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Aluminum in Batch Galvanizing

The Next Generation


Graham Poag
Senior Development Engineer
2009 Teck Resources Limited. All rights reserved. Private and confidential.

AGA TechForum 2010 Philadelphia, PA


October 1, 2010

Outline
Aluminum in galvanizing
The past brightener
The present reactivity control
The future improved corrosion performance

Status of development
Next steps
2

Aluminum as a Brightener
Use of aluminum dates back to early 1900s
Improves brightness of galvanized coating
Low levels added to zinc bath: 0.001 0.005%
Myth 1: Aluminum added to deoxidize the molten zinc bath
Myth 2: Aluminum added to improve fluidity of the molten zinc bath

How does it actually work?


Aluminum has a high affinity to oxygen
Preferentially oxidizes on the surface of the galvanizing bath

St
Structure
t
off the
th mixed
i d oxides
id prevents
t oxidation
id ti off underlying
d l i zinc
i b
bath
th
Prevents yellowish coloring associated with oxidation of zinc and other
minor elements in the bath

Aluminum as a Brightener
Aluminum consumption
Oxidation
Flux interaction
Coating formation

Aluminum maintenance
Pure aluminum (sheet,
(sheet bar/ingot)
Brightener bar
Zn5Al vs
vs. Zn10Al
4

Aluminum for
Reactivity Control
Alternative method to Zn-Ni process
Can
C b
be used
d iin ttandem
d
with
ith other
th galvanizing
l
i i alloys
ll

Operating levels between 0.03 and 0.05%Al


Extended
E t d d range off control
t l high
hi h silicon
ili
steels
t l
become galvanizeable
Alloy maintained using customized feed rates
Identification of aluminum uptake during galvanizing
still uncertain

Pretreatment dependent
Required
q
new flux development
p
effort
5

Controlling Reactivity
350
HDG

300

CoatinggThickness (m)

BPNi
AlBiSn

250
200
150
100
50
0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

SteelEffectiveSiContent(wt.%)
6

0.35

0.40

Controlling Reactivity
Mid Reactivity

BritePlus Ni

SHG

BritePlus Al

Controlling Reactivity
High Reactivity

SHG

BritePlus Ni

BritePlus Al

White Rust Test (4 days)


0.001Al

0.01Al

0.032Al

Stack Test
0.001Al

0.01Al

0.032Al

Improving Corrosion
Performance
Operating levels above 5%Al
Development focused on application of single dip
process
Process very dependent on steel surface condition
Pretreatment maintenance
Flux
Fl modification
difi ti

Building upon Galfan alloy knowledge base


Current
C
td
development
l
t ffocused
d on 8 tto 12%Al
Added benefit of forming no bottom dross
11

Improving Corrosion
Resistance

Atmospheric work
coordinated by
Australian Tube Mills
CSIRO test site
12

Corrosion Rate (m
m/yr)

Improving Corrosion
Resistance
12
South Rack
North Rack
Sheltered Rack

10
8
6
4
2
0
GL

0 2Al
0.2Al

7Al

10Al

12Al

15Al

Coating
Normalized Annual Corrosion Rate (m/year)

13

GL

0.2Al

7Al

10Al

12Al

15Al

South Rack

1.868

2.800

1.271

2.252

2.600

3.117

North Rack

1.403

2.814

1.462

2.608

2.802

2.971

Sheltered Rack

5.023

11.279

7.385

7.593

7.282

6.558

Current Development
- Flux
Patent application allowed in July 2010
Galvcast Manufacturing plant trial

Initiated in June 2009


New flux used with incumbent galvanizing alloys
Flux can be operated at room or elevated temperature
No change to existing flux tank or practices required
Very little flux maintenance required
No flux modification/maintenance required to date

Flux accommodates very high iron levels without impacting


coating quality
Dross generation not confirmed

Drying
D i off parts
t becomes
b
more critical
iti l flux
fl iis h
hygroscopic
i

Australian Tube Mills adopted flux full time in


their continuous profile mill
Based on improvements in processability and coating quality
14

Current Development
- Alloys
Corrosion resistant alloy trialed on semi-continuous
flux-based
flux
based flow coat profile mill in Australia in 2010
Coatings exhibited minimal defects indicating successful interaction between flux
and alloy
Subsequent forming tests confirmed coating formability
Corrosion results confirmed initial test data
Results were very encouraging
Customer moving ahead with full conversion of line to high aluminum alloy
Adoption of new flux and new alloy technology

Bench-scale results for BritePlus Al alloy have


been encouraging
B
Based
d on success off flux
fl work,
k alloy
ll trial
t i l was initiated
i iti t d att Galvcast
G l
t Manufacturing
M
f t i
Ongoing work will focus on bath chemistry maintenance and coating formation
Dross and ash generation will be evaluated and compared with incumbent process

15

Acknowledgements
Thank you to all who contributed to the development work:

Pat Ginnetti
Dr. Daniel Liu
Steve Murray
Dr. Nai-Yong Tang
Adam Ziemiak

We wish to extend our sincere thanks to our industrial


partners
t
who
h have
h
contributed
t ib t d tto thi
this d
development
l
t
program:

Australian Tube Mills David Harrison


E
Ecosil
il T
Technologies
h l i Wim
Wi Van
V Ooij,
O ij M
Max S
Sorenson
Ferro Technologies Tom Ranck, Dmitri Leychkis
Galvcast Manufacturing Steve Christopher, Jason Christopher
Weert Groep Willem Beljaars