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Thepurposeofthismanual istoexplain howthetransformershouldbeinstalled, commissioned, operated and
maintained ingeneral.Inadditiontotheinstructionsgiveninthe manual,referenceshouldbemadeto:
IEC-60076 Power Transformer
IEC-60296 Specification for unused mineral insulating oils for Transformer & Switchgear
IEC-60137InsulatingBushing foralternating voltageabove1000V.
IEC-60354 Loading Guide for oil immersed power transformer.
IEC-60364 Specification for Gas operated relays
IEC-156Method forthedetermination oftheelectricstrength ofinsulating oils.
IS-10028 Code of Practice for Installation of Transformers
IS-335 Code of Practice for Maintenance of Transformers
IS-1866 Code of Practice for maintenance of Transformer oil
IS-1646 Code of Practice for Electrical Installation

Transformer is one of the most vital and important electrical machinery. The development of the present day
power system is very much attributable to the large number and types of transformer that are in operation in the
system, such as, generator transformers, step-up transformers, step-down transformers, interlinking transformers,
power transformers & distribution transformers etc. Being a static machine, it is inherently
reliable compared to other machines,. Distribution transformers are a important link between the power
system and millions of electricity consumers. Any failure of this important equipment, apart from adversely
affecting the consumers, will also mean considerable financial loss to the electricity undertaking. It is
therefore of important that utmost care is taken in the design, manufacture, testing, installation, and
maintenance of transformers. A transformer consists of a magnetic core made out of insulated

silicon steel laminations. Two distinct sets of windings, one called primary and other called
secondarywinding, are wound on such core. The transformer helps in converting lowvoltage into high voltage or
visa-versa and accordingly the transformer is termed step-up or step-down. The winding to which
the voltage is applied is called primary winding, where as the winding to which the load is connected is
called secondary winding. The transformer works on the principle of electro-magnetic induction. Such
phenomenacantakeplaceinastaticdevice,only,ifthe magneticfluxiscontinuallyvarying.Itisthereforeclearthat
static transformers can only be used with alternating currents only. When an alternating EMF is applied to
the primary winding of a transformer with the secondary winding open circuited, a small current
flows in the primary winding which serves to magnetize the core and to feed the iron losses of the transformer. As
primary and secondary windings are wound on the same core, the magnetizing flux is the same for both the
windings. The magnetizing flux corresponds to the magnetizing current in the primaryand the number of turns of
the primary winding. Primary and secondary windings are wound on the same core, hence the induced voltage
per turn is the same for both primary and secondary winding. Also the absolute value of induced voltage in the
primaryand secondarywindingsisproportionaltothenumberofturnsinthe respective windings.


The main partsofatransformerare;
1. Transformer core
2.Transformer Windings.
3.Transformer Tank andRadiators.
Transformer core
Every transformer has a core, which is surrounded by windings. The core is made out of special cold rolled
grain oriented silicon sheet steel laminations. The special silicon steel ensures low hysteresis
losses. The silicon steel laminations also ensure high resistively of core material which result in
low eddy currents. In order to reduce eddy current losses, the laminations are kept as thin as possible. The
thickness of the laminations is usually around 0.27 to 0.35 mm. The transformer cores construction are of two
types, viz, core type and shell type. In core type transformers, the windings are wound around the core, while in
shell type transformers, the core is constructed around the windings. The shell type transformers provide a low
reactance path for the magnetic flux, while the core type transformer has a high leakage flux and hence higher

Core Type.
The ideal shape for the section of the core is a circle, as this would mean no wastage of space
between the core and windings, except the space taken by the insulation between laminations. A
perfectly circular section of core would mean varying dimensions for each successive lamination, which may
not be economical. A compromise is therefore struck and a stepped core (four or sixsteps)
construction is normally preferred.

The net sectional area is calculated from the dimensions of the various sections and giving due allowance for
the insulation thickness. The yoke section is arranged similar to the limb section.

Shell Type.
To make the best use of the grain oriented silicon steel it is necessary that the flux run parallel to the
direction of the rolling for as much of the magnetic path as possible. This is achieved by
selecting identical cross-section and shape for core and yoke sections and having mitered
corners. The materials used are such as to give lowhysteretic losses, fora particularflux density. These are
dependent on weight of material used and design flux density. In case a low flux density is employed, the
weight of material increases, which in turn also leads to increase in length of mean turn oftransformer coil.
Both these aspects result in increase in losses. Similarly, the eddy current loss dependson thequality ofmaterial
thickness oflaminationsand thefluxdensityemployed.

The primary and secondary windings in a core type transformer are of the concentric type only, while in
case of shell type transformer these could be of sand-witched type as well. The concentric windings are
normally constructed in any of the following types depending on the size and application of
the transformer
Cross-over type winding is normally employed where rated currents are up-to about 20 Amperes or so. In
this type of winding,eachcoil consists of number of layers having number of turns per layer. Theconductor
being a round wire or strip insulated with a paper covering. It is normal practice to provide one or two extra
lavers ofpaperinsulationbetweenlavers.
Further, the insulation between lavers is wrapped round the end turns of the lavers there byassisting to keep
the whole coil compact. The complete windings consists of a number of coils connected in
series. The inside end of a coil is connected to the outside end of adjacent coil. Insulation blocks
are provided between adjacent coils to ensure free circulation of oil. In helical winding, the coil
consists of a number of rectangular strips wound in parallel racially such that each separate turn occupies the
total radial depth of the winding. Each turn is wound on a number of keyspacers which form the vertical oil
duct and each turn or group of turns is spaced by radial keys sectors. This ensures free circulation of oil
in horizontal and vertical direction.
This type of coil construction is normally adopted for low voltage windings where the magnitude of
current is comparatively large.

The continuous disc type of windings consists of number of Discs wound from a single wire or number
of strips in parallel. Each disc consists of number of turns, wound radically, over one another. The conductor
passing uninterruptedly from one disc to another with multiple-strip conductor. Transpositions are made at
regular intervals to ensure uniform resistance and length of conductor. The discs are wound on an insulating
cylinder spaced from it by strips running the whole length of the cylinder and separated from one another by
hard pressboard sectors keyed to the vertical strips.
This ensures free circulation of oil in horizontal and vertical direction and provides efficient
heat dissipation from windings to the oil. The whole coil structure is mechanically sound and capable
of resisting the most enormous short circuit forces.

The windings coils after manufacture are subjected to drying out in an oven by circulation of hot air at
around 80 degree centigrade. The pre drying and shrinking of coils is achieved in this process.
The coils are further dried un-till the required insulation resistance is achieved. In case of larger
distribution and power transformers, the assembled core and windings are further subjected to drying out at
about 100C and 730mm absolute pressure to drive out water vapor and gas from the windings.
Appropriate clamping arrangements in the form of rings are provided on the windings to adjust
for anyshrinkage of insulation. The clamping rings could be either metallic with suitable earthing arrangements or
of insulating material. The insulation of the windings comprises of insulating cylinders between LV
windings and core and between HV winding.
Also insulating barriers are provided where necessary, between adjacent limbs, in some cases
and between core yoke and coils.

The leads from top and bottom end of windings and from such tapings, as may be provided, are
broughtout to a few centimeters lengthonly. The electrical connection from these leads to the
terminals or bushings consist of either copper rod or strips depending on the current to
be carried. Copper rods are insulated with bake lite tubes and supported by cleats. Which in turn are
supported from the vertical tie rods passing through the top and bottom yoke clamps. When copper
strips are used for low voltage leads noinsulation needto be provided, except the cleats, which hold the strip

in position. The strips are however wrapped with linen or varnish cloth at the point where it passes through the
leads. Leads from tapings are brought out to a point just below the top oil and so arranged that tapings
may be readily changed by means of off load Tapchanger.
Transformer tanks commonlyused are of the following types;
1.Plain sheetsteeltank.
2.Sheetsteeltankwith external coolingtubes.
3. Radiator tanks.
4.Tankswith corrugated wallpanels.
Plain sheet steel tanks are used where the size of the tank provides adequate cooling surface to
dissipate the heat generated on account of losses inside the transformer. Normally transformers up-to 50KVA
could be manufactured without external cooling tubes. For transformers of higher rating, tanks are constructed
with external cooling tubes to provide additional surface for heat dissipation. The cooling tubes could be
circular or elliptical. Elliptical tubes with smaller width are employed where oneof the sides of the
transformer is fully occupied by on load tap changer. This ensures more tubes on the given surface thereby
providing more areaforheatdissipation.
In larger tanks, stiffeners are also provided on the sides of the tank to prevent bulging of the tank
under oil pressure. The tubes are welded on the inside of the tank, while all other joints are welded both,
inside and outside.

Large size transformers, above 5 MVA rating are normally provided with detachable Radiator
banks to provide required cooling surface. The radiator bank consists of series of elliptical tubes

or a pressed steel plate assembly welded into top and bottom headers. The radiator bank is bolted
on to thetank wall and two isolating valves are fitted into theoil inlet andoutlet.
In case of very large transformers, even detachable radiator banks mounted onto the tank walls do not provide
adequate cooling surface.
IN such cases, separate self supporting coolers are provided which are connected to the main
transformer through large detachable pipes. This type of arrangement is good for naturally cooled
transformers, as well as, for forced cooled transformers. Forced air cooling could be provided
by means of suitable fans located below the cooler banks. Similarly, forced oil cooling could be
provided by installing an oil pump in the return cold oil pipe connecting the main transformer tank to
the cooler bank.

For outdoor transformers, the transformer has to be water-tight. For this purpose, the cover bolts are closely
spaced and a substantial tank flange of ample width is provided. Further a Neoprene bonded
cork gasket is provided between the tank flange and the cover. The bushing insulators are selected
considering the maximum system voltages encountered in the system and pollution conditions
prevailing at site. The joints are made water-tight by use of Neoprene bonded cork gaskets.
Transformers of rating 1 MVA or more are also normally provided with a conservator tank
connected to the main tank. The conservator tank has a capacity of about 10% of the oil content of the main


Standard Fittings listed below are normally provided on the transformers for the correct and safe
operation oftheunit.These fittings conform to the requirement of International Standard IEC60076.
1.Ratingandterminalmarking plate.
2.Tap Changingarrangement
(a) Off circuit tap changing switch
(b) Off circuit tap changing link
(c) On Load tap changer

3.Two earthing terminals

4. Lifting Lugs
6. Pressure Relief Device
7. Silica gel dehydrating breather.
9. Thermometer Pocket.

10.Conservator with drain plug and filling hole.

11. Air Release plug.
12. Jacking lugs (above 1600 KVA)
13.Filter valve(toptank)
14. Under base unidirectional flat rollers.

a) Bare Bushings or
b) Cable box.
i) Compound filled for PLC cables (up to 33000 Volts) or
ii) Air filled for PVC cable s (Up to 11000 Volts)or
c) Bus Duct (Bare bushing enclosed in housing upto 600 Volts)
d)Disconnection chamber between cablebox and transformer tank.
e) Additional bare neutral terminal.
These are optional fittings provided at an extra cost, if customer specifically orders them.
a) Winding temperature indicator
b) Oil temperature indicator
c)Gasandoil actuated (Buchholz)relay
d)Conservatordrain valve
f) Magnetic oil level gauge
i) Skid under base with haulage holes
j)Junction box.


(a) Rating and Terminal marking plate :The transformer is supplied with rating andterminal marking plateof anon corrosivemetal or metal with
protective covering on which all information concerning the rating. Voltage ratio, weights, oil quality etc. along
with theserialnumberoftheunitisengraved.
(b) Tap changing arrangement :i) Off - circuit tap changing switch :-The transformer is fitted with an off-circuit tap changing switch toobtain required tap voltage. It can be
hand operated by aswitch handle mounted on thetank. Locking device is fitted to the handle to padlock it on any
tap position and also to prevent any unauthorized operation of switch. Theswitch mechanismissuch that
itcan belocked onlywhen itis bridging two contacts on any particulars tapping position and cannot be
locked in any intermediate position. It is important that the transformershould beisolated fromthe livelines,
before moving the switch. Operating the switch when transformer is energized, will damage the switch contacts
dueto severearcingbetweenthecontacts,andmaydamagewindingsalso.
II) Off circuit tap changing links :
Contact bridging links are provided inside the transformer tank, to obtain required tap voltage.
Links are required to be unbolted and are fixed in any required position of the tap.
Links are approachable from inspection holes in tank cover. In case of conservator units, oil
level has to be dropped below the inspection opening before unbolting inspection covers.
III) On Load tap changer :
On load tap changer is normally mounted on the tank is a separate housing and connected to winding leads
through copper studs fixed on a insulated terminal board Terminal board is on leak proof. Oil in
the tank need not be lowered down for a attending to OLTC gear. Please see OLTC leaflet for the
operation andmaintenanceinstructions.

c) Earthing Terminals :
Core laminations assembly is connected to core clamping frame by a cu. strip which is in turn
connectedtothetank.Two earthing terminals areprovidedon thetank which should be connected to the
earthing systemofsupporting structure of transformerorthestation.
d) Lifting Lugs :
Two / Four lifting lugs of adequate capacity are provided on tanks to lift completely assembled
transformer filled with oil. All lugs are designed for simultaneous use and should be used simultaneouslytolift
thetransformer. Two/Four lifting lugs are provided on core clamps for un tanking the core and windings. All
heavyfittings are also provided with individual lifting lugs.
e) Valves and drain plugs:

I) Valves
Transformer is equipped with Drain cum filter valve at bottom of tank. Filter valve at top of tank. Valves are
fitted with plugs / blanking plates to stop the dirt or moisture entering inside the valve and avoid the
II) Drain Plugs
Drain Plug is provided on conservator to drain out oil.
f) Silica gel dehydrating breather :
Silica gel breather is fitted with silica gel which absorbs moisture from the air entering the
transformer,thus preventing deterioration of oil and insulation duetomoisturecondensation.

The breather contains oil unit at the bottom which prevents the entry ofdust solid particles present in the air.
The colour of silica gel is blue when dry and turns pink when it has absorb a certain percentage of moisture by
weight.Thechangeincolourofgelcanbeobservedthrough windowonacontainer.
Breather when fittedshould beexaminedtoascertain,thatthesilicagelis dry(blueincolour).
The frequency of inspection of gel depends upon local climate and operating conditions. This dehydrating
breather is used in conventional type of transformer where breather in transformer is applicable. In case
of hermetically sealed transformer, silica gel breather are not required, there is no breathing in this
g) Oil Level indicator :
Plain Oil level gauge
Indicates oil level in tank or conservator, window opening is fitted with grooved Perspex sheet and metal
frame to give clear indication of oil level.
h) Thermometer Pockets :
This pocket is provided to measure temperature of the top oil in tank with a mercury in glass
type thermometer. It is essentialto fill the pocket with transformer oil beforeinserting the thermometer, to
have uniform and correct reading. One additional pocket is provided for dial type thermometer
(OTI)with contacts.
I) Conservator with drain plug and filling hole :
Conservator is normally provided on all ratings of transformers which provides the space for the expansion /
contraction of oil on account of the variation of oil temperature during service. It prevents the oil in the tank from
coming indirectcontactwiththeatmosphereandprotectsitfrom deterioration.
Conservator is provided with silica gel breather, oil level gauge, oil filling hole with blanking
plate and drainplugfordraining/samplingofoilcontaminatedbymoistureandsludge.
J) Air release plug
Air release plug is normally provided on thetank coverfor transformer with conservator. Space is provided in the
plug which allowsairtobeescapedwithoutremovingtheplugfullyfromthe seat.

Plug should be unscrewed till air comes out from cross hole and as soon as oil flows out it
should be closed. Air release plugs are also provided on radiator headers and outdoor bushings.
K) Jacking lugs:
Four jacking lugs are normally provided for transformers above 1600 KVA. All lugs should be
used simultaneously to avoid damage to jacking pads and tank. Suitable hydraulic or mechanical jacks may
beusedto jackupthetransformer.
L) Rollers
Four rollers, plain or flanged type, are provided on e4verytransformer. Suitablearrangement of track for the
rollersshould bemade at site, to facilitate movement of the transformer. The track provided should be leveled
properly so that all wheels rest on the track. Rollers are normally detached fromthe tankbase at the timeof

a) Bare bushing :
i) Draw through bushing (oil flood type) :-Winding lead is solderedtothestem ofbushings which is drawn through theholein porcelain and is fixed
outside the porcelain with leak proof gasket. Oil is flooded through the hole of the porcelain which
acts as an insulationbetweentheleadandearthinadditiontotheporcelaininsulation.

ii) Solid Bushing (through stem type)

Through stem protruding out of porcelain on either side is provided with nuts and washers to take windings
lead on one side and supply cable on the other side. Bushing is completely sealed on one end for
oil tightness.
c) Cable box type porcelain bushings.

a)Outdoorthroughstemtype porcelain bushings.

b) Cable box type porcelain bushings.

c) Cableboxtypeepoxybushings.

B) Cable sealing boxes

i) Cable \sealing boxes for PILC cable compound filled:--

Bushing mounted on cable box flange, are integral part of cable box shell and protrude inside the shell to receive
supply cable. Supply cable is inserted through the wiping gland and individual cores are connected to
respective bushings inside the box. Lead joint is made between the wiping gland and lead sheathing
Armouring of cables is clamped inside or outside gland joint and earthed suitably.
Cable box is sealed with gasketed joints and insulating compound is filled up to filling level.

ii) Cable sealing box for PVC cable air filled :Bushing mounted on the tank are integral part of tank. Detachable cable sealing box shell covers the bushings
protruding inside the shell. Supply cable passes through the compression gland and is sealed with a
rubber ring between the PVC cable sheath and gland. Armouring of cable is clamped inside or
outside the gland and earthedsuitably.
C) Bus Duct
Bushing mounted on the tank wall are covered with asmall protectivemetalhousingwitha flange suitable to
take customers bus duct. Flexible copper links should be provided to connect bushings to
customers bus.

D) Disconnecting Chamber
This arrangement is provided to disconnect the transformer from the cable fox. It is provided for cable box
with PILC cables, which facilitates disconnection of cable box from transformer without
lowering the oil inthe tank. It has two sets of bushings one on the side of transformerand
theother on the cable box. Disconnecting links are provided for disconnecting bushings on
transformer from the bushings on cable box. Lower oil in chamber if it is connected to
conservator. Disconnecting chamber facilities cable testing, disconnection of cable box for
replacement or for removingthetransformerforrepairswithoutdecompoundingthecable.
E) C.T. Terminals
CT secondary leads are brought out to the CT terminal boxes located at different places as
shown on outline drawing. These boxes are supplied with detachable undrilled gland mounting plate.
Drilling of gland plate is to be done at site to suit CT Secondary cable glands.

F) Bare Connection
In caseofoverhead lines thebare conductors areterminated to the transformer bushings. Care should be taken
tokeepproperclearancesbetween theconnections andtheearth.
In case, aluminumACSR conductorsareusedforconnectiontotransformer terminals,suitable bimetallic
typeconnectors shouldbeused to prevent electrolyticcorrosion at thecontact surfaces of the dissimilar


a) Winding temperature Indicator

The windings temperature indicator indicates Hot spot temperature of the winding. This is a
Thermal Image type indicator. This is basically an oil temperature indicator with a heater
responsible to raise the temperature equal to the Hot spot gradient between winding and oil over the oil
temperature. Thus, this instrument indicates the Hot Spot temperature of the windings. Heater
coil is fed with a current proportional tothewindingscurrent through acurrent transformer mounted on the
winding undermeasurement.
Heater coil is either placed on the heater bulb enveloping the sensing element ofthe winding temperature
indicator immersed inoilor inthe instrument.

The value of the current fed to the heater is such that it raises the temperature by an amount equal to the hot spot
gradient of the winding, as described above. Thus temperature ofwindingis simulated on the dial ofthe
instrument. Pointer is connected thought a mechanismto indicate the hot spottemperature on dial.WTI is
provided with a temperature recording dial main pointer, Maximum pointer and resetting
device and two sets of contacts for alarm and trip.
b) Oil Temperature Indicator

Oil temperature indicator provides local temperature of top oil. Instruments are provided with
temperature sensing bulb,temperature recording dial with the pointerandmaximum reading pointer and
resetting device. Electrical contacts are provided to give alarm or trip at a required setting (on
capillary tube type thermometer).
c) Gas and oil actuated Buchholz relay

In the event of fault in an oil filled transformer gas is generated, due to which buchholz relay gives warning
of developing fault. Buchholz relay is provided with two elements one for minor faults (gives alarm) and
other for major faults (tripping). The alarmelements operates after a specific volume gets accumulated in the

Examplesof incipient faults which will generate gas in oil are:BuchholzRelay


Failure of core bolt insulation.


Shorting of lamination and core clamp.


Bad Electrical contact or connections.


Excessive hot spots in winding.

Thealarmelementwillalsooperated intheeventofoilleakage.
Thetrip elementoperatesduetosuddenoilsurgeintheeventofmoreseriousfaultsuchas: i)

Earth faultduetoinsulationfailurefromwinding toearth.


Winding short circuitinterturn,interlayer,intercoiletc.


Short circuit between phases.



The trip element will also operate if rapid loss of oil occurs. During the operation of transformer,
if there is an alarm transformer should be isolated from lines and possible reasons, listed above
for the operation of relay should be checked starting with simple reason such as loss ofoil duetoleaks,
air accumulation in relay chamber which may be the absorbed air released by oil due to change in
temperature etc. Rating of contacts :- 0.5 Amps. At 230 Volts AC or 220 Volts DC.

Magnetic Oil Gauge

This is a dial type gauge, mounted directly on the conservator to indicate oil level. This is
supplied with low level alarm contacts (if asked for) and the electrical connections of which are
broughtout toaterminalboxoftheoilgauge.
Suitable alarm circuit may be connected to these terminals. Thisoil gaugeis not dispatched separately, but
ismounted ontheconservator,with floatarmadjusted tocorrect length.
Explosion Vent
Explosion vent is provided to give protection against the excessive pressure that may developed
inside thetransformerdueto internalfault. On specificrequirement theexplosionventis provided with two
diaphragms one at the bottom (near tank) and the other at the top. If excessive pressure is developed in the
tank, both diaphragms will rupture and oil in tanks will be thrown out through the vent. One pressure
equalizer pipe is provided between explosion vent and the conservator to maintain equal pressurein
theemptyspaces ofvent andconservator. In this case oil level indicator is provided on the explosion
vent to indicate rupture of bottom diaphragm.

Skid under base

Skid under base with haulage holes is provided at the bottom of tank. The holes provided
Junction Box
Terminal blocks are provided in the box to take the incoming and outgoing cable leads from

instruments fitted on transformers

e.g.Buchholz relay, Winding temperature indicator, Oil

temperature indicator, Magnetic oil gauge etc.

Box is provided with Blank gland mounting plate,whichshouldbedrilled suitablytoreceive glands.
Temperature indicators with capillary tubes and electrical contacts are mounted inside the box, when asked


Transformer are generally dispatched oil filled and ready for the service. Occasionally, in case
of large units, it is necessary to dismantle certain fittings and pack themseparately to meet the transport
limitations and avoid any transit damage. In such case oil is lowered below the top tank cover and
space between the oil and tank cover is filled with dry air at normal atmospheric pressure.
The oil required for topping up conservator, radiators etc. is supplied separately in sealed drums.
Parts generally detached for transport are as follows :a)Conservatorwithoilgauge.
c) Other accessories such as Buchholz relay, Explosion vent, silicagelbreather,Magnetic oil gauge, Pipe

The transformer may getdamaged during transit, hence on the receipt of unit atsite, it is necessary to
examine mainunitandcomponentsverycarefullywithpackinglist sentwitheachtransformer.
Damages and shortages, if any, should be reported to the Kotsons Private Limited, Agra
withthephotograph andotheruseful evidencewhereverpossible.Open delivery certificate should be
obtained from the carriers.
Particular attention should be given to the damages of :
b) Protruded fittings on the tank, such as valves conservator, brackets, welded / bolts, radiators if applicable,
corrugations etc.
c) Porcelain bushings : Porcelain parts and current carrying stems.
d) Accessories :
i) Magnetic oil gauge Dial glass, float and mercury switches
ii) Dial type thermometer Dial glass, pointers, capillary tube, stem, protectioncaps of operating k
eys for maximum indication pointerandcontacts.
iii)BuchholzrelayWindingglasses,operating floats andmercuryswitches.
iv) Explosion vent Glass and bakelite diaphragm for cracks and puncture
v)Marshalling /Junctionboxes Windowglasses,insideinstruments(ifany)and cable glands.
e) Corrugated fins.
f) Oil leakage through the tank cover,bushing /valvesetc. If any a sample of oilshould be taken frombottom
of the tank and tested for the Electric strength (break down voltage) which should not bebelow 50KV
(RMS)when testedonastandardtest gap as specified in IEC 600296.
Transformer and all packing cases containing the accessories should be handled in right
position indicated, and while handling should not drop down to avoid damages to the delicate
instruments packed inside.

a) Lifting: Thetransformer should beunloaded bymeans ofcrane orlifting device of sufficient

capacity. (Please refer the rating plate for details of weight). All lifting lugs provided for
thepurpose mustbe used forthe lifting oftransformer to avoidunbalance and undue stresses on the lug.
b) Jacking : Four jacking lugs are provided on transformer, each designed to share
quarter load. While using jacking pads, utmost care should be exercised in the proper
application of jacks, as any improper application will not only damage the jacking pads
but also the transformer.
c) Towing : Rollers / wheels should be used for shifting the transformer from one place to other roller
axles orradiators should not beslinged for the purposeoftowing.Haulage holes provided on the tank
d) Packing cases: Cases containing various accessories should be handled carefully so
that thecontentsarenotdamaged.
a) Main transformer : On receipt of the transformer at site, it is desirable to erect and
commission with minimumdelay. If the transformer is not required to be commissioned
immediately, it should be properly stored on wooden base & case to avoid deterioration
of external finish.
Transformer dispatched with dismantled conservator, may absorb moisture when stored for
long periods due to entire tanks not filled, with oil, therefore best way to avoid this, is to
mount conservator temporarily and fill with oil to filling level mark.

Silica gel breather must be fitted in position and checked periodically for
the condition of gel to ensure thatitremains blue.
The gel should bereactivated orreplaced onceitturns pink. It is advisable to check the condition
of gel every week. Oil should be circulated and filtered periodically, to ensure that megger

Past experience shows that, if megger values become too low, it is very difficult to improve
them. It is desirable to check Electric Strength ofoil atleastonceinamonth.

b) Accessories:Accessorieslikebushings,explosion vent,buchholzrelay,dial typetemperature indic

ator, terminal box, magnetic oil gauge etc. should be repacked in packing case and
stored indoors till such time they are required. They are likely to get damaged if they
are stored outdoors.

Indian code of Practice for Installation and a Maintenance of Transformer IS: 10028 generally covers all the
relevant aspects of the special attention required at the time of erection of transformer, should be
referred before commissioning installation works.
a) Instruction To Erection Personnel : Persons having access to the interior of the
transformer while inspection, fitting bushing or any other fittings, should empty their pockets and all loose
articles. Spanners and other tools in use should be securely tied with a cotton tape ta a suitable
point so that they can be recovered if accidentally dropped inside.
b) Cleaning : fibrous cleaning materials should not be used. The presence of loose fibres in
suspension with transformer oil can reduce its insulation property. If cleaning or wiping is necessary, this should
c) Fire risk : Transformer oil is inflammable and under certain circumstances in a confined place become
explosive.Nakedlightandflameshouldneverbeusednearthe transformer.
d) Condensation : Transformeroilandothersolidinsulationnormallyused intransformerconstruction
absorb moisture easily, particularly when cold. Condensation can be caused if the interior of a tank is
exposed to atmosphere. But taking adequate care this can be minimised. The transformer can be
protected from damp hazards by circulating warm and dry oil through it until temperature is 5o to

100C above ambient. This should be done before allowing access to the interior of tank. Warm oil
should be circulated all the timewhiletransformerisopentoatmosphere.
e) Painting : Corroded components should be cleaned thoroughly to remove the rust, dirt and grease and
repaint with one coat of red oxide primer and two coats of enamel paint. Retouching of paint
may be required where paint is damaged during transit.
Location and Foundation :
A leveled and firmfoundation strong enough to support complete weight of transformer and prevent
accumulation of water should be provided. Continuous external vibrations may set up physical movements in
coreand windingsandinturnleadtothebreakdown.
While locating transformer care should be taken to provide adequate clearnces from the live
parts of transformer to earth parts. Easy access should be provided all round and to diagram
Suitable rails or tracks should be used for rollers and wheels should be locked to prevent
accidental movement.. Where transformer is enclosed in chamber it should be ensured that it gets goods
Wherever transformers are mounted on poles the structure should be strong enough to withstand weight of the
transformer,windpressureand otheratmosphericconditions.
Erection of transformer :
Generally small transformers up to 1000 KVA are despatched oil filled fitted with all fittings.
Fittings dismantled to facilitate transport, may be reassembled in the following sequence
depending on the site conditions.
Sequence of erection:
a) Fitting of rollers
b) Oil check
c) Conservator
d)Buchholzrelayand pipework
e) Silicagel dehydrating

g) Terminals HV LV bushings or cable boxes, CT terminals etc.
h) Topping up of oil
i) Radiators
j) Temperature indicators
k)Marshalling Boxes
Details of erection :
All fittings and accessories should be assembled as shown in outline drawing.
a) Rollers :
i) Before mountingofrollers theyshould bechecked forsoundnessofcasting and that bearing surface is
not damaged.
ii) Bearing surface should be greased or oiled before mounting.
iii) Assembly of rollers become simple if the transformer is lifted by overhead crane or pully
block. Transformer may be jacked up with mechanical or hydraulic jacks. (Jacking pads are provided for
transformers 1600 KVA and above). Height of jacking pads from ground, without wheels in
Suitablewoodenorsteelpacking may be given under jacks to raise the jack height.
b) Oil check :
A sample of oil should be taken out from bottom of tank and tested for the Electric strength, (
break down voltage ) which should not be below 30 KV (RMS) when tested on a standard test as
specified in IEC 600296 Table 1-9. (Electrode dia. 120.5 mm polished, electrode gap 2.5 mm
# 0.1).
The electric strength shall be arithmetic mean of thesix resultsonsamesampleofoil.

c) Conservator :
when dismantledfortransport(Ref.3.1)

Before assembly of conservator, make sure that inside of vessel and pipe work is free
from rust, dust, grease and moisture. If found corroded, clean the rust and repaint with oil
resistant paint from inside. Enamel paint given is on the outside on a coat of red
oxide-zinc chromate primer.


Mount conservator on the corresponding supports in tankcover. Pipe work should be assembled
in the following sequence. Conservator through Buchholz relay to tank. Conservator
to silica gel breather.


Magnetic oil gauge should be assembled on position.


Plain oil gauge window glass should be checked for the cracks which may lead to oil
leaks and entry of moisture in the conservator. Gasket should be tightened uniformly to
make joints leak proof. Deteriorated and leaky gaskets should be replaced.

d) Buchholz relay
Assembly precautions (if dismantled)
i) Relay pipe work should be slopping 3 deg. To 7 deg. Upwards towards conservator.
ii)Arrowheadsonthebodyshould bepointingtowardstheconservator.
iii) Floats which operate elements should be free.
iv) Check that mercury switches are intact.
v)Testalarmand trip mechanism.
In order to test alarm and trip mechanism, the relay is provided with two separate petcocks which enable air
to be injected into the body of the relay. For testing, inject air using a cycle pump or any other suitable
To test trip elements, t he valve controlling the bottle is opened quickly so thatairor oil rushes in, impinges
on the flap and depresses it operating the switch.
On each relay petcock is provided for taking out samples and releasing gas from the top of relay

Testing of relay may be carried out after fitting in the conservator pipe, and filling of oil in
conservator. It is recommended thatthe relay should notbe taken apart and under no circumstances should
any alteration be made to operating floats or flaps.
e) Silica gel Dehydrating breather :
Breather is connectedto the conservator through a pipework. Breather assemblyshould be suitablyclamped to
prevent vibrations.

Fill up transformer oil through filling hole,inthebottomcompartment ofbreather uptothe filling level
mark. Air entry hole is sealed with the adhesive tape, which should beremoved for free passage
of air.


Check that sili9cagel is blue in colour, if not, reactivate or replace with fresh gel.


Remove cork /blanking tape from top screwed hole and fixbreather on the pipe

f) Explosion vent
i) Explosion vent is provided with a bakelite diaphragm. Normally transformer isdispatched fitted
with explosion vent. If dismantled for the transport, remove blanking plate from bottom of vent before assembly
on tank.
ii) Check whetherinsideofvent iscorroded.Rustshouldbecompletelyremoved andinside painted with oil
resistant paint.
iii) Before assembly make sure that top and bottom diaphragms if provided are intact.
iv) Diaphragm should be held between two gaskets and care should be taken to clamp the flanges
uniformlyto preventcrackingofdiaphragm.
v) Pressure equalizer pipe may be provided on against specific requirement which
ofexplosion ventandventsitto theatmospherethroughthebreather.

connects top

Bare Bushing (Draw through type)
Erection of bushing :-(i)



Remove blanking plate carefully from the tank lid and bring out the soldered stem and winding
lead withoutexerting unduepressurewhilepulling which may damage the soldered joint or
Ifthejoint/ insulation is damaged re-solder the joint and re-insulate the lead.


Laythesealing washeronhole.


Laytheclamping ringonscaling washer.


Insert the separator or stem.


Lowertheinsulatorinholeandatthesametimeinsertthesoldered stemthroughporcelain.


Assemble stem sealing washer (Neoprene ring) and cap at the top of stem and screw
thetop nuts tohold the soldered stem loosely.


Lift the clamping ring and place the clamping members on welded studs underneath
the clamping ring. Adjustthebushinginposition andclamp withnutsandwashers.


Fit the arcing horns in appropriate position.


Two nuts areprovided atthetopofstemforconnecting thesupplylines.


Care mustbetaken thatnoloosepart falls into transformertank.

(xii) Releaseairbyloosening thestemand slightlypushing itdownwards.

Changing of insulator in case of failure



Drop theoil level belowthemountingholeontank.


Removethearcing horns.


Removethetop cap byunscrewingthenutsatthetop.Hold thesolderedstemwith lead securely

so that it does not slip in tank or get damaged while removingtheporcelain.


Removethedefectiveporcelainbyremoving thefixing nutsonthestudsand clamping members.

While removing the porcelain care must betaken not to damage the inside soldered
joint and the threaded part of stem.


Assemble the new porcelain as given in Erection of Bushing.

Bushing (through stem type)

Throughstembushing:(a) Outdoorthroughstemtypeporcelain bushing
(b) Cableboxtypetypeporcelain bushing.
(c) Cableboxtypeepoxybushings.
Erection of bushing

Lowertheoillevel belowthebushingmounting holeontank.


Assemble sealing washer, bottom porcelain (in case of two part bushing) and fix win
dingleadtostemandclamp nutwithstem.


Insert the assembled stem through the bushing hole from inside of tank. Inspection opening
providedon covermaybeused.


Laysealing washeronbushingmountingholefromoutside.




Assemblybrass washer,sealing washerandnuts onthetopstem.

(vii) Connectthewinding lineleadattheendofstem.


Care mustbetaken thatnoloosepart falls into transformertank.


For the replacement of outside part of porcelain, complete bushing need not be
disconnected. Outside porcelain can be removed by removing the outside nuts and sealing
washers, keeping the stem in position.

Cable Box Terminal


Drop oillevelbelowthebushingfixingholeonthetank.


Laysealing washers ontankhole.


Insert thebushing throughtheholeinthetank.Assembleresilientwasherandbushing clamp over



Clampthebushing adequatelybythescrewingnut overtheclamp.


Connectthewinding lineleadattheendofthestem.


Care mustbetaken thatnoloosepart falls into thetransformertank.

Topping up of transformer oil

Topping up of oil is required for transformers which have been dispatched with lowered oil level.

Oilshouldbetopped uponlyafterfitting conservatorpipework,explosionvent,HV,LV


arrangement and CT terminals, Oil level is lowered 20 mm below the tank cover,
andundernocircumstances it should be reduced further which might expose the switch and
windingstothemoisturein atmosphere.

Oil used for topping up is delivered in tins, drums should be tested for dielectricstrengt


While filling oil, it is preferable to pass oil through filter plant.

Ensure that filter papers are newandclean.


Conservator may be filled up until oil level reaches Filling Level mark for prevai
ling temperature (30 deg.C).

Detachable Radiators
Normally radiators are attached to the tank, if they are dismantled for the transport, they should be
reassembled on the tank as follows :

Radiators entries are blanked with blanking plates. Remove blanking plate andinspe
ct inside of radiators.


If the inside portion is corroded, clean with sand paper and remove the rust, dust etc.


Flush radiators with clean transformer oil.


Remove blanking plates from top and bottom radiator valves fitted on tank. Care
should betakentokeepradiator valvesinclosedpositionwhilemountingtheradiators.Itislikelythat
valvesmayleakslightlycleancontainers maybekeptundervalvetocollectoil.


Dry and clean oil should be filled in each radiator immediately as soon as it ismounte
d, keeping both top and bottom valves closed while filling oil. Open bottom valve between
radiator and tank keeping top air release vent open to drive away locked air inside
the radiator. Top valve should be open till oil with cut air bubbles flowsout.


After few hours of filling of all the radiators, air release vents at top should be opened
again to drive away accumulated air due to suspended air bubbles.

(vii) Finallytopvalveshouldbeopened.
(viii) Careshouldbetaken whilemountingtheradiators and filling with oil,thereisalways reserve oil in
the conservator and topped up continuously, if necessary. Oil level should neverdrop
below,Filling level mark. Air should beallowed to enter inthe conservator through silica gel
breather only to exclude moisture

from the air entering the conservator. Filling

holeofconservator shouldbealwayskept closedafteruse.


After opening the radiator valves should be locked in position by fitting cap in prope
rposition. Arrow indication should be towards OPEN.

Temperature Indicator

Oil temperature indicators are generally of two types, one with rigid stem and theothe
r typewith capillary tube.They arefitted with temperature sensing elements at the end of rigid
stem or capillary tube. Winding temperatureIndicator isprovided with capillary tubewith
sensing element (bulb) at the end of tube. Sensing elements are enclosed in metal bulb, which are
fitted in pockets provided on tank over in the hottest oil region.


Before inserting temperature sensing bulb inside the pocket, transformer oil or heatc
onductinggrease should be filled in pocket. Theunioncouplingonthe bulb should be screwed
tightly on the pocket so that water does not penetrate inside the pocket.


Capillarytubeofinstrument mustberouted and fixedsuchawaythat itsuffers less risk of being

pinched or bent or cut off. Plastic straps are provided with each instrument for fixing the
tube. Surplus length of tube should not be cut off since the pressure balanced system will
bedestroyed. Tube may be made into loop more than150 mm diameter and tied to tank in
suitable position. Utmost care should be taken while fitting sensing bulb in the pocket
since it is likely that capillary tube may form sharpbends and damagetheinstrument.


Instruments are calibrated andunder nocircumstances indicator pointer should be moved by

hand or bent, as it might suffer permanent damage. If the instrument is not giving
correct temperature indication as a result of improper handling or any other cause,
it may be calibrated as given in instruments pamphlet.


Winding temperature indicator (with a separate heater pocket). Temperature sensing

bulb provided at the end of capillary should be fitted in the heater pocket in housing fitted on tank
cover. Two terminals provided in housing are connected to the heating coil of heater
pocketinsidethehousing(outsidetank)andtocurrent transformersecondary terminals from the
inside of tank. (These are normally connected before dispatch of transformer). Housing is air filled.
Instrumentishousedinthemarshalling box.

Marshalling Box
Box should be fitted on transformer and leads from various instruments should be connected to
terminal blocks in respective positions. Outgoing leads from customers instruments and control
panelsshould bealso connected in position. Gland plates are normally provided undrilled, which are
required to be drilled at the site to take the cables.

Off Circuit Switch


Switch should be operated to inspect that it moves freely and locks in every tap


Locking arrangement should be checked and padlock provided.

After finalization of theerection work the following tests should be conducted :PRE TEST INSPECTION
a) Sample of oil taken from the transformer and subjected to electric test (breakdown
value) of 50KV (RMS) as specified in IS : 335.
b) Release trapped air through air release plugs and valve fitted for the purposeon various
fittings like radiators, bushing caps, tank cover, Bushing turrets etc.
c) The float lever of the magnetic oil level indicator (if provided) should be moved up and
down between the end position to check that the mechanism does not stick at any point. If
theindicator has signaling contact they should be checked at the same time for correct
operation. Checking the gauge by draining oil is a more positive test.
d) Check whether gas operated really (if provided) is mounted at angle by placinga
spiritlevel on thetop of therelay. See that theconservator is filled up to the filling oil level marked
on plain oil gauge side and corresponding to the pointer reading in MOG side. Check
the operation of the alarm and trip contacts of the relay independently byinjecting air through
thetop cocks using adry airbottle. The air shouldbe released after thetests. Make sure that transformer
oil runsthroughpertcockofBuchholz relay.
e) Check alarm and trip contacts of WTIs, Dial type thermometer, magnetic oilgauge etc. (
if provided).
f) Ensure that off circuit switch handle is locked at the desired tap position with padlock.

g) Make sure that allvalves exceptdrain, filter and sampling valves are opened (such as radiator valves,
valves on thebuchholz relay pipeline if Provided).
h) Check the condition of silicagel in the breather to ensure that silicagel in thebreather


active and colour is blue. Also check that the transformer oil is filled in the silica gel
breather up to the level indicated.
i) Checktightness ofexternal electrical connectionstobushings.
j) Giveaphysical checkonallbushingforanycrackoranybreakageof porcelain. Bushing with cracks or
any other defects should be immediatelyreplaced.
k) Check the neutral earthing if specified.
l) Makesurethat neutralsofHV/LVareeffectivelyearthed.
m) Tank shouldbeeffectivelyearthed attwo points.
n) Check that the thermometer pockets on tank cover are filled with oil.
o) If the oil temperature indicator is not working satisfactorily, loosen and remove
thethermometer bulb from the pocket on thecover and placeit with astandard thermometer in a
suitable vessel filled with transformer oil. Warm the oil slowly while string it and take reading of
thethermometers if an adjustment of the transformer thermometer is necessary the same many be
done. Also check signaling contacts and set for the desired temperature. For transformer
furnished with thermometers for both oil and winding temperature, the signaling contacts are
recommended to be set to operate at thefollowingtemperatures.
Oil Temperature 85 deg. C +/- 2deg.c
Winding Temp. 100Deg.C +/- 2 Deg.C

95 Deg.C +/- 2deg.C
110Deg.C +/- 2 deg.C

Higher winding temperature settings can be adopted in consultation with manufacture.

p) CTsecondaryterminals mustbeshorted andearthed ifnotinuse.
q) Check relief vent diaphragm for breakage. See that the bakelite diaphragm atbottom and
glass diaphragm at top are not ruptured.

r) Check all the gasketed joints to ensure that there is no leakage of transformer oil at any
s) Clear off extraneous material like tools earthing rods, pieces of clothes, waste etc.
t) Lock the rollers for accidental movement on rails.
u) Touchingofpaintmaybedoneaftererection.
Ratio, Polarity and phase relationship
The ratio should becheckedat alltaps and between all the windings. Ratio is usually checked by applying a
single phase 230V (Approx) supply on the high voltage side and measuring thevoltage on the low voltage
side at all tap positions. The measured voltage on LV side shall conform to declining trend between
tap (min)totap (max)position forall phases.
Polarity and interphone connections are checked while measuring the ratio. This can be checked by the
Avometer method. The primary and secondary windings are connected together at points indicated in
sketch shown below. A low voltage three phase supply is then applied to the HVterminals. Voltage


then taken between various pairs ofterminals as indicated in the diagram.

Readings obtained should be the vectorial sum of the separatevoltages of each winding under
Insulation Resistance
Theinsulation resistancebetween winding andearthshouldbe measured with a good 2500 /1000 Volts
megger and values should be compared to the test report values. It is preferable to have a motor
operated megger and the readings taken after one minute from starting. Before measuring the
insulation resistance, it should be made sure that the bushings are cleaned thoroughly with clean cotton cloth.
The lead wires ofthe meggers should not have joints. They should also give reading of more than maximum
value readable on the megger.

Magnetizing Current
A three phase 415 Volts supply is given to the HV winding of the three phase transformer and simultaneous
current readings of thethree phases are taken using lowrange AC ammeters of the same accuracy class.
Values shouldberecordedforthefuturereference.
Magnetic balance test
A single phase supply of approximately 230 Volts is applied to one phase of HV winding and
the induced voltage on other two HV phases measured separately. Test voltage should be
applied to HVwinding only. Applying voltage LV winding may induce abnormal high voltage in HV
winding which may prove hazardous.Tests should be carried out on all three phases.
When single phase supply is given to middle phase the inducedvoltage measured on two extreme phases
should be approximately equal. If supply is given to one extreme phase, induced voltageon middlephase is
expected to be substantially high than the other extreme phase. In each test the sum of the induced voltages
on othertwophaseswouldbewithin+/-5% of the applied voltage.
If abnormal voltage difference is observed on extreme phase, when voltage is applied to middle
phase, matter should be referred to Kotsons Pvt. Ltd., Agra works for advice, supported
with the full test observations. High impedance volt meter like AVOMETER should be
used for the test. Tests should be carried out by connecting a series lamp (approx 25 watts
capacity) at supply side torestrict higher current , if any. A fault inwinding maybesuspected iftheseries lamp
glows brightly or the induced voltage readings on different phases indicate zero or very lowvalue.230 Volts
single phase supply be given between lines, if windings are delta connected and induced voltages
measured between the other two phases. Whereas supply is given to line and neutral of onephase in caseof
star connected windings, induced voltages should bemeasured between the line and neutral of other two
Alarm Circuits Tests
a) BuchholzrelayairinjectiontestAlarm & trip circuits
b) Oil temperature indicator alarm & trip circuits
c) Magnetic oil level gauge alarm circuits

d) Winding temperature indicator alarm & trip circuits.

Oil Sampling Test
Electric strength (break down voltage) should be 50 KV (RMS) when tested to IS 335-1992 please see
section 3 for other details.
After tests are completed satisfactorily, the transformer may be energized from the incoming
side onno loadandoperatedforoneortwohours.
The transformer hum should be observed for any abnormality. After two hours transformer maybe
switched off and the gas operated relay checked for gas collection. Sometimes dissolved air or
air bubbles comes out due to energizing which is misunderstood for gas. So in case of gas
collection it should be energized again. Other instruments may also be checked for any abnormalindications.
Ifeverythingis foundsatisfactory,thetransformer maybeenergized again andloadedgradually.

Thefollowingdetails aretobefurnishedtothemanufactureraftercommissioning:a) Details of transformer including its serial number.

b) Date of Commissioning
c) Substation / generating station where commissioned.
d) Protection given to the transformer such as lightning arrester, differential protection, circuit
breaker on HV / LV etc. The nature ofthe test conducted and the results of test should be recorded and
Tools Required
(a) Screw drivers of appropriate size.
(b) Spanner of appropriate size.
Transformer Oil
Oil is used as coolant and dielectric in the transformer and keeping it in good condition will
assist in preventing deterioration of the insulation, which is immersed in oil.

Transformer oil is always exposed tothe airto someextent therefore in thecourse oftime it may oxidize
and form sludge if the breather is defective, oil may also absorb moisture from air thus reducing
dielectric strength.
Oil suppliedwithtransformer,generallycomplieswithIS:335.
Precautions :
(a) Oil is easily contaminated, it is very important while sampling the oil and filling the tank
tokeep the oil free from contamination.
(b) All equipment used whenhandling the oil must be washed with clean transformer oil before use.
(The oil used for washing must be discarded). Particular attention shall be
paid tothecleanlinessofbends,valvesandotherpoints wherethedirtandmoisturestends to collect.
(c) For sampling the oil, glass containers with glass stoppers are preferred over the metal
type, which are susceptible to contamination by dirt etc. Cleanliness is essential as small
amountof dirt and water greatly affect the accuracy of test results.Was shall not be used for sealing
the sample oil bottles. However, the stopper can be covered by a pack of silica gel tied
in a piece cloth.
(d) Flexible steel hose is recommended for handling insulation oil, some kinds of synthetic
rubber hoses arealso suitable, butonly thoseknown to be satisfactory should beused. Ordinary rubber
\hose should not beused forthis purposeas oil dissolves theSulphur fromthe rubber andis there
bycontaminated.Hoseused forhandlingoilshouldbecleanandfreefromloosedust,rust orscale.
(e) Transformer must always bedisconnected fromtheelectricitysupplysystembeforetheoil level intanksis
(f) Oil must not be emptied near naked lights as vapour released is inflammable.
(g) Minute quantities of moisture (Particularly in the presence of fiber or dust) lower the
dielectric strength of the oil. Therefore to reduce the risk of condensation of the moisture
entering theoil containers shouldbe taken into awarm roomand should notbeopened until theentire

(h) The oil level should beche3cked at frequent intervals andanyexcessive leakageofoil investigated. There
may be slight loss of oil by evaporation, this need not cause concern if the tank is topped up at regular
(i) All minor leaks or sweating should be repaired as quickly as possible.
(j) Oiltoppingupshould,generallycomplywithIS335-1972andpreferablybefromthesame source as
the original oil. The oils from different crudes may not be completely mixableand
mayseparate into layers, however if theyare madefromsamefeed stock, theycan be mixed.New
oil fromadifferentsourcemaybeadded,asmadeup only, butnotexceedingabout10%.
(k) Condition of oil can be checked by ascertaining its acidity and electric strength. Both
propertiesshould be measured at regular intervals bymethodgiveninIS 335-1972.The acidity is
normally between 0.3 to 0.5 mg KOH per gof oil, the covershould be removed to ascertain the
condition of the interior of the tank and core and windings, oil should be treated or
discarded if sludge or corrosion is evident. It may be noted the reconditioning by centrifugal
separation filtration doesnotremove sludge, dust, dirt etc and will tend to retard the process of
deterioration. Filters with fullers earth will help to reduce acidity in the used oils and in



with excessive


should be

reconditioned. Reconditioning can generally be undertakenonlyatthefactory.

(l) Sampleoftheoil should betaken atregularintervals andtestedtoIS335.
Recommendedintervals fortests arementionedinmaintenanceschedule.

Oil after filtration should meet the requirements as laid down under the clause specification. However, to

(a) Crackle test

A rough test can be made by closing one end of a piece of steel tube 2.54 cm dia (1 inch B.S.pipe
is suitable), heating the closed end to just under dull red heat and plunging it into the oil sample with the ear close to
theopen end.Iftheoilcontains largemoistureasharp cracklewillbeheard.Dryoilwillonlysizzle.
(b) Electric Strength
When tested in accordance with IIEC 600296 and IS 6792 electric strength (Break down
voltage should not beless than 50 KVARMS) test shouldbe carried out six times onthe same sample and the
resultobtained willbearithmeticmeansof sixresult.

NOTE : This activityshouldbe performed byqualifiedperson having required knowledge about maintenanceof
transformer/electrical equipmentsgeneratinghighvoltages.
1. General :
If a transformer is to give long and trouble free service, it should receive a reasonable amount of
attention and maintenance. Maintenance consists of regular inspection, testing and reconditioning where
necessary. Records should be kept giving details of any usual occurrence and also of any previous results taken.
The principal object of maintenance is to maintain the insulation in good condition. Moisture dirt
and excessive heat in contact with oxygen are the main causes of insulation deterioration and avoidance of
these will in general, keep the insulation in good condition. Factors lead to aging of insulation
during aging process, are due to chemical and physical effects. The decay of the insulation follows
thechemical reactionrate.Incaseofoilimmersedtransformer,ifthe sustained operating temperature of 750
C is higher by 60C to 100C it will reduce the life of the transformer.
Following arethefactorsaffectingthelifeoftransformer.
(a) Moisture :
Due to higher affinity of water, the transformer oil and the insulation paper absorb moisture from the air, which
result in decrease of dielectric strength. Hence preventive steps should be taken to guard against moisture

penetration to the transformer. This will include blocking of all openings for free access of air n
storage and frequent reactivation of breathers in service.
(b) Oxygen :
Oxygen may be present inside the transformer oil due to air pockets trapped in the windings, etc.
The oxygen reacts on the cellulose of insulation and decomposes it, which will result in sludge formation,
blocking free circulation of oil. Sometimes, the oxygen may act as catalytic agent and increase the
operating between hot oil and bare copper.
(c) Solid impurities :
Dielectric strength of oil diminishes appreciable by minute quantities of solid impurities. It is
therefore a good practice to filter the oil after it has been in service for reasonable time.
(d) Varnishes :
Some varnishes particularlyof the oxidizing type enter readilyin reaction with transformer oil and precipitate
sludge on the windings. Synthetic varnishes having acid inhibiting properties generally delay the
natural formation of acid and sludge in the oil. This should be done in mind by the maintenance engineer when
rewinding andreplacingthecoilsduring repairs of transformers.
(e) Effects of slackness of windings:
Coils are fully clamped before the transformer leaves the factory. Natural setting of coils may take place
during first fewmonthsofoperation.Slacknessofwindingmaycausea

failure due to repeated movement of coils which may wear the conductor insulation at some places and lead
to an interterm failure. The coils may also get displaced under the load conditions or momentary
short circuit which may cause electric and magnetic unbalance. It is therefore a good practice to lift the
coreand windingofatransformer and removeanyslacknessbytighteningtherodsofpressurescrews.
2. Maintenance Procedure :
(a) No work should be done on the transformer unless it is disconnected from all external electrical
circuits and all windings have been solidity earthed. General notes on information given under

storage handling and inspection are applicable for routine maintenance. Oil level shall be maintained to
keep the insulation under oil and lowered to reasonable before slackness and removing bolts, nuts and
conservators, radiators, etc. No fire shall be near the transformer while work is going on.
Precautions are to be taken to securetools with tapeoutside the tank, to preventthemfromdropping
(b) Core and Winding : It is recommended that the core and windings be removed from the tank
for visual inspection as per the maintenance schedule at the end. The windings should be examined to
ensure the no sludge has deposited blocking the oil ducts. Any loose nut and bolt should be tightened.
Adjusting rods / coil clamping screws provided should be tightened to bear evenly and
firmly on the coil clamping block/rings, if there is any slacking of windings. Before
lifting the core and windings from the tanks it is necessary to disconnect the windings
from the bushings inside the tank, to disconnect the off circuit tap switch handle, to remove earthing strip
between the core and the tank, and remove fixing bars between core clamps and tanks guide bars.
The core and windings must be removed with great care under cover and in dry lace. If this is not
possible a visual inspection of as much of the transformer as can be seen within its tanks
(c) Off circuit tap switch :
(i) Thisisanintegralpartofthetransformer.Careshouldbetakentoswitchoffthetransformer from
line before operating the switch handle. To operate the switch, unlock the operating handle by
removing the locking strip/pin. Move the handle to required position and relock.
Tapping position number can be seen through the windows of handle alternatively on
(ii) Off Circuit tap changing links: Tap changing links are provided inside the tank.
They are located under oil, and are accessible from the inspection opening to operate
the links. Links should be unbolted by loosening nuts on studs and fixed in desired tap


On Load tap changer :On load tap changer is normally mounted on the

tank is a separate housing and connected to winding leads through copper studs fixed on a
insulatedterminal board Terminal board is on leak proof. Oil in the tank need not be
lowered down for a attending to OLTC gear. Please see OLTC leaflet for the
operation and maintenanceinstructions.
(d) Conservator:
Conservator is so designed that the lower part acts as sump in which any impurities entering the
conservator will collect. A drain plug is fitted at the lowest point of the conservator for draining and sampling oil.
While sampling, care must be taken to run off any contaminated oil before taking a sample for testing.
The inside of the conservator should be cleaned every 2 to 3 years by flushing clean transformer oil to
(e) Oil gauges:
Plain oil gauge: Oil gaugeglass should bekept clean so that thegauge can fulfill their purpose. Broken
glasses should be replaced immediately.
Magnetic oil gauge : When the conservator is stripped for cleaning, the mechanism of the float type oil gauge
(f) Silica gel dehydrating breather:
Breather should be examined frequently to ascertain if the silica gel requires changing. The frequency of
inspection depends on local climate and operating conditions. More frequent inspection are needed
when the climate is humid and when transformer is subject to fluctuating load. The crystals of silica gel in the
rather act as an indicator and changed from blue to pink, on becoming saturated with moisture. When
majority of crystals have turned pink, the silica gel should be heated in or over a shallow pan at a
temperature of 1500C to 2000C until the original blue colour is regained. This usually takes 2 to 3 hours.
Oil should be cleaned to remove dust and dirty oil. The level in oil seal should be maintained with fresh
oil. Check that inside of connecting pipe between breather and conservator is clean and not rusted. If
necessarycleanandpaintinside with oil resistant paint.

(g) Buchhloz relay:

Routine operation and mechanism inspection tests should be carried out at one or two yearly
intervals respectively. Te operation is tested by injecting air through lower level petcock of double float buchhloz
relay. (refer installation manual of Buchhloz r elay for testing). After inspection, anyair, which has accumulated
in the gas chamber, must be released at the upper level petcock leaving the chamber full of oil. To carry out
mechanical inspection, the oil level should first be brought below the level of relay or the shut off valve between
The float should be tightly clamped and be in good order. If a mercury switch is defective owing to the glass
being cracked.Therewillbcloudingoftheglass.Insuchcases the switch must be replaced.
During operation if there is an alarm and gas is found to be collected, the transformer should be
isolated from lines and the gas should be tested and analyzed to find out the nature of fault. Sometimes if may be
noticed that the gas collected is only air. The reason for this may be that the oil is releasing any absorbed
air due to change in temperature. Internal faults can be identified to a great extent by a chemical analysis of

Colorless and odorless gas with faint odor of oil is air trapped in the oil or insulation.


Grayishwhite,non inflammablegas withsharp penetrating odormaybydueto overheating



Yellowish and inflammable gas may be due to surface leakage on material like woo


Dark gray and inflammable gas may be due to flashover in oil or due to
excessive overheating of oil caused by a fault in the winding or core.

(h) Explosion vent:

The diaphragm, which is fitted at the exposed end of the vent should be inspected at frequently intervals and
replaced if damaged. Failure to replace the diaphragm quickly may allow the ingress of moisture in
the transformer. If the bottom diaphragm has broken because of a faulty in the transformer, inspection should be
carried ourtodeterminethenaturalandcauseofthefault.

(i) Gasket:
Gasket sometimes shrink during service. It is therefore, necessary to check the tightness
ofall bolts / fasteners ofgasketed joints.Thebolts shouldbetightened evenly around the joints to avoid uneven
pressure.Leakygasketsshouldbereplacedassoonasthe circumstances permit.
(j) Pipe Work
The pipe work should be inspected at least once a year. Leak may be due to badly sealed joints
caused by misalignment, in which case the pipes should be aligned and joints remade.
(k) Temperature Indicators
At each yearly maintenance inspecting, the level of oil in the pockets holding thermometer bulbs should be
checked and the oil replenished if required. The capillary tubing should be fastened down again if it has
become lose. Dial glasses should be kept clean. Temperature indicators, if found to be reading
incorrectly, should be calibrated with standardthermometerimmersedinhotoilbath.
(L) Paint work:
During storage and service, the paint work should be inspected once a year and necessary
painting or retouching carried out. If the metal surface is exposed and becomes dirty rusty or greasy
because of delay in repairing the paint work, the surface must be thoroughly cleaned before repainting to
ensure a good bond between metal and paint. If recommended paints are not available, any good quality
syntheticenamel paintmaybeused.
(M) Unmaking and tanking details :
General :
For transformers assembled with bushings, conservator, pipe work etc.

Allthebushing/cableboxes/pocketsmountedon cover(connectedtocoreand winding ) should

bemechanicallydisconnectedoffthetransformerand removed carefully.


External cableconnections laidoverthecoverconnectedtoterminal box,buchholzrelay, OTI etc.



Thermometerbulbs along with capillarytubesto beremoved.


Pipe work from the cover to the conservator to be removed, if conservator isseparate
ly supported on tank brackets.


Oilshouldbedrainedoutbelowthetank coverlevel.


All isolating valves should be closed.

(vii) DisconnectCTsecondaryleads connection when CTsare mountedonthelivepart.

(viii) Disconnect core and winding (live part) from all external connections,

to avoid

damages while removing cover from the tank.


Detach thefixing boltedtothesquareangularguidebarsonthetank.


Before lifting core and windings cheek that the lifters are rigidly fixed to core clamp.

(A) Untanking the core and windings of transformer with off circuit switch:

Drain outoil belowswitch handlelevelfromtransformertank.


It isimportantthat theswitchhandleassemblyshouldbedismantled beforeuntankingthe




(B) Untanking of core and windings of transformer with OLTC

(I) Drainoutoilbelowthecoverleveloftransformerand OLTC.
(II) Detach the winding leads from the terminal board between transformer and OLTC.
(III) Ensurethattheleadnumbertags areinpositionontheleads.Ifnot,tagtheleadscorrectly to reconnect the
leads in correct position on terminal board.
(IV) Give temporary support under the OLTC housing before lifting the core and windings from the tank.
It is likely that the tank may become unstable due to weight of OLTC without core and windings in main
(V) Refer OLTC leaflet for further information.

If as a result of tests carried out in section 6.4, presence of moisture is indicated or the oil does
not withstand dielectric strength or the insulation resistance readings are not satisfactory is shall
Method of drying out
Normally hot oil circulation method should be used for drying out the transformer. In special circumstances
where the above method does not give satisfactory results, short circuit method with hot oil circulation as
described in 8.1.2 should be used. In this method both oil and the core and winding inside the tank are
simultaneously dried out with stream line or other filter with heater and vacuum pump. The moisture is
driven out from the windings into the oil and removed from the oil by evaporation and filtering. Constant
circulation of hot oil through a filter will lead to gradual deterioration of the oil and probably a partial
breakdown of the constituents of the oil due to the continuous mechanical action and filtering under
high temperature. Further this tends to increase the acidity of oil. Great care should. Therefore, be
exercised in circulating the oil throughthefilterduringthedryingoutperiod.
The tank sides and top cover should be covered with some covering like tarpaulin. The LV winding
should be short circuited and a three phase supply of 415 volts be applied to HV side of the
transformer. It should be ensured that the short circuit current does not exceed the rated current of
transformer. The temperature of the top oil should be measured by a thermometer. The oil temperature
should not exceed the limit of 800C.
During the drying out process temperature of the top oil and the insulation resistance of the winding should be
taken every twohours. As the temperature of the oil rises, the insulation resistance may fall and will
eventually reach a steady value. The temperature should be kept constant until the insulation resistance
shows steady increasing upward trend. When this poking is reached the drying out process is
complete and the application of heat may be discontinued. As during the cooling down process,
the transformer reaches 600C the insulation resistance should again be measured. The insulation
resistance in mega ohms varies inversely with the temperature and for a 100C change of
temperature, mega ohms change by ration generally in the range 2.1 to 1.4:1.

Precautions during drying out:

Drying out is a delicate operation and great care and judgment are necessary in carrying it out
correctly to avoid damage to the transformer winding or oil. Care should be taken to see that
maximum limits of temperature specified are never exceed i.e. 800C.
It is essential that the insulation tester and the thermometer used for the purpose are reliable. Only spirit type
thermometer are to be used for temperature measurement. Mercury thermometer shall not be used
everywhere except inthepocket provided for this purpose.
In no case transformer should be left un atten d ed during any part of the drying out period. The transformer
should be observed continuously throughout the drying out process and all observations shall be recorded.
Insulation resistance should be measured at least with a 100 volts meggar. The life of the insulation
decreased with every drying out process. Therefore, it would be desirable to dry out the transformer at
500C less that maximum temperature stipulated i.e. 800C.

Transformer is a static machine with no moving parts. It is meant for transmitting power from one voltage
level to another at the same frequency without exceeding the temperature rise limits.The temperature rise
has to be kept within permissible limits as with higher temperature the life of the insulation
decreases considerably. The studies conducted have revealed that with 6*increase in insulation
temperature over permissible value the life of transformer gets reduced by about50%.
The efficient working of the transformer and its reliability is very important for the power system
performance. This can only be achieved by using quality materials, ensuring high standards of workmanship
during manufacture, and various testing of components and finished products. Various tests carried out
at different stages of manufacture assure quality and confirmation of design calculations. The final tests
on fully assembled transformer also assure suitability of the equipment for satisfactory performance. The raw
materials used in the manufacture of transformers are properly inspected and tested where necessary. The fully
assembled transformeristhenthoroughlycheckedfor,

Long life
Design Verification
For this purpose various tests are conducted as specified in IS2026/IEC726/BS171. The basic
testing requirements and the testing methods are set out in the national / international standards referred t0
above. It is important that these tests are carried out thoroughly to ensure reliable and efficient performance
of the transformer during its lifetime.

Some of the tests specified in Indian Standards are listed below;

A. Routine tests.
1. Measurement ofwinding resistance.
2. Verification of voltage ratio.
3. Verification of vector Group.
4. Measurement ofno load current andlosses.
5. Measurement of impedance and load losses.
6. Measurement ofinsulation resistance.
7. Power frequencywithstandVoltage.
8. Inducedovervoltagetest.
B. Type Tests.
1. ImpulseVoltagewithstand test.
2. Temperature rise test.