
(a) Vn shall be calculated by

10 fc' Acw

Vn = 2Avd fysin
: angle between the diagonal
bars and the longitudinal axis of
the coupling beam.
(b) Each group of diagonal bars
shall consist of a minimum of
four bars provided in two or
more layers. The diagonal bars
shall be embedded into the wall
at
least
1.25
times
the
development length for fy in
tension.
(d) Transverse reinforcement
shall be provided for the entire
beam
cross
section
in
accordance with that of the
beam with Ash not less than the
greater of

0.09 sbc
i.

fc'
f yt

Ag

f '
1 c
Ach f yt

ii.

0.3sbc

Longitudinal

spacing

of

transverse reinforcement shall


not exceed the lesser of 6
inches. and 6db of the smallest
diagonal
bars.
Spacing
of
crossties or legs of hoops both
vertically and horizontally in the
plane of the beam cross section
shall not exceed 8 inches. Each
crosstie and each hoop leg shall
engage a longitudinal bar of
equal or greater diameter.