Sunteți pe pagina 1din 37

Parts of Speech

Unit 1
1.

Unit 1

List of Parts of Speech ........................................................................... 2

Unit 2

Nouns..................................................................................................... 4

Unit 3

Adjectives .............................................................................................. 7

Unit 4

Numerals.............................................................................................. 13

Unit 5

Pronouns .............................................................................................. 17

Unit 6

List of Parts of Speech

Comparing the parts of speech


Cantonese

English Counterparts

1.

Nouns

Nouns

Verbs .................................................................................................... 23

2.

Adjectives

Adjectives

Unit 7

Adverbs................................................................................................ 33

3.

Numbers

Numerals

Unit 8

Preposition ........................................................................................... 38

Unit 9

Conjunctions........................................................................................ 41

4.

Pronouns

Pronouns

Unit 10

Interjection & Onomatopoeias............................................................. 49

5.

Verbs

Verbs

Unit 11

Measure Words .................................................................................... 51

Unit 12

Particles ............................................................................................... 61

6.

Adverbs

Adverbs

Unit 13

Glossary: English to Cantonese ........................................................... 67

7.

Prepositions

Prepositions

8.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions

9.

Interjections

Interjections

10.

Onomatopoeias

Onomatopoeias

11.

Measure Words

12.

Particles

The end of the book ................................................................................................ 74

Article- a, an, the

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 1

Parts of Speech

Page 2

2.

Notes

Unit 2

From No. 1-No. 10, there are English counterparts. The definitions of

1.

Nouns

Definition

them are not the exactly the same but are similar.
Nouns are the words that denote people, things, or place and time.

Besides, all the parts of speech mentioned in this book are according
to the classification of Cantonese and may not be the same as that in
English.

2.

Measure Word has to be used


A numeral does not modify a noun directly. It must have a measure

3.

Cantonese doesnt have Articles

word between it and the noun it modifies.

There is no articles - a, an & the in Cantonese.

Details of measure words will be talked in the later chapter

Therefore in Cantonese, for a or an, people say one: yt. For


definite referring - the, people use measure word.

3.

Singular & Plural


Nouns in singular or plural are the same in form. The context can

4.

English doesnt have Measure Words and

usually tell the mentioned nouns are in singular or plural.


1)

Particles

a person

yt go yhn
1

Measure Word and Particles are two most difficult parts of speech to
2)

most learners as there is no counterparts in English.

MW person

a friend

yt go phng yuh
1

3)

MW

friend

many people

hu d yhn
many

person

4.

Nouns of locality

1)

east

dng
2)

left

j bihn

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 3

Parts of Speech

Page 4

3)

right

yauh bihn
4)

outside

(2)

Nouns of locality

1)

The toilet is on the right


toilet

chut bihn
5)

_________________________________________

si su gan hi yauh bihn

inside

yahp bihn / nuih bihn

2)

They can work as subject or object.

6)

There are cars at the back


side

has

dk s jaahm hauh bihn


3)

cars

They can form with other words to form position phrase.

7)

the right of the MTR station

8)

opposite to my house
opposite
my house

deui mihn
ngh k ki (usually house is: k, home is: k ki)

_________________________________________

ngh k ki deui mihn

deih tit jaahm yauh bihn


station s

dk s jaahm

_________________________________________

MTR

The back of the taxi stand


taxi stand

hauh bihn yuh ch


back

si su gan

4)

right side

I will wait for you at the left of the bank

There are lots of people at the right of the MTR station

bank
wait

deih
deih tit jaahm yauh bihn yuh hu d yhn

_________________________________________

MTR

station s

right side

5.

Exercise

(1)

Singular & Plural

1)

a friend
MW for friend (people related)
friend

has

nghn hhng
dng

ngh hi nghn hhng j bihn dng nih

many people

go
phng yuh

_________________________________________

yt go phng yuh
2)

two friends
_________________________________________

luhng go phng yuh


3)

many friends
_________________________________________

hu d phng yuh

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 5

Parts of Speech

Page 6

Unit 3
1.

(2)

Adjectives

Other modifiers
Usually, so: gam has to be used under a certain situation but no just

Definition:
Definition:

used as a replacement of very as that is used in English.

Adjectives are words that describe the shape, quality or state of a

1)

You are so late!

nih gam chh!

person or a thing.
As in English, people may distinguish predicative and attributive uses

2)

kuih hu yuh chn

of adjectives. Predicative adjectives behave very much like verbs,

(In English, so can be replaced by very here, Cantonese use very: hu but not so)

following the subject. Attributive adjectives always precede the noun,


3)

which they modify.

She is so rich!

She is so rich! I cant tell

kuih gam yuh chn,

2.

Predicative adjectives

(1)

Most common modifier - hu

ti h chut wo!

she
so
have money (rich) see cant out PRT!
(In English, so cant be replaced by very here, Cantonese use so: gam)

4)

She is so pretty!

kuih hu leng
(In English, so can be replaced by very here, Cantonese use very: hu but not so)

A predicative adjective is usually preceded by a modifier.


When people want to say very, of course they will say very: hu.

5)

She is so pretty, of course many people chase after her

kuih gam leng, gng haih hu d yhn jui

However even if they dont really mean very, if no other modifier

she
so
pretty,
of-course
many people chase after PRT
(In English, so cant be replaced by very here, Cantonese use so: gam)

is used, they will add very: hu before the adjective.


hu in this function may be regarded as merely an adjective marker,

3.

its meaning being much weaker than English very.


1)

She is beautiful

kuih hu
she

very

Between the attributive adjective and the noun it modifies, linking

leng

particle ge is used

beautiful

1)


Used as predicates, adjectives may take aspect markers and


complements

2)

You have got much taller.

nih gu

you

FPV(ed)

tall

http://www.clc.com.hk

Attributive adjectives

big apple

daaih

phng gw

big
apple
However, if the whole set of the modifier, eg. here is daaih is monosyllabic, the
linking particle is skipped.

hu d
much

2)

Page 7

very big apple

hu

daaih

very

big

Parts of Speech

ge
LP

phng gw
apple

Page 8

The whole set of the modifier is hu daaih here is not monosyllabic, the linking
particle is used.

3)

(2)

very delicious food

hu hu sihk ge
very

4)

good eat

yh

LP

LP

1)

pen

my pen (can use MW to replace the ge)

ngh j
my

6)

2)

bt

MW

He is the tallest

kuih

jeui

gu

He

most

tall

They are the richest


they

my pens (can use MW to replace the ge)

yuh chn

most

have money (rich)

no specified. "d" is also a MW for all uncountable objects

5.

Exercise

ngh d

(1)

Predicative adjectives

1)

You are smart!

my

8)

Superlatives

kuih deih jeui

pen

d is a MW used for all different plural objects when the number is

7)

more

adjective:

my pen / my pens
my

hot

Superlative constructions are formed with most: jeui preceding the

things

ngh ge bt
5)

today

bt

MW

pen

my mother (ge is skipped in kinship)

hints: add a modifier before the adjective smart

ngh m mh

_________________________________________

my company (ge is usually skipped for organization that one


belongs to)

nih hu lk
2)

ngh gng s

This table is expensive


hints: add a modifier before the adjective smart
MW of table
jung

_________________________________________

4.

Comparison of Adjectives

(1)

1)

more expensive

n jung ti hu gwai
3)

I am getting fatter
_________________________________________

gwai
expensive

2)

4)

more

cheap

nih lengleng-j hu d
d

5)

more

http://www.clc.com.hk

yiht

He is so early
_________________________________________

kuih gam ju

Its hotter today.

gm yaht

You are getting much prettier


_________________________________________

cheaper

phng
3)

ngh fih j

d
Page 9

Parts of Speech

Page 10

6)

7)

She is so thin!

7)

my money(uncountable)

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

kuih hu sau

ngh d chn / ngh ge chn

You are so thin, you still eat so less?


still
eat
so less

8)

your company
_________________________________________

juhng
sihk
gam su yh

nih gnggng-s

_________________________________________

nih gam sau, juhng sihk gam su yh

(3)

Comparison of Adjectives

1)

He is taller

(2)

Attributive adjectives

tall

1)

a hardworking student

kuih gugu-d

hardworking, diligent

khn lihk

2)

_________________________________________

nn-jung ti huhu-d
go
chang

3)

My wife is the best


_________________________________________

_________________________________________

ngh taaitaai-tai jeuijeui-hu

yt go daaih chang
4)

(single syllable for the modifier, no need to add ge)

You are the laziest student


lazy

3)

gu

_________________________________________

a big orange
MW for orange
orange

This table is better


tall

khnkhn-lihk ge hohkhohk-sang
2)

gu

_________________________________________

lahn

a very big orange

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

nih haih jeuijeui-lahn ge hohkhohk-sang

yt go hu daaih ge chang
4)

my watch / my watches
MW for watch
watch

jek
bu / su bu

_________________________________________

ngh ge susu-bu
5)

my watch
_________________________________________

ngh jek susu-bu


6)

my watches
_________________________________________

ngh d susu-bu
http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 11

Parts of Speech

Page 12

Unit 4
1.

1)

Numerals

luhng j bt

Definition

2)

Numerals are words that express numbers.

3)

5)
st

6)

4)

huh-j is a measuring unit that is equal to ten cents

7)

$2.2

1000

luhng go yih

daih yt chn

go is the measure word for coins, means dollars here. luhng is usually used before a
MW.

th

Sometimes cardinal numbers are used even they are actually in the
sense of ordinal numbers
80 Nathan Road

8)

Nih Dung Douh

(2)

half

I live on the 11th floor

half cant be used by itself

ngh jyuh hi sahp yt lu

1)

half an apple

Nathan

5)

$0.2 (20 cents)(two of a-ten-cent)

luhng huhhuh-(j)

nd

daih yih

twenty dollars (not two of sth.)

yihyih-sahp mn

daih yt

3)

two dollars (two of sth.)

luhng mn

Ordinal Numbers
Placing the prefix daih before numerals can form ordinal numbers.

2)

two days (day takes no MW)

luhng yaht
4)

1)

twenty-two pens (not two of something)

yih sahp yih j bt

Numerals and measure words are often used together.

2.

two pens

baat sahp

Road

live

on

80

11

houh

2 dozen

luhng d

number

bun go phng gw

floor

2)

3.

Special numerals

(1)

Both yih and luhng means 2. When one says two of


something, luhng is used instead of yih.

one and a half apple

go bun phng gw
3)

two and a half apple

luhng go bun phng gw

One can also say that, before MW or nouns take no MW, luhng is
used instead of yih
http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 13

Parts of Speech

Page 14

6)

4.

Exercise

(1)

Ordinal Numbers

1)

Peter is the first, David is the second, I am the third

I have come to Hong Kong for half month


come
month

lih j
yuht (MW: go)

_________________________________________

ngh lihlih-j HungHung-Gng bun go yuht

______________________________________________________

Peter daih yt, David daih yih, ngh daih sam


2)

Page 10
(10th page)
page

yihp

______________________________________________________

daih sahp yihp


(2)

Special numerals

1)

We have $2
have

yuh

_________________________________________

ngh yuh luhng mn


2)

Those children has $12


_________________________________________

gg-d saisai-mnmn-ji yuh sahpsahp-yih mn


3)

2:10
_________________________________________

luhng dm yih
luhng dm luhng go jih
jih is the measuring unit of a-five-minute. go is the MW for jih, luhng is usually
used before a MW.

4)

He has gone for half day


gone
day

heui j
yaht (day takes no MW)

_________________________________________

kuih heui j bun yaht


5)

My daughter is one and half years old


daughter

nui

_________________________________________

ngh go nui seui bun


http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 15

Parts of Speech

Page 16

Unit 5
1.

1)

Pronouns

My wallet (ge can be skipped for wallet)

ngh ge nghnnghn-bau
nghn--bau
ngh go nghn

Definition:

ngh nghn bau

Pronouns are words that stand for nouns, verbs and adjectives.

2)

My husband (ge is usually skipped)

ngh snsn-sang

2.

Personal Pronouns

(1)

Subjective & Objective cases

3)

ngh kk-ki
4)

(2)

My home (ge is usually skipped)

Subjective Case

Objective Case

Cantonese

me

ngh

You

you

nih

He, She, It

him, her, it

kuih

We

us

My company (ge is usually skipped)

ngh gnggng-s
(3)

Reflexive pronouns
Cantonese

Reflexive Pronoun
myself

ngh

jih gi

ngh deih

yourself

nih

jih gi

himself, herself, itself

kuih

jih gi

You

you

nih deih

They

them

kuih deih

ourselves

ngh deih jih gi

yourselves

nih deih

themselves

kuih deih jih gi

Possessive case

Possessive
Adjective
my

Possessive
Pronoun
mine

ngh

ge

your

yours

nih

ge

his, her, its

his, hers, its

kuih

ge

our

ours

ngh deih ge

your

yours

nih deih

their

theirs

kuih deih ge

jih gi

Cantonese

3.

Demonstrative Pronouns
English

Cantonese

This

n go (MW)

That

g go (MW)

These

n d

Those

Usually in possessive case, the MW is used instead of the ge

g d

Here

n douh

ge or the MW is usually skipped in kinship , closed object or the

There

g douh

ge

organization that one belongs to.

Examples
http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 17

Parts of Speech

Page 18

This is n go where the go is the MW only. When different object

_________________________________________

is referred, different MW has to be used.

kuihkuih-deih haihhaih-hh-haih ngoihngoih-gwok yhn a?

go is the most common MW and therefore is used here.

4.

Interrogative Pronouns

(2)

Possessive
Possessive Pronouns

1)

Your (singular) dress is very beautiful


dress

Interrogative pronouns take the place wither of the subject or of the

nih tuh kwhn hu leng

object in a sentence.
2)

English

Cantonese

Who

bn go

What

mt yh, m (short form)

Which

bn go (MW)

kwhn

_________________________________________

Your (plural) dresses are very beautiful


_________________________________________

nihnih-deih d kwhn hu leng

Where

bn douh

How long

gi noih (refer to time, not length)

How many

gi d

3)

Her wallet is lost


lost

h gin j

_________________________________________

kuih go nghnnghn-bau hh-gingin-j


nghn--bau h
h--gin
gin--j
kuih nghn
4)

You husband is very nice


nice

Who must refer to people, therefore the MW must be go. For

hu yhn

_________________________________________

Which, it may refer different object; therefore the corresponding

nih snsn-sang hu huhu-(yhn)

MW has to be used.

Cantonese wont say I like your husband. Like is jng yi which is the same as love.

5)

Your home is very big

5.

Exercise

home
big

(1)

Personal Pronouns

_________________________________________

1)

I am/haih/ Hong Kong people


people

2)

3)

k ki
daaih

nih kk-ki hu daaih

yhn

_________________________________________

(3)

Reflexive Pronouns

ngh haih HungHung-Gng yhn

1)

You yourselves make the mistake


make the mistake

You (plural) are not Hong Kong people

jouh cho (do wrong)

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

nihnih-deih hh-haih HungHung-Gng yhn

nih jihjih-gi jouh cho


2)

Are they are foreigners

careless

(they be not be foreigners)


foreigners
ngoih gwok yhn
http://www.clc.com.hk

They themselves are careless


h su sm (not careful)

_________________________________________
Page 19

Parts of Speech

Page 20

kuihkuih-deih jihjih-gi hh-susu-sm

(5)

Interrogative Pronouns

(4)

Demonstrative Pronouns

1)

Who are you?

1)

This is an watermelon

_________________________________________

is

nih haih bnbn-go a?

(you are who?)

haih

_________________________________________

2)

nn-go haih sisi-gw


2)

(this is what?)

These are watermelons

_________________________________________

_________________________________________

nn-go haih mtmt-yh a?

nn-d haih sisi-gw


3)

3)

MW for pen

book

_________________________________________

sy (MW: bn)

4)

Where is your home?


(your home in where?)
in/at/on

Those are books


_________________________________________

hi

_________________________________________

gg-d haih sy

nih kk-ki hi bnbn-douh a?

This is water
5)

_________________________________________

How many people ?


_________________________________________

nn-d haih sui


6)

bnbn-j huhu-d a?

gg-bn haih sy

5)

Which is better (which pen) ?

That is a book
_________________________________________

4)

What is it?

gi d yhn a?

That is water
_________________________________________

gg-d haih sui


7)

It is Hong Kong here


(here is Hong Kong)

_________________________________________

nn-douh haih HungHung-Gng


8)

It is mainland there
mainland

daaih luhk

_________________________________________

gg-douh haih daaihdaaih-luhk

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 21

Parts of Speech

Page 22

Unit 6

Examples of time: yesterday, now, tomorrow, now,

Verbs

In Cantonese, the time of an action is mainly expressed by time

1.

Definition

words instead of the verb itself

Verbs are the words that express the action, behaviour or change of a

1)

ngh shng yaht heui JngJng-Wahn

person or a thing.

2)

2.

Yesterday, I went to Central


yesterday,
I
go
Central
chhm yaht shows the action was in the past

3)

The baby is very cute

bh b

hu dk yi

baby

very

tomorrow,
I
go
Central
tng yaht shows the action is in the future

cute

I am sick / I feel sick


I

not

Tomorrow, I will go to Central

tngtng-yaht, ngh heui Jng Wahn

4)

Tomorrow, I will go to Central

tngtng-yaht, ngh wih heui Jng Wahn


Wahn

ngh h sy fuhk

tomorrow,

comfortable


No Variation in form

will

go

Central

wih can be added before the verb to shows the willingness of the
action rather than show its a future tense.
wih helps with the modal rather than the tense of a sentence.

Cantonese verbs do not vary in form according to number, person or


1)

Central

In English, a sentence must take a verb, however in Cantonese, a

go

3.

go

chhm yaht, ngh heui JngJng-Wahn

MW(the)

2)

always

A sentence may take no verbs


complete may take no verb

1)

I always go to Central

tense.

wih is somehow similar to would in I would .

I like eating beef

Actually people use tng yaht to show its future tense instead.

ngh jng yi sihk nguh yuhk


2)

She likes eating fish

5.

kuih jng yi sihk y


3)

Tense - Aspect

I am going to Tsim Sha Tsui / I went to Tsim Sha Tsui

An action may be in stage of progression, continuation or completion,

ngh heui Jm S Jui

and these different stages of an action are known as aspects.


The aspect and the time of an action are separately shown.

4.

Tense - Time

Cantonese add an additional aspect particle to show the aspect

Tenses compose of time and aspect.

the state of the action.




http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 23

There are 4 aspect particles.

Parts of Speech

Page 24

(1)

Name
Perfective

Abbr.
PFV

Experiential

EXP

Progressive
Continuous

PROG
CONT

Indicate
Eng
the completion of an ed
action
a certain experience in ed
the past
the progressive aspect ing
the continuous aspect
ing

Cant
j

(2)

Its used to express a certain experience in the past.

gwo
1)

gn
jyuh

Perfective Aspect
2)

When people want to indicate the completion of an action, j is

go

gwo

ngh

meih heui

ngh

muh heui

not have

3)

maih

bought

PFV(ed)

j
MW

die

PFV(ed)

nih

coat

you

(3)

Negative form:
1)

meih si

he

not yet

die

2)

go

Yng Gwok

EXP

gwo

go

England

Yng Gwok

EXP

yuh muh

England

heui

have not have

not yet

gwo

go

meih

EXP

a?
PRT

Yng Gwok a?
England

PRT

I am walking
walk

not yet

ing

I am watching TV

ngh ti gn

nih maih j meih a?


ed

gwo

Progressive Aspect

Have you bought it?


buy

England

ngh hahng gn

Question form:

he

EXP

Its very similar to the continuous tense in English.

He hasnt died yet

kuih

heui

you

bt

He died

si

go

Yng Gwok

Have you been to England?

nih

ngh

gwo

Question form:

Ive bought a pen

he

England

I have never been to England.

action still there. Moreover, in English, if it will use perfect tense

kuih

Yng Gwok

EXP

not yet

use the j.

4)

heui

Sometimes in English, people used simple past tense, Cantonese still

3)

ngh

used. Usually it is used to emphasis of the action or the effects of the


usually in Cantonese, people use the aspect particle j as well.

2)

I have been to England

Negative form:

When people just state an action happen in the past, dont use j.

1)

Experiential Aspect

dihn sih

watch ing

TV

Negative form:

PRT

3)

Again, it is in A-not-A format: bought not yet?

I am not watching TV

ngh h haih ti gn
I

not

be

watch ing

dihn sih
TV

Question form:
http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 25

Parts of Speech

Page 26

4)

Are you watching TV?

Negative forms:

nih haih h haih ti gn


I

(4)

be

not

be

dihn sih a?

watch ing

TV

5)

PRT?

They dont tie the cow.

kuih deih h haih bng jyuh


they

Continuous Aspect

6)

they

Please help me to hold the bag


please

help

me

hold

7)

MW(the) bag

they

8)

I am looking at the TV
I

jyuh

look

CONT(ing)

the

CONT(ing) MW(the) cow

not be

tie

CONT MW(the) cow

PRT?

Have they tied the cow?

go dihn sih

they

have

bng jyuh jek nguh a?

not have

tie

CONT

MW(the) cow

PRT?

TV

6.

VerbVerb-Object compounds

The action of watching has progression as the person watch some

Many verb are actually verb object compound, aspect particle has

programs and get some information etc.

to be place between them, just after the verb.

The action of looking has no progression as the TV is turn off and the

1)

eat

They tie the cow.

kuih deih bng jyuh


they

have meal

sihk faahn

person just look at a stand still object.

tie

jek

2)

nguh

CONT(ing) MW(the)

rice

I am having meal

ngh sihk gn

cow

The action of tie has been completed but the state of the result of

3)

tie continues
4)

be

kuih deih yuh muh

The action is continuous, but no progression.

3)

tie

kuih deih haih h haih bng jyuh jek nguh a?

people to holding the bag instead of just hold and then drop it.

ngh mohng

not have

jek nguh

Do they tie the cow?.

The action is continuous, but no progression. Actually you are asking


2)

bng jyuh

Question forms:

go di

CONT(ing)

CONT(ing) MW(the) cow

They havent tied the cow.

the result of an action.

hh-gi bng ngh lng jyuh

tie

kuih deih muh

It help to indicate the continuation either of an action or of a state as


1)

not be

jek nguh

jyuh

watch CONT(ing)

4)

PRT

rice

I have eaten my meal


I

a!

eat PFV(ed)

faahn
rice

drive

j ch
drive car

The action of watch is continuous

http://www.clc.com.hk

PROG(ing)

ngh sihk j

Watch out!

ti

eat

faahn

Page 27

Parts of Speech

Page 28

5)

sleep

kuih yuh muh sihk


sihk yeuk a?

fan

gaau

8)

sleep(verb) the noun of a sleep

6)

Have you taken the medicine yet?


______________________________________________________

bath

nih sihksihk-j yeuhk meih a?

chng luhng
bath(verb)

7.

a bath

Exercise

Experiential Aspect

1)

I have been to China


China

(1)

Perfective Aspect

1)

Yesterday, I bought a pen.

2)

(2)

ngh heui gwo JngJng-Gwok


2)

Europe

khm yaht, ngh maih j yt j bt

______________________________________________________

The reporters has gone there

ngh meih heuiheui-gwo u Ju


heui--gwo u Ju
ngh muh heui

d gei j du heui j g douh

3)

Lan Kwai Fong

______________________________________________________

hu d yh
s yh
bau

nih heui gwo Lahn Gwai Fng meih a?

He hasnt taken any medicine.

(3)

Progressive Aspect

1)

I am writing.

kuih muh sihk yeuk

______________________________________________________

Last week, I havent bought any pens.

ngh s gn jih

last week

seuhng go lih baai

2)

Yesterday 3:00, I was watching TV.

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

seuhng go lihlih-baai, ngh muh maih bt

khm yaht sam dm, ngh ti gn dihn sih

She hasnt cook the dinner yet


cook the dinner

3)

I am not writing.
______________________________________________________

jy faahn

______________________________________________________

ngh h haih s gn jih

kuih meih jy faahn


7)

Lahn Gwai Fng

nih yuh muh heui gwo Lahn Gwai Fng a?

______________________________________________________

6)

Have you been to Lan Kwai Fong?

a lot
so
full

ngh sihksihk-j huhu-d yh, ss-yh ngh hu bau


bau

5)

u Ju

Ive eaten a lot and so Im very full

______________________________________________________

4)

I have never been to Europe

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

3)

Jng-Gwok

______________________________________________________

4)

Are you writing.

Has he take any medicine?

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

nih haih h haih s gn jih

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 29

Parts of Speech

a?
Page 30

5)

Now I am singing
sing

6)

2)
cheung g (lit.: sing song)

The baby is sleeping


baby

bh-b

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

yhyh-g, ngh cheung gn g

go bhbh-b fan gn gaau

He is not doing homework, he is playing the toy car

3)

He has slept

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

kuih hh-haih jouhjouh-gn gnggng-fo,

kuih fan j gaau

kuih haih wanwan-gn ga wuhnwuhn-geuih ch

4)

The child is bathing


child

When one wants to emphasis, haih can be added before the verb, play: wan

sai mn ji

______________________________________________________

(4)

Continuous Aspect

1)

The student is carrying his schoolbag


schoolbag

go sai mn ji chng gn luhng

sy bau

______________________________________________________

go hohkhohk-sang lngng-jyuh go sysy-bau


2)

Have they tied the cat?


______________________________________________________

kuihkuih-deih yuh muh bngbng-jyuh jek mau a?


3)

No, they havent tied the cat


______________________________________________________

muh, kuihkuih-deih muh bngbng-jyuh jek mau


4)

Does Peter look at Mary?


______________________________________________________

Peter haihhaih-hh-haih mohngmohng-jyuh Mary a?


5)

No, Peter doesnt look at Mary, he looks at Kitty.


______________________________________________________

h haih, Peter hh-haih mohngmohng-jyuh Mary, kuih haih


mohngmohng-jyuh Kitty
(5)

VerbVerb-Object compound

1)

She is driving
______________________________________________________

kuih j gn ch

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 31

Parts of Speech

Page 32

Unit 7
1.

6)

Adverbs

always go to play

shng yaht heui wan


whole

Definition

7)

They modify verbs or adjectives by expressing time, scope, quality,


state or degree.
8)

Adverbs have to be come before the verbs they modify

day

Degree

yuh

sh

have

time

sometimes not free

yuh

1)

very beautiful

9)

sh

10)

jeui leng

Time

1)

now

State

1)

suddenly

2)

will

see

3)

now

do

ing

what

fell down

fortunately

hu chi

PRT?

good

just before, a minute ago

4)

fate

fortunately, I havent been late.

jing wah

hu chi, ngh muh

Someone looked for you a minute ago.

fortunately,

just before

have

person

wn
look for

nih

5)

you

6)

shng yaht

not have

late arrive

still, even
Its still very cold now.

yh g juhng haih hu

day

http://www.clc.com.hk

chh dou

juhng

always
whole

can

suddenly fell down


suddenly,

What are you doing now?

jing wah yuh yhn


yhn
5)

wih gin du

soon ,then

dahk yhn dit di

you

4)

free

dahk yhn

nih yh g jouh gn mt yh a?
3)

can

go straight, then you will see it (soon)

4.

yh g
2)

not

soon, then

straight go,

most beautiful

3.

time

jihk heui, jauh

quite beautiful

gi leng
3)

h dk hahn
hahn

jauh

hu leng
2)

play

sometimes

have

2.

go

now,

Page 33

Parts of Speech

still

be

very

dung
cold

Page 34

7)

Peter is even naughtier than David

Peter juhng
Peter

8)

yih

even

gwo

naughtier

David

than

David

both and

6.

Exercise

(1)

Degree

1)

You are very silly

yauh yauh

silly

(can repeat more than two times)


9)

nih hu sh

He is foolish and lazy

2)

kuih yauh chun


chun yauh lahn
he

10)

and

foolish

and

sh

______________________________________________________

He is the worst
bad

lazy

ch

______________________________________________________

He is fail again!

kuih jeui ch

kuih yauh h hahp gaak la !


he

11)

12)

again

not

pass

PRT

again

(2)

Time

1)

Where have you gone just before?

joi

______________________________________________________

see you again

jingjing-wah nih heuiheui-j bnbn-(douh) a?

joi gin

2)

You always shopping around


shopping around

5.

Scope

1)

also, too

nih shngshng-yaht hahnghahng-gai maihmaih-yh


3)

du
2)

hh-hu yiyi-si, ngh yhyh-g h dkdk-hahn

only

(3)

State

1)

I am sick suddenly

jihng haih
4)

be

______________________________________________________

He always only plays but not doing homework

ngh dahkdahk-yhn h sy fuhk

kuih jihng haih wan, h jouh gng fo


he

only

h dk-hahn

______________________________________________________

He is also very fat

only

Im sorry, Im not free now


not free

kuih du hu fih
3)

hahng-gai maih-yh (walk streets buy things)

______________________________________________________

play ,

not do

2)

homework

fortunately, I didnt lost my wallet


______________________________________________________

huhu-chi, ngh muh hh-gin go ngahn bau


3)

Its still very hot yesterday


______________________________________________________

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 35

Parts of Speech

Page 36

chhmchhm-yaht juhngjuhng-haih hu yiht


4)

Unit 8

______________________________________________________

1.

kuih lahn, nih juhng lahn


5)

6)

7)

Introduction

She is both pretty and smart, of course she wont love you

Prepositions are words that are placed before nouns, pronouns or

______________________________________________________

phrase to form a prepositional phrase and are used together to express

kuih yauh leng yauh lk, gnggng-haih hh-wih jngjng-yi nih l

the direction, object, time, place, etc. of an action.

Yesterday he came, today he came again


______________________________________________________

Prepositions must be used together with nouns, noun phrases, verb

chhmchhm-yaht kuih lih, gm yaht, kuih yauh lih

phrases, adjective phrases etc. to form prepositional phrases. The

Yesterday he came, today he will come again

words after the preposition are the objects of the preposition.

______________________________________________________

Because prepositional phrase is used as an adverbial modifier to

chhmchhm-yaht kuih lih, gm yaht, kuih wih joi lih


8)

Preposition

He is lazy, you are even more lazy

modifies the verb, most of the time it comes before the verb.

see you next time

The following are some examples of prepositions.

(next time again see)

______________________________________________________

hahhah-chi joi gin


(4)

Scope

1)

I am also very tired


tired

2)

2.

hi
hi = at, in, on
hi combines with a noun or pronoun denoting time, place or

guih

______________________________________________________

direction to form a prepositional phrase which is used as an adverbial

ngh du hu guih

modifier to express the time or place of an action.

He has only eaten a bit


a bit

Negation is achieved by adding h before hi.

su su

1)

______________________________________________________

She works in Central

kuih hi Jng Wahn fan gng

kuih jihngjihng-haih sihksihk-j su su

she

2)

she

Page 37

Central

back

work

She does not work in .Central.

kuih

http://www.clc.com.hk

in

Parts of Speech

h haih hi Jng Wahn


not

be

in

Central

fan gng
back

work

Page 38

3.

______________________________________________________

yuh

ngh hi hohkhohk-haauh jouh gnggng-fo

yuh indicating a staring point. It is used as an adverbial modifier


1)

modifying a verb by telling when or where the action starts.

(2)

yuh

She comes from England

1)

I come from China

kuih yuh Yng Gwok


she

2)

from

______________________________________________________

lih

England

ngh yuh
yuh JngJng-Gwok lih

come

He start to do his homework from 3:00

2)

France

kuih yuh sam dm hi ch jouh gng fo


he

4.

from

3:00

start

do

homework

kuih yuh YngYng-Gwok heui FaatFaat-Gwok


3)

thng

I go to Causeway Bay from North Point


Causeway Bay
North Point

Thng Lh Wahn(Wan)
Bk Gok

______________________________________________________

modifiers. It is used to indicate the object of an action

ngh yuh BkBk-Gok heui ThngThng-LhLh-Wahn

I told her

ngh thng kuih


I

2)

Faat Gwok

______________________________________________________

thng combine with a noun or pronoun to modify verbs as adverbial


1)

She is from England to go to France

with

gng

she

tell

I went with my friends

(3)

thng

1)

He told his mother he wanted to buy that toy bear


(he with mother speak he want buy that toy bear)
toy
wuhn geuih
bear
hhng (M: jek)

ngh thng phng yuh heui


I

with

friend

go

______________________________________________________

kuih thng mm-mh gng kuih sung maih gg-jek wuhnwuhn-geuih

5.

Exercise

(1)

hi

1)

I live in TST

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

mm-mh shngshng-yaht thng


thng nghngh-deih ytyt-chih wan

hhng
2)

Mum always plays with us together


(Mum always with us together play)

ngh jyuh hi JmJm-SS-Jui


2)

He works in Wanchai
______________________________________________________

kuih hi WanWan-Ji fanfan-gng


3)

I do my homework at school
school

http://www.clc.com.hk

hohk haauh
Page 39

Parts of Speech

Page 40

Unit 9
1.

11)

Conjunctions

if

yh gw
12)

Definition

even if

jauh syun

Conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases or clauses.

3.

thng / thng maih

1)

This one and that one

2.

Common Conjunctions

1)

and

go

thng

go

thng / thng maih

this

one

and

that

MW

and

2)

and

2)

with

I have bought books and pens

ngh maih j

or

waahk j / dihng
maybe or probably are also: waahk-j

3)

because

yn waih
4)

3)

therefore, so

5)

this one

although, though

4)

sui yhn
6)

moreover

5)

and

that one

du hu gwai
both

very

expensive

mother ,

and

sai lu

du hi douh

younger brother

all

at

here

Unlike and in English, however, thng is never used to join clauses;


nor is it normally used to join verbs or adjectives.

I buy books and he buys pens


I

6)

otherwise

buy

sy, kuih maih bt


pens

he

buy

pens

One hamburger and one coke please (food ordering)

h gi yt go h lohk, yt go hon bu bau

yh gw h haih (more casual)


if

thng g go

ngh maih

not only

h dan j
10)

pen

The correct linking of the clauses is simple juxtaposition.

then, and then

gn jyuh
9)

and

Father, mother, and younger brother are here.


father ,

yh ch
8)

books

bh b, mh m, thng

but, however

daahng haih
7)

ed

bt

Notice that when the subject phrase contains two or more nouns
joined together by thng, the predicate is usually preceded by the
adverb du marking the plurality.
This one and that one are both expensive

n go

s yh

buy

sy thng

please

1 MW

coke,

1 MW

hamburger

not

fu jk (more formal)
http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 41

Parts of Speech

Page 42

4.

or = waahk j / dihng

(1)

For a statement

(2.1) dihng: the answer is one and only one


Expect the answer is either this one or that one
1)

In a statement, the usage of waahk-j is more than dihng

yiht

(1.1) or = waahk-j
2)

items.
This one or that one is okay.

n go

waahk j g go

this one

2)

or

3)

du h yh

that MW

also

kuih haih

guess

waahk j

he

haih

or

PRT?

go

this

one

dihng(haih)

or

that

go

a?

MW

PRT?

You have a red one or a yellow one?

red

color

or

yellow

a?

color

PRT?

(2.2) waahk j: the answer may be none or both

Chinese

1)

Japanese

Do you have mobile phone or pager?

nih yuh muh su tih waahk j call gi

(1.2) or = dihng

1)

cold

This one or that one ?

you
have
(expect either one)

Yaht Bn yhn

is

or

a?

nih yuh hhnghhng-sk dihng whngwhng-sk

Jng Gwok yhn

is

dung

______________________________________________________

can

I guess he is either a Chinese or Japanese

ngh

dihng(haih)

hot

waahk j indicates an alternative relationship between two or more


1)

Hot or cold? (ordering drinks, the waiter asks the customer)

you

have not have

mobile

or

a?

call machine(pager) PRT

dihng used for uncertainty. Usually the sentence is start with I dont

The person may have both mobile and pager or none of them.

know

Therefore dihng has to be used instead of waahk j

I dont know this one or that one is better

ngh h j n go
I

not know this

dihng g go

one

or

that MW

2)

Do you have a red one or a yellow one?


______________________________________________________

hu d

nih yuh muh hhnghhng-sk waahkwaahk-j whngwhng-sk

better

a?

(expect none or both)

2)

I dont know he is a Chinese or Japanese

ngh
I

dihng

h j
dont know

haih
haih

or

(2)

is

kuih haih
he

Jng Gwok yhn

is

5.

Chinese

yn waih s yh
Its very common for both yn waih and s yh are used in the

Yahp Bn yhn

same sentence. s yh can also be used alone. However its not so

Japanese

For a Question

common for yn wai be used alone.


1)

In a question, the usage of dihng is more than waahk-j

Because there is traffic jam, therefore Im late

yn waih sk ch, s yh
because

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 43

Parts of Speech

blocked car

therefore

ngh chh dou


I

late
Page 44

2)

There is traffic jam, therefore Im late

sk ch, s yh
blocked car,

3)

______________________________________________________

ngh chh dou

therefore

yh gw luhkluhk-sahp mn, ngh jauh (wih) maih

late

4)

6.

______________________________________________________

the same sentence. daahng haih can also be used alone. However
its not very common for sui yhn be used alone.
Although it rains, he doesnt bring umbrella

jauhjauh-syun nih sung f bi kuih du muh yuhng


(2)

and = thng (maih)

1)

I take MTR and bus


take (for transportation)
MTR
bus

sui yhn lohk yh, daahng haih kuih h daai j


although

2)

rain,

but

he

not bring umbrella

daap
deih tit
b-s

It rains, however he doesnt bring umbrella

______________________________________________________

lohk yh, daahng haih kuih h daai j

ngh daap deihdeih-tit thng bb-s

rain,

but

he

not bring umbrella

2)

Exercise

(1)

Common conjunctions

1)

Peter is so good to you, moreover he is so rich. Of course you should


choose him but not David
so good to you
rich
choose

whng sk
luhk sk

______________________________________________________

whngwhng-sk thng luhkluhk-sk du hu gwai


(du has to be used here)
3)

Peter and David are late


______________________________________________________

deui nih gam hu


yuh chn (have money)
gan

Peter thng David du chh (dou)


(du has to be used here)

______________________________________________________
4)

Peter deui nih gam hu, yhyh-ch yauh gam yuhyuh-chn.

I like eating apple and he likes eating oranges


______________________________________________________

nih gnggng-haih yngyng-gi gan kuih h gan David l.

ngh jngjng-yi sihk phngphng-gw, kuih jng yi sihk chang

(yauh means also here)

(no and should be


be used)

How about having meal, and then go to watch a movie?

5)

(eat finish rice, then watch movie, good not good?)


finish
yhn
movie
hei

I have one elder brother and one younger sister


elder brother
younger sister

gh g
sai mi

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

ngh yuh ytyt-go ghgh-g thng ytyt-go saisai-mi

sihksihk-yhn faahn, gngn-jyuh ti hei, hu h h a?


http://www.clc.com.hk

The yellow one and the green one are very expensive
yellow
green

7.

2)

Even if you gives her flowers, its useless


(even if you give flowers to her also no use)

sui yhn daahn haih


Its very common for both sui yhn and daahng haih are used in

1)

If this is $60, I will then buy

Page 45

Parts of Speech

Page 46

(3)

or = waahk j / dihng

1)

I can take the MTR or bus


can

9)

Hot or cold?
______________________________________________________

yiht dihng (haih) dung ga?

h yh

10)

______________________________________________________

He is tall or short?
short

ngh hh-yh daap deih tit waahkwaahk-j b s

______________________________________________________

kuih gu dihng i ga?


2)

I dont know I should take MTR or bus.


should

3)

11)

yng gi

foreigner

______________________________________________________

ngh hh-j ngh yngyng-gi daap deihdeih-tit dihng bb-s

kuih haih HungHung-Gng yhn dihng


dihng haih ngoih gwok yhn a?

I will go in June or July

12)

nih yuhyuh-muh lahm sk waahkwaahk-j hak sk a?

I dont know I will go in June or July


13)

______________________________________________________

You have a blue one or a black one?


______________________________________________________

ngh h j luhkluhk-yuht dihng chtcht-yuht heui

nih yuh lahm sk dihng hak sk a?

(uncertainty)
Peter or David will come later
______________________________________________________

chhchh-d, Peter waahkwaahk-j David wih lih

(4)

Because & Although

1)

Because the watch is second hand, therefore its very cheap.

(indicating an alternative)

watch
second hand

I dont know Peter or David will come

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

ynyn-waih jek susu-bu haih yihyih-su, ss-yh hu phng

ngh h j Peter dihng David wih lih


(uncertainty)
7)

lahm sk
hak sk

______________________________________________________

(indicating an alternative)

6)

Do you have a blue one or a black one?


blue
black

ngh luhkluhk-yuht waahkwaahk-j chtcht-yuht wih heui

5)

ngoih gwok yhn

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

4)

He is a Hong Kong people or a foreigner?

2)

su bu
yih su

Although the chicken wings are delicious, they are very greasy
greasy

fih (lit.: fat)

You take MTR or bus?

______________________________________________________

(I guess you either take the MTR or the bus)

suisui-yhn d gigi-yihk hu huhu-sihk, daahn haih hu fih

nih daap deihdeih-tit dihng (haih) bb-s a?


______________________________________________________
8)

Do you have a pager or mobile phone?


______________________________________________________

nih yuh muh call gi waahk j susu-tih a?


http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 47

Parts of Speech

Page 48

Unit 10
1.

1)

Interjection & Onomatopoeias

kuih h h gm
he

Interjection

2)

1)

chair

It may serve to fill a pause or transition, often together with a

3.

Exercise

particle.

(1)

Interjections

1)

Well its OK

Well let me think about it


well ,
let
me
think
Here nm nm means think a while

think

so

siu

great

laugh

The chair down in the sound pak


MW

gm = well

gm , dng ngh nm nm sn

pak

one

sound

dit di j
fall

down ed

______________________________________________________

first

gm h, hu l
2)

(2)

daaih

jung dang
dang pahk yt sng

An interjection is an exclamation, a crying out or a response.

(1)

He laughs in the sound ha ha.

Oh no, Ive forgotten to bring my wallet!


______________________________________________________

i ya! = oh

i ya! ngh hh-geigei-dk daai nghnnghn-bau a !


It is a negatively charged exclamation, expressing shock or
1)

Oh Im dead, I lost the money.

disapproval.

______________________________________________________

Oh no, Ive forgotten to bring my key!

si la, ngh hh-gingin-j d chn a!

i ya! ngh h gei dk


oh dear !

(3)

3)

daai

forget

s sh

bring

key

a!
PRT!

si la!
Expresses panic or despair in an emergency.

1)

Im dead! I forgot to tell him

si la!
dead PRT,

2.

ngh h gei dk thng kuih gng


I

not remember

with

him

speak

Onomatopoeias
An onomatopoeic word is one that imitates the sound of a thing or an
action.

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 49

Parts of Speech

Page 50

Unit 11
1.

Measure Words

(2)

Follows a numeral or quantifier

1)

two

Definition
Measure words are words that express a unit of things or action. They

2)

comes before nouns for measuring purposes


3)

It is similar to the function of piece in a piece of paper.

some shape of object share the same MWs.

1)

I like reading books (general referring, no MW)

2)

very

3)

like

4)

sy

MW(the)

book

bt

not have

pen

hu

6)

a?

have

very

not have

ch

Which pen is better?

bt hu d a?
pen

better

PRT?

Which is better? (the context is understood to talk about pen)

hu d a?
better

PRT?

One please (buying things, the context is understood to talk about


pen)

this

person (specific)

go

Relative quantifiers
sometimes, people will still keep it,

1)

I have many books

ngh yuh huhu-d sy

expensive

seen EXP

1 MW

For relative quantifiers, usually the MW is skipped. However

PRT?

gwai

nih yuh muh gingin-gwo


5)

(3)

2)

Have you seen the pen? (specific)


you

ga

must be kept.

read books

The book is very expensive (specific)

bn

mih

When the noun is understood, it will be skipped, however the MW

ti sy

nih yuh muh


have

car

please

Do you have any pens? (general referring, no MW)


you

MW

hh-gi yt j

ngh hu jng yi
I

each

which MW

5)

Specific referring

gu

bn j

Measure Word (MW) is also called Noun Classifier.

(1)

luhng jek

which MW

4)

When to use measure words

dogs

bn j

Different group of objects take different measure words. Usually

2.

MW

jung
jung

MW(the) paper

I only have a few stamps

ngh dk

a?

PRT?

only have

huhu-su yuhyuh-piu
a few

stamps

yhn

next week (specific)

hah

go

http://www.clc.com.hk

lihlih-baai

Page 51

Parts of Speech

Page 52

3.

Exceptions for no MWs

4.

Confusion between a and the

Basically, all countable nouns, even abstract nouns, such as wish,

When people say the for something, they say:

also take measure word. However there are some exceptions which

the

dont take MW.




Usually exceptions are those nouns which themselves are somehow

1)

Therefore people say:

three days

a / an
1)

three years

three second

Other time expression still take measure words

5)

three MW a five minutes

8)

hour

sam go

jng

three

MW months

sam

go

three

MW weeks

sam

go lih
lih baai

(2)

Others

1)

2 lessons

2)

jih

three MW

+ noun

I want to buy a pen / I want to buy the pen

bt

Ive bought a pen / Ive bought the pen

ngh maih j j

bt
bt

I
buy ed MW(a/the) pen
yt can be skipped, however the MW j cant be skipped.


yuht
3)

Therefore when people say MW + a noun, people dont know its


definite or indefinite referring by itself. However usually by the
context, people will know that. If somebody just say j-bt, usually
it means the pen rather than a pen.
The pen is very expensive

bat hu gwai

MW(the) pen

4)

luhng thng
http://www.clc.com.hk

+ MW

I
want
buy
MW(a/the) pen
j is the MW for pens
This sentence will not be used in ordering in a shop. Because people dont say want in
ordering. want: sung in Cantonese is just a modal verb which show the intention.
People will just say ngh sung maih j-bt to their friends or tell a shop assistant to let
he/she show where the pens are located etc.
If you want to order a pen, you have to say something like One please: h-gi yt-j or
This one please: h-gi n-j.

three minutes

sam go

yt(skipped)

ngh sung maih

7)

noun

yaht day , nhn year, fn minute and mu second

sam mu (jng)

6)

MW +

that in a whole sentence.

sam fn (jng)
4)

However quite often, people skip the one: yt when people speak

sam nhn
3)

yt

Some Time Expressions

sam yaht
2)

noun

When people say a or an for something, they say:


a / an

have the measuring sense.

(1)

MW +

expensive

The apple is very sour

go
Page 53

very

Parts of Speech

phng gw hu syn
syn
Page 54

MW(the)

apple

very

sour

MW(plural)

3)

5.

Measure word: go
go is the most general MW, if you dont know which MW has to

go mngmng-gw

that

MW

mango

Those mango

easier to understand your sentence rather than you just skip the MW.

those MW(plural)

three

5)

chef

yt go

chyh s

mngmng-gw
mango

The orange juice

chang jp

MW(the)

hohk sang

students

sam go
2)

That mango

be used, you can use go. Even though it may be wrong, people are

Moreover go is used with all words denoting people.


1)

4)

chair

orange

juice

d has the meaning of some. When refer to some, it can be d or


yt d

6)

There are some water

g douh yuh (yt) d




go is also used with round objects

3)

an

apple

yt go


4)

there

7)

phngphng-gw

have

sui

MW(some)

water

There are some people

g douh yuh (yt) d


there

It is also used for individual items that do not call for a more specific
classifier.

have

yhn

MW(some)

Thus abstract nouns that refer to non-concrete entities lacking

7.

Container Measure Word

physical features, general take go:

1)

a glass of water

yt bi sui

wish

yt go

people

yuhnyuhn-mohng

glass

water

Where bi is the container MW

6.

Measure Word : d

2)

luhng bi ga f

d is a measure word used for all nouns showing plural without


definite quantity or uncountable nouns
1)

2)

cup

coffee

a bottle of coke

yt jun h lohk

jung dang
MW(the)

3)

the chair

two cups of coffee

bottle

coke

chair

the chairs

d
http://www.clc.com.hk

dang
Page 55

Parts of Speech

Page 56

8.

Sortal Measure Words

Define nouns in terms of shape

Cantonese Shape

Examples

faai
buhng
jung
fk
gauh
gihn

glass (vertical)
wall
table (horizontal)
photograph
stone
cake
matter
jewellery
apple
son, friend, child, student
wish, challenge
dog
egg, watch
one earring
pen
building
marble
road
fish, snake

flat surfaced object,


flat surface
flat objects
rectangular items
irregular, lump-like
piece
abstract nouns
commodities
round
relate to people
abstract nouns
animal
round object
one of a pair
cylindrical items
large item
small objects
long, thin object
animals

go

jek

j
joh
lp
tuh

douh
dn/duhng
fng
gan
geui
gyn
jahm
paih
p
pn
su


place
pillar
message
block, building
phrase
roll
smell
bar
stem, truck
text
music

Alternative classifiers
a ship
yt
ga
syhn
a boat
yt
jek syhn

eg.
eg.

Function

Examples

b
ga

tools and instruments


vehicles
large machine
a copy or part
clothing

umbrella, knife, lock


car, aeroplane
sewing machine
newspaper
shirt, overcoat, T-shirt

fahn
gihn


(1)

When to use measure words

1)

that person is very tall


______________________________________________________

Used for / Meaning

go

yhn hu gu

specific referring

2)

I have ten friends


______________________________________________________

ngh yuh sahp go phngphng-yuh


3)

Do you have any paper?


______________________________________________________

nih yuh muh


4)

More specific sortal measure word

Cantonese

(small object)

Exercise

Define nouns in terms of functional features

Cantonese

(large vehicle)

9.

g


place
building
letter
house
phrase
film
smell
chocolate
tree
article
song

a?

The paper is lost


lost

Examples

h gin j

______________________________________________________
bouh
bn
chhng
dan

machine
volume
volume
storey
bill

http://www.clc.com.hk

camera
novel
book
flat
item of business

5)

jung

h gin j

MW(the)

paper

not see ed (lost)

I have some pens


______________________________________________________

Page 57

Parts of Speech

Page 58

ngh
I

6)

yuh

(yt) d

have

bt

some

(4)

Measure Word : d

1)

This bottle is very heavy

pen

Ive bought some apple juice

heavy

______________________________________________________

ngh
I

(2)
1)

maihmaih-j d

______________________________________________________

phngphng-gw jp

buy ed some

apple

n go jun

juice

2)

Exceptions for no MWs

These bottles are very light


light

hng

______________________________________________________

Ive come to Hong Kong for four years

______________________________________________________

ngh lihlih-j HungHung-Gng sei nhn


2)

chhng

3)

jun

I want to drink coffee

nhn doesnt take MW

______________________________________________________

She has gone to Italy for four weeks

ngh sung ym gaga-f

______________________________________________________

4)

I want to drink some coffee

kuih heuiheui-j YiYi-Daaih


Daaih-Leih seisei-go lihlih-baai

______________________________________________________

lih baai takes MW

ngh sung ym d gaga-f


d here means some

(3)

Measure word: go

1)

I have a son and a daughter

2)

5)

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

d gaga-f hu syn

ngh yuh ytyt-go ji thngthng-(maih) ytyt-go nui

d here means the

The doctor is very nice


doctor

y sng

______________________________________________________

3)

(5)

Container Measure Word

1)

One coke , two Sprite please

go yy-sng hu hu

______________________________________________________

I have two wishes

hh-gi ytyt-bi hh-lohk, luhngluhng-bi syutsyut-bk

______________________________________________________

4)

The coffee is very sour

2)

How much for a bottle of San Miguel

ngh yuh luhngluhng-go yuhnyuhn-mohng

______________________________________________________

People have many wishes

sngsng-lihk gi chn ytyt-jun a?

______________________________________________________

3)

San Miguel cost $18 a bottle

yhn du yuh huhu-d yuhnyuhn-mohng

______________________________________________________

people also have

sngsng-lihk sahpsahp-baat mn ytyt-jun

many

wishes

(general refer, the noun doesnt take MW)

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 59

Parts of Speech

Page 60

Unit 12
1.

3)

Particles

big apple/apples

hu

daaih ge

very

big

phng gw

LP

apple

Introduction
Particles are words that are added to words, phrases or sentences to

However, ge does not indicate the noun is singular or plural. If you

express some additional meanings.

wish to specify that the noun is singular, definite number or plural etc,
use the measure word instead of the possessive particle.

2.

Kinds of Particles

1)

Linking Particles

ngh
ngh

2)

Aspect Particles

my

3)

Modal Particles

4)

5)

My book

Linking Particles

(1)

Introduction

book

luhng bn sy du h gin j

my

6)

MW

my

lost

sy

MW(plural)

book

(3)

gm : Used when the Adverbial modifier is adjective

The main linking particles are: ge, gm, and dk

1)

study quietly

hu jihng
very

ge : Used in Attributive
Attributive modifier

2)

gm

quiet

case

very

3)

happy

ngh

ge

sy

my

LP

book

LP(ly)

study

gm
LP(ly)

sihk yh
eating matter

run quickly

hu faai

My book/books

wn jaahp

eating happily

hu hi sm
ge is also called as possessive particle when it is used in possessive

2)

also

phrases with certain syntactic construction.

It is also called as structural particles.

1)

book

My books

ngh

Linking particles are words that connect words and make them into

(2)

sy

MW

My two books are both lost

ngh

3.

bn

very quick

gm
LP(ly)

ju
ran

very expensive pen/pens

hu
very

gwai
expensive

http://www.clc.com.hk

ge
LP

bt
pen

Page 61

Parts of Speech

Page 62

(4)

There are more than forty different modal particles. Besides, different

dk

modal particles may be used at the same time, therefore the possible

(4.1) Degree complement

set of modal particles are numerous.

A degree complement indicates the degree or extent of an action or a


thing.
1)

(1)
dk

sing

hu hu

LP

very

Soften the force of statements or confirmations

well

1)

drew poorly

waahk
draw

dk

hu

ch

LP

very

poor

be

nih

or being realized.

you

can listen clearly


listen

dk

(2)

chng ch

LP(can, possible)

clear

read

dk
LP(can, possible)

1)

mhng

go

not

go

a?
PRT?

Please give me one. (In a shop)

(h gi) yt gihn

understand

please
I
MW
PRT
Quite often, please: h gi is skipped by Hong Kong people, however usually people
keep the request particle and it shows politeness.

Aspect Particles
Refer to this book, the chapter about Verbs

5.

heui h heui

A more tentative form of a, typically used in request

can read and understand

ti

4.

Do you go?

A potential complement tells the possibility of an action taking place

tng

PRT

Making a question
2)

2)

Yes

haih a

(4.2) Potential complement

1)

sang very well

cheung
2)

Here we talk about two of the common modal particle a and

Modal Particles

6.

Exercise

(1)

Linking particle - ge

1)

He is a hardworking student

Modal particles are attached to a sentence to show various moods

______________________________________________________

such as imperative, exclamatory or declarative.

kuih haih ytyt-go khnkhn-lihk ge hohkhohk-sang

Sometimes they are inserted where there is a pause in a sentence.

2)

His pen(s)
______________________________________________________

kuih ge bt
http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 63

Parts of Speech

Page 64

3)

4)

His pen costs $10

2)

______________________________________________________

kuih j bt sahp mn

nn-tuh kwhn gi chn a?

His pens are very new

3)

______________________________________________________

Two blue ball pen. (In a shop)


blue
ball pen

kuih d bt hu sn
5)

How much is this dress?

______________________________________________________

lahm sk
yhn-j bt

______________________________________________________

Their money is lost

luhngluhng-j lahmlahm-sk yhnyhn-j bt

______________________________________________________

kuihkuih-deih ge/d chn hh-gingin-g


(2)

Linking particle
particle - gm

1)

The child eat quietly


______________________________________________________

go saisai-mnmn-ji hu jihng gm sihksihk-yh


2)

The old lady walks carefully


old lady
carefully

ph p
su sm

______________________________________________________

go phph-p hu susu-sm gm hahng


(3)

Linking particle - dk

1)

He walked very fast, I cant follow him


fast
cant follow

faai
gn h du (follow not successfully)

______________________________________________________

kuih hahng dk hu faai, ngh gn h du kuih


2)

The child can read (and understand) this letter


letter

seun (MW: fng)

______________________________________________________

go saisai-mnmn-ji ti dk mhng n fng seun


(4)

Modal Particles

1)

Where do you go?


______________________________________________________

nih heui bnbn-(douh) a?


http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 65

Parts of Speech

Page 66

Unit 13
about

choose

Glossary: English to Cantonese


daaih koi

big

hauh, j hauh

black

again

joi, yauh

blue

lahm, lahm sk

ago

j chhn

book

sy

du

bottle

although

sui yhn

bring

daai

always

shng yaht

bus

b s

am

haih

but

daahn haih

and

thng, thng maih

buy

maih

apple

phng gw

buying

maih

around

ju wih
wih

by

sign of passive: bi

arrive

dou

can

capable of doing sth:

after

also

ask

daaih
hak sk

hi

baby

bh b

Cantonese

Gwng Dng W

back

verb: fan, noun: bui,


behind: hauh bihn

car

ch

careful

su sm

bad

waaih, inferior: ch

Central

Jng Wahn

bag

di

chair

dang

nghn hhng

chase after

bath

chng luhng

cheap

phng

bear

animal: hhng, give

chef

chyh s

birth: sang
beautiful

leng

because

yn waih

Chinese

beef

nguh yuhk

noun: kwhn, verb:


jeuk

ngaahng baih, daaih

drink

ym
ym
drive car: j ch

bng, seui n

drive

coke

h lohk

each

mih

cold

dung

early

ju

lih

east

dng

eat

sihk

either

or: waahk j, one of


them: kih jng yt go,

style: jng sk,

before

j chhn

belong

suhk y

yhn
Page 67

jy, jyn faahn, a cook:


chyh s

any one of them: sih


daahn yt go

cost

capital: shng bn

course

fo chhng (M: go)

cow

nguh

elder brother gh g
England
Yng Gwok

cup

bi

Europe

u Ju

cute

dk yi

even

juhng

daughter

nui

even more

juhng, gang g

day

yaht

expensive

gwai

delicious

hu sihk, hu meih

fall

dit

die

si

fast

faai

diligent

khn lihk

fat

fih

mahn faahn

father

bh b / d dh

do

jouh

fee

fai

doctor

y sng

feel

gok dk

gu

few

su

dollar

mn

first

1st: daih yt, sn

dont

fish

down

di

five

gh

dozen

floor

ground: deih h, level:

draw

waahk, draw money:

dog

language: jng mn,


people: jng gwok

http://www.clc.com.hk

coin

dinner

jui

chicken wing gi yihk


child
sai mn ji

ga f

cook

at

bank

coffee

tih chn
dress

comfortable sy fuhk
company
gng s

sk, permitted to: h


yh

mahn

chng ch

come

jun

gan

clear

Parts of Speech

lu
Page 68

flower

heavy

chhng

June

food

yh sihk

help

bng

just

foolish

chun

her

kuih

just before: am mm /
jing wah, just only:

foreigner

ngoih gwok yhn

here

n douh

jihng haih

forget

h gei dk

him

kuih

know

fortunate

hu chi

his

kuih ge

Kowloon

four

sei

hold

nng

lady

free

time: dk hahn,
money: mhn fai

home

k ki

friend
from
full
get
give
glass

homework

gng fo

phng yuh

Hong Kong

yuh

hot

mhn, opp. to hungry:


bau

hour

l, nng

how many?

gi d

bi

how much?

gi d

house

Hung Gng

oi(formal)
mainland

daaih luhk

make

jng, jouh (different


usage), in a slang way:
gau

j dou
Gu Lhng

mango

mng gw

girl: nuih
nuih ji, address

many

her: su j

matter

sih (M: gihn)

Lan Kwai
Fong

Lahn Gwai Fng

me

ngh

meal

last

previous: seuhng, the


end: jeui mih

chan

medicine

yeuhk

last week

minute

seuhngseuhng-go lihlih-baai

fn (jng)

late

minutes

chh, not punctual: chh


dou

meeting minutes:
wuih--yh gei
gei--luhk,
wuih

laugh

siu

mistake

lazy

lahn

cho

left

left side: j bihn, verb:


lih hi / ju

mobile
phone

su tih dihn w

money

chn

yiht
jng (tuh)

luhk yuht

time: fn (jng)

cup: bi, glass material:


b li

how?

heui

however

daahn haih

good

hu

hundred

baak

goods

lessons

husband

yuht

greasy

let

dng

more

fih

sn sang(polite), luh
gng(casual)

thng (no M)

month

fo (maht)

d d
jeui

go

qty: gi, the way: dm


(yung)

letter

luhk sk

ngh

seun (M: fng)

most

guess

yh gw

hng

mother

if

light

m mh

half

at: hi, enter: yahp


yahp

jng yi

movie

bun

in

like

hei

yahp bihn

tng

MTR

hon bu bau

inside

listen

deih tit

hand

kuih

jyuh

must

su

it

live

ytyt-dihng

happy

Yi Daaih Leih

mohng

my

hi sm

Italy

look

ngh ge

hardworking khn lihk


have
yuh

Japanese

look for

wn

Mum

people: yaht bn yhn,


language: yaht mn

m mh

lost

h gin j

have to

yiu

juice

lots

jp

Nathan Road Nih Dun Douh


naughty
yih

he

July

love

cht yuht

jng yi (coll.)

never

kuih

green

hamburger

http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 69

Parts of Speech

chhng lih h
Page 70

next

gaak lih

play

next week
nice
not

wan

sick

behng, h sy fuhk

taxi

hahhah-go lihlih-baai

please

dk s

h gi

side view

jk mihn

taxi stand

dk s jaahm

personality: hu, hu
yhn, look nice: leng

poor

inferior: ch, no
money: khng

silly

sh

tell

gng

sing

cheung (g)

ten

sahp
g + MW

pretty

leng

sleep

fan gaau

that

not yet

meih

quick

faai

sleeping

fan

themselves

kuih deih jih gi

now

yh g

quiet

jihng
jihng

smart

lk

then

gn jyuh

houh mh,
transliteration: nm b

quite

gi

so

gam

there

g douh

rain

lohk yh

some

yt d

therefore

s yh

dm

read

ti

someone

yuh yhn

they

kuih deih

shng yaht

red

hhng sk

sometimes

yuh sh

thin

sau

old things: gauh, age:

reporter

gei j

son

ji

thing

yh

luh

rice

cooked rice: faahn,


uncooked rice: mih

song

think

nm

soon

yt jahn gan

this

n + MW

yuh chn

sorry

hh-hu yiyi-si

three

sam

opposite to left: yauh,


correct: am

sound

sng

tie

verb: bng, noun: tai

sour

syn

time

sh gaan, freq.: chi


guih

number
oclock
often
old
one
only

yt
jihng haih

rich

opposite

deui mihn

right

or

dihng, waahk j

orange

road

louh

Sprite

syut bk

tired

run

ju

stamp

yuh piu

to

heui

San Miguel

sang lihk

start

hi ch

today

gm yaht

say

wah, gng

station

jaahm

together

yt chih

lihng, order food in a


restaurant: giu

school

hohk haauh

still

juhng

toilet

schoolbag

sy bau

straight

jihk

wash room: si su
gan (elegant, used

out

chut

second

2 daih yih, time: muh

street

gai

with strangers),
strangers), toilet:

outside

chut bihn

see

gin

student

hohk sang

chi s (casual, used at


home)

fruit: chang, colour:


chang sk

orange juice chang jp


order
command:
command: mihng

pager

nd

call gi

she

kuih

study

wn sy

paper

shop

pou tu

sudden

dahk yhn

pay

bi

shopping

maih yh

table

ti

pen

bt

short

in height: a, in length:
dyn

take

carry: l, transport:
daap

yng gi

tall

people

yhn

person

yhn, yn

http://www.clc.com.hk

should

Page 71

Parts of Speech

gu

tomorrow

tng yaht

too

taai

toy

wuhn geuih

traffic

gau tng

traffic jam

sk ch
Page 72

Tsim Sha
Tsui

Jm S Jui

TV

where

bn douh

Parts of Speech

which

dihn sih

bn MW

who

two

bn go?

yih

wife

umbrella

taai tai

will

understand

mhng

wih

win

use

yhng

yuhng

wish

usually

tng suhng

hi mohng, jk

Edited by
Tel
e-mail
URL
Version
First printed in:
Last revised in:
Printed in:

with

very

thng

hu

work

wait

dng

waiter

back to work: fan


gng, do: jouh

sih ying

write

walk

__________________________________________________________

hahng

wrong

wallet

cho

__________________________________________________________

nghn bau

year

want

nhn

__________________________________________________________

sung

years old

watch

seui

__________________________________________________________

verb: ti, noun: su bu


(M: jek)

yellow

whng
whng sk

__________________________________________________________

yesterday

Watch

khm yaht

__________________________________________________________

ti

Yesterday

water

chhm yaht, khm yaht

__________________________________________________________

sui

yet

(juhng) meih

__________________________________________________________

you

singular: nih, plural:

__________________________________________________________

nih deih

__________________________________________________________

younger
brother

sai lu

__________________________________________________________

younger
sister

sai mi

your

singular: nih ge,


plural: nih deih ge

__________________________________________________________

nih deih jih gi

__________________________________________________________

watermelon si gw
we
ngh deih
week

lih baai / sng kih

well

noun: jng, adv.:


hu, em: gm

what

mt yh

when

in a statement: dng, in
a question: gi sh

yourselves

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Cantonese Learning Centre


(852) 2881 0116
info@clc.com.hk
http://www.clc.com.hk
V1.4
Dec 2000
April 2002
January 2006

All rights reserved.


Printed in Hong Kong.

The end of the book

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
http://www.clc.com.hk

Page 73

Parts of Speech

Page 74