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NAME: __________________________

SEAT NO. _____

Date:
Engr. Benito R. Rondilla Jr.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
VECTOR ANALYSIS Is a concise language or mathematical
shorthand which greatly facilitates the analysis of electric and
magnetic fields.

SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITES


SCALAR is a physical quantity that can be completely described by
its magnitude.
mass
100 grams
time
30 seconds
temperature
20oC
electric charge
0.5 coulomb

3. Addition of three vectors


A = 8x + 12y
B = 5x + 15y
C = 7x 9y
What are (a) the magnitude of the resulting vector D and (b) its angle
with respect to the + x-axis
4. Subtraction of two vectors
A = 12y 7z
B = 4x + 10y
Find: (a) the magnitude of the resultant C and (b) its angle with the zaxis.
5. Magnitude and angles of a vector
if the vector A = 10x + 10y + 10z; find (a) magnitude of A and (b)
angles with the three axes (x, y, and z)
MULTIPLICATION OF A VECTOR BY A SCALAR

VECTOR is a physical quantity having a magnitude as well as a


direction. Force, velocity, torque, electric field, acceleration are vector
quantities

VECTOR OPERATIONS

If we multiply a vector A by a scalar k, we obtain a vector B such that


B = kA
F = ma (Newtons second law) N = kg-m s 2
k>0
k<0
k>1
k<1

VECTOR ADDITION
C=A+B
C
B

PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS


A

1. Addition of two vectors


A = 6x + 3y
B = 4x 7y
(a) What is the magnitude of the resulting vector C and (b) its angle
with respect to the x-axis?

DOT PRODUCT of Two Vectors (Scalar Product)


It is defined as the product of the magnitude of the two vectors and
the cosine of the smaller angle between them.
B

C = (6 + 4)2 + (3 7)2 = 10.77


4

= 1 [ 10 ] = 21.8o

B cos
B cos is the scalar projection of B on A

VECTOR SUBTRACTION
D=AB
D = A + (B)

B (minus B) is a vector with the same magnitude as B but in the


opposite direction
2. Subtraction of two vectors
A = 6x + 3y
B = 4x 7y
Subtract A from B. (a) the magnitude of the resultant vector C and (b)
its angle with respect to the x-axis?

Commutative
Distributive
Scaling

AB=BA
A (B + C) = A B + A C
k(A B) = (kA) B = A (kB)

Dot Product of Unit Vector


axax = 1
ayay = 1
azaz = 1

axay = 0
ayaz = 0
azax = 0

ayax = 0
azay = 0
axaz = 0

CROSS PRODUCT of Two Vectors (Vector Product)


Is a vector that is directed normal to the plane containing A and B
and is equal in magnitude to the product of the vectors and the
sine of the smaller angle between them.
C=AxB

C = (4 6)2 + (7 3)2 = 10.20


1 10
[ ]
2

A B = AB cos
B

B is the same direction as A


B is in the opposite direction as A
B is longer than A
B is shorter than A

101.31o
A x B = AB sin an

oo

Not Commutative
Distributive
Scaling

A x B = ( B) x A
A x (B + C) = A x B + A x C
(kA) x B = k(A x B) = A x (kB)

Cross Product of Unit Vector


ax x ax = 0
ax x ay = az
ay x ay = 0
ay x a z = ax
az x az = 0
az x a x = ay

ay x ax = az
az x ay = ax
ax x az = ay

A = Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az
B = Bx ax + By ay + Bz az
A B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz

Cross Product

AxB=|

(0)(5) + (3)(8) + (2)(0) = 24


7. Vector A = 7x + 12y + 3z, vector B = 4x 2y + 16z. Find AB
( 7)(4) + (12)( 2) + (3)(16) = 4
8. Vector A = 8x + 3y 10z & vector B = 15x + 6y + 17z.
Find A x B.

10| = 111x + 14y + 93z


17

9. Vector A = 20y 5z, vector B = 6x + 14y. Find A x B

20
14

PROBLEMS
6. Vector A = 3y + 2z and vector B = 5x + 8y extended from the
origin. Find A B

|0
6

2
Volume = A (B x C) = |1
5

1
3
2

2
5 | = 57
2

11. SINE LAW Derive the law of sines for a triangle using vectors

Dot Product

3
| 8
15 6

PROBLEM
10. Calculate the volume of a parallelepiped formed by vectors A, B
and C such that:
A = 2ax + ay 2az
B = ax + 3ay + 5az
C = 5ax 2ay 2az

5| = 70x + 30y + 120z


0

B=CA
BxB=0
B x (C A) = 0
BxC=BxA
BC sin = AB sin

sin

sin

12. Shows that the following vectors are orthogonal


A = 4x + 6y 2z, and B = 2x + 4y + 8z
AB = (4)( 2) + (6)(4) + ( 2)(8) = 0
The scalar product is zero, therefore the vectors are orthogonal
13. A = 3x + 2y z, and B = x 3y + 2z find C such that C = 2A
3B. Find the unit vector ac, and the angle it makes with the z-axis.

SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT


C = 2A 3B
C = 2[3x + 2y z] 3[x 3y + 2z]
C = 3x + 13y 8z

C (A x B) = ABC sin cos


C (A x B) = A (B x C) = B (C x A)
If the three vectors represent the sides of a parallelepiped then the
scalar triple product yields its volume.

Magnitude of C

C = 32 + 132 + (8)2 = 15.556

Required unit vector is

ac =

= 0.193x + 0.836y 0.514z

The angle the unit vector makes with the z-axis is


8
= cos 1 [
] = 120.95o
15.556

C
B

VECTOR TRIPLE PRODUCT


A x (B x C) (A x B) x C
The vector triple product of three vectors A, B, and C is a vector and
is not associative.

SOLVE THE FOLLOWING


14. Compute the distance vector from P(0, 2, 1) to Q( 2, 0, 3)
15. Show that if A = 3x + 2y z, B = 4x 8y 4z, and C = 7x 6y
5z form a right triangle.
16. If S = 3x + 5y + 17z and G = y 5z, find a unit vector parallel
to the sum of S + G. Calculate the angle the unit vector makes with
the x-axis.