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(For Beam, Columns and Structural Walls)

Topic

IS 13920-1993

1. Width to depth Ratio Shall

preferably be more than

0.3

Dimensional

Limits

not be less than 200 mm

ACI 318-14

1. Clear span n shall be at least

4d.

2. Width bw shall be at least the

lesser of 0.3h and 10 inches.

not be greater than 1/4 th of

the clear span.

beyond the width of the

supporting column on each

side shall not exceed the

lesser of c2 and 0.75c1.

provide through the top and

bottom faces.

provide through the top and

bottom faces.

face shall not less than

2. Minimum reinforcement

min= 0.24 .

Longitudinal

Reinforceme

nt

face

shall

not

exceed

max=0.025.

4. Steel provide at the top and

bottom face along the length

shall not be less than th

maximum negative moment

steel provide at the joint

face.

5. At external Joint the bar

must be taken beyond the

inner face by an length

equal to Ld+10db-(90 bend

allowance).

6. Internal Joint the bars must

be

taken

continuously

through the column.

3. As,min=

3 fc'

bw d .

fy

(or)

200

bw d .

fy

4. Maximum steel ratio at any

face

shall

not

exceed

max=0.025

5. The

positive

moment

strength at the face of the

joint shall be at least onethird the negative moment

strength provided at that

face of the joint.

6. Neither the negative nor the

positive moment strength at

any section along the length

of the beam shall be less

than one-fifth the maximum

Splicing

Axial Force

Limit

at the face of either joint.

1. Splicing shall be provided 1. Lap splices of deformed

only if the hoops are

longitudinal

reinforcement

provided over the entire

shall be permitted if hoop or

splice length.

spiral

reinforcement

is

provided over the lap length.

2. Lap length shall not be less 2. Spacing of the transverse

reinforcement enclosing the

than Ld .

lap-spliced bars shall not

exceed the lesser of d/4 and

3. Lap shall not be provided with

4 inches.

in a joint , at distance 2d from

the joint face and th length

of the member where flexural 3. Lap splices shall not be used

in locations Within the joints,

yielding might occur under

Within a distance of twice the

seismic actions.

beam depth from the face of

the joint, Within a distance of

4. More than 50% of the bars

twice the beam depth from

shall not be spliced at one

critical

sections

where

section.

flexural yielding is likely to

occur as a result of lateral

displacements beyond the

elastic range of behaviour.

The factored axial stress in the The factored axial stress in the

member under seismic action member under seismic action

shall not exceed 0.1fck.

A f '

g

10

the beam shall be the maximum

of :

a) Calculated factored shear

force as per

analysis

2

Shear

strength

VaD.L+L.L = VbD.L+L.L =

b) Shear force due to formation

of plastic hinges at both ends of

the beam plus the factored

gravity load on the span. This is

given by

Sway to right:

Vu=Va D+L

1.4

.

The design shear force Ve shall

be calculated from consideration

of the forces on the portion of

the beam between faces of the

joints.

M pr1 M pr 2

Ve=

ln

wu ln

2

.

M u As lim M u Bh lim

LAB

Sway to Left:

Vu= Va D+L

1.4

M u Ah lim M u Bs lim

LAB

Web

1. Web

reinforcement

shall 1. Hoops shall be provided in the

consist of vertical hoops. A

following regions of a beam:

vertical hoop is a closed (a) Over a length equal to twice

the beam depth measured

stirrup having a 135 hook

from

the

face

of

the

with a 10 diameter extension

supporting column toward

(but not < 75 mm) at each

mid-span, at both ends of the

end that is embedded in the

beam.

confined core.

(b) Over lengths equal to twice

the beam depth on both sides

2. The minimum diameter of the

of a section where flexural

bar forming a hoop shall be 6

yielding is likely to occur as a

mm. However, in beams with

result of lateral displacements

clear span exceeding 5 m, the

beyond the elastic range of

minimum bar diameter shall

behaviour.

be 8 mm.

2. Spacing of the hoops shall not

3. The contribution of bent up

exceed:

bars and inclined hoops to

Reinforceme

nt

shear

resistance

of

section

shall

not

considered.

the

be

(a) d/4

(b) Six times the diameter of

the

smallest

primary

flexural reinforcing bars

excluding longitudinal skin

reinforcement required.

(c) 6 inches.

length of 2d at either end of a

beam shall not exceed.

(a) d/4.

(b) 8 times the diameter of 3. Where hoops are not required,

the smallest longitudinal bar.

stirrups with seismic hooks at

both ends shall be spaced at a

5. Spacing of hoops need not be

distance not more than d/2

less than 100 mm.

throughout the length of the

beam.

6. The first hoop shall be at a

distance not exceeding 50

mm from the joint face.

7. Vertical hoops shall also be

provided over a length equal

to 2d on either side of a

section where flexural yielding

may occur under seismic

action, remaining places the

beam shall have vertical

hoops at a spacing not

exceeding d/2.

Beams:

Columns

Topic

Dimensional

Limits

IS 13920:1993

ACI 318:14

the member shall not be less

a) 15 db of the reinforcement in

the beam passing through or

anchoring into the column

joint

b) 300 mm.

a) The shortest cross-sectional

dimension, measured on a

straight line passing through the

geometric centroid, shall be at

least 12 inches.

sectional dimension to the

perpendicular dimension shall

preferably not be less than

0.4.

Longitudinal

cross-sectional dimension to the

perpendicular dimension shall

be at least 0.4.

1. Area

of

longitudinal

reinforcement, Ast, shall be

at least 0.01Ag and shall not

exceed 0.06Ag.

Splicing.

only in the central half of the

member length. It should be

proportioned as a tension

splice.

hoops, there shall be at

least six longitudinal bars.

Lap splices shall be permitted

only within the center half of the

member

length,

shall

be

designed as tension lap splices,

and shall be enclosed within

transverse reinforcement.

the entire splice length at

spacing not exceeding 150

mm c/c.

3. Not more than 50% of the

bars shall be spliced at one

section.

The design shear force for

columns shall

be the maximum of:

a) Calculated factored shear force

as per

analysis, and

b) a factored shear force given by

Shear

strength

Vu=1.4

M u BL lim M u Br lim

hst

be calculated from considering

the maximum forces that can be

generated at the faces of the

joints at each end of the column.

These joint forces shall be

calculated using the maximum

probable flexural strengths, Mpr,

at each end of the column

associated with the range of

factored axial forces, Pu, acting

on the column. The column

shears need not exceed those

calculated from joint strengths

based on Mpr of the beams

framing into the joint. In no case

shall Ve be less than the

factored shear calculated by

analysis of the structure.

M pr 3 M pr 4

Ve=

lu

1. The

parallel

legs

of

rectangular hoops shall be

spaced not more than 300

mm centre to centre. If the

length of any side of the hoop

exceeds 300 mm, a crosstie

shall be provided or a pair of

overlapping hoops may be

provided within the column.

2. The spacing of hoops shall

not exceed half the least

lateral dimension of the

column.

Transverse

reinforceme

nt

transverse

reinforcement

shall be 8 mm. However, for

columns with longitudinal bar

diameter larger than 25mm,

minimum

diameter

of

transverse

reinforcement

shall be 10mm.

4. Special

confining

reinforcement

shall

be

provided over a length l o,

from each joint face, towards

mid-span, and on either side

of any section, where flexural

yielding may occur under

seismic actions. The length l o

shall not be less than.

(a) larger lateral dimension of

the member at the section

where yielding occurs,

(b) l/6 of clear span of the

member, and

(c) 450 mm.

1. Transverse

reinforcement

shall be provided over a

length lo from each joint

face and on both sides of

any section where flexural

yielding is likely to occur as

a

result

of

lateral

displacements beyond the

elastic range of behaviour.

Length lo shall be at least

the greatest

(a) The depth of the column

at the joint face or at the

section where flexural

yielding is likely to occur.

(b) One-sixth of the clear

span of the column.

(c) 18 inches.

2. Reinforcement

shall

be

arranged such that the

spacing hx of longitudinal

bars laterally supported by

the corner of a crosstie or

hoop leg shall not exceed 14

inches around the perimeter

of the column.

3. Spacing

of

transverse

reinforcement

shall

not

exceed the smallest of

(a) Onfourth

of

the

minimum

column

dimension.

(b) Six times the diameter

of the smallest

longitudinal bar.

14 h x

(c) so=

so shall not exceed 6 in. and

need not be taken less than 4

inches.

into a footing or mat, special

confining reinforcement shall

extend at least 300 mm into

1. Columns supporting reactions

the footing or mat.

from

discontinued

stif

contraflexure, under the efect

of gravity and earthquake

loads, is not within the middle

half of the member clear

height,

special

confining

reinforcement

shall

be

provided over the full height

of the column.

7. Columns supporting reactions

from discontinued.

8. Stif members, such as walls,

shall be provided with special

confining reinforcement over

their full height.

9. Full height of a column which

has significant variation in

stifness along its height. This

variation in stifness may

result due to the presence of

bracing, a mezzanine floor or

a R.C.C. wall on either side of

the column that extends only

over a part of the column

height.

10.The area of cross section, Ash

to

be

used

as

special

confining reinforcement, shall

not be less than.

Circular reinforcement,

0.09 SDk

Transverse

reinforcement

required

shall be provided

over the full height at all levels

beneath the discontinuity if the

factored

axial compressive

force in the columns, related to

earthquake efect, exceeds

Agfc/10. Where design forces

have

been

magnified

to

account for the overstrength of

the vertical elements of the

seismic-force-resisting system,

the limit of Agfc/10 shall be

increased

to

Agfc/4.

(b)

Transverse reinforcement shall

extend into the discontinued

member at least d of the

largest longitudinal column

bar. Where the lower end of

the column terminates on a

wall, the required transverse

reinforcement shall extend into

the wall at least d of the

largest longitudinal column bar

at the point of termination.

Where the column terminates

on a footing or mat, the

required

transverse

reinforcement shall extend at

least 12 inches into the footing

or mat.

f ck Ag

1.0

f y Ak

Ash=

Rectangular reinforcement,

0.18Sh

Ash=

f ck Ag

1.0

f y Ak

Minimum

flexural

strength

columns shall satisfy,

6

5

Mnc Mnb

Mnc: Sum of nominal flexural

strengths of columns framing

Mnb: Sum of nominal flexural

strengths of the beams framing

into the joint.

Structural Wall:-

Topic

IS13920 :1993

1. The thickness of any part of

the wall shall preferably, not

be less than 150 mm.

Dimensional

limits

Reinforceme

nt limits

ACI 318:14

Design provisions for vertical

wall segments depend on the

aspect ratio of the wall segment

in the plane of the wall (hw/w),

and the aspect ratio of the

horizontal cross section (w/bw).

be used in the design of flanged

wall sections, shall be assumed to

extend beyond the face of the

web for a distance which shall be

the smaller of,

(a)Half the distance to an

adjacent shear wall web.

(b) l/10th of the total wall height.

1. Shear walls shall be provided 1. The

distributed

web

with

reinforcement

in

the

reinforcement ratios, and

longitudinal

and

transverse

t, for structural walls shall

directions in the plane of the

be at least 0.0025, except

wall.

The

minimum

that if Vu does not exceed

reinforcement ratio shall be

A cv fc'

0.0025 of the gross area in each

.

direction. This reinforcement

shall be distributed uniformly 2. Reinforcement spacing each

across the cross section of the

way in structural walls shall

wall.

not exceed 18 inches.

2. If the factored shear stress in 3. Reinforcement

contributing

fck

the wall exceeds 0.25

or

shall be distributed across

if the wall thickness exceeds

the shear plane.

200 mm, reinforcement shall be

provided in two curtains, each

having bars running in the 4. At least two curtains of

reinforcement shall be used

longitudinal

and

transverse

directions in the plane of the

A cv fc'

wall.

in a wall if Vu >

or

hw/w 2.0, in which hw and

4. The diameter of the bars to be

w refer to height and length

used in any part of the wall

of entire wall, respectively.

shall not exceed l/l0th of the

thickness of that part.

5. Longitudinal

reinforcement

shall extend beyond the

5. The

maximum

spacing

of

point at which it is no longer

reinforcement in either direction

required to resist flexure by

shall not exceed the smaller of

least 0.8w, except at the top

lw/5,3tw and 450mm; where lw is

of a wall.

the horizontal length of the wall,

and tw is the thickness of the

wall web.

6. At locations where yielding of

longitudinal reinforcement is

is uniformly distributed in the

wall shall not be less than the

horizontal

reinforcement

calculated.

7.

lateral

displacements,

development

lengths

of

longitudinal

reinforcement

shall be 1.25 times the

values calculated for fy in

tension.

across a horizontal construction

7. Horizontal reinforcement in

joint shall not be less than:

the wall web shall extend to

Pu

0.92

v

f y

Ag

the wall. Reinforcement shall

be anchored to develop fy

within the confined core of

v: shear stress at the joint

the boundary element using

Pu: Factored axial force

standard hooks or heads.

Ag: Gross cross sectional area at

Where the confined boundary

the joint.

element has sufficient length

to develop the horizontal

8. Horizontal reinforcement shall

web reinforcement, and Asfy/s

be anchored near the edges of

of

the

horizontal

web

the wall or in the confined core

reinforcement

does

not

of the boundary elements.

exceed

Asfyt/s

of

the

boundary element transverse

9. Splicing of vertical flexural

reinforcement parallel to the

reinforcement

should

be

horizontal

web

avoided, as far as possible, in

reinforcement, it shall be

regions where yielding may take

permitted to terminate the

place. This zone of flexural

horizontal web reinforcement

yielding may be considered to

without a standard hook or

extend for a distance of lw

head.

above the base of the wall or

one sixth of the wall height,

whichever is more. However,

this distance need not be

greater than 2 lw. Not more than

one third of this vertical

reinforcement shall be spliced

at such a section. Splices in

adjacent

bars

should

be

staggered by a minimum of 600

mm.

10.Lateral ties shall be provided

around lapped spliced bars that

are larger than 16mm in

diameter. The diameter of the

tie shall not be less than th of

the spliced bar nor less than

6mm. The spacing of ties shall

not exceed 150mm c/c.

calculated from

v

Shear

strength

lateral

load

analysis

in

accordance with the factored

load combinations.

Vu

twd w

tw = Thickness of the web, and

dw= Efective depth of wall section,

may be taken as 0.8 lw for

rectangular sections.

exceed:

Vn Acv ( c f c ' t f y )

3. Where, the coefficient c is

When

is greater than , the

area

of

horizontal

shear

reinforcement, Ah to be provided

within a vertical spacing. S v is

Vus

0.87 fyAh d w

Sv

given by

Where, Vus=(Vu-ctwdw) is the shear

force to be resisted by the

horizontal reinforcement. However,

the

amount

of

horizontal

reinforcement provided.

If v is less than c shear

reinforcement shall be provided in

accordance with limits mentioned

in the reinforcement limit topic.

1.5, is 2.0

linearly between 3.0 and 2.0

for hw/w between 1.5 and

2.0.

4. Walls shall have distributed

shear reinforcement in two

orthogonal directions in the

plane of the wall. If hw/w

does

not

exceed

2.0,

reinforcement ratio shall

be at least the reinforcement

ratio t.

5. For horizontal wall segments

and coupling beams, Vn shall

not be taken greater than

10A cw fc'

area of concrete section of a

horizontal wall segment or

coupling beam.

1. Where

the

extreme

fibre 1. Walls or wall piers with hw/w

compressive stress in the wall

2.0 that are efectively

due to factored gravity loads plus

continuous from the base of

factored

earthquake

force

structure to top of wall and

exceeds

0.2fck,

boundary

are designed to have a single

elements shall be provided along

critical section for flexure and

the vertical boundaries of walls.

axial loads shall satisfy

The boundary elements may be

discontinued

where

the

a)Compression zones shall be

calculated compressive stress

reinforced

with

special

becomes less than

boundary elements where

0.15fck.

lw

600(1.5 u / hw )

Boundary

element

adequate axial load carrying

capacity, assuming short column

action, so as to enable it to carry

an axial compression equal to the

sum of factored gravity load on it

and the additional compressive

load induced by the seismic

action and it is given by.

Vus

M u M uv

Cw

Where,

Mu- Factored design moment on

the entire wall section,

Muv- Moment of resistance

provided by distributed vertical

reinforcement across the wall

section, and

Cw P- Center to center distance

between the boundary elements

along the two vertical edges of

the wall.

3. In walls that do not have

boundary

elements,

vertical

reinforcement

shall

be

concentrated at the ends of the

wall. Each concentration shall

consist of a minimum of 4 bars of

12 mm diameter arranged in at

least 2 layers.

4. The percentage of vertical

reinforcement in the boundary

elements shall not be less than

0.8%, nor greater than 6%.(~4%

to avoid congestion).

neutral axis depth calculated

for the factored axial force

and

nominal

moment

strength consistent with the

direction

of

the

design

displacement u. Ratio u/hw

shall not be taken less than

0.005.

(b) Where special boundary

elements are required the

special boundary element

transverse

reinforcement

shall extend vertically above

and below the critical section

at least the greater of w and

Mu/4Vu.

2. Structural

walls

not

designed

in

accordance

with above procedure shall

have

special

boundary

elements at boundaries and

edges around openings of

structural walls where the

maximum extreme fiber

compressive

stress,

corresponding

to

load

combinations

including

earthquake efects exceeds

0.2fc. The special boundary

element shall be permitted

to be discontinued where

the calculated compressive

stress is less than 0.15fc.

3. Where

special

boundary

elements

are

required

following conditions must be

satisfied :

(a) The boundary element shall

extend horizontally from the

extreme compression fiber a

distance at least the greater

of

c 0.1w and c/2,

where c is the largest neutral

axis depth calculated for the

factored axial force and

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

connected by ductile coupling

beams. If the earthquake

induced shear stress in the

coupling beam exceeds where

0.1l s

fck

D

beam

D : Overall depth

consistent with u.

Width

of

the

flexural

compression zone, b, over

the

horizontal

distance

calculated including flange if

present, shall be at least

hu/16.

For walls with hw/w 2.0 that

are efectively continuous

from the base of structure to

top of wall, designed to have

a single critical section for

flexure and axial loads, and

with c/w 3/8, width of the

flexural compression zone b

calculated shall be greater

than or equal to 12 inches.

In flanged sections, the

boundary

element

shall

include the efective flange

width in compression and

shall extend at least 12

inches into the web.

Where the critical section

occurs at the wall base, the

boundary element transverse

reinforcement at the wall

base shall extend into the

support. Where the special

boundary

element

terminates on a footing, mat,

or pile cap, special boundary

element

transverse

reinforcement shall extend at

least 12 inches into the

footing, mat, or pile cap.

4 shall satisfy the requirements

of

specification

of

beam

detailing,

with

the

wall

boundary interpreted as being a

column and dimensional limits

as specified for beams may not

be applicable.

2. Coupling beams with (n/h) <

2 and with

Vu 4 fc' Acw

shall

Coupled

shear wall

provided along each diagonal in

a diagonally reinforced coupling

beam shall be:

Asd

Vu

1.74 f y sin

: angle made by the diagonal

reinforcement with horizontal.

3. At least 4 bars of 8 mm

diameter shall be provided

along

each

diagonal.

The

reinforcement

along

each

diagonal shall be enclosed by

special confining reinforcement.

The spacing of ties shall not

exceed 100 mm.

4. The diagonal or horizontal bars

of a coupling beam shall be

anchored in the adjacent walls

with an anchorage length of 1.5

times the development length

in tension.

be

reinforced

with

two

intersecting

groups

of

diagonally

placed

bars

symmetrical about the midspan,

unless it can be shown that loss

of stifness and strength of the

coupling beams will not impair

the vertical load-carrying ability

of the structure, or the integrity

of non-structural components

and their connections to the

structure.

3.Coupling beams reinforced

with two intersecting groups of

diagonally

placed

bars

symmetrical about the midspan

shall satisfy

(a) Vn shall be calculated by

10 fc' Acw

Vn = 2Avd fysin

: angle between the diagonal

bars and the longitudinal axis of

the coupling beam.

(b) Each group of diagonal bars

shall consist of a minimum of

four bars provided in two or

more layers. The diagonal bars

shall be embedded into the wall

at

least

1.25

times

the

development length for fy in

tension.

(d) Transverse reinforcement

shall be provided for the entire

beam

cross

section

in

accordance with that of the

beam with Ash not less than the

greater of

0.09 sbc

i.

fc'

f yt

Ag

f '

1 c

Ach f yt

ii.

0.3sbc

Longitudinal

spacing

of

not exceed the lesser of 6

inches. and 6db of the smallest

diagonal

bars.

Spacing

of

crossties or legs of hoops both

vertically and horizontally in the

plane of the beam cross section

shall not exceed 8 inches. Each

crosstie and each hoop leg shall

engage a longitudinal bar of

equal or greater diameter.

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