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# Tutorial for Chapter 4

## CEN 444 Computer Networks

Dr. Mostafa Dahshan
Department of Computer Engineering
College of Computer and Information Sciences
King Saud University
mdahshan@ksu.edu.sa

## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 1

Problem 1
Frames arrive randomly at a 100-Mbps channel for transmission. If the channel is
busy when a frame arrives, it waits its turn in a queue. Frame length is exponentially
distributed with a mean of 10,000 bits/frame. For each of the following frame arrival
rates, give the delay experienced by the average frame, including both queueing time
and transmission time.
(a) 90 frames/sec.
(b) 900 frames/sec.
(c) 9000 frames/sec.

M. Dahshan

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 1

Solution
The delay is calculated using the formula: = 1/( ).
Data rate = 100 106 = 108 bits/sec.
Mean frame length

## = 10000 bits/frame. Thus =

1
10000

= 104 frames/bit.

## Mean service rate = 104 frames/bit 108 bits/sec = 10000 frames/sec

(a) Arrival rate = 90 frames/sec. =

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1
1000090

1
10000900

1
100009000

= 0.001 = 1 msec

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 2

Problem 2
A group of stations share a 56-kbps pure ALOHA channel. Each station outputs a
1000-bit frame on average once every 100 sec, even if the previous one has not yet
been sent (e.g., the stations can buffer outgoing frames). What is the maximum value
of ?

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 2

Solution
In pure ALOHA, the maximum throughput is 0.184.
Maximum usable bandwidth = 0.184 56000 bits/sec = 10300 bits/sec.
Each station requires
So, =

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10300
10

1000 bits
100 sec

= 10 bits/sec.

= 1030 stations.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 3

Problem 3
A large population of ALOHA users manages to generate 50 requests/sec, including
both originals and retransmissions. Time is slotted in units of 40 msec.
(a) What is the chance of success on the first attempt?
(b) What is the probability of exactly 5 collisions and then a success?
(c) What is the expected number of transmission attempts needed?

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 3

Solution
(a) = number of transmission + retransmissions per frame (slot) time
Slot time = 40 msec = 0.04 sec/slot. Number of slots per sec =
Frames transmissions = 50 frames/sec. =

50 frames/sec
25 slots/sec

1
0.04

= 25 slots/sec.

= 2 frames/slot.

## Chance of success on first attempt 0 = = 2 = 0.135.

(b) The probability of a transmission requiring 1 collisions followed by success is:
= (1 ) 1
In this case, 1 = 5
6 = 2 (1 2 )5 = 0.0654
(c) The expected number of attempts = = 2 = 7.389

M. Dahshan

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 4

Problem 4
What is the length of a contention slot in CSMA/CD for:
(a) a 2-km cable (signal propagation speed is 82% of the speed in vacuum)?
(b) a 40-km multimode fiber optic cable (speed is 65% speed in vacuum)?

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 4

Solution
(a) Signal propagation speed = 0.82 3 108 = 2.46 108 m/sec.
Propagation time = =

Distance
Speed

2000 m
2.46108 m/sec

## (b) Signal propagation speed = 0.65 3 108 = 1.95 108 m/sec.

Propagation time = =

Distance
Speed

40000 m
1.95108

m/sec

M. Dahshan

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 5

Problem 5
Consider the following the token passing protocol: When a host receives the token, the
host may transmit for at most 1 ms duration at the rate of 100 Mbps, and then pass the
token to the next host. Suppose that the time required to pass the token between
adjacent hosts is 0.05 ms. Assume that the token ring consists of 10 hosts.
a. Estimate the maximum aggregate ( )throughput achievable using the above
protocol.
b. Suppose that only one of the hosts on the token ring has a backlog () , and
no other host has any data to transmit. Determine the maximum throughput
achieved by the backlogged host.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 5

Solution
a. Time for token to circulate around the ring is:
Token hold time no. of stations with data + Station transmit time no. of stations
= 1 ms 10 + 0.05 ms 10 = 10.5 ms

To maximize the aggregate throughput, each host should maximally utilize 1 ms for
transmission.
The aggregate number of bits that can be transmitted during this 10.5 ms period is:
1 ms 100Mbps 10 = 106bits.
The aggregate throughput = total number of bits / total transmission time
= 106 bits / 10.5 ms = 95.23 Mbps.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 5

b. Since only one host is backlogged, only one host has data to transmit.
Time for token to circulate around the ring is:
Token hold time no. of stations with data + Station transmit time no. of stations
= 1 ms 1 + 0.05 ms 10 = 1.5 ms

The aggregate number of bits that can be transmitted during this period is:
1 ms 100Mbps = 105bits.

## The aggregate throughput = total number of bits / total transmission time

= 105 bits / 1.5 ms = 66.67Mbps.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 6

Problem 6
Consider five wireless stations, A, B, C, D, and E. Station A can communicate with all
other stations. B can communicate with A, C and E. C can communicate with A, B and
D. D can communicate with A, C and E. E can communicate A, D and B.
Show the steps of the MACA protocol until the frame is successfully transmitted.
Indicate which nodes must be silent during each step.
(a) When A sends a frame to B.
(b) When B sends a frame to A.
(c) When B sends a frame to C.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 6

Solution
(a)
1. A sends RTS to B.
All stations hear the RTS, so they must stay silent until CTS
comes back.

A
B
C
D
E

A B
x
x
x x
x
x x

C D E
x x x
x
x
x
x
x
x

2. B sends CTS to A.
C and E will hear the CTS, so they must remain silent during the transmission of the
upcoming data frame.
D doesnt hear the CTS.

## 3. A sends data frame to B.

C and E are silent. D can transmit.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 6

(b)
1. B sends RTS to A.
C and E hear the RTS, so they must remain silent until CTS comes back.

2. A sends CTS to B.
All stations hear the CTS, so they must remain silent during the transmission of the
upcoming data frame.

## 3. B sends data frame to A.

All stations are silent.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 6

(c)
1. B sends RTS to C.
A and E will hear the RTS, so they must remain silent until CTS comes back.

2. C sends CTS to B.
A and D hear the CTS, so they must remain silent during the transmission of the
upcoming data frame.
E doesnt hear the CTS.

## 3. B sends data frame to C.

A and D are silent. E can transmit.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 7

Problem 7
Six stations, A through F, communicate using the MACA protocol. Is it possible for

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 7

Solution

If they are in a straight line and that each station can reach only its nearest neighbors.
Then A can send to B while E is sending to F. So, the answer is Yes.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 8

Problem 8
A 1-km-long, 10-Mbps CSMA/CD LAN (not 802.3) has a propagation speed of 200
m/sec. Repeaters are not allowed in this system. Data frames are 256 bits long,
including 32 bits of header, checksum, and other overhead. The first bit slot after a
successful transmission is reserved for the receiver to capture the channel in order to
send a 32-bit acknowledgement frame. What is the effective data rate, excluding
overhead, assuming that there are no collisions?

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 8

Solution
The effective data rate is calculated as:
The one-way propagation delay =

total time required to complete transmission

cable length
signal speed

1000 m
200 m/106 sec

= 5 106 sec

## The round-trip propagation time of the cable =2

A complete transmission has six phases:
1. Transmitter seizes cable:
Required time is 2 = 10 106 sec
2. Transmit data:
Required time is

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frame length
data rate

256
10106

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Problem 8

## 3. Delay for last bit to get to the end:

Required time is = 5 106 sec
Required time is 2 = 10 106 sec
5. Acknowledgement sent:
Required time is

ack length
data rate

32
10106

## 6. Delay for last bit to get to the end:

Required time is = 5 106 sec
Total time required = (10 + 25.6 + 5 + 10 + 3.2 + 5) 106 = 58.8 106 sec
Effective data rate =

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25632
58.8106

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 9

Problem 9
A switch designed for use with fast Ethernet has a backplane that can move 1 Gbps.
How many frames/sec can it handle in the worst case?

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 9

Solution
The worst case is an endless stream of 64-byte (512bit) frames.
The backplane can handle 109 bps
The number of frames it can handle is:
109
= 1953125 frames/sec
512

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 10

Problem 10
In the following figure, four stations, A, B, C, and D, are shown. Which of the last two
stations do you think is closest to A and why?

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 10

Solution
Station C heard the RTS and responded to it by asserting its NAV signal.
D did not respond.
Thus, C is the closest to A.
D must be outside As range.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 11

Problem 11
Suppose that an 11-Mbps 802.11b LAN is transmitting 64-byte frames back-to-back
over a radio channel with a bit error rate of 107 . How many frames per second will
be damaged on average?

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 11

Solution
Let error probability per bit = 107
Probability of an -bit frame arriving correctly is = (1 )
Thus, probability of a frame arriving correctly is (1 107 )648 = 0.9999488
Probability of frame being damaged is (1 ) = (1 0.9999488) = 5.12 105
Data rate of 802.11b is 11 106 bits/sec
Number of frames transmitted per second is

11106 bits/sec
648 bits/frame

= 21484.375 frames/sec

## No. of damaged frames/second = No. of frames/sec probability of frame damaged

= 21484.375 5.11986918 105 = 1.0999 1.1 frames/sec

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 12

Problem 12
Consider an 802.11 wireless LAN with the following parameters:
Physical layer data rate = 54Mbps

## SIFS Time = 16s

MAC layer throughput is defined as the number of bits sent by the MAC layer in a
given period of time. Assuming that there are two stations exchanging a data frame
using 802.11 DCF and that the two stations are using RTS/CTS transaction.

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Problem 12

## a. Draw a timeline diagram describing this communication.

b. Calculate the required time for this communication.
c. Calculate the MAC layer throughput.

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Problem 12

Solution
a.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 12

b.
Total frame size = data size+ header size = 1452+28 = 1480 bytes
Data frame transmission time =

14808 bits
54 Mbps

## ACK frame transmission time =

RTS frame transmission time =
CTS frame transmission time =

148 bits
54 Mbps

208
54
148
54

= 219.25 s

= 2.07 s

= 2.96 s
= 2.07 s

## Total time required for transmission of one frame is:

Time of DIFS + RTS + SIFS + CTS +SIFS + Data + SIFS + ACK
34 + 2.96 + 16 + 2.07 + 16 + 219.25 + 16 + 2.07 = 308.35 s

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 12

c.
We are using 308.35 s to transmit 1452 bytes
MAC layer throughput is:
1452 8 bits
= 37.67 Mbps
308.35 s

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 13

Problem 13
In the previous problem, suppose that RTS/CTS transaction is not used.
a. Draw a timeline diagram describing this communication.
b. Calculate the required time for this communication.
c. Calculate the MAC layer throughput.

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Problem 13

Solution
a.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 13

b.
Total frame size = data size+ header size = 1452+28 = 1480 bytes
Data frame transmission time =

14808 bits

54 Mbps
148 bits
54 Mbps

= 219.25 s

= 2.07 s

## Total time required for transmission of one frame is:

Time of DIFS + Data + SIFS + ACK
34 + 219.25 + 16 + 2.07 = 271.32 s

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 13

c.
We are using 308.35 s to transmit 1452 bytes
MAC layer throughput is:
1452 8 bits
= 42.81 Mbps
271.32 s

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 14

Problem 14
Consider an 802.11 wireless LAN using DCF operation with the following parameters:
SIFS = 1 slot, DIFS = 3 slots, ACK = 1 slot, CWmin = 8, All Data frames = 4 slots.
There are four stations, S1, S2, S3 and S4.
At T = 0, S2 starts transmitting a Data frame to S3.
At T = 2, S1 has a Data frame to transmit to S4.
At T = 3, S3 has a Data frame to transmit to S2.
At T = 14, S4 has a Data frame to transmit to S2.
Assume backoff values, of S1 = 6, S3 = 3 and S4 = 1.
Draw a timeline diagram describing this communication. RTS/CTS are not used.

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Problem 14

Solution

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 15

Problem 15
Store-and-forward switches have an advantage over cut-through switches with respect
to damaged frames. Explain what it is.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 15

Solution
Store-and-forward switches store entire frames before forwarding them.
After a frame comes in, checksum can be verified.
If the frame is damaged, it is discarded immediately.
With cut-through, damaged frames cannot be discarded by the switch because by the
time the error is detected, the frame is already gone.

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 16

Problem 16
Consider the extended LAN connected using bridges B1 and B2 in the figure. Suppose
the hash tables in the two bridges are empty. List all ports on which a packet will be
forwarded and hash table updates for the following sequence of data transmissions:

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 16

Solution
Initially, the hash tables are empty.
Switches dont know which address is associated with which port.
B1

B2

Port

Port

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 16

(a) B1 will forward this packet on ports 2, 3, and 4. B2 will forward it on 1, 2 and 3.
Switch
From

To

Port

B1
1

B2

B1

B2

Port

Port

M. Dahshan

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 16

(b) B2 will forward this packet on ports 1, 3, and 4. B1 will forward it on 1, 2 and 3.
Switch
From

To

Port

B1

B2

B1

B2

Port

Port

M. Dahshan

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 16

(c) B2 will not forward this packet on any of its ports, and B1 will not see it.
Switch
From

To

Port

B1
1

B2
3

B1

B2

Port

Port

M. Dahshan

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 16

(d) B2 will forward this packet on port 2. B1 will not see it.
Switch
From

To

Port

B1
1

B2
3

B1
A
E

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B2
Port
1
4

A
E
F
G

Port
4
2
2
3

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 16

(e) B2 will forward this packet on port 4 and B1 will forward it on port 1.
Switch
From

To

Port

B1
1

B2
3

B1
A
E
D

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B2
Port
1
4
4

A
E
F
G
D

Port
4
2
2
3
1

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## Tutorial for Chapter 4

Problem 16

(f) B1 will forward this packet on ports 1, 3 and 4. B2 will forward it on port 2.
Switch
From

To

Port

B1
1

B2
3

B1
A
E
D
B

M. Dahshan

B2
Port
1
4
4
2

A
E
F
G
D
B

Port
4
2
2
3
1
2

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