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3.

analysis of social context in SLA


Ways of analysing social context generally divided into three parameters:

Macro vs. Micro


Structural vs. Interactional
Objective vs. Subjective

Macro analysis focuses on society as a whole and characteristics of the


various social groups which comprise it. It considers the relative size, status, and
power of the L1 and L2 groups nd general domains of use of the L1 and L2. In
contrast, micro analysis pays attention to the behaviour of ibdividuals in
particular situations which result from broader social factors. It examines spcific
activities involveing L2 learning and use, the social relationships between
particular L1 and L2 speakers, and the status and the power of individual L2
learners and their interlocutors whitin social interactions.
The structural point of view see power, prestige, and other specific aspects of
social context as given, determined by structure of the society and by the
historical forces that shaped this structure. In contrast, the interactional point of
view see social context not as given, but as created in each specific situation by
interplay of several social factors.
Finally, the objective perspective concentrates on the observable aspects of
the social context, while the subjective perspective concentrates on individuals
perceptions of these aspects.
The role of social context in four social psychological models of SLA:
Model

Acquisitional
context/socioling
uistic setting

Socioeducatio
nal

Classroom/extern
al L2, dominant
L2

Acculturation

Naturalistic/domi
nant L2

Social context

Classroom/domin
ant L2, coexisting
L2

Inter-group

Naturalistic/domi

Social
contextual
factors
considered
social-cultural
milieu
(prevailing
attitude
toward
bilingualism of
L2 group)
L1 group size,
cohesiveness,
etc.; L2 group
dominance/sta
tus; intergroup
attitudes
social
millieux
(relative size
of L1 and L2
groups)
Perceived

Factors
influenced

Key
determinan
t of SLA

Intergartive
orientation;
attitudes
toward
learning
situation

Motivation

Social
distance,
psychological
distance

Acculturatio
n (of
learner to
L2 group)

Intergrativen
ess, fear of
assimiliation,
selfconfidence
Intergrative

Motivation

Social

nant L2

etholinguistic
vitality
(relative size,
status, support
of the L1
group);
identification
with L1 group;
etc.

motivation,
degree of
insecurity

interaction

5. second dialect acquisition


In sociolinguistics, dialects refers to varieties of language which differ in
vocabulary, pronounciation, and grammar and which are associated with
particular geographic regions or social groups. So this section discusses second
dialect Acquisition (SDA) that main qustion to be considerd is how SDA is similiar
to and/or different from SLA.
5.1 Studies if SDA in naturalistic context
The first is community dialect acquisition, when people who speak one
dialect migrate to aregion where another is spoken and acquire the informal
dialect of their new community. The second is prestige dialect acquisition, when
people acquire the prestige spoken variety of the language of their wider
community in addtion to the variety spoken by their own social group. Third is
the much rarer situation involving the acquisition of a non-prestigious dialect (or
pidgin or creole) by speaker of more prestigious dialect from outside the
community.
5.2 Studies of SDA in educational context
In SDA in educational context, the D2 is always the standard dialect used
in education system.we will look first at situatios where the D! Is one of several
reginal dialects in the society, each with its own range of varities, from
vernacular to educated. This research on instrumental program and research on
programs with an accommodation component.
Research on instrumental program
Type of program
Bilingual
Initial literacy

dialect readers

Study
Murtagh (1982)
Ravel and Thomas (1985)
Osterberg (1961)
Bull (1990)
Siegel (1997)
Leaverton (1973)
Simpkins and Simpkins
(1981)
Kephart (1992)

Location (variety)
Australia (kriol)
Seychelles (seselwa)
Sweden (regional dialect)
Norwey (regional dialect)
Papua New Guinea
(melanesian pidgin)
USA (AAVE)
USA (AAVE)
Carriaucou (carriacou
english creole)

Research on programs with an accommodation component.


Level

Study

Location (variety)

Kindergarten-grade 3
Kindergarten-grade 4
Grade 1
Grade 2
High school

Cullinan, Jagger and


Strickland (1974)
Day (1989)
Piestrup (1973)
Rynkofs (1993)
Campbell (1994)

New York (AAVE)


Hawaii (HCE)
California (AAVE)
Hawaii (HCE)
USA inner cit (AAVE)

research on programs with an awareness component.


Level
Primary
High school collage/
university
Adult

Study
Actouka and Lai (1989)
Harris-Wright (1999)
Afaga and Lai (1994)
Taylor (1989)
Hoover (1991)
Scherloh (1991)

Location (variety)
Hawaii (HCE)
Georgia (AAVE)
Hawaii (HCE)
Illinios (AAVE)
California (AAVE)
Ohio (AAVE)